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Sample records for legalize marijuana provide

  1. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  2. The clinical implications of legalizing marijuana: Are physician and non-physician providers prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Gundersen, Doris C; Flynn, Erin; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Bull, Sheana

    2017-09-01

    Passage of voter-driven marijuana reform laws signals a shift in public attitudes for marijuana use. For providers, legalization may necessitate practice modifications, particularly regarding patient-provider conversations about use and risk. We examined healthcare providers' knowledge of marijuana laws and health implications, professional practice behaviors, and attitudes about training. We surveyed 114 Colorado-based providers who care for children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women using a Venue-Day-Time survey methodology throughout Colorado. The survey captured providers' (e.g., physicians, nurses, medical assistants) knowledge of state marijuana laws, risk perceptions, counseling practices, and continued training needs. Providers were knowledgeable about marijuana laws, cautious supporting legalization, and perceived moderate to high risks, particularly for certain groups. About 50% of providers working with adolescents and pregnant or breastfeeding women assessed marijuana use "every" or "most" visits; 23% of those working with children reported such behavior. Conversations about specific risks varied between groups. Few providers felt completely knowledgeable about marijuana health risks and lacked confidence talking to patients about this issue. Providers frequently assess patients' marijuana use; however, they are uncomfortable and inconsistent talking to patients about specific marijuana health effects. Additional education is warranted, particularly as it relates to talking to patients about the danger of second hand smoke exposure, underage use, safe storage, and the over-consumption of edibles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  4. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  5. Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. Methods Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 – 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings Living in a county with more medical marijuana cards was not related to lifetime or 30 day marijuana use. However, voter approval of medical marijuana was positively related to lifetime and 30 day use. Perceived ease of access to marijuana was positively related to medical marijuana cards, but this relation became non-significant when voter approval was controlled. Among marijuana users, marijuana cards and voter approval were positively related to perceived ease of access. Conclusions The relation between medical marijuana cards and youth use may be related to an overall normative environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. Interventions to prevent youth marijuana use should focus on adult norms regarding use by and provision of marijuana to youths. PMID:23641127

  6. Medical Marijuana Legalization and Marijuana Use Among Youth in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W; Biglan, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    While the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use has raised concerns about potential influences on marijuana use and beliefs among youth, few empirical studies have addressed this issue. We examined the association between medical marijuana patients and licensed growers per 1000 population in 32 Oregon counties from 2006 to 2015, and marijuana use among youth over the same period. We obtained data on registered medical marijuana patients and licensed growers from the Oregon Medical Marijuana Program and we obtained data on youth marijuana use, perceived parental disapproval, and demographic characteristics from the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey. Across 32 Oregon counties, the mean rate of marijuana patients per 1000 population increased from 2.9 in 2006 to 18.3 in 2015, whereas the grower rate increased from 3.8 to 11.9. Results of multi-level analyses indicated significant positive associations between rates of marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population and the prevalence of past 30-day marijuana use, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. The marijuana patient and grower rates were also inversely associated with parental disapproval of marijuana use, which decreased from 2006 to 2015 and acted as a mediator. These findings suggest that a greater number of registered marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population in Oregon counties was associated with a higher prevalence of marijuana use among youth from 2006 to 2015, and that this relationship was partially attributable to perceived norms favorable towards marijuana use.

  7. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  8. Does the legalization of medical marijuana increase completed suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Valdez, Carolyn; Nussbaum, Abraham M

    2014-07-01

    Suicide is among the 10 most common causes of death in the United States. Researchers have identified a number of factors associated with completed suicide, including marijuana use, and increased land elevation. Colorado is an ideal state to test the strength of these associations. The state has a completed suicide rate well above the national average and over the past 15 years has permitted first the medical and, as 2014, the recreational use of marijuana. To determine if there is a correlation between medical marijuana use, as assessed by the number of medical marijuana registrants and completed suicides per county in Colorado. The number of medical marijuana registrants was used as a proxy for marijuana use. Analysis variables included total medical marijuana registrants, medical marijuana dispensaries per county, total suicide deaths, mechanism of suicide death, gender, total suicide hospitalizations, total unemployment, and county-level information such as mean elevation and whether the county was urban or rural. Analysis was performed with mixed model Poisson regression using generalized linear modeling techniques. We found no consistent association between the number of marijuana registrants and completed suicide after controlling for multiple known risk factors for completed suicide. The legalization of medical marijuana may not have an adverse impact on suicide rates. Given the concern for the increased use of marijuana after its legalization, our negative findings provide some reassurance. However, this conclusion needs to be examined in light of the limitations of our study and may not be generalizable to those with existing severe mental illness. This finding may have significant public health implications for the presumable increase in marijuana use that may follow legalization.

  9. "Anything above marijuana takes priority": Obstetric providers' attitudes and counseling strategies regarding perinatal marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Cynthia L; Nkumsah, Michelle Abena; Morrison, Penelope; Tarr, Jill A; Rubio, Doris; Rodriguez, Keri L; Kraemer, Kevin L; Day, Nancy; Arnold, Robert M; Chang, Judy C

    2016-09-01

    To describe obstetric provider attitudes, beliefs, approaches, concerns, and needs about addressing perinatal marijuana use with their pregnant patients. We conducted individual semi-structured interviews with obstetric providers and asked them to describe their thoughts and experiences about addressing perinatal marijuana use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and reviewed to identify themes. Fifty-one providers participated in semi-structured interviews. Providers admitted they were not familiar with identified risks of marijuana use during pregnancy, they perceived marijuana was not as dangerous as other illicit drugs, and they believed patients did not view marijuana as a drug. Most provider counseling strategies focused on marijuana's status as an illegal drug and the risk of child protective services being contacted if patients tested positive at time of delivery. When counseling about perinatal marijuana use, obstetric providers focus more on legal issues than on health risks. They describe needing more information regarding medical consequences of marijuana use during pregnancy. Provider training should include information about potential consequences of perinatal marijuana use and address ways to improve obstetric providers' counseling. Future studies should assess changes in providers' attitudes as more states consider the legalization of marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Marijuana-Perinatal and Legal Issues With Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krening, Cynthia; Hanson, Keri

    Although still illegal at the federal level, marijuana has been legalized for medical and/or recreational use in 29 states, causing a dynamically changing legal and social landscape. While the legalization of marijuana at the state level provides criminal protection for use by adults, there remain civil legal implications for families brought about by mandated reporting laws. Mandated reporting requirements have not been updated to account for the movement toward legalization, risking overload of community child protection resources. There is little evidence to inform development of guidelines and protocols for screening, educating, testing of mothers and newborns, and reporting. There are perinatal issues in this evolving environment as well. Discriminatory testing, length of time the drug remains in the system, potential for compromised provider-patient relationships, inconsistent education and referrals, breastfeeding during marijuana use, punitive or legal interventions that may have a negative psychosocial impact on a new family, and the risk for development of community standards of care based on opinion rather than science are just a few of the issues realized after marijuana legalization. These legal and perinatal issues are discussed in detail, along with considerations for practice and policy in caring for cannabis-exposed pregnant women and newborns.

  11. Marijuana Legalization: Implications for Property/Casualty Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda Wells

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of states have legalized marijuana for recreational use. Though marijuana is still illegal at the Federal level, the administration will not seek to enforce the law in states that have legalized its use, consistent with a majority of Americans who indicate that they do not want Federal resources used to arrest and convict marijuana smokers in states that have legalized the substance (Ferner, 2012). With the legalization of marijuana comes interesting implications for the ...

  12. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited ...

  13. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization – adolescent usage and impaired driving – and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization – specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use – that have to date not received adequate attention. PMID:28812816

  14. The Impact of Marijuana Legalization on Adolescent Use, Consequences, and Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoup, Ashley C; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Varma, Malini; Stewart, David G

    2016-12-05

    Currently, only four states have legalized recreational marijuana use for adults over 21 years of age. Therefore, little is known about the influence that legalization will have on adolescent marijuana use. This study examines how marijuana legalization has impacted the frequency and consequences of adolescent use in a sample of participants in a school-based, substance use intervention. We hypothesized that adolescents enrolled in the intervention in years after marijuana legalization would present with more problematic use compared to those enrolled prior, and that changes in the perceived risk of marijuana would be a mechanism of problematic use. Participants were 262 students enrolled in a school-based substance use intervention in 2010 to 2015. The Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record, Alcohol and Drug Use Consequences Questionnaire, and a decisional balance matrix were used to assess marijuana frequency, negative consequences, and perceived risk of use. A mediation model was used to test the degree to which marijuana legalization may lead to increased frequency and consequences of use through perceived risk. Findings indicated a significantly positive correlation between marijuana-related consequences and perceived risk post legalization. Despite relatively equal use between both groups, adolescents in the legalization group experienced higher levels of perceived risk and increased negative consequences. Due to the rising legalization status of marijuana in the United States, it is imperative that psychoeducation is provided to adults and adolescents about the consequences of underage marijuana use.

  15. Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The legalization of marijuana is a controversial issue with implications for health care providers, policy makers, and society at large. The use of marijuana for medical reasons is accepted in many states. However, legal sale of the drug for non-medical use began for the first time on January 1, 2014, in Colorado, following a relaxation of marijuana restrictions that is unprecedented worldwide. News reports have indicated that sales of the drug have been brisk. Marijuana-infused food products have been unexpectedly popular, exceeding sales projections. Marijuana use is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders and could result in addiction. Evidence suggests its potency has increased since the 1980s. Colorado has established regulations regarding the sale of marijuana for non-medical use, but concerns still exist. The current article offers a discussion of the health, public policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications of the legalization of marijuana for non-medical use.

  16. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely avai...

  17. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  18. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This policy statement is an update of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth," published in 2004. Pediatricians have special expertise in the care of children and adolescents and may be called on to advise legislators about the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents also may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical and nonmedical purposes or to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization. The accompanying technical report reviews what is currently known about the relationships of marijuana use with health and the developing brain and the legal status of marijuana and adolescents' use of marijuana to better understand how change in legal status might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Counseling Parents and Teens About Marijuana Use in the Era of Legalization of Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sheryl A; Ammerman, Seth D

    2017-03-01

    Many states have recently made significant changes to their legislation making recreational and/or medical marijuana use by adults legal. Although these laws, for the most part, have not targeted the adolescent population, they have created an environment in which marijuana increasingly is seen as acceptable, safe, and therapeutic. This clinical report offers guidance to the practicing pediatrician based on existing evidence and expert opinion/consensus of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding anticipatory guidance and counseling to teenagers and their parents about marijuana and its use. The recently published technical report provides the detailed evidence and references regarding the research on which the information in this clinical report is based. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Recreational marijuana legalization and college student use: Early evidence ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Austin M.; Rosenman, Robert; Cowan, Benjamin W.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze marijuana use by college undergraduates before and after legalization of recreational marijuana. Using survey data from the National College Health Assessment, we show that students at Washington State University experienced a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization. This increase is larger than would be predicted by national trends. The change is strongest among females, Black students, and Hispanic students. The increase for underage students is as much as for le...

  1. Support for Marijuana Legalization and Predictors of Intentions to Use Marijuana More Often in Response to Legalization Among U.S. Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Rose, Shyanika W; Rath, Jessica M; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-01-28

    As of 2015, more than half of U.S. states have legalized, medicalized, or decriminalized marijuana. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of support for marijuana legalization in a national sample of young adults and the intention to use marijuana more frequently if it were legalized. Data were from Wave 7 (weighted N = 3532) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of men and women aged 18-34. We assessed demographics, past 30-day substance (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other drug use), depression and anxiety, social smoking, marijuana harm perceptions (relative to cigarettes), and state-level marijuana policies as correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana more often if it were legalized. Multivariable models of correlates of support for legalization and intentions to use marijuana were conducted separately for the full sample and for nonmarijuana users. Weighted estimates showed that 39% of the full sample and 9% of nonmarijuana users supported marijuana legalization. Multivariable models showed that lower marijuana harm perceptions and lifetime and past 30-day tobacco use were common predictors of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana among non-users of marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: Over a third of the sample supported marijuana legalization. Tobacco use and perceptions that marijuana is less harmful than cigarettes were robust risk correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use more frequently among nonusers. Public health campaigns should target these factors to deter marijuana-related harm in susceptible young adults.

  2. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-06-01

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments

  3. Prevalence of Marijuana and Other Substance Use Before and After Washington State’s Change from Legal Medical Marijuana to Legal Medical and Non-Medical Marijuana: Cohort Comparisons in a Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Hanson, Koren; Gross, Thomas J.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing number of states have new legislation extending prior legalization of medical marijuana by allowing non-medical marijuana use for adults. The potential influence of this change in legislation on adolescent marijuana and other substance use (e.g., spillover or substitution effects) is uncertain. We capitalize on an ongoing study to explore the prevalence of marijuana and other substance use in two cohorts of adolescents who experienced the non-medical marijuana law change in Washington State at different ages. Method Participants were 8th graders enrolled in targeted Tacoma, Washington public schools and recruited in two consecutive annual cohorts. The analysis sample was 238 students who completed a baseline survey in the 8th grade and a follow-up survey after the 9th grade. Between the two assessments, the second cohort experienced the Washington State non-medical marijuana law change, whereas the first cohort did not. Self-report survey data on lifetime and past month marijuana, cigarette, and alcohol use were collected. Results Multivariate multilevel modeling showed that cohort differences in the likelihood of marijuana use were significantly different from those for cigarette and alcohol use at follow-up (adjusting for baseline substance initiation). Marijuana use was higher for the second cohort than the first cohort, but this difference was not statistically significant. Rates of cigarette and alcohol use were slightly lower in the second cohort than in the first cohort. Conclusions This exploratory study found that marijuana use was more prevalent among teens shortly after the transition from medical marijuana legalization only to medical and non-medical marijuana legalization, although the difference between cohorts was not statistically significant. The findings also provided some evidence of substitution effects. The analytic technique used here may be useful for examining potential long-term effects of non-medical marijuana laws on

  4. Prevalence of marijuana and other substance use before and after Washington State's change from legal medical marijuana to legal medical and nonmedical marijuana: Cohort comparisons in a sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Hanson, Koren; Gross, Thomas J; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of states have new legislation extending prior legalization of medical marijuana by allowing nonmedical marijuana use for adults. The potential influence of this change in legislation on adolescent marijuana and other substance use (e.g., spillover or substitution effects) is uncertain. We capitalize on an ongoing study to explore the prevalence of marijuana and other substance use in 2 cohorts of adolescents who experienced the nonmedical marijuana law change in Washington State at different ages. Participants were 8th graders enrolled in targeted Tacoma, Washington public schools and recruited in 2 consecutive annual cohorts. The analysis sample was 238 students who completed a baseline survey in the 8th grade and a follow-up survey after the 9th grade. Between the 2 assessments, the second cohort experienced the Washington State nonmedical marijuana law change, whereas the first cohort did not. Self-report survey data on lifetime and past-month marijuana, cigarette, and alcohol use were collected. Multivariate multilevel modeling showed that cohort differences in the likelihood of marijuana use were significantly different from those for cigarette and alcohol use at follow-up (adjusting for baseline substance initiation). Marijuana use was higher for the second cohort than the first cohort, but this difference was not statistically significant. Rates of cigarette and alcohol use were slightly lower in the second cohort than in the first cohort. This exploratory study found that marijuana use was more prevalent among teens shortly after the transition from medical marijuana legalization only to medical and nonmedical marijuana legalization, although the difference between cohorts was not statistically significant. The findings also provided some evidence of substitution effects. The analytic technique used here may be useful for examining potential long-term effects of nonmedical marijuana laws on adolescent marijuana use and substitution or

  5. Medical marijuana legalization and cigarette and marijuana co-use in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Ramo, Danielle E; Lisha, Nadra E; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-09-01

    Medical marijuana legalization is associated with a higher prevalence of marijuana use which may affect cigarette use and nicotine dependence in co-users. In the present study, we examined relationships between statewide legalization of medical marijuana and prevalence of cigarette and marijuana co-use and nicotine dependence in co-using adolescents and adults. Data were analyzed from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We compared cigarette and marijuana co-use in the past 30days across age categories (12-64 years) by statewide medical marijuana legalization. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of having nicotine dependence among current cigarette smokers who also reported past 30-day marijuana use and "ever but not current" marijuana use (vs. "never" use) adjusting for covariates including statewide legalization of medical marijuana. Overall, 5.1% of the sample reported past 30-day cigarette and marijuana co-use and a higher proportion of co-users resided in states where medical marijuana was legal compared to illegal (5.8% vs. 4.8%; p=0.0011). Co-use was associated with greater odds of having nicotine dependence compared to cigarette-only use across age categories. Odds were highest and up to 3-times higher in adolescents aged 12-17 years (OR=3.54; 95%CI: 1.81-6.92) and adults aged 50-64 years (OR=3.08; CI: 1.45-6.55). Marijuana policy could inadvertently affect cigarette and marijuana co-use and pose challenges to tobacco cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization – adolescent usage and impaired driving – and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization – specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use – that have to date not received adequate attention.

  7. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  8. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.

  9. Recreational marijuana legalization and college student use: Early evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Austin M; Rosenman, Robert; Cowan, Benjamin W

    2017-12-01

    We analyze marijuana use by college undergraduates before and after legalization of recreational marijuana. Using survey data from the National College Health Assessment, we show that students at Washington State University experienced a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization. This increase is larger than would be predicted by national trends. The change is strongest among females, Black students, and Hispanic students. The increase for underage students is as much as for legal-age students. We find no corresponding changes in the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs.

  10. Recreational marijuana legalization and college student use: Early evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin M. Miller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze marijuana use by college undergraduates before and after legalization of recreational marijuana. Using survey data from the National College Health Assessment, we show that students at Washington State University experienced a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization. This increase is larger than would be predicted by national trends. The change is strongest among females, Black students, and Hispanic students. The increase for underage students is as much as for legal-age students. We find no corresponding changes in the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs.

  11. Establishing legal limits for driving under the influence of marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kristin; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana has become the most commonly detected non-alcohol substance among drivers in the United States and Europe. Use of marijuana has been shown to impair driving performance and increase crash risk. Due to the lack of standardization in assessing marijuana-induced impairment and limitations of zero tolerance legislation, more jurisdictions are adopting per se laws by specifying a legal limit of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at or above which drivers are prosecuted for driving under the i...

  12. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan M.; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J.; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F.; Booth, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. Methods This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, plegalization. PMID:26385161

  13. The Impact of Medical Marijuana Legalization on Violent Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Aalen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 90s 20 US states and DC have legalized medical marijuana, and similar reforms are being contemplated in several other states. To evaluate the pros and cons of medical marijuana reform it is important to know its impact on the well being of society as a whole. In the present thesis I hypothesize that medical marijuana legalization has lead to lower violence rates, based on a review of prior research suggesting that stricter illicit drug law enforcement may increase violence rates...

  14. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-25

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens' tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada's black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan M; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F; Booth, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes in marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, pmarijuana (pmarijuana registrant applications. The abrupt nature of these changes suggests public health effects related to broad policy changes associated with marijuana. This report may be used to assist in policy decisions regarding the short-term public health effects of marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical ev...

  18. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite.

  19. Comparative Attitudes of University Students and School Teachers on the Use and Legalization of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Madanjit K.

    1977-01-01

    Explored use of marijuana and attitudes toward its legalization among university students and school teachers in Alberta. Students had more permissive attitudes toward marijuana use and its legalization as compared to teachers. Significant relationships were found between drug use and age and legalization of marijuana and sex and religiosity.…

  20. Student Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marijuana: A Study Of Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of this study in general indicate that while the total group expressed a significantly favorable attitude toward the legalizing of marijuana; at the same time there appeared to be no significant relationship between social class and the attitude variable in question. (Author)

  1. Washington State Retail Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Preferences for Marijuana Messages in a Sample of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve

    2018-03-01

    As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.

  2. Physicians' attitudes toward the legalization of marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, L S; Yager, J; Leake, B

    1989-01-01

    We asked 303 practicing physicians in general internal medicine, family medicine, gastroenterology, or psychiatry to indicate whether possessing or using marijuana should be considered a felony, a misdemeanor, warrant the issuance of a citation, or be legalized. The position physicians advocated was unrelated to their specialty, experience diagnosing or treating substance abuse problems, their attitudes toward the efficacy of the treatment of drug abuse, or any other work role or habit we measured. Legalization or citation as compared with harsher penalties, however, was more likely favored by physicians who were younger, less religious, politically more liberal, and those less likely to perceive a serious drug problem in society. Legalization was also more likely favored by physicians who themselves had used marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines but was unrelated to the use of alcohol, cigarettes, or tranquilizers. Although physician opinion should be sought as society deals with the drug problem, this study suggests how physicians' characteristics may influence the opinions that are rendered. PMID:2750164

  3. Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ∼68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marijuana experiences, voting behaviors and early perspectives regarding marijuana legalization among college students from two states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students’ 1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, 2) voting behaviors, and 3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. PARTICIPANTS College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May–September 2013 METHODS Participants completed phone interviews assessing marijuana attitudes, intentions, behaviors, voting behaviors or intentions, and perceptions of the impact of legislation. RESULTS A total of 283 participants completed the interview (83.7% retention rate): 56.8% were female, 57.2% were from Wisconsin, and 74.6% were Caucasian. Almost half of Washington participants (46.3%) indicated that they voted for marijuana legalization. Participants most commonly responded that the legislation did not change their attitudes towards marijuana, though some participants discussed perceived safety of the product because legislation passed. CONCLUSIONS Findings indicate similarities in views and experiences among college students from states affected and unaffected by legalization; legalization may increase perceptions of safety. PMID:26182234

  5. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada Comment on "Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-09-10

    A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization - adolescent usage and impaired driving - and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization - specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use - that have to date not received adequate attention. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  6. Understanding Rates of Marijuana Use and Consequences Among Adolescents in a Changing Legal Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Tucker, Joan S.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Shih, Regina A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review There is not one answer to address whether marijuana use has increased, decreased, or stayed the same given changes in state legalization of medical and non-medical marijuana in the USA. Recent Findings Evidence suggests some health benefits for medical marijuana; however, initiation of marijuana use is a risk factor for developing problem cannabis use. Though use rates have remained stable over recent years, about one in three 10th graders report marijuana use, most adolesc...

  7. Reefer madness: legal & moral issues surrounding the medical prescription of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R E

    2000-01-01

    California, Arizona, and several other states have recently legalized medical marijuana. My goal in this paper is to demonstrate that even if one grants the opponents of legalization many of their contentious assumptions, the federal government is still obligated to take several specific steps toward the legalization of medical marijuana. I defend this claim against a variety of objections, including the claims: that marijuana is unsafe, that marijuana cannot be adequately tested or produced as a drug, that the availability of synthetic THC makes marijuana superfluous, and especially that legalizing medical marijuana will increase recreational use by 'sending the wrong message.' I then go on to argue that given the intransigent position of the federal government on this issue, state governments are justified in unilaterally legalizing medical marijuana as an act of civil disobedience. A large portion of this paper consists of an extensive response to the objection that legalizing medical marijuana will 'send the wrong message'--which I take to be the primary impediment to legalization. This objection basically claims that the consequences of withholding legalization (especially preventing increased recreational use) are superior to those of legalizing medical marijuana. I argue that legalization is justified even if one were to grant both that the harms of legalization outweighed its benefits and that utilitarianism is true. This requires a subtle and somewhat extended discussion of utilitarian moral and political theory.

  8. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  9. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory.

  10. Lessons learned after three years of legalized, recreational marijuana: The Colorado experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tista S; Vigil, Daniel I; Maffey, Ali; Tolliver, Rickey; Van Dyke, Mike; Kattari, Leonardo; Krug, Heather; Reed, Jack K; Wolk, Larry

    2017-11-01

    In November 2012 Colorado voters approved legalized recreational marijuana. On January 1, 2014 Colorado became the first state to allow legal sales of non-medical marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Since that time, the state has been monitoring potential impacts on population health. In this paper we present lessons learned in the first three years following legal sales of recreational marijuana. These lessons pertain to health behaviors and health outcomes, as well as to health policy issues. Our intent is to share these lessons with other states as they face the prospect of recreational marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Support for Marijuana (Cannabis Legalization: Untangling Age, Period, and Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Campbell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In three large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. 12th graders, college students, and adults ('N' = 9 million conducted 1968–2015, Americans became significantly more supportive of legal marijuana (cannabis starting in the mid-1980’s. Hierarchical models using age-period-cohort analysis on the adult (General Social Survey sample showed that the increased support for legalization is primarily a time period effect rather than generational or age effect; thus, Americans of all ages became more supportive of legal marijuana. Among 12th graders, support for marijuana legalization was closely linked to perceptions of marijuana safety.

  12. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  13. Understanding Rates of Marijuana Use and Consequences Among Adolescents in a Changing Legal Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Tucker, Joan S; Pedersen, Eric R; Shih, Regina A

    2017-01-01

    There is not one answer to address whether marijuana use has increased, decreased, or stayed the same given changes in state legalization of medical and non-medical marijuana in the USA. Evidence suggests some health benefits for medical marijuana; however, initiation of marijuana use is a risk factor for developing problem cannabis use. Though use rates have remained stable over recent years, about one in three 10th graders report marijuana use, most adolescents do not view the drug as harmful, and over 650,000 youth aged 12 to 17 struggle with cannabis use disorder. Although the health benefits of medical marijuana are becoming better understood, more research is needed. Intervention and prevention programs must better address effects of marijuana, acknowledging that while there may be some benefits medically, marijuana use can affect functioning during adolescence when the brain is still developing.

  14. Medical Marijuana Legalization and Co-use in Adult Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-03-01

    We examined effects of long-term medical marijuana legalization on cigarette co-use in a sample of adults. We conducted secondary analysis using data from the 2014 US Tobacco Attitudes and Beliefs Survey, which consisted of cigarette smokers, aged ≥ 45 years (N = 506). Participants were categorized by their state residence, where medical marijuana was (1) illegal, (2) legalized legalized ≥ 10 years. The Web-based survey assessed participants' marijuana use, beliefs and attitudes on marijuana, and nicotine dependence using Fagerstrom Tolerance for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) scores. In cigarette smokers aged ≥ 45 years, long-term legalization of medical marijuana was associated with stable positive increases in marijuana use prevalence (ever in a lifetime) (p = .005) and frequency (number of days in past 30 days) (unadjusted p = .005; adjusted p = .08). Those who reported marijuana co-use had greater FTND and HONC scores after adjusting for covariates (p = .05). These preliminary findings warrant further examination of the potential impact of long-term legalization of medical marijuana on greater cigarette and marijuana co-use in adults and higher nicotine dependence among co-users at the population level.

  15. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  16. The impact of the legalization of recreational marijuana on college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacob; Nicole Jones, K; Peil, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    In January of 2014 the Regulate Marijuana like Alcohol Act or, Amendment 64, went into effect in Colorado. Even though it was the first state to enact recreational legalization, attitudes towards marijuana use have been changing for decades. Prompted by medical marijuana legalization, studies have found mixed results in regards to the impact that legalization has on frequency of use and abuse. With college students having the highest rates of use in the United States (U.S.), whether legal or not, it was important to explore the impact that legalization has on this population. In the current study, rates of marijuana and alcohol use in college students before and after recreational legalization were explored. Data was collected in four waves from October 2013 to March 2015, to be able to determine the trends in marijuana and alcohol use, and relationship between the substances. In addition, grade point average was measured as a possible consequence of marijuana use. We found the frequency of marijuana use in Colorado college students is much higher than the national average t(94445)=24.424, pmarijuana non-users and the once a week or more often but not daily marijuana users in grade point average, F(6, 227)=2.935, pmarijuana use in general is decreasing since the passing of Amendment 64, but not among the binge drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is the Legalization of Marijuana Associated With Its Use by Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven; Schwinn, Traci; Hopkins, Jessica; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Wahlstrom, Lindsey

    2017-01-28

    Growing moves in the U.S. toward relaxed laws surrounding adult use of marijuana raise concerns about concurrent increases in adolescent use of marijuana. This study collected and analyzed primary data on the relationship between marijuana legalization status in U.S. states and adolescents' marijuana use. Recruited through social networking sites and youth-services community agencies, a sample of 1,310 adolescents from 48 U.S. states and the District of Columbia reported their use of marijuana. Youths' use rates were compared with the marijuana legalization status of youths' states of residence. Study findings failed to show a relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and state laws regarding marijuana use. Relationships were found for increased marijuana use by older youths, females, and non-Hispanic youths. Youths whose parents completed 2 or more years of college were less likely to report marijuana use than those whose parents completed fewer than 2 years of college. Albeit study findings do not support predictions of growing marijuana use by adolescents in states with liberalized adult use laws, further monitoring of adolescents' use with larger and more representative samples is needed.

  18. Crash Fatality Rates After Recreational Marijuana Legalization in Washington and Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelotte, Jayson D; Brown, Lawrence H; Luftman, Kevin M; Mardock, Alexandra L; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Coopwood, Ben; Brown, Carlos V R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics. Pre-recreational marijuana legalization annual changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were similar to those for the control states. Post-recreational marijuana legalization changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado also did not significantly differ from those for the control states (adjusted difference-in-differences coefficient = +0.2 fatalities/billion vehicle miles traveled; 95% confidence interval = -0.4, +0.9). Three years after recreational marijuana legalization, changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. Future studies over a longer time remain warranted.

  19. Changes in undergraduates' marijuana, heavy alcohol and cigarette use following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Bae, Harold; Phibbs, Sandi; Kern, Adam C

    2017-11-01

    Recreational marijuana legalization (RML) went into effect in Oregon in July 2015. RML is expected to influence marijuana use by adolescents and young adults in particular, and by those with a propensity for substance use. We sought to quantify changes in rates of marijuana use among college students in Oregon from pre- to post-RML relative to college students in other states across the same time period. Repeated cross-sectional survey data from the 2012-16 administrations of the Healthy Minds Study. Seven 4-year universities in the United States. There were 10 924 undergraduate participants. One large public Oregon university participated in 2014 and 2016 (n = 588 and 1115, respectively); six universities in US states where recreational marijuana use was illegal participated both in 2016 and at least once between 2012 and 2015. Self-reported marijuana use in the past 30 days (yes/no) was regressed on time (pre/post 2015), exposure to RML (i.e. Oregon students in 2016) and covariates using mixed-effects logistic regression. Moderation of RML effects by recent heavy alcohol use was examined. Rates of marijuana use increased from pre- to post-2015 at six of the seven universities, a trend that was significant overall. Increases in rates of marijuana use were significantly greater in Oregon than in comparison institutions, but only among students reporting recent heavy alcohol use. Rates of Oregon college students' marijuana use increased (relative to that of students in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol. Such alcohol misuse may be a proxy for vulnerabilities to substance use or lack of prohibitions (e.g. cultural) against it. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  1. Marijuana Legalization and Parents’ Attitudes, Use, and Parenting in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Jones, Tiffany M.; Eisenberg, Nicole; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The recent legalization of non-medical marijuana use in several US states has unknown implications for those who are actively parenting. This study examined parents’ reactions to marijuana legalization and changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Methods Data were from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse sample of 395 parents in Washington State who were participating in the longitudinal Seattle Social Development Project. Participants were interviewed 15 times between 1985 (age 10) and 2014 (age 39). Adult non-medical marijuana use was legalized in Washington in 2012 and retail outlets opened in 2014. Results Results showed (a) one third of parents incorrectly believed the legal age of non-medical marijuana use to be 18; (b) significant increase in approval of adult marijuana use and decrease in perceived harm of regular use; (c) wide opposition to teen use and use around one’s children; and (d) substantial increases in frequency of use and marijuana use disorder among parents who used. Conclusions Despite increased acceptance and frequency of adult use, parents remain widely opposed to teen use but need facts and strategies for talking with their children about marijuana. PMID:27523977

  2. Marijuana Legalization and Parents' Attitudes, Use, and Parenting in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Guttmannova, Katarina; Jones, Tiffany M; Eisenberg, Nicole; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2016-10-01

    The recent legalization of nonmedical marijuana use in several U.S. states has unknown implications for those who are actively parenting. This study examined parents' reactions to marijuana legalization and changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Data were from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse sample of 395 parents in Washington State who were participating in the longitudinal Seattle Social Development Project. Participants were interviewed 15 times between 1985 (age 10) and 2014 (age 39). Adult nonmedical marijuana use was legalized in Washington in 2012 and retail outlets opened in 2014. Results showed (1) one third of parents incorrectly believed the legal age of nonmedical marijuana use to be 18; (2) significant increase in approval of adult marijuana use and decrease in perceived harm of regular use; (3) wide opposition to teen use and use around one's children; and (4) substantial increases in frequency of use and marijuana use disorder among parents who used. Despite increased acceptance and frequency of adult use, parents remain widely opposed to teen use but need facts and strategies for talking with their children about marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Impacts of Marijuana Legalization: An Evaluation of Prices in Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Priscillia; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo

    2017-06-01

    Following the legalization and regulation of marijuana for recreational purposes in states with medical markets, policymakers and researchers seek empirical evidence on how, and how fast, supply and demand changed over time. Prices are an indication of how suppliers and consumers respond to policy changes, so this study uses a difference-in-difference approach to exploit the timing of policy implementation and identify the impacts on marijuana prices 4-5 months after markets opened. This study uses unique longitudinal survey data of prices paid by consumers and a web-scraped dataset of dispensary prices advertised online for three U.S. medical marijuana states that all eventually legalized recreational marijuana. Results indicate there were no impacts on the prices paid for medical or recreational marijuana by state-representative residents within the short 4- to 5-months window following legalization. However, there were differences in how much people paid if they obtained marijuana for recreational purposes from a recreational store. Further analysis of advertised prices confirms this result, but further demonstrates heterogeneous responses in prices across types of commonly advertised strains; prices either did not change or increased depending on the strain type. A key implication of our findings is that there are both supply and demand responses at work in the opening of legalized markets, suggesting that evaluations of immediate effects may not accurately reflect the long run impact of legalization on consumption.

  4. Use of Marijuana and Other Substances Among Pregnant and Parenting Women With Substance Use Disorders: Changes in Washington State After Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Therese M; Graham, J Christopher; Carlini, Beatriz H; Ernst, Cara C; Brown, Natalie Novick

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization. Most study participants reported complete abstinence from alcohol and nonprescription drugs at program exit. Among those who were still using substances, women who completed the intervention after marijuana legalization were significantly more likely to report marijuana use at program exit compared with women who completed the intervention before marijuana legalization. Across both cohorts (pre- and post-legalization), we found a positive association of exit marijuana use with alcohol, illegal methadone, other opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine use; even when we controlled for historical period, the association with some of these substances with marijuana use remained evident. Independent of marijuana use, we saw increased use during the post-legalization period of alcohol, illicit methadone, and other opioids. Marijuana use at exit from the Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP) increased significantly after marijuana legalization in the state. Women who were not abstinent from marijuana at program exit were likely to report use of other substances as well. Our study design demonstrates an association but does not allow us to conclude that marijuana use leads to other substance use among this sample of women with a history of polysubstance use.

  5. Cigarillo sales in legalized marijuana markets in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Spillane, Torra E; Mauro, Christine M; Martins, Silvia S

    2018-04-01

    Nearly half of marijuana users in the United States also smoke cigarillos, with many using the products as marijuana "blunts." The relationship between marijuana legalization and tobacco retail has not yet been examined. This study uses tobacco sales data to compare the cigarillo marketplace in states with legalized recreational marijuana to the overall U.S. marketplace in 2016. Cigarillo sales data from 2016 were obtained from the Nielsen Research Company in the following market regions: Denver, CO; Seattle, WA; Portland, OR; and the overall U.S. Descriptive statistics highlighted differences in the market share of various product features (e.g., flavors, brand, pack size) across regions. Characteristics such as fruit flavors, single sticks, and 2-3 packs were more popular in legal marijuana regions compared to the overall U.S. Black & Mild, a brand not traditionally used for blunts, was the top brand nationally (32.8% market share), but Swisher was the top brand in legal marijuana regions. In Seattle and Portland, for example, over half of cigarillo sales were for Swisher products (59.1% and 52.1%, respectively). Cigarillo wraps (i.e., no tobacco filler) were particularly popular in Denver, constituting 11.4% all cigarillo sales versus 2.8% nationally. Cigarillo product characteristics traditionally associated with blunt use may shape the tobacco market in legal marijuana regions. As more states continue to legalize recreational marijuana, state and local governments should anticipate the potential impact on the tobacco marketplace and implement tobacco control policies (e.g., flavor bans, minimum pack sizes) that discourage product use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  7. Impact of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado on Adolescent Emergency and Urgent Care Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Davies, Sara Deakyne; Halmo, Laurie Seidel; Sass, Amy; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2018-03-30

    Approximately 6%-8% of U.S. adolescents are daily/past-month users of marijuana. However, survey data may not reliably reflect the impact of legalization on adolescents. The objective was to evaluate the impact of marijuana legalization on adolescent emergency department and urgent cares visits to a children's hospital in Colorado, a state that has allowed both medical and recreational marijuana. Retrospective review of marijuana-related visits by International Classification of Diseases codes and urine drug screens, from 2005 through 2015, for patients ≥ 13 and marijuana-related visits were identified. Behavioral health evaluation was obtained for 2,813 (67%); a psychiatric diagnosis was made for the majority (71%) of these visits. Coingestants were common; the most common was ethanol (12%). Marijuana-related visits increased from 1.8 per 1,000 visits in 2009 to 4.9 in 2015. (p = marijuana use, our data demonstrate a significant increase in adolescent marijuana-associated emergency department and urgent cares visits in Colorado. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the sprin...

  10. Waiting for the Opportune Moment: The Tobacco Industry and Marijuana Legalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Rachel Ann; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Context In 2012, Washington State and Colorado legalized the recreational use of marijuana, and Uruguay, beginning in 2014, will become the first country to legalize the sale and distribution of marijuana. The challenge facing policymakers and public health advocates is reducing the harms of an ineffective, costly, and discriminatory “war on drugs” while preventing another public health catastrophe similar to tobacco use, which kills 6 million people worldwide each year. Methods Between May and December 2013, using the standard snowball research technique, we searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of previously secret tobacco industry documents (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu). Findings Since at least the 1970s, tobacco companies have been interested in marijuana and marijuana legalization as both a potential and a rival product. As public opinion shifted and governments began relaxing laws pertaining to marijuana criminalization, the tobacco companies modified their corporate planning strategies to prepare for future consumer demand. Conclusions Policymakers and public health advocates must be aware that the tobacco industry or comparable multinational organizations (eg, food and beverage industries) are prepared to enter the marijuana market with the intention of increasing its already widespread use. In order to prevent domination of the market by companies seeking to maximize market size and profits, policymakers should learn from their successes and failures in regulating tobacco. PMID:24890245

  11. Waiting for the opportune moment: the tobacco industry and marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Rachel Ann; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Washington State and Colorado legalized the recreational use of marijuana, and Uruguay, beginning in 2014, will become the first country to legalize the sale and distribution of marijuana. The challenge facing policymakers and public health advocates is reducing the harms of an ineffective, costly, and discriminatory "war on drugs" while preventing another public health catastrophe similar to tobacco use, which kills 6 million people worldwide each year. Between May and December 2013, using the standard snowball research technique, we searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of previously secret tobacco industry documents (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu). Since at least the 1970s, tobacco companies have been interested in marijuana and marijuana legalization as both a potential and a rival product. As public opinion shifted and governments began relaxing laws pertaining to marijuana criminalization, the tobacco companies modified their corporate planning strategies to prepare for future consumer demand. Policymakers and public health advocates must be aware that the tobacco industry or comparable multinational organizations (eg, food and beverage industries) are prepared to enter the marijuana market with the intention of increasing its already widespread use. In order to prevent domination of the market by companies seeking to maximize market size and profits, policymakers should learn from their successes and failures in regulating tobacco. © 2014 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  12. What Do Colorado Adults Know About Legal Use of Recreational Marijuana After a Media Campaign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Levinson, Arnold; Li, Yaqiang; Roppolo, Rebecca Hebner; Bull, Sheana

    2017-03-01

    Colorado is among the first states to legalize the recreational sale of marijuana and therefore among the first to develop regulations outlining the purchase, possession, consumption, and enforcement, and penalties. Colorado legislators set aside funds for a statewide informational media campaign to educate Colorado residents on legal use of marijuana. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the mass media campaign to increase awareness of the law through a prospective cohort surveyed before and 6 months after the launch of the campaign ( n = 798). A total of 28.0% reported recall of the Good to Know campaign. There was a significant positive change in accurate knowledge of marijuana laws from baseline to follow-up for each of the four primary indicators of knowledge of the marijuana laws. Among those who had inaccurate knowledge of the laws at baseline, those who reported seeing the campaign at least once or more were 2.53 (95% confidence interval = 1.29-4.95) times as likely to report accurate knowledge of the laws at follow-up compared with those who did not recall seeing the campaign, particularly among marijuana users. Those individuals who reported recall of the campaign were more likely to increase their accurate knowledge of marijuana laws.

  13. Providing medical marijuana: the importance of cannabis clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, H W; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends.

  14. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  15. Considering marijuana legalization carefully: insights for other jurisdictions from analysis for Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau

    2016-12-01

    In 2014 the legislature of Vermont, USA passed a law requiring the Secretary of Administration to report on the consequences of legalizing marijuana. The RAND Corporation was commissioned to write that report. This paper summarizes insights from that analysis that are germane to other jurisdictions. Translation of key findings from the RAND Corporation report to the broader policy debate. Marijuana legalization encompasses a wide range of possible regimes, distinguished along at least four dimensions: which organizations are allowed to produce and supply the drug, the regulations under which they operate, the nature of the products that can be distributed and taxes and prices. Vermont's decriminalization had already cut its costs of enforcing marijuana prohibition against adults to about $1 per resident per year. That is probably less than the cost of regulating a legal market. Revenues from taxing residents' purchases after legalization could be many times that amount, so the main fiscal cost of prohibition after decriminalization relative to outright legalization may be foregone tax revenues, not enforcement costs. Approximately 40 times as many users live within 200 miles of Vermont's borders as live within the state; drug tourism and associated tax revenues will be important considerations, as will be the response of other states. Indeed, if another state legalized with lower taxes, that could undermine the ability to collect taxes on even Vermont residents' purchases. Analysis of possible outcomes if Vermont, USA, legalized marijuana reveal that choices about how, and not just whether, to legalize a drug can have profound consequences for the effects on health and social wellbeing, and the choices of one jurisdiction can affect the options and incentives available to other jurisdictions. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. [Factors forming opnion on marijuana legalization in Poland among group of students from medical and technical college faculty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts.

  17. Childcare Providers' Possession or Use of Marijuana, Tobacco, or Alcohol While Caring for Children: A Comparison of US State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Elyse R; Gonzalez-Nahm, Sarah; Frost, Natasha; Benjamin-Neelon, Sara E

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate US state regulations regarding marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol to determine the extent to which states attempt to govern these substances in early care and education (ECE) settings. Two independent reviewers assessed regulations enacted by December 2016 for all states and the District of Columbia. Reviewers compared regulations to national standards on the possession or use of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol in ECE settings. Fewer states regulated marijuana than tobacco or alcohol in ECE settings. More states restricted the use of these 3 substances than they restricted the possession of them. Most states address alcohol or tobacco possession or use in their regulations but should consider updating these provisions to align with national standards. Public Health Implications. Updating and strengthening state childcare regulations regarding marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol possession and use may help protect children in ECE settings, where many children spend a substantial portion of time. As more states legalize marijuana, they may consider updating their regulations and including precise language to better protect children from unintended pediatric marijuana exposure or impaired childcare providers. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 19, 2018: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304351).

  18. Patterns of facial trauma before and after legalization of marijuana in Denver, Colorado: A joint study between two Denver hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoya, Mofiyinfolu; Eagles, Justin; Okland, Tyler; Coughlin, Dylan; Dauber, Hannah; Greenlee, Christopher; Winkler, Andrew A

    2017-10-07

    The effect of marijuana on human health has been studied extensively. Marijuana intoxication has been shown to affect performance, attention span, and reaction time. The public health relationship between trauma and cannabis use has also been studied, with mixed conclusions. In this report, the effect of marijuana legalization on many aspects of facial trauma at two hospitals in Denver, Colorado is examined. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records was undertaken. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare age of patients before and after legalization, and chi squared analyses were used to compare mechanism of injury, and fracture types before and after recreational marijuana legalization in Denver, Colorado. Geographical location of patients was also considered. No significant increase was found in race before and after marijuana legalization (p=0.19). A significant increase in age was found before (M=39.54,SD=16.37), and after (M=41.38,SD=16.66) legalization (plegalization (plegalization (p>0.05). Public health efforts should be directed towards educating residents and visitors of Colorado on the effects and toxicology of marijuana. More epidemiologic studies are needed for further assessment of the long-term effects of the legalization of marijuana on the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabinoid modulation of drug reward and the implications of marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Wenzel, Jennifer M; Cheer, Joseph F

    2015-12-02

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug worldwide. Recent trends indicate that this may soon change; not due to decreased marijuana use, but to an amendment in marijuana's illegal status. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor mediates marijuana's psychoactive and reinforcing properties. CB1 receptors are also part of the brain endocannabinoid (eCB) system and support numerous forms of learning and memory, including the conditioned reinforcing properties of cues predicting reward or punishment. This is accomplished via eCB-dependent alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, which plays an obligatory role in reward learning and motivation. Presynaptic CB1 receptors control midbrain dopamine neuron activity and thereby shape phasic dopamine release in target regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). By also regulating synaptic input to the NAc, CB1 receptors modulate NAc output onto downstream neurons of the basal ganglia motor circuit, and thereby support goal-directed behaviors. Abused drugs promote short- and long-term adaptations in eCB-regulation of mesolimbic dopamine function, and thereby hijack neural systems related to the pursuit of rewards to promote drug abuse. By pharmacologically targeting the CB1 receptors, marijuana has preferential access to this neuronal system and can potently alter eCB-dependent processing of reward-related stimuli. As marijuana legalization progresses, greater access to this drug should increase the utility of marijuana as a research tool to better understand the eCB system, which has the potential to advance cannabinoid-based treatments for drug addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Public Health Framework for Legalized Retail Marijuana Based on the US Experience: Avoiding a New Tobacco Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ann Barry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Barry and Stanton Glantz argue that a public health framework that prioritizes public health over business interests should be used by US states and countries that legalize retail marijuana.

  1. Analysis of drug prohibition and estimation of budgetary implications of marijuana legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Flegr, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of drug prohibition on society. It analyzes starting-points and aims of prohibition and shows, how prohibition attempts to achieve its goals. Furthermore, it explores social costs of prohibition, mainly the impact on potencial health risks of drug use and property and violent crimes. Then it presents main reasons of failure to achieve its goals. Furthemore, this paper estimates probable budgetary implications of marijuana legalization. This estimate is based on ...

  2. Medical marijuana: largest provider closed, some alternatives available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-06-05

    The Cannabis Healing Center, the largest of the medical marijuana buyers' clubs in San Francisco, was shut down on May 25 due to a court order obtained by State Attorney General Dan Lungren. The closure creates an emergency situation for thousands of persons who obtained the drug through the center. City officials are exploring ways to develop guidelines for the medical usage of marijuana that would be consistent with California Proposition 215. Proposition 215 does not nullify Federal laws against marijuana, however, Federal authorities usually allow State or local jurisdictions to handle marijuana enforcement. The three other buyers' clubs in the city are unable to meet the needs of everyone due to insufficient staffing. The closure also shut down the campaign office of Dennis Peron, who was the founder of the previous Cannabis Buyers' Club, and who was running for governor. Contact information and documentation requirements are included for the buyers' clubs.

  3. High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hauser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the simultaneous administration of cytochrome P-450 3A inhibitors and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Tacrolimus toxicity can be severe and may include multiorgan damage. We present a case of suspected tacrolimus toxicity in a postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient who was concurrently using oral marijuana. This case represents an important and growing clinical scenario with the increasing legalization and use of marijuana throughout the United States.

  4. Legalization of recreational marijuana and community sales policy in Oregon: Impact on adolescent willingness and intent to use, parent use, and adolescent use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M

    2018-02-01

    Studies investigating the impact of medical marijuana legalization have found no significant changes in adolescent use. In one of the few studies focused on recreational marijuana, we investigated how recreational marijuana legalization and community sales policy influenced factors that likely impact youth use (youth willingness and intent to use, parent use) as well as youth use. Legalization of recreational marijuana in Oregon coincided with our study on adolescent substance use. Cohort 1 transitioned from 8th to 9th grade prior to legalization and Cohort 2 made this transition during legalization (N = 444; 53% female). Communities were allowed to opt out of sales. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the impact of legalization and community sales policy on changes in attitudes and parent use (2 time points 1 year apart). Zero-inflated Poisson growth curve models estimated the effects on initial levels and rate of change from 8th through 9th grade (4 time points). In communities opting out of sales, the prior-to-legalization cohort was less likely to increase their willingness and intent to use marijuana, and the legalization cohort was more likely to increase intent to use. For youth who used marijuana, legalization was associated with increased use, and those in communities opting out of sales had greater growth in marijuana use. Community policy appears to impact youth attitudes toward, and use of, marijuana. Results suggest that legalization of recreational marijuana did not increase marijuana use for youth who did not use marijuana but did increase use in youth who were already using. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Marijuana, Spice ‘herbal high’, and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K. Yaragudri

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of Δ9-THC and other cannabimimetics, including the psychoactive ingredients of the branded product ‘Spice’ branded products. These exocannabinoids interfere with the function of an endocannabinoid (eCB) system, present in the developing CNS from E12.5 (week 5 of gestation in humans), and required for proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Until recently, it was not known whether the eCB system is also present in the developing CNS during the initial stages of its ontogeny, i.e. from E7.0 onwards (week 2 of gestation in humans), and if so, whether this system is also susceptible to the action of exocannabinoids. Here, we review current data, in which the presence of an eCB system during the initial stage of development of the CNS is demonstrated. Furthermore, we focus on recent advances on the effect of canabimimetics on early gestation. The relevance of these findings and potential adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to ‘high potency’ marijuana, Spice branded products and/or cannabinoid research chemicals during this period is discussed. Finally, we address the implication of these findings in terms of the potential dangers of synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy, and the ongoing debate over legalization of marijuana. PMID:22887867

  6. Marijuana, Spice 'herbal high', and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K Yaragudri

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of Δ⁹-THC and other cannabimimetics, including the psychoactive ingredients of the branded product 'Spice' branded products. These exocannabinoids interfere with the function of an endocannabinoid (eCB) system, present in the developing CNS from E12.5 (week 5 of gestation in humans), and required for proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Until recently, it was not known whether the eCB system is also present in the developing CNS during the initial stages of its ontogeny, i.e. from E7.0 onwards (week 2 of gestation in humans), and if so, whether this system is also susceptible to the action of exocannabinoids. Here, we review current data, in which the presence of an eCB system during the initial stage of development of the CNS is demonstrated. Furthermore, we focus on recent advances on the effect of canabimimetics on early gestation. The relevance of these findings and potential adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to 'high potency' marijuana, Spice branded products and/or cannabinoid research chemicals during this period is discussed. Finally, we address the implication of these findings in terms of the potential dangers of synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy, and the ongoing debate over legalization of marijuana. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of...

  8. Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-04-03

    Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided.

  9. Legalizing Cannabis: A physician’s primer on the pulmonary effects of marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Lutchmansingh, Denyse; Pawar, Leena; Savici, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Habitual smoking of marijuana is associated with multiple respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, and wheezing .These symptoms are not significantly different from those exhibited by tobacco smokers. Furthermore, endobronchial biopsies of habitual smokers of marijuana and /or tobacco have shown that both marijuana and cigarette smoking cause significant bronchial mucosal histopathology and that these effects are additive. Although marijuana smokers have minimal changes in pulmo...

  10. Focus Groups of Parents and Teens Help Develop Messages to Prevent Early Marijuana Use in the Context of Legal Retail Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Thompson, Ronald W; Buddenberg, Laura; Mason, W Alex

    2017-02-23

    The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use. A total of 33 teens and 35 parents participated. Three primary themes were common to these parents and teens: the negative consequences of marijuana use during adolescence on mental, physical, and social health; the need for more or better information; and the need for information/messages to come from trusted sources. The themes related to potential prevention messages include the use of fear; stories about real people; focusing on short-term consequences; and teens needing alternative activities (something better to do). The results suggest that parents and teens need information about the new retail marijuana legalization law. Teens are open to both information and guidance from parents as long as it is calm and respectful. Firsthand accounts of consequences of marijuana use from peers and adults, rather than threats from authority figures, could hold some promise for persuading teens to avoid marijuana use.

  11. Good cop, bad cop: federal prosecution of state-legalized medical marijuana use after United States v. Lopez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbern, A E

    2000-10-01

    The Supreme Court's recent decisions in United States v. Lopez and United States v. Morrison articulate a vision of federalism under which Congress's regulatory authority under the Commerce Clause is severely limited in favor of returning traditional areas of state concern, particularly criminal law enforcement, to local or state control. The Court's decisions in these cases coincide with ballot initiatives legalizing the medical use of marijuana garnering a majority of the vote in California, Arizona, Alaska, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Maine, and Washington D.C. Those who use marijuana for medical purposes under sanction of state law, however, still face the threat of federal prosecution under the Controlled Substances Act. Medical marijuana proponents have traditionally, and unsuccessfully, contested federal prosecution using individual rights arguments under theories of equal protection or substantive due process. This Comment argues that after Lopez and Morrison, the federal government's authority to regulate intrastate use of marijuana for medicinal purposes is not the foregone conclusion it once was. The author suggests that proponents of medical marijuana use should invoke the federalism arguments of Lopez and Morrison and argue for state legislative independence from the federal government on this issue.

  12. The emerging public discourse on state legalization of marijuana for recreational use in the US: Analysis of news media coverage, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Samples, Hillary; Bandara, Sachini N; Saloner, Brendan; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-09-01

    US states have begun to legalize marijuana for recreational use. In the absence of clear scientific evidence regarding the likely public health consequences of legalization, it is important to understand how the risks and benefits of this policy are being discussed in the national dialogue. To assess the public discourse on recreational marijuana policy, we assessed the volume and content of US news media coverage of the topic. We analyzed the content of a 20% random sample of news stories published/aired in high circulation/viewership print, television, and Internet news sources from 2010 to 2014 (N=610). News media coverage of recreational marijuana policy was heavily concentrated in news outlets from the four states (AK, CO, OR, WA) and DC that legalized marijuana for recreational use during the study period. Overall, 53% of news stories mentioned pro-legalization arguments and 47% mentioned anti-legalization arguments. The most frequent pro-legalization arguments posited that legalization would reduce criminal justice involvement/costs (20% of news stories) and increase tax revenue (19%). Anti-legalization arguments centered on adverse public health consequences, such as detriments to youth health and well-being (22%) and marijuana-impaired driving (6%). Some evidence-informed public health regulatory options, like marketing and packaging restrictions, were mentioned in 5% of news stories or fewer. As additional states continue to debate legalization of marijuana for recreational use, it is critical for the public health community to develop communication strategies that accurately convey the rapidly evolving research evidence regarding recreational marijuana policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. College student marijuana involvement: Perceptions, use, and consequences across 11 college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R; Liese, Bruce S; Dvorak, Robert D

    2017-03-01

    Marijuana is currently the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, and with the movement toward legalization of recreational marijuana, the country faces numerous issues regarding policy, prevention, and treatment of marijuana use. The present study examines the prevalence of marijuana use and consequences and compares users and non-users on a wide range of other marijuana-related constructs among college students across 11 universities. Participants included 8141 college students recruited from the psychology department participant pools of 11 universities throughout the US, including four major regions of the US (West, South, Midwest, Northeast) and states with varying policies regarding the legality of marijuana use. We observed marijuana use rates similar to representative samples of young adults and college students (i.e., 53.3% lifetime marijuana users, 26.2% past month marijuana users). About 1 in 10 past month marijuana users experienced no consequences from their use, whereas nearly 1 in 10 experienced 19 or more consequences. Lifetime marijuana users had more positive perceptions of marijuana compared to non-users on a wide-range of marijuana-related constructs. We report descriptive statistics on a wide range of marijuana-related variables. We hope that these data provide a useful baseline prior to increased legalization of recreational marijuana use. Multi-site studies like this one are needed to study the risky and protective factors for problematic marijuana use. These findings can inform interventions and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Professional courtesy: can you legally provide it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael; Baum, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Professional courtesy: Something most physicians did and enjoyed doing, and that was a nice perk that physicians offered their colleagues. But is it legal? Can it still be done without breaking the law? What are the guidelines? This article will answer these questions. After reading this article, you will understand the guidelines for professional courtesy and what the risks and penalties are if they are violated.

  15. Legalizing Cannabis: A physician's primer on the pulmonary effects of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmansingh, Denyse; Pawar, Leena; Savici, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Habitual smoking of marijuana is associated with multiple respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, and wheezing .These symptoms are not significantly different from those exhibited by tobacco smokers. Furthermore, endobronchial biopsies of habitual smokers of marijuana and /or tobacco have shown that both marijuana and cigarette smoking cause significant bronchial mucosal histopathology and that these effects are additive. Although marijuana smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothoraces. The relationship between marijuana smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. These findings should warn individuals that marijuana smoking may result in serious short-term and long-term respiratory complications, and habitual marijuana use should be viewed with caution. The medical literature so far does not support routine evaluation by pulmonary function tests or imaging studies; until more definitive data is available, we do not recommend the regular use of these tests in the evaluation of habitual marijuana smokers.

  16. Exposure to Marijuana Marketing After Legalization of Retail Sales: Oregonians' Experiences, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Steven C; Dilley, Julia A; Firth, Caislin L; Maher, Julie E

    2018-01-01

    To assess exposure to marijuana advertising in Oregon after the start of retail marijuana sales in October 2015. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional online survey of 4001 Oregon adults aged 18 years and older in November 2015 and April-May 2016. We assessed subgroup differences by using the Pearson χ 2 test. More than half of adults (54.8%) statewide reported seeing marijuana advertising in the past month. These adults reported that they most frequently saw storefront (74.5%), streetside (66.5%), and billboard (55.8%) advertising. Exposure did not significantly differ by participant's age or marijuana use but was higher among those living in counties with retail sales (56.5%) than in counties without (32.5%). Most adults reported exposure to marijuana advertising following the start of retail marijuana sales in Oregon. People who do not use marijuana and those aged 18 to 24 years were as exposed to advertising as other groups. Public Health Implications. Advertising restrictions may be needed to protect youths and young adults from pro-use messages. Commercial free speech afforded by the First Amendment makes advertising restrictions challenging, but public policy experts note that restrictions aimed at protecting youths may be allowed.

  17. Marijuana use patterns among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikoff Allegretti, Jessica; Courtwright, Andrew; Lucci, Matthew; Korzenik, Joshua R; Levine, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and perceived effectiveness of marijuana use has not been well studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing legal permission for its use in Crohn's disease. Health care providers have little guidance about the IBD symptoms that may improve with marijuana use. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, and perceived benefits of marijuana use among patients with IBD. Prospective cohort survey study of marijuana use patterns in patients with IBD at an academic medical center. A total of 292 patients completed the survey (response rate = 94%); 12.3% of patients were active marijuana users, 39.0% were past users, and 48.6% were never users. Among current and past users, 16.4% of patients used marijuana for disease symptoms, the majority of whom felt that marijuana was "very helpful" for relief of abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, age and chronic abdominal pain were associated with current marijuana use (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-0.97; P marijuana (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.97; P marijuana for abdominal pain, were it legally available. A significant number of patients with IBD currently use marijuana. Most patients find it very helpful for symptom control, including patients with ulcerative colitis, who are currently excluded from medical marijuana laws. Clinical trials are needed to determine marijuana's potential as an IBD therapy and to guide prescribing decisions.

  18. Medical marijuana laws and teen marijuana use

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Hansen, Benjamin; Rees, Daniel I.

    2012-01-01

    While at least a dozen state legislatures in the United States have recently considered bills to allow the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government is intensifying its efforts to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using data from the national and state Youth Ris...

  19. The effects of perceived quality on behavioral economic demand for marijuana: A web-based experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Paula C; Collins, R Lorraine; Liu, Liu; Yu, Jihnhee; De Leo, Joseph A; Earleywine, Mitch

    2017-01-01

    Given the growing legalization of recreational marijuana use and related increase in its prevalence in the United States, it is important to understand marijuana's appeal. We used a behavioral economic (BE) approach to examine whether the reinforcing properties of marijuana, including "demand" for marijuana, varied as a function of its perceived quality. Using an innovative, Web-based marijuana purchase task (MPT), a sample of 683 young-adult recreational marijuana users made hypothetical purchases of marijuana across three qualities (low, mid and high grade) at nine escalating prices per joint, ranging from $0/free to $20. We used nonlinear mixed effects modeling to conduct demand curve analyses, which produced separate demand indices (e.g., P max , elasticity) for each grade of marijuana. Consistent with previous research, as the price of marijuana increased, marijuana users reduced their purchasing. Demand also was sensitive to quality, with users willing to pay more for higher quality/grade marijuana. In regression analyses, demand indices accounted for significant variance in typical marijuana use. This study illustrates the value of applying BE theory to young adult marijuana use. It extends past research by examining how perceived quality affects demand for marijuana and provides support for the validity of a Web-based MPT to examine the appeal of marijuana. Our results have implications for policies to regulate marijuana use, including taxation based on the quality of different marijuana products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accommodating the medical use of marijuana: surveying the differing legal approaches in Australia, the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoski, Tony

    2010-02-01

    While the scientific and medical communities continue to be divided on the therapeutic benefits and risks of cannabis use, anecdotal evidence from medical users themselves suggests that using cannabis is indeed improving their quality of life by alleviating their pain and discomfort. Notwithstanding the benefits anecdotally claimed by these medical users and the existence of some scientific studies confirming their claims, criminal drug laws in all Australian and most United States jurisdictions continue to prohibit the possession, cultivation and supply of cannabis even for medical purposes. However, in contrast to Australia and most parts of the United States, the medical use of cannabis has been legal in Canada for about a decade. This article reviews these differing legal and regulatory approaches to accommodating the medical use of cannabis (namely, marijuana) as well as some of the challenges involved in legalising it for medical purposes.

  1. The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Alice

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, federal and state laws regarding the medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids are in conflict and have led to confusion among patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers. Currently, cannabis is legal for medical purposes in 50% of the states, and another seventeen states allow products that are high in cannabidiol (CBD) and low in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) for medical use. Many of these artisanal products are sold in dispensaries or over the internet. However, none of these products has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Understanding how federal laws apply to clinical research and practice can be challenging, and the complexity of these laws has resulted in particular confusion regarding the legal status of CBD. This paper provides an up-to-date overview (as of August 2016) of the legal aspects of cannabis and cannabidiol, including cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and use for medical purposes. This article is part of a Special Issue title, Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical marijuana: a public health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ushang Desai; Paras Patel

    2013-01-01

    Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical ...

  3. Impacts of Changing Marijuana Policies on Alcohol Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Lee, Christine M; Kilmer, Jason R; Fleming, Charles B; Rhew, Isaac C; Kosterman, Rick; Larimer, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana policies are rapidly evolving. In the United States, recreational use of marijuana is now legal in 4 states and medical marijuana is legal in 23 states. Research evaluating such policies has focused primarily on how policies affect issues of price, access to, use, and consequences of marijuana. Due to potential spillover effects, researchers also need to examine how marijuana policies may impact use and consequences of alcohol. The current paper is a critical review of articles evaluating alcohol outcomes associated with marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana legalization, and nonmedical or recreational marijuana legalization. We identified articles and reports through (1) online searches of EBSCO host database including Academic Search Premier, Econlit, Legal Collection, Medline, PsycARTICLES, and PsycINFO, as well as PubMed and Google Scholar databases; (2) review of additional articles cited in papers identified through electronic searches; and (3) targeted searches of state and local government records regarding marijuana law implementation. We reviewed studies with respect to their data sources and sample characteristics, methodology, and the margin of alcohol and marijuana use, timing of policy change, and the aspects of laws examined. The extant literature provides some evidence for both substitution (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to less alcohol use as marijuana becomes a substitute) and complementary (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to increases in both marijuana and alcohol use) relationships in the context of liberalization of marijuana policies in the United States. Impact of more liberal marijuana policies on alcohol use is complex, and likely depends on specific aspects of policy implementation, including how long the policy has been in place. Furthermore, evaluation of marijuana policy effects on alcohol use may be sensitive to the age group studied and the margin of alcohol use examined. Design of

  4. Impacts of Changing Marijuana Policies on Alcohol Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kosterman, Rick; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana policies are rapidly evolving. In the United States, recreational use of marijuana is now legal in four states and medical marijuana is legal in 23 states. Research evaluating such policies has focused primarily on how policies affect issues of price, access to, use, and consequences of marijuana. Due to potential spillover effects, researchers also need to examine how marijuana policies may impact use and consequences of alcohol. Methods The current paper is a critical review of articles evaluating alcohol outcomes associated with marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana legalization, and non-medical or recreational marijuana legalization. We identified articles and reports through (1) online searches of EBSCO host database including Academic search premier, Econlit, Legal collection, Medline, Psych articles, and PsycINFO, as well as PubMed and Google Scholar databases; (2) review of additional articles cited in papers identified through electronic searches; and (3) targeted searches of state and local government records regarding marijuana law implementation. We reviewed studies with respect to their data sources and sample characteristics, methodology, and the margin of alcohol and marijuana use, timing of policy change, and the aspects of laws examined. Results The extant literature provides some evidence for both substitution (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to less alcohol use as marijuana becomes a substitute) and complementary (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to increases in both marijuana and alcohol use) relationships in the context of liberalization of marijuana policies in the United States. Conclusions Impact of more liberal marijuana policies on alcohol use is complex, and likely depends on specific aspects of policy implementation, including how long the policy has been in place. Further, evaluation of marijuana policy effects on alcohol use may be sensitive to the age group studied and the

  5. Bayesian inference for the distribution of grams of marijuana in a joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Greg; Kilmer, Beau

    2016-08-01

    The average amount of marijuana in a joint is unknown, yet this figure is a critical quantity for creating credible measures of marijuana consumption. It is essential for projecting tax revenues post-legalization, estimating the size of illicit marijuana markets, and learning about how much marijuana users are consuming in order to understand health and behavioral consequences. Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring data collected between 2000 and 2010 contain relevant information on 10,628 marijuana transactions, joints and loose marijuana purchases, including the city in which the purchase occurred and the price paid for the marijuana. Using the Brown-Silverman drug pricing model to link marijuana price and weight, we are able to infer the distribution of grams of marijuana in a joint and provide a Bayesian posterior distribution for the mean weight of marijuana in a joint. We estimate that the mean weight of marijuana in a joint is 0.32g (95% Bayesian posterior interval: 0.30-0.35). Our estimate of the mean weight of marijuana in a joint is lower than figures commonly used to make estimates of marijuana consumption. These estimates can be incorporated into drug policy discussions to produce better understanding about illicit marijuana markets, the size of potential legalized marijuana markets, and health and behavior outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Twitter chatter about marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-02-01

    We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n = 7,000) of influential marijuana-related tweets (sent from February 5, 20114, to March 5, 2014). Demographics of the users tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (Demographics Pro for Twitter). Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment toward marijuana use, with pro-marijuana tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana tweets by a factor of greater than 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use, and that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African-American compared with the Twitter average. Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African-Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at risk for harms associated with marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients.

  8. The Devil Is in the Details! On Regulating Cannabis Use in Canada Based on Public Health Criteria Comment on "Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Crépault, Jean-François; Fischer, Benedikt

    2016-08-20

    This commentary to the editorial of Hajizadeh argues that the economic, social and health consequences of legalizing cannabis in Canada will depend in large part on the exact stipulations (mainly from the federal government) and on the implementation, regulation and practice of the legalization act (on provincial and municipal levels). A strict regulatory framework is necessary to minimize the health burden attributable to cannabis use. This includes prominently control of production and sale of the legal cannabis including control of price and content with ban of marketing and advertisement. Regulation of medical marijuana should be part of such a framework as well. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. The Legal Landscape of Concussion: Implications for Sports Medicine Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Andrew W; Senter, Carlin; Adler, Richard H; Herring, Stanley A; Asif, Irfan M

    2016-09-01

    Concussion legislation has been enacted in all 50 of the United States, aiming to prevent mild traumatic brain injuries and the potential long-term sequelae of these injuries in youth athletics. Sports medicine providers, in addressing this major public health concern, are tasked with adhering to the established standards of medical care while also considering the legal implications. The PubMed (2011-2016) database was searched using the following search terms: concussion, sports concussion, legislation, and concussion legislation. References from consensus statements, review articles, and book chapters were also utilized. Clinical review. Level 4. The Lystedt law and its progeny have increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of sports concussion, but adherence to state legislation can pose some challenges. The presence of concussion legislation places a responsibility on the sports medicine provider to have a firm understanding of the legality of concussion management in the state(s) in which they practice. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  11. An Analysis of Applicants Presenting to a Medical Marijuana Specialty Practice in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunberg, Helen; Kilmer, Beau; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Burgdorf, James

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, medical marijuana has been at the forefront of the marijuana policy debate in the United States. Fourteen states allow physicians to recommend marijuana or provide a legal defense for patients and physicians if prosecuted in state courts; however, little is known about those individuals using marijuana for medicinal purposes and the symptoms they use it for. This study provides descriptive information from 1,655 patients seeking a physician’s recommendation for medical marijuana, the conditions for which they seek treatment, and the diagnoses made by the physicians. It conducts a systematic analysis of physician records and patient questionnaires obtained from consecutive patients being seen during a three month period at nine medical marijuana evaluation clinics belonging to a select medical group operating throughout the State of California. While this study is not representative of all medical marijuana users in California, it provides novel insights about an important population being affected by this policy. PMID:23750291

  12. Adolescents' Use of Medical Marijuana: A Secondary Analysis of Monitoring the Future Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Veliz, Philip T; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2015-08-01

    To examine adolescents' annual use of medical marijuana and determine if legal medical marijuana users are at lower risk for frequent marijuana use and other substance use when compared to adolescents who use diverted medical marijuana or from an illicit source. Public access Monitoring the Future data were used for this secondary analysis. The total weighted sample size was 4394 12th graders. Users of medical marijuana and diverted medical marijuana had notable odds of using daily, using prescription drugs, and using illicit drugs among other substance use behaviors. Medical marijuana users had much higher odds of using medical marijuana because of being "hooked" when compared to diverted medical users and illicit users. This study is the first to provide nationally representative data on three groups of adolescent marijuana users. Although most adolescents use illicit sources, more adolescents appear to be using diverted medical marijuana, than using medical marijuana legally. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Marijuana Promotion Online: an Investigation of Dispensary Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Cahn, Elizabeth; Lee, Kiriam Escobar; Ferguson, Erin; Rajbhandari, Biva; Sowles, Shaina J; Floyd, Glennon M; Berg, Carla; Bierut, Laura J

    2018-04-09

    Marijuana product advertising will become more common, as the use of medical and/or recreational marijuana becomes increasingly legal in the USA. In this study, we investigate the marketing tactics being used on marijuana dispensary websites in the USA that could influence substance use behaviors. One hundred dispensary websites were randomly selected from 10 states that allowed the legal use of medical or recreational marijuana and had at least 10 operational dispensaries. Three dispensaries were excluded due to non-functioning websites, leaving a sample of 97 dispensaries. Content analysis was conducted on these dispensaries' websites, with the primary areas of focus including website age verification, marijuana effects, warnings, and promotional tactics. Among the 97 dispensaries, 75% did not include age verification. Roughly 30% offered online ordering and 21% offered delivery services. Sixty-seven percent made health claims pertaining to medical conditions that could be treated by their marijuana products, with moderate or conclusive evidence to support their claims. Less than half of the dispensaries (45%) advised consumers of possible side effects, and only 18% included warnings about contraindications. Nearly half (44%) offered reduced prices or coupons, 19% offered "buy one get one free" offers, and 16% provided giveaways or free samples. Our findings indicate that marijuana dispensary websites are easily accessible to youth. In addition, only a small amount of the websites advised consumers about possible side effects or contraindications. This study suggests the need for surveillance of marijuana commercialization and online advertising especially in the context of state policy reforms.

  14. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Kashyap; Kartikeya Kashyap

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on ...

  15. Cannabis Use During the Perinatal Period in a State With Legalized Recreational and Medical Marijuana: The Association Between Maternal Characteristics, Breastfeeding Patterns, and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Juhl, Ashley L; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Hall, Katelyn E; Wymore, Erica; Borgelt, Laura M

    2018-03-28

    To evaluate state-level prevalence estimates of prenatal and early postnatal cannabis use in a state with legalized medical and recreational marijuana and the association with adverse neonatal outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 3,207 respondents from the 2014-2015 Colorado Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System with state-developed questions on cannabis use. Differences in perinatal cannabis use were evaluated according to maternal characteristics, breastfeeding patterns, and pregnancy intendedness. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated the relationship between prenatal cannabis use and adverse neonatal outcomes including low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The self-reported prevalence of cannabis use at any time during pregnancy was 5.7 ± 0.5% and the prevalence of early postnatal cannabis use among women who breastfed was 5.0% (95% CI, 4.1%-6.2%). Prenatal cannabis use was associated with a 50% increased likelihood of low birth weight, independent of maternal age, race/ethnicity, level of education, and tobacco use during pregnancy (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1; P = .02). Small for gestational age, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were not associated with prenatal cannabis use, independent of prenatal tobacco use. Our findings underscore the importance of screening for cannabis use during prenatal care and the need for provider counselling about the adverse health consequences of continued use during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  17. Pediatric marijuana exposures in a medical marijuana state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Roosevelt, Genie; Heard, Kennon

    2013-07-01

    An increasing number of states are decriminalizing the use of medical marijuana, and the effect on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the proportion of marijuana ingestions by young children who sought care at a children's hospital in Colorado before and after modification of drug enforcement laws in October 2009 regarding medical marijuana possession. Retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2011. Tertiary-care children's hospital emergency department in Colorado. A total of 1378 patients younger than 12 years evaluated for unintentional ingestions: 790 patients before September 30, 2009, and 588 patients after October 1, 2009. Marijuana ingestion. Marijuana exposure visits, marijuana source, symptoms, and patient disposition. The proportion of ingestion visits in patients younger than 12 years (age range, 8 months to 12 years)that were related to marijuana exposure increased after September 30, 2009, from 0 of 790 (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.6%) to 14 of 588 (2.4%; 95% CI, 1.4%-4.0%) (P marijuana, and 7 of these exposures were from food products. We found a new appearance of unintentional marijuana ingestions by young children after modification of drug enforcement laws for marijuana possession in Colorado. The consequences of unintentional marijuana exposure in children should be part of the ongoing debate on legalizing marijuana.

  18. Association of State Recreational Marijuana Laws With Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sarvet, Aaron; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Historical shifts are occurring in marijuana policy. The effect of legalizing marijuana for recreational use on rates of adolescent marijuana use is a topic of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and Colorado in 2012 and the subsequent perceived harmfulness and use of marijuana by adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We used data of 253 902 students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grades from 2010 to 2015 from Monitoring the Future, a national, annual, cross-sectional survey of students in secondary schools in the contiguous United States. Difference-indifference estimates compared changes in perceived harmfulness of marijuana use and in past-month marijuana use in Washington and Colorado prior to recreational marijuana legalization (2010–2012) with post legalization (2013–2015) vs the contemporaneous trends in other states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use in this period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally) and marijuana use (past 30 days). RESULTS Of the 253 902 participants, 120 590 of 245 065(49.2%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 15.6 (1.7) years. In Washington, perceived harmfulness declined 14.2%and 16.1% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, while marijuana use increased 2.0% and 4.1% from 2010–2012 to 2013–2015. In contrast, among states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use, perceived harmfulness decreased by 4.9% and 7.2%among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, and marijuana use decreased by 1.3%and 0.9%over the same period. Difference-in-difference estimates comparing Washington vs states that did not legalize recreational drug use indicated that these differences were significant for perceived harmfulness (eighth graders:%[SD], −9.3 [3.5]; P = .01; 10th graders:%[SD], −9.0 [3.8]; P = .02) and

  19. Perspectives on marijuana use and effectiveness: A survey of NARCOMS participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofield, Stacey S; Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Crowe, Christina; Cutter, Gary R; Fox, Robert J; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2017-08-01

    Interest in and use of marijuana by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) has increased. While potential benefits have been reported, so have concerns about potential risks. Few large studies have been conducted about the perceptions and current usage of marijuana and medical cannabinoids in persons with MS. Participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry were surveyed in 2014 regarding legality and history of marijuana usage, both before and after diagnosis with MS. A total of 5,481 participants responded, with 78.2% female, 90% relapsing disease at onset, and a current mean age of 55.5 (10.2) years. Sixty-four percent had tried marijuana prior to their MS diagnosis, 47% have considered using for their MS, 26% have used for their MS, 20% have spoken with their physician about use, and 16% are currently using marijuana. Ninety-one percent think marijuana should be legal in some form. Men, those with higher disability, current and past nicotine smokers, and younger age were associated with a higher likelihood of current use. The majority of responders favor legalization and report high interest in the use of marijuana for treatment of MS symptoms, but may be reluctant to discuss this with health care providers. Health care providers should systematically inquire about use of marijuana.

  20. Association of State Recreational Marijuana Laws With Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Keyes, Katherine M; Sarvet, Aaron; Schulenberg, John; O'Malley, Patrick M; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-02-01

    Historical shifts are occurring in marijuana policy. The effect of legalizing marijuana for recreational use on rates of adolescent marijuana use is a topic of considerable debate. To examine the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and Colorado in 2012 and the subsequent perceived harmfulness and use of marijuana by adolescents. We used data of 253 902 students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grades from 2010 to 2015 from Monitoring the Future, a national, annual, cross-sectional survey of students in secondary schools in the contiguous United States. Difference-in-difference estimates compared changes in perceived harmfulness of marijuana use and in past-month marijuana use in Washington and Colorado prior to recreational marijuana legalization (2010-2012) with postlegalization (2013-2015) vs the contemporaneous trends in other states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use in this period. Perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally) and marijuana use (past 30 days). Of the 253 902 participants, 120 590 of 245 065(49.2%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 15.6 (1.7) years. In Washington, perceived harmfulness declined 14.2% and 16.1% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, while marijuana use increased 2.0% and 4.1% from 2010-2012 to 2013-2015. In contrast, among states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use, perceived harmfulness decreased by 4.9% and 7.2% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, and marijuana use decreased by 1.3% and 0.9% over the same period. Difference-in-difference estimates comparing Washington vs states that did not legalize recreational drug use indicated that these differences were significant for perceived harmfulness (eighth graders: % [SD], -9.3 [3.5]; P = .01; 10th graders: % [SD], -9.0 [3.8]; P = .02) and marijuana use (eighth graders: % [SD], 5.0 [1.9]; P = .03; 10th graders

  1. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as cannabis (can-a-bis) is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. Despite marijuana’s legalization in many states, it may be harmful ...

  2. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  3. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kashyap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy.

  4. The Devil Is in the Details! On Regulating Cannabis Use in Canada Based on Public Health Criteria; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This commentary to the editorial of Hajizadeh argues that the economic, social and health consequences of legalizing cannabis in Canada will depend in large part on the exact stipulations (mainly from the federal government and on the implementation, regulation and practice of the legalization act (on provincial and municipal levels. A strict regulatory framework is necessary to minimize the health burden attributable to cannabis use. This includes prominently control of production and sale of the legal cannabis including control of price and content with ban of marketing and advertisement. Regulation of medical marijuana should be part of such a framework as well

  5. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects.

  6. Invited Commentary: The Association Between Marijuana Use and Male Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L

    2015-09-15

    Approximately 15% of all couples are unable to conceive after a year and are labeled infertile. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to lifestyle factors that may impact fertility. In the United States, it is estimated that there are more than 17 million current users of marijuana with 4.6 million using marijuana almost daily. Although common, to date, little data exist on the impact of marijuana use on male fertility. In the current issue of the Journal, Gundersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(6):473-481) provide data examining the relationship between marijuana use and semen quality from young men recruited out of the general Danish population. Men who reported daily marijuana use displayed significant lower sperm concentration and sperm counts compared with nonusers, while testosterone levels were higher. The current report provides important information for patients and providers regarding the negative association of marijuana use on semen quality. Although the benefit of marijuana cessation on recovery is uncertain, further study on the impact of marijuana use on male reproductive health is warranted as more states explore marijuana legalization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety perceptions than

  8. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety

  9. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated

  10. Medical marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THC is a cannabinoid that can affect the brain and change your mood or consciousness. Different varieties of marijuana contain different amounts of cannabinoids. This sometimes makes the effects of medical marijuana hard to predict or control. ...

  11. Medical marijuana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marmor, J B

    1998-01-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several...

  12. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  13. Exploring Marijuana Advertising on Weedmaps, a Popular Online Directory

    OpenAIRE

    Bierut, Tatiana; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the U.S., advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational marijuana retailers in Colorado and Washington were examined on Weedmaps. We studied the age verification practices made ...

  14. Medical marijuana laws, traffic fatalities, and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...

  15. Policy Reform with Marijuana Use: Weighing Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim Okere, Arinze

    2018-03-01

    With the current legalization of medical marijuana and the possibility of recreational use being permitted in some states, the health care benefits associated with the use of marijuana is questionable. States that are on the path of legalizing marijuana, should recognize that as there are perceived positive benefits, there are also many evidence-based negative health consequences which may result in negative economic and societal consequences. As more data on health outcomes regarding the use of marijuana continue to emerge, policies directed toward legalizing marijuana, whether medical or recreational, should consider protecting the society from both harm and societal cost.

  16. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  17. Profiles of Patients Who Use Marijuana for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Ann Marie; Long, Millie; Kappelman, Michael; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S

    2018-03-29

    Marijuana is legal in a number of states for indications that include inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and patients are interested in its potential benefits. We aimed to describe the legal use of marijuana in individuals with IBD in the USA who participate within the CCFA Partners internet-based cohort. A total of 2357 participants who lived in states where prescription or recreational marijuana was legal, were offered the opportunity to complete a survey on marijuana use and IBD symptoms including perceived benefits of therapy. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with marijuana use. Surveys were completed by 1666 participants (71%) with only 214 (12.8%) indicating they had asked their medical doctor about its use and 73 actually using prescribed marijuana (4.4%). Within the respondent group (N = 1666), 234 participants lived where both medical and recreational marijuana is legal and 49 (20.9%) reported recreational marijuana use specifically for IBD. Users reported positive benefits (80.7%), but users also reported more depression, anxiety, pain interference, and lower social satisfaction than non-users. Those prescribed marijuana reported more active disease, and more use of steroids, narcotics, and zolpidem. Few IBD patients consulted their medical doctors about marijuana use or used prescription marijuana. Where recreational marijuana was available, usage rates were higher. Users reported benefits but also more IBD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and pain. Marijuana use may be higher in patients with IBD symptoms not well treated by conventional medical approaches.

  18. Marijuana Use Among 10th Grade Students - Washington, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anar; Stahre, Mandy

    2016-12-30

    Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998. To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and behaviors of current marijuana users among 10th grade students, the Washington State Department of Health analyzed data from the state's 2014 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) regarding current marijuana use. In 2014, 18.1% of 10th grade students (usually aged 15-16 years) reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days; of these students, 32% reported using it on ≥10 days. Among the marijuana users, 65% reported obtaining marijuana through their peer networks, which included friends, older siblings, or at a party. Identification of comprehensive and sustainable public health interventions are needed to prevent and reduce youth marijuana use. Establishment of state and jurisdiction surveillance of youth marijuana use could be useful to anticipate and monitor the effects of legalization and track trends in use before states consider legalizing recreational or retail marijuana.

  19. Marijuana and acute health care contacts in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Hall, Katelyn; Vigil, Daniel; Banerji, Shireen; Monte, Andrew; VanDyke, Mike

    2017-11-01

    Over 22 million Americans are current users of marijuana; half of US states allow medical marijuana, and several allow recreational marijuana. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact marijuana has on hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and regional poison center (RPC) calls in Colorado, a medical and recreational marijuana state. This is a retrospective review using Colorado Hospital Association hospitalizations and ED visits with marijuana-related billing codes, and RPC marijuana exposure calls. Legalization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with an increase in hospitalizations, ED visits, and RPC calls linked with marijuana exposure. From 2000 to 2015, hospitalization rates with marijuana-related billing codes increased from 274 to 593 per 100,000 hospitalizations in 2015. Overall, the prevalence of mental illness among ED visits with marijuana-related codes was five-fold higher (5.07, 95% CI: 5.0, 5.1) than the prevalence of mental illness without marijuana-related codes. RPC calls remained constant from 2000 through 2009. However, in 2010, after local medical marijuana policy liberalization, the number of marijuana exposure calls significantly increased from 42 to 93; in 2014, after recreational legalization, calls significantly increased by 79.7%, from 123 to 221 (pmarijuana legalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-sectional data on alcohol and marijuana use and sexual behavior among male and female secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Villar, Maria Elena; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-05-01

    While The Bahamas have significantly reduced poor reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and emerging adults, data indicate that youth are engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Substance use has been linked to increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in other contexts. There are limited data on Bahamian youth in relation to consumption of alcohol and marijuana use and engagement in sexual behaviors. This study aimed to assess potential relationships between alcohol and marijuana use and engagement in sexual behavior among government secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas. Total sample size was 2572, and about 56% of respondents were female. Mean age was 14.2 (SD 2.7 years). Cross-sectional data came from a baseline survey conducted as part of a longitudinal randomized controlled evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention and reproductive health program in New Providence. Overall, 46.5% (519) males and 44.8% (652) females reported alcohol consumption; 7.3% (82) males and 1.7% (25) females reported use of marijuana in the last 6 months. About 43% (477) male respondents and 16% (231) female respondents reported ever having vaginal sex. Logistic regression analysis indicates that increased likelihood of engaging in sex during the past 6 months is associated with being older, male, and consuming alcohol and marijuana. These data provide a 'global correlation' between substance use and engagement in sexual behaviors among Bahamian adolescents. Longitudinal research is needed to assess event specific risks and identify mediating and moderating factors. These findings indicate the importance of integrating reproductive health and substance use education.

  1. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena.

  2. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Orr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  4. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisha Kelly Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders; drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included medical marijuana with a subheading for adverse effect. Only articles in adult patients were considered. In addition, medical marijuana or cannabis plus one of the following search terms were searched: drug interactions, herb-drug interactions, drug-related side effects and adverse drug reactions, substance-related disorders, addiction, and abuse. A free-text search was also conducted to identify articles not included in the MeSH term search. A bibliographic search was also conducted. Articles were included if they addressed adverse effects of medical marijuana for the treatment of a condition. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled clinical trials, and case reports were included in the review if the primary focus of the article related to the adverse effect profile of inhaled medical marijuana. Medical marijuana efficacy studies were not assessed. In the absence of this information, case reports or reports of inhaled recreational marijuana use was used. Studies were excluded if published in languages other than English. In addition, studies highlighting mechanisms of action, studies of pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic effects were excluded, unless these effects were due to drug-drug interactions. Prescription products containing marijuana or derivatives were excluded from evaluation. An Internet search was conducted to locate the most up-to-date information on the laws concerning medical marijuana. Key findings: A PubMed search revealed 58 articles and 28 of

  5. Still on physicians' attitude to medical marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Olukayode Abayomi; Emmanuel Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescrip...

  6. Location, location, location: Assessing the spatial patterning between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets and neighborhood characteristics within Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Loni Philip; Fillmore, Christina; Melly, Steven

    2018-04-01

    The availability of marijuana products is becoming increasingly prevalent across the United States (US), many states are allowing for the production, processing, and retailing of these products for medical and/or recreational use. The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the spatial patterning of marijuana licenses, and (2) examine the impact of alcohol outlets in addition to other neighborhood characteristics on marijuana licenses within the state of Washington. This cross-sectional observational study examined 1458 census tracts in Washington state from 2017, using marijuana and alcohol data from the Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board as well as neighborhood characteristics data from the American Community Survey 2011-2015 5-year estimates. We used exploratory and formal spatial regression methods, including integrated nested Laplace approximation within a Bayesian statistical framework, to address the study aims. Our results indicate there is significant spatial patterning of marijuana producers and processors across the state. We also found that all marijuana licenses are located in poorer census tracts, and marijuana retailers are co-located in census tracts with off-premises alcohol outlets. Our study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets, and neighborhood characteristics, and has important implications for policymakers in other states currently considering legalizing marijuana-products for medical and/or recreational use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan

    2017-04-01

    Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997-2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=0.008) and 13% (p=0.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Twenty-eight states in the U.S. have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. Methods State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997–2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1,000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Results Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=.008) and 13% (p=.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR- related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Conclusion Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. PMID:28259087

  9. Essays on the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Over half of the US states have adopted "medical marijuana" laws (MMLs), and 58% of Americans now favor marijuana legalization. Despite public support, federal law continues to prohibit the use and sale of marijuana due to public health concerns of increased dependence and abuse, youth access, and drugged driving. These essays contribute toward understanding the likely health consequences of marijuana liberalization using evidence from MMLs.Chapter 1 -- Growing Like Weed: Explaining Variation...

  10. Marijuana Use and Organ Transplantation: a Review and Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Harinder Singh; Winder, Gerald Scott

    2017-10-27

    Physicians of all disciplines must rapidly adjust their clinical practices following the expansion of marijuana legalization across the country. Organ transplantation teams are uniquely struggling in this gray zone with eight states having passed laws explicitly banning the denial of transplant listing based on a patient's use of medical marijuana. In this review, we examine the clinical evidence of marijuana use in transplant patients to enable psychiatric providers to meaningfully contribute to the relevant medical and psychiatric aspects of this issue in a unique patient population. There is no consensus among experts regarding marijuana use in transplantation patients. There are extant case reports of post-transplant complications attributed to marijuana use including membranous glomerulonephritis, ventricular tachycardia, and tacrolimus toxicity. However, recent studies suggest that the overall survival rates in kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplant patients using marijuana are equivalent to non-users. Transplant teams should not de facto exclude marijuana users from transplant listing but instead holistically evaluate a patient's candidacy, integrating meaningful medical, psychiatric, and social variables into the complex decision-making process. Psychiatric providers can play a key role in this process. Appropriate stewardship over donor organs, a limited and precious resource, will require a balance of high-clinical standards with inclusive efforts to treat as many patients as possible.

  11. Consumers' Perceptions of Edible Marijuana Products for Recreational Use: Likes, Dislikes, and Reasons for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine M; Rains, Carrie; Cates, Sheryl C

    2018-03-21

    Edible marijuana products have become extremely popular in states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use. The goal of this research was to provide a better understanding of consumer perceptions of edible marijuana products, including why they prefer edibles relative to other forms of marijuana (e.g., smoking) and their concerns regarding the consumption of edibles. We conducted eight focus groups (four groups in Denver, Colorado, and four groups in Seattle, Washington) in February 2016 with 62 adult consumers of edibles. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NVivo 10.0 qualitative analysis software, and coding reports identified trends across participants. Most participants preferred edibles to smoking marijuana because there is no smell from smoke and no secondhand smoke. Other reasons participants like edibles included convenience, discreetness, longer-lasting highs, less intense highs, and edibles' ability to aid in relaxation and reduce anxiety more so than smoking marijuana. Concerns and dislikes about edibles included delayed effects, unexpected highs, the unpredictability of the high, and inconsistency of distribution of marijuana in the product. No participants in either location mentioned harmful health effects from consuming edibles as a concern. Conclusions/Importance: The present study was qualitative in nature and provides a good starting point for further research to quantify through surveys how consumers understand and use edibles. Such information will help guide policy makers and regulators as they establish regulations for edibles. Also, such research can help inform educational campaigns on proper use of edibles for recreational purposes.

  12. Medical Marijuana in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments. PMID:25951421

  13. AIDS: responding to the crisis. Legal implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadzielski, M A

    1986-05-01

    In the future, health care providers will not be able to avoid the legal problems that the AIDS epidemic presents. They can find guidance in the long-standing legal principles of privacy and confidentiality and of fair employment. Many laws contain confidentiality principles that focus on the right of patients to determine who has access to their confidential health care information. Dissemination of such information to those who have no legal or rational requirement to know it may result in the provider's criminal and/or civil liability. The HTLV-III blood test brings additional pressures to bear on patients' and employees' confidentiality rights. Since the test indicates only that the subject has been infected by the virus--not whether the person has or will develop AIDS--widespread mandatory screening is inadvisable because it could lead to unjustified discrimination. Under principles of handicap-discrimination law, health care providers may not terminate or discriminate against an employee with HTLV-III infection unless the employee cannot perform the job or poses a danger to the health and safety of himself or others. An employee who refuses to treat AIDS patients may be lawfully disciplined. Under health and safety laws, however, employers who discipline employees for wearing extra protective gear risk liability.

  14. Colorado Medical Students' Attitudes and Beliefs About Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael H; Knoepke, Christopher E; Cole, Madeline L; McKinnon, James; Matlock, Daniel D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past two decades, state and local governments across the U.S. have been increasingly reforming marijuana laws. Despite growing support for marijuana as a medical treatment, little is known about medical students' perceptions of marijuana use. To assess Colorado medical students' personal and professional opinions on current and future marijuana use in a healthcare setting. A voluntary, anonymous, online cross-sectional survey. Medical students (n = 624) at the University of Colorado School of Medicine between January and February 2014 were invited to participate. Numerical responses were quantified using counts and percentages, and Likert scale responses were collapsed for bivariate analysis. Items were gathered thematically and additively scored for each subscale. Internal consistency reliability statistics were calculated for each subscale to ensure that items were assessing similar constructs. Unadjusted t tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to calculate mean differences in subscale scores between subgroups. We received 236 responses (37%). Students indicated support for marijuana legalization (64%), and few believed that physicians should be penalized for recommending marijuana to patients (6%). Nearly all (97%) believed that further marijuana research should be conducted, and believed marijuana could play a role in the treatment of various medical conditions. Seventy-seven percent reported that they believed marijuana use had the potential for psychological harm, and 68% indicated concern for potential physical harm. Only a minority of students would recommend marijuana to a patient under current law (29%), or if it were legally available (45%). Acceptability of marijuana for treatment of approved conditions was not correlated with age or gender, but was positively correlated with living in Colorado prior to medical school (p < 0.001) and with prior marijuana use (p < 0.001). Medical students support marijuana legal

  15. The power of the proposition: frequency of marijuana offers, parental knowledge, and adolescent marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jason T; Tan, Cara N; Navarro, Mario A; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D

    2015-03-01

    The frequency with which adolescents are offered marijuana has been investigated as a predictor of marijuana use. The current study was designed to test whether the number of marijuana offers received provides an indirect path between parental knowledge and adolescents' marijuana use. Data from the nationally representative National Survey of Parents and Youth were examined. Analysis 1 tested the association between frequency of being offered marijuana and adolescents' (N=4264) marijuana usage in the subsequent year. Analysis 2, spanning a three-year time frame, tested whether the frequency of marijuana offers at the second year of the panel study bridged the relationship between parental knowledge in Year 1 and marijuana use in Year 3. Analysis 1 indicated that the frequency with which adolescents were offered marijuana predicted usage one year later, after controlling for previous usage and nine other common predictors of marijuana use. Analysis 2 revealed an indirect relationship between parental knowledge and use through the number of marijuana offers the adolescent received. There was a strong link between the number of offers received and adolescents' future marijuana use. Higher parental knowledge predicted reductions in offer frequency, which was associated with lower levels of marijuana use. Reducing the number of marijuana offers an adolescent receives could serve as a useful focus for intervention programs targeting parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Use of Medical Marijuana in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Shauna M; Birdsall, Timothy C; Tims, Lucas A

    2016-07-01

    The use of medical marijuana in cancer care presents a dilemma for both patients and physicians. The scientific evidence is evolving, yet much of the known information is still insufficient to adequately inform patients as to risks and benefits. In addition, evidence-based dosing and administration information on medical marijuana is lacking. Medical marijuana is now legal, on some level, in 24 states plus the District of Columbia, yet is not legal on the federal level. This review addresses the current state of the research, including potential indications, risks and adverse effects, preliminary data on anticancer effects, as well as legal and quality issues. A summary of the clinical trials underway on medical marijuana in the oncology setting is discussed.

  17. Operating a motor vehicle after marijuana use: Perspectives from people who use high-potency marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Zewdie, Kidist; Bierut, Laura

    2018-01-02

    With advancing marijuana legalization in the United States, a primary concern is the possible increase in consequences relating to marijuana driving impairment, especially among people who use high-potency marijuana (i.e., extracts). In this study, the research team assessed the risk perception and experiences of driving under the influence of marijuana by investigating people who use extracts. Participants from 2 studies were queried about driving after using marijuana. In Study 1, phone interviews (n = 19) were conducted with people who use extracts. In Study 2, people who use extracts (n = 174) were recruited to participate in a nationwide survey via an online existing panel. Responses to marijuana and driving-related questions were qualitatively coded for themes (e.g., riskiness, engagement in behavior) developed by the research team. Prominent themes identified in Study 1 suggested a belief that driving risk following marijuana use is dependent on the individual (i.e., response/tolerance) or the amount/type of marijuana consumed. This theme was corroborated by Study 2 participants. Those who perceived no or minimal risk from driving following marijuana use were more likely to report engagement in driving following extracts use. More research is needed to understand how marijuana, especially in its concentrated form, impacts driving ability in order to develop appropriate and scientifically sound regulations. Such research could subsequently fill the need to improve and more widely disseminate prevention messages on marijuana use and driving risks.

  18. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  19. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  20. Social Responsibility and the State's Duty to provide Healthcare: An Islamic Ethico-Legal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I

    2017-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes. In this essay I reflect on a state's moral obligation to provide healthcare from the perspective of Islamic moral theology and law. I examine how Islamic ethico-legal conceptual analogues for human rights and communal responsibility, ḥuqūq al-'ibād and farḍ al-kifāyah and other related constructs might be used to advance a moral argument for healthcare provision by the state. Moving from theory to application, I next illustrate how notions of human rights and social responsibility were used by Muslim stakeholders to buttress moral arguments to support American healthcare reform. In this way, the paper advance discourses on a universal bioethics and common morality by bringing into view the concordances and discordances between Islamic ethico-legal constructs and moral arguments advanced by transnational health policy advocates. It also provides insight into applied Islamic bioethics by demonstrating how Islamic ethico-legal values might inform the discursive outputs of Muslim organizations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights.

  2. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  3. Becoming a medical marijuana user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Kioumarsi, Avat; Reed, Megan; McNeeley, Miles; Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F

    2018-02-01

    Since marijuana became legal for medical use in California in 1996, reasons for medical use among medical marijuana patients (MMP) have become increasingly well described in qualitative studies. However, few studies have detailed how the use of marijuana for medical purposes fits into the broader career trajectories of either becoming a marijuana user or becoming a MMP, including the social influences on medical use. Young adult MMP (N=40) aged 18 to 26 years old were recruited in Los Angeles, CA in 2014-15 and administered a semi-structured interview that included questions focusing on marijuana use practices before and after becoming MMP. MMP were categorized into three trajectory groups: primarily medical users (n=30); primarily non-medical users (n=3); and medical users who transitioned to non-medical users (n=7). Most medical users discovered medicinal effects from marijuana in the context of non-medical use as adolescents prior to becoming MMP. Becoming a mature MMP followed interactions with dispensary staff or further self-exploration of medical uses and often involved a social process that helped confirm the legitimacy of medical use and identity as a medical user. In some cases, MMP transitioned back to non-medical users as health conditions improved or remained primarily non-medical users even after becoming MMP for reasons unrelated to health, e.g., protection against arrest. Becoming a medical marijuana user was an important career trajectory that was influenced by early discoveries of effective medicinal use, interaction with proponents of medical use at dispensaries, experiences with new kinds of medical use, and the demands of particular health condition requiring more or less treatment with marijuana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cannabis and adolescents: Exploring the substance misuse treatment provider experience in a climate of legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobesky, Matthew; Gorgens, Kim

    2016-07-01

    Understanding consumer attitudes toward drugs is vital for the design and implementation of effective substance misuse prevention and treatment programs. Research that enhances our understanding of these perceptions is of the utmost importance in the climate of cannabis legalization. While there is a body of literature focused on the perceptions of drug use among adolescents, less attention has been paid to the experiences of health care professionals who serve this vulnerable population. Research aimed at better understanding the experiences of professionals may improve cannabis misuse prevention efforts and inform policy decisions as cannabis moves closer to legalization nationwide. The present study applied a grounded theory qualitative methodology to interview 11 adolescent substance misuse treatment providers. Each participant had at least two years of clinical practice in Colorado before January 1, 2014, when cannabis became available for recreational sale. Extensive analysis of data obtained from participant interviews, yielded seven core concepts related to cannabis use and decriminalization: normalizing, increasing access, rising addiction potential, link to opioids and other drugs, complicating substance treatment, diversity issues, and responding to change. According to participants, legalization has contributed to the continuing normalization of cannabis, validation of its consumption, and greater access to a host of new and more potent THC products by adolescents. Providers attributed these attitudinal changes to heavier use of both cannabis and other drugs and increased resistance to treatment efforts and interventions. These results support the need to expand access to a wider range of substance misuse treatment options for adolescents and to further our understanding of the impact on this population of the cannabis laws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Unintentional Pediatric Exposures to Marijuana in Colorado, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Deakyne, Sara J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Bajaj, Lalit; Roosevelt, Genie

    2016-09-06

    As of 2015, almost half of US states allow medical marijuana, and 4 states allow recreational marijuana. To our knowledge, the effect of recreational marijuana on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the incidence of pediatric marijuana exposures evaluated at a children's hospital and regional poison center (RPC) in Colorado before and after recreational marijuana legalization and to compare population rate trends of RPC cases for marijuana exposures with the rest of the United States. Retrospective cohort study of hospital admissions and RPC cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, at Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, a tertiary care children's hospital. Participants included patients 0 to 9 years of age evaluated at the hospital's emergency department, urgent care centers, or inpatient unit and RPC cases from Colorado for single-substance marijuana exposures. Marijuana. Marijuana exposure visits and RPC cases, marijuana source and type, clinical effects, scenarios, disposition, and length of stay. Eighty-one patients were evaluated at the children's hospital, and Colorado's RPC received 163 marijuana exposure cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, for children younger than 10 years of age. The median age of children's hospital visits was 2.4 years (IQR, 1.4-3.4); 25 were girls (40%) . The median age of RPC marijuana exposures was 2 years (IQR, 1.3-4.0), and 85 patients were girls (52%). The mean rate of marijuana-related visits to the children's hospital increased from 1.2 per 100 000 population 2 years prior to legalization to 2.3 per 100,000 population 2 years after legalization (P = .02). Known marijuana products involved in the exposure included 30 infused edibles (48%). Median length of stay was 11 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 6-19) and 26 hours (IQR, 19-38) for admitted patients. Annual RPC pediatric marijuana cases increased more than 5-fold from 2009 (9) to 2015 (47). Colorado had an

  6. 78 FR 38954 - Amended Order Designating the Provider of Legal Entity Identifiers to Be Used in Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Amended Order Designating the Provider of Legal Entity Identifiers to Be Used in Recordkeeping and Swap Data Reporting Pursuant to the Commission's Regulations... regulators, the list of Legal Entity Identifiers (LEIs) that can be used by registered entities and swap...

  7. The new transnational payments law and global consumer trade : Online platforms as providers of private legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This article uses the example of one of the best-known global payment systems provided by an online platform, PayPal, to analyze the role of private legal orders in creating new markets beyond jurisdictional borders. It shows that a relatively uniform legal order reduces risks involved in

  8. Marijuana Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  9. Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onders, Bridget; Casavant, Marcel J; Spiller, Henry A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates marijuana exposures among children marijuana exposures among children marijuana exposure was significantly (2.82 times) higher in states where its use was legalized prior to 2000 compared with states where its use is not legal. Because more states are likely to pass legislation legalizing medical and recreational use of marijuana, increased efforts to establish child-focused safety requirements regarding packaging of commercially sold marijuana products are needed to help prevent more children from being exposed to this schedule I substance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Legal and institutional implications of providing financial incentives to encourage the development of solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, R. J.

    1979-07-01

    The legal basis to provide financial incentives is found in the enumerated powers of the Constitution for the exercise of federal authority, the police and tax powers for the exercise of state authority, and state delegated powers for the exercise of local authority. These powers are limited by the federal and state constitutions, and the scope of delegated authority. The major types of financial incentives are tax incentives, including income tax deductions and credits, accelerated depreciation allowances, tax-exempt bonds, and reduction in property and sales taxes; loan incentives, including low interest loans, government guaranteed and insured loans, and elimination of statutory and secondary market constraints; and government transfer incentives, including grants in aid from all levels of government. Other incentives that will indirectly affect the financing and availability of solar energy technologies include eliminating or reducing financial incentives benefiting competitive energy sources, government action to insure the operation of solar energy equipment, government-sponsored education, research, and development programs, government demonstration and procurement programs, and placing priority on rapid passage of solar energy legislation dealing with financial incentives. In most cases, a financial incentives program constituting one or more of these incentives will probably not confront any major, unique, legal or institutional impediments. The minor impediments that do exist can usually be eliminated by preventive legislation.

  11. Medical Marijuana Use in Oncology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Gianna; Sakr, Bachir; Rizack, Tina

    2016-03-17

    Medicinal marijuana use is currently legal in 23 states and the District of Columbia. As more states approve marijuana use for medical indications, physicians will be asked by their patients for more information regarding the risks and benefits of use. This article reviews the history, adverse effects, and proposed mechanisms of action of marijuana and summarizes the available literature regarding symptom relief and therapeutic value in patients with cancer. Marijuana in oncology may have potential for use as an antiemetic, for refractory cancer pain, and as an antitumor agent. However, much of the data are based on animal data, small trials, or are outdated. More research is needed in all areas related to the therapeutic use of marijuana in oncology.

  12. The availability of medical marijuana dispensary and adolescent marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association between medical marijuana dispensary (MMD) availability and adolescent marijuana use. The study sample was comprised of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders (N=14,953) from 141 schools in the 2014 Monitoring the Future study, who resided in the 18 states that had legalized medical marijuana as of January 1, 2014. Multilevel logistic regressions with random effects were conducted to quantify the cross-sectional associations of the availability of MMD within 5- and 25-mile buffers from the centroid of school zip codes with self-reported recent use (past-year) and current use (past-month) of marijuana, controlling for individual characteristics and school, zip code, and state contextual factors. In the combined sample, the availability of MMD was not associated with recent or current use of marijuana. Subsample analyses suggested that the availability within a 5-mile buffer was associated with a higher likelihood of recent use in 8th graders (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.11-3.33) and the availability within a 5- to 25-mile buffer was associated with a higher likelihood of recent use in 10th graders (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.00-1.77). The availability of MMD was not associated with recent use in 12th graders or current use in any grades. The availability of MMD was not associated with current use of marijuana among adolescents. There was some evidence suggesting that the availability of MMD within short to medium traveling distance may be associated with a higher level of recent use in middle schoolers who are also at a high risk of experimenting with marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confidencial Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...

  14. Research Reports: Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director Photo ... May 2, 2018. press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  15. Marijuana: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » Marijuana: Facts for Teens » Letter to Teens Marijuana: Facts for Teens Email Facebook Twitter Letter to ... they once were. Did you know that teen marijuana use has dropped dramatically since the late 1990s? ...

  16. Contemporary Policies Regarding Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Liver Transplant Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaming; Chen, Ping-Yu; Frankel, Marla; Selby, Robert Rick; Fong, Tse-Ling

    2018-03-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a common indication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although OLT has been shown to confer survival benefit to patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), historically most programs require a 6-month abstinence period before OLT which excludes patients with AAH. Marijuana has become legal in more than half the states in the United States. This survey of liver transplant programs was conducted to evaluate current policies regarding alcohol, marijuana and methadone use. A questionnaire was distributed to 100 United Network for Organ Sharing-approved liver transplant programs in North America that have performed at least 30 liver transplants/year in the last 5 years. Forty-nine programs responded. Only 43% of the programs required a specific period of abstinence before transplant for alcoholic liver disease and only 26% enforced 6-month abstinence policy. For patients with AAH, 71% programs waived the 6-month abstinence requirement and considered psychosocial factors, such as family support, patient's motivation, or commitment to rehabilitate. Few programs used validated instruments to assess risk of relapse in AAH patients. Fourteen percent of programs transplant patients actively using marijuana and an additional 28% of programs listed patients using marijuana provided they discontinue by the time of OLT. Active methadone users were accepted in 45% of the programs. Policies regarding alcohol use have become more flexible particularly toward patients with AAH. Marijuana use is also more accepted. Although policies regarding alcohol and marijuana have changed significantly in the last decade, they remain highly variable among programs.

  17. Marijuana use and associated motives in Colorado university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Phillips, Michael M; Schneider, Maryia M

    2017-12-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students, with heavy use leading to negative outcomes. Use of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes in select U.S. states has been controversial, with concerns surrounding increased prevalence rates and harm. The current exploratory study aimed to assess marijuana use in college students in Colorado, demographic differences in frequency of use, and motives for using. College students (N = 300; 61% female) were recruited through introductory psychology courses and completed a series of questionnaires and a marijuana urine screen. Almost three-fourths of the sample reported lifetime use of marijuana. Sixty-five percent used marijuana within the last year and 29% tested positive on the urine screen. Hurdle Poisson regression models with a subset of participants (n = 117) showed non-Greek and freshman status were associated with increased number of days participants used marijuana in the last month. Problem marijuana use was positively associated with a range of motives-of note-motives focused on coping, boredom, alcohol, and food. Prevalence rates of marijuana use were high in this sample of college students in a state with legal recreational marijuana use. Particular students (eg, students who use marijuana to cope) may be at higher risk for problem marijuana use. Developing effective, tailored interventions for university students is warranted. (Am J Addict 2017;26:830-837). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. The Impact of Recreational Marijuana Legislation in Washington, DC on Marijuana Use Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paige; Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle L

    2018-04-13

    There is little published research that tests the effect of recreational marijuana legislation on risk-related cognitions and how individuals respond immediately after legislative approval. The objective was to test whether learning about the passage of Initiative 71, a voter referendum that legalized recreational use of marijuana in the District of Columbia, would lead individuals to adopt more favorable marijuana cognitions than they had before the Initiative was passed. Undergraduate students (N = 402) completed two web-based questionnaires in 2014. The first questionnaire was completed prior to the referendum vote and the follow-up questionnaire was completed after voters approved Initiative 71. Attitudes, perceived norms, intentions, prototypes, and willingness were measured at time 1 and time 2. Study hypotheses were tested using repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results showed that attitudes, intentions, perceived norms, and willingness to use marijuana were more favorable after Initiative 71 was passed. However, the increase in attitudes and willingness was moderated by past experience with marijuana whereby the increases were statistically significant only among those with the least experience. The increase in perceived norms was also moderated by past experience whereby increases were statistically significant among those who were moderate or heavy users. The passage of Initiative 71 had no effect on favorable prototypes. Conclusion/Importance: Legalization may have the unintended outcome of leading to more favorable intentions to use marijuana and might lead abstainers or experimental users to become more frequent users of marijuana via more positive attitudes and willingness towards marijuana use.

  19. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  20. Exposure to and Content of Marijuana Product Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Murphy, Gabrielle M; Bierut, Laura J

    2018-02-01

    Many individuals now seek out product reviews in order to make an informed decision prior to making a purchase. In this study, we investigate consumers' exposure to and content within product reviews about marijuana because of their potential to shape marijuana purchasing decisions. The terms "weed review," "marijuana review," and "cannabis review" were searched on YouTube on June 10-11, 2015; the team viewed and coded the content of 83 product review videos about marijuana. In addition, we surveyed young adult (18-34 years old) current (past month) marijuana users (n = 742) from across the USA online to assess exposure to product reviews about marijuana and associations with socio-demographic characteristics and marijuana use behaviors. In our content analysis of videos, we observed that the reviewers tended to consume marijuana during the video and often shared personal, favorable experiences towards the marijuana they ingested (e.g., became as high as possible or experienced positive effects on physical and mental health). Most videos normalized marijuana use and could be easily accessed by underage youth. About one third (34%) of the survey participants viewed/sought a product review about marijuana in the past 30 days. In a multivariable logistic regression model, living in a state where recreational use is legal or using multiple forms of marijuana was associated with increased odds of viewing/seeking marijuana reviews. Prevention messages should counter product reviews about marijuana that tend to normalize and promote marijuana use given that they are more readily viewed by individuals who are increasingly susceptible to marijuana's potential harms.

  1. "Is Marijuana Even a Drug?" A Qualitative Study of How Teens View Marijuana Use and Why They Use It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how youth in the San Francisco Bay Area perceive marijuana and their motives for using or not using marijuana. Current regular users were more likely to perceive marijuana smoking as an enjoyable activity, comparable to a hobby or sport. Current occasional users commonly reported smoking marijuana when it was offered to them, on special occasions, and sometimes as a result of not wanting to be left out. Most former regular users reported quitting marijuana use due to getting into trouble, being ordered into drug treatment and/or being drug tested. Former occasional users mostly reported that they did not like the somatic effects of marijuana and did not feel it enhanced their social interactions or activities. Teens who reported never having used marijuana did so out of concerns for their health. Except for never-users, marijuana was seen as safe to use. Teens mentioned the widespread use of marijuana by people they know and legalization for medical and recreational use as evidence that marijuana is not harmful. The findings suggest that normalization of marijuana use is taking place. Differences in motives for and against marijuana use should be taken into consideration when designing interventions and prevention messages.

  2. Surveying Lactation Professionals Regarding Marijuana Use and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeria, Cecilia L.; Heil, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is associated with substantial benefits for both the child and mother. Most guidelines state that women who use illicit drugs should not breastfeed. Although this recommendation has traditionally included marijuana, this drug's changing legal status and the limited scientific research regarding marijuana's effect on breastfeeding and the nursing child may lead to varying recommendations made by lactation professionals to clients who use marijuana. Additionally, to ou...

  3. The Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana Scale: Further examination using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Huang, Wenjing; Dvorak, Robert D; Prince, Mark A; Hummer, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States. We sought to develop a psychometrically sound item bank for the PBSM and to create a short assessment form that minimizes respondent burden and time. Quantitative item analyses, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with item response theory (IRT) and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), revealed an item bank of 36 items that was examined for unidimensionality and good content coverage, as well as a short form of 17 items that is free of bias in terms of gender (men vs. women), race (White vs. non-White), ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), and recreational marijuana use legal status (state recreational marijuana was legal for 25.5% of participants). We also provide a scoring table for easy transformation from sum scores to IRT scale scores. The PBSM item bank and short form associated strongly and negatively with past month marijuana use and consequences. The measure may be useful to researchers and clinicians conducting intervention and prevention programs with young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertlake PT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul T Wertlake, Michael D Henson Pacific Toxicology Laboratories, Chatsworth, CA, USA Abstract: Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. Keywords: laboratory test, assay, medical management 

  5. Medical marijuana laws and suicides by gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark; Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides. We obtained state-level suicide data from the National Vital Statistics System's Mortality Detail Files for 1990-2007. We used regression analysis to examine the association between medical marijuana legalization and suicides per 100 000 population. After adjustment for economic conditions, state policies, and state-specific linear time trends, the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides was not statistically significant at the .05 level. However, legalization was associated with a 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -17.1%, -3.7%) and 9.4% (95% CI = -16.1%, -2.4%) reduction in the suicide rate of men aged 20 through 29 years and 30 through 39 years, respectively. Estimates for females were less precise and sensitive to model specification. Suicides among men aged 20 through 39 years fell after medical marijuana legalization compared with those in states that did not legalize. The negative relationship between legalization and suicides among young men is consistent with the hypothesis that marijuana can be used to cope with stressful life events. However, this relationship may be explained by alcohol consumption. The mechanism through which legalizing medical marijuana reduces suicides among young men remains a topic for future study.

  6. Medical-legal partnerships: the role of mental health providers and legal authorities in the development of a coordinated approach to supporting mental health clients' legal needs in regional and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Christopher A; Parsons, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Medical-legal partnerships (MLP) are a model in which medical and legal practitioners are co-located and work together to support the health and wellbeing of individuals by identifying and resolving legal issues that impact patients' health and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to analyse the benefits of this model, which has proliferated in the USA, and its applicability in the context of rural and remote Australia. This review was undertaken with three research questions in mind: What is an MLP? Is service provision for individuals with mental health concerns being adequately addressed by current service models particularly in the rural context? Are MLPs a service delivery channel that would benefit individuals experiencing mental health issues? The combined searches from all EBSCO Host databases resulted in 462 citations. This search aggregated academic journals, newspapers, book reviews, magazines and trade publications. After several reviews 38 papers were selected for the final review based on their relevance to this review question: How do MLPs support mental health providers and legal service providers in the development of a coordinated approach to supporting mental health clients' legal needs in regional and rural Australia? There is considerable merit in pursuing the development of MLPs in rural and remote Australia particularly as individuals living in rural and remote areas have far fewer opportunities to access support services than those people living in regional and metropolitan locations. MLPS are important channels of service delivery to assist in early invention of legal problems that can exacerbate mental health problems.

  7. Predictors of Recent Marijuana Use and Past Year Marijuana Use Among a National Sample of Hispanic Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L; Bartsch, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use rates remain higher among Hispanic youth compared to youth from other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study was to examine if sex, age, authoritarian parenting, perceived school experiences, lifetime depression, legal involvement, and perceived social norms of marijuana use predicted recent marijuana use and past year marijuana use among Hispanic youth. The participants of this study were a nationwide sample of Hispanic youth (n = 3,457) in the United States. A secondary data analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed. Unadjusted odds ratios were computed via univariate logistic regression analyses and all statistically significant variables were retained and included in the final multiple logistic regression analyses. Recent marijuana use was operationally defined as use within the past 30 days, and marijuana use in the past year was defined as use within the past year. Results indicated that 7.5% of Hispanic youth used within the past month and 14.5% of Hispanic youth used within the past year. Results revealed that significant predictors for recent use were age, authoritarian parenting, perceived school experiences, legal involvement, and perceived social norms of youth marijuana use. Predictors for past year were age, perceived school experiences, legal involvement, and perceived social norms of youth marijuana use. Findings from this study can be used to address the public health problem of marijuana use among Hispanic youth that is ultimately contributing to health disparities among this ethnic group nationwide. Recommendations for future studies are included.

  8. Psychiatrists' attitude to medical use of marijuana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medical use of marijuana has been on the forefront of public debates in many developed countries. Despite increasing evidence of marijuana's addictive propensity and its potential for causing and worsening psychotic illness in predisposed individuals, public opinion continue to fuel efforts to legalize the medical use of ...

  9. Exploring Marijuana Advertising on Weedmaps, a Popular Online Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierut, Tatiana; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the U.S., advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational marijuana retailers in Colorado and Washington were examined on Weedmaps. We studied the age verification practices made in retailers’ own websites, the presence of health claims they made about marijuana on Weedmaps, and the characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on social media sites. Many retailers had no security measure to determine age (41% in Colorado, 35% in Washington). Approximately 61% of retailers in Colorado and 44% in Washington made health claims about the benefits of marijuana, including anxiety reduction, treatment of depression, insomnia, and pain/inflammation. Inferred demographic characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on Twitter and Instagram revealed that over 60% were male and nearly 70% or more were age 20–29 years old, yet some (15%–18%) were under the age of 20. Our findings indicate that marijuana retailers have a visible presence on the Internet. Potential customers might be enticed by retailers who tout health claims about marijuana use. It may also be appealing for a younger demographic to overlook age restrictions and engage with marijuana retailers via social media. As a whole, our findings can help to guide future policy making on the issue of marijuana-related advertising. PMID:27534665

  10. Measuring Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana Use Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Traylor, Zach K.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Marijuana use can result in a variety of negative consequences, yet it remains popular among young adults and the general public at large. Combined with the growing empirical support for the benefits of medicinal marijuana as well as the steady increase in popular opinion regarding its legalization, it is of growing importance to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use, reduce consumption levels, and limit resulting negative consequences among young adults who use marijuana. The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct initial psychometric analyses on a new scale, which we named the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana (PBSM) scale. Method: A sample of undergraduate college students who reported past-6-month marijuana use (n = 210) responded to the initial pool of PBSM items and completed measures of marijuana use, consequences from marijuana use, alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategies for alcohol. Results: Results from an iterative principal component analyses process yielded a single-factor structure with 39 items. The PBSM mean composite score negatively associated with marijuana use and consequences, with the strongest correlations evident for past-month users. The PBSM also significantly positively correlated with alcohol protective strategies. Conclusions: Protective behavioral strategies for marijuana appear to be a measurable construct that are related to marijuana frequency and consequences, and thus may be a useful component of intervention and prevention programs with young adults. More work testing the PBSM items with larger and more diverse samples of young adults is encouraged. PMID:27172576

  11. Changes in marijuana use symptoms and emotional functioning over 28-days of monitored abstinence in adolescent marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Escobar, Silvia; McKenna, Benjamin M; Hernandez, Margie Mejia; Bagot, Kara S; Taylor, Charles T; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Advancing marijuana prevention and intervention efforts are important given the decreasing perception of harm among adolescents and increasing marijuana legalization. This study evaluates how a monitored abstinence protocol may contribute to emotional functioning and changes in marijuana problems that can enhance successful outcomes for non-treatment-seeking adolescent marijuana users. Adolescent marijuana users (n = 26) and demographically matched controls (n = 30) completed 28 days of monitored abstinence confirmed by biweekly urine toxicology. Participants were given measures of emotional functioning, marijuana use symptoms, and reward sensitivity during monitored abstinence. All participants (n = 56) completed the protocol, and 69% of marijuana users (n = 18 of 26) were confirmed abstinent for 28 days, with all users showing decreasing marijuana use. Reductions in subsyndromal depression, positive marijuana use expectancies, and poor sleep quality were observed by the end of the monitored abstinence period (n = 26, p values < .05). Marijuana users also reported more attentional impulsivity and less responsiveness to reward stimuli during the second week of abstinence compared to controls. Later age of onset of regular marijuana use and more cumulative lifetime use were associated with a greater degree of emotional change and increased recognition of the negative effects of marijuana use. Monitored abstinence programs may be beneficial in reducing marijuana use, subsyndromal emotional distress symptoms, and changing beliefs about marijuana use. Future prevention and intervention efforts may consider targeting reward sensitivity and impulsivity, in addition to marijuana use, expectancies, and emotional functioning.

  12. Marijuana Use and Self-reported Quality of Eyesight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akano, Obinna F

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.

  13. Emerging Issues for our Nation's Health: The Intersection of Marijuana Use and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Vidot, Denise C.; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Current marijuana use rates are the highest in the past decade and not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and/or recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes but little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context to the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use...

  14. Surveying Lactation Professionals Regarding Marijuana Use and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with substantial benefits for both the child and mother. Most guidelines state that women who use illicit drugs should not breastfeed. Although this recommendation has traditionally included marijuana, this drug's changing legal status and the limited scientific research regarding marijuana's effect on breastfeeding and the nursing child may lead to varying recommendations made by lactation professionals to clients who use marijuana. Additionally, to our knowledge, there are no data estimating the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women, making it unclear how common it is. This study assessed recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use and estimated the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women. A convenience sample of lactation professionals who practice throughout New England and were attending the 2014 Vermont Lactation Consultant Association conference was offered the opportunity to complete a five-item survey. Of 120 conference attendees, 74 completed the survey. Forty-four percent reported their recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use depended on factors like the severity of maternal use. Another 41% reported recommending continued breastfeeding because the benefits outweigh the harms. The remaining 15% reported recommending that a woman should stop breastfeeding if she cannot stop using marijuana. Survey completers estimated that 15% (1,203/7,843) of their breastfeeding clients in the past year used marijuana. Lactation professionals vary widely in their recommendations to breastfeeding clients who use marijuana. The estimate of prevalence also suggests this is a relatively common issue. More research is needed to assess the generalizability of these findings.

  15. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  16. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use within a College Freshman Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…

  17. The effect of medical marijuana laws on crime: evidence from state panel data, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert G; TenEyck, Michael; Barnes, J C; Kovandzic, Tomislav V

    2014-01-01

    Debate has surrounded the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes for decades. Some have argued medical marijuana legalization (MML) poses a threat to public health and safety, perhaps also affecting crime rates. In recent years, some U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, reigniting political and public interest in the impact of marijuana legalization on a range of outcomes. Relying on U.S. state panel data, we analyzed the association between state MML and state crime rates for all Part I offenses collected by the FBI. Results did not indicate a crime exacerbating effect of MML on any of the Part I offenses. Alternatively, state MML may be correlated with a reduction in homicide and assault rates, net of other covariates. These findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes.

  18. The effect of medical marijuana laws on crime: evidence from state panel data, 1990-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morris

    Full Text Available Debate has surrounded the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes for decades. Some have argued medical marijuana legalization (MML poses a threat to public health and safety, perhaps also affecting crime rates. In recent years, some U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, reigniting political and public interest in the impact of marijuana legalization on a range of outcomes.Relying on U.S. state panel data, we analyzed the association between state MML and state crime rates for all Part I offenses collected by the FBI.Results did not indicate a crime exacerbating effect of MML on any of the Part I offenses. Alternatively, state MML may be correlated with a reduction in homicide and assault rates, net of other covariates.These findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes.

  19. Marijuana once and today

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Biljana; Kostik, Vesna; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is very popular nowadays because of its medical use. This paper gives a short survey and review on the historical development of the ideas associated with marijuana. The aim of this paper is to look inside all faces of marijuana through history. Marijuana represents the dried top parts of female hemp plant in flower, which contains up to 6% tetrahidrocanabinol THC. Throughout human history hemp has been used for many purposes such as recreation, therapy, art, religion, medicine as a...

  20. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  1. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstein, Regina

    1980-01-01

    Focused on college students' expectations about marijuana. Undergraduates (N=210) expected marijuana to have sedating effects; they largely discounted psychological consequences. Students considered marijuana to be an educational issue and favored decriminalization of the drug. Users, occasional users, and nonusers differed significantly in…

  2. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana as Medicine Marijuana as Medicine Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2018 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  3. [Medico-legal opinions in penal cases provided by clinicians and forensic medicine specialists--comparative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.

  4. An examination of opinions toward marijuana policies among high school seniors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Support for marijuana (cannabis) legalization is increasing in the US, and state-level marijuana policies are rapidly changing. Research is needed to examine correlates of opinions toward legalization among adolescents approaching adulthood as they are at high risk for use. Data were examined from a national representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (years 2007-2011; N = 11,594) to delineate correlates of opinions toward legalization. A third of students felt marijuana should be entirely legal and 28.5% felt it should be treated as a minor violation; 48.0% felt that if legal to sell it should be sold to adults only, and 10.4% felt it should be sold to anyone. Females, conservatives, religious students, and those with friends who disapprove of marijuana use tended to be at lower odds for supporting legalization, and Black, liberal, and urban students were at higher odds for supporting more liberal policies. Recent and frequent marijuana use strongly increased odds for support for legalization; however, 16.7% of non-lifetime marijuana users also reported support for legalization. Findings should be interpreted with caution as state-level data were not available, but results suggest that support for marijuana legalization is common among specific subgroups of adolescents.

  5. A latent class analysis of poly-marijuana use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Rajbhandari, Biva; Sowles, Shaina J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    With more states legalizing marijuana use, the marijuana industry has grown, introducing a variety of marijuana products. Our study explores the use of multiple marijuana products (poly-marijuana use) and the characteristics associated with this behavior. Past-month marijuana users aged 18-34years were surveyed online via an existing online panel (n=2444). Participants answered questions about past-month use of three types of marijuana (plant-based, concentrates, edibles), marijuana use patterns, and driving after use. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of marijuana users. Four classes of marijuana users were identified: Light plant users, who used only plant-based products infrequently and were unlikely to drive after use (32%); Heavy plant users, who used mainly plant-based products frequently, multiple times per day, and were likely to drive after use (37%); Plant and concentrates users, who used plant-based products heavily and concentrates at least infrequently, used multiple times per day, and were likely to drive after use (20%); Light plant and edibles users, who used both products infrequently and were unlikely to drive after use (10%). Those in legal marijuana states were more likely to belong to the poly-marijuana groups. Our findings reflect the increase in popularity of new marijuana products in legal states and suggest that heavy user groups, including concentrates users, are associated with driving after use. As various forms of marijuana use increases, monitoring and surveillance of the use of multiple types of marijuana will be important for determining potential varying impacts on physiological and social consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical marijuana in pediatric oncology: A review of the evidence and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Prasanna; Reed-Weston, Anne; Wolfe, Joanne

    2018-02-01

    Medical marijuana (MM) has become increasingly legal at the state level and accessible to children with serious illness. Pediatric patients with cancer may be particularly receptive to MM, given purported benefits in managing cancer-related symptoms. In this review, we examine the evidence for MM as a supportive care agent in pediatric oncology. We describe the current legal status of MM, mechanism of action, common formulations, and potential benefits versus risks for pediatric oncology patients. We offer suggestions for how providers might approach MM requests. Throughout, we comment on avenues for future investigation on this growing trend in supportive care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil PARTICIPANTS: The study was made among 123 patients interned in the Hospital Espírita de Marília from October 1996 to December 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21% using only marijuana, 83 (67.5% using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4% consuming marijuana and alcohol. PROCEDURES AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. RESULTS: Among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated AST (42.3%, ALT (34.6% and AP (53.8%. The three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. The group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. Mean AP levels were above normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. This indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.

  8. The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana potency has risen dramatically over the past two decades. In the United States, it is unclear whether state medical marijuana policies have contributed to this increase. Methods Employing a differences-in-differences model within a mediation framework, we analyzed data on n = 39,157 marijuana samples seized by law enforcement in 51 U.S. jurisdictions between 1990-2010, producing estimates of the direct and indirect effects of state medical marijuana laws on potency, as measured by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Results We found evidence that potency increased by a half percentage point on average after legalization of medical marijuana, although this result was not significant. When we examined specific medical marijuana supply provisions, results suggest that legal allowances for retail dispensaries had the strongest influence, significantly increasing potency by about one percentage point on average. Our mediation analyses examining the mechanisms through which medical marijuana laws influence potency found no evidence of direct regulatory impact. Rather, the results suggest that the impact of these laws occurs predominantly through a compositional shift in the share of the market captured by high-potency sinsemilla. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for policymakers and those in the scientific community trying to understand the extent to which greater availability of higher potency marijuana increases the risk of negative public health outcomes, such as drugged driving and drug-induced psychoses. Future work should reconsider the impact of medical marijuana laws on health outcomes in light of dramatic and ongoing shifts in both marijuana potency and the medical marijuana policy environment. PMID:24502887

  9. Use and diversion of medical marijuana among adults admitted to inpatient psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Abraham M; Thurstone, Christian; McGarry, Laurel; Walker, Brendan; Sabel, Allison L

    2015-03-01

    Marijuana use is associated with anxiety, depressive, psychotic, neurocognitive, and substance use disorders. Many US states are legalizing marijuana for medical uses. To determine the prevalence of medical marijuana use and diversion among psychiatric inpatients in Colorado. Some 623 participants (54.6% male) responded to an anonymous 15-item discharge survey that assessed age, gender, marijuana use, possession of a medical marijuana card, diversion of medical marijuana, perceived substance use problems, and effects of marijuana use. Univariate statistics were used to characterize participants and their responses. Chi-square tests assessed factors associated with medical marijuana registration. Of the total number of respondents, 282 (47.6%) reported using marijuana in the last 12 months and 60 (15.1%) reported having a marijuana card. In comparison to survey respondents who denied having a medical marijuana card, those respondents with a medical marijuana card were more likely to have initiated use before the age of 25, to be male, to have used marijuana in the last 12 months, and to have used at least 20 days in the past month. 133 (24.1%) respondents reported that someone with a medical marijuana card had shared or sold medical marijuana to them; 24 (41.4%) of respondents with a medical marijuana card reported ever having shared or sold their medical marijuana. Medical marijuana use is much more prevalent among adults hospitalized with a psychiatric emergency than in the general population; diversion is common. Further studies which correlate amount, dose, duration, and strain of use with particular psychiatric disorders are needed.

  10. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    OpenAIRE

    Borini, Paulo; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Borini, Sabrina Bicalho

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Braz...

  11. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Older marijuana users: Life stressors and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2016-12-01

    Given increasing numbers of older-adult marijuana users, this study examined the association of marijuana use and marijuana use disorder with life stressors and perceived social support in the 50+ age group. Data came from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=14,715 respondents aged 50+). Life stressors were measured with 12 items related to interpersonal, legal, and financial problems and being a crime victim. Perceived social support was measured with the 12-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified four components of life stressors. Linear regression analyses was used to test associations of past-year marijuana use and use disorder with PCA scores of each component and perceived social support. Of the 50+ age group, 3.89% were past-year marijuana users and 0.68% had marijuana use disorder. Marijuana users, especially those with marijuana use disorder (17.54% of past-year users), had high rates of mental and other substance use disorders. Controlling for other potential risk factors for stress, including health status and mental and other substance use disorders, marijuana use and use disorder were still significantly associated with more life stressors and lower perceived social support, possibly from low levels of social integration. A substantial proportion of older-adult marijuana users need help with mental health and substance use problems. Further examination of older marijuana users' life stressors and social support networks may aid in developing more systematic intervention strategies to address needs and reduce marijuana use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is 4/20 an Event-Specific Marijuana Holiday? A Daily Diary Investigation of Marijuana Use and Consequences Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Conner, Bradley T; Parnes, Jamie E

    2017-01-01

    Given the popular association between April 20 ("4/20") and marijuana, the present study examined marijuana use and consequences on 4/20 compared with other days in order to test whether 4/20 is a high-risk, event-specific marijuana use holiday among college student marijuana users. Fifty-nine college student marijuana users from three different, large U.S. universities located in Virginia, New Mexico, and Colorado completed daily brief surveys (marijuana use (i.e., percentage of users who consumed marijuana, number of unique marijuana use sessions, subjective high/intoxication while under the influence of marijuana, and number of grams of marijuana consumed) and marijuana-related consequences. Using oneway repeated-measures analyses of variance, we found that (a) 50% of students reported using marijuana on 4/20, which was significantly more than weekdays (28%) and weekend days (37%); (b) students reported a significantly higher number of unique marijuana use sessions on 4/20 (M = 1.47) compared with weekdays (M = 0.91); and (c) students reported a significantly higher number of grams consumed on 4/20 (M = 0.79) compared with weekdays (M = 0.35) and weekend days (M = 0.47). Our study provides preliminary support that 4/20 is a day associated with increased marijuana use but provides little evidence for an association with more problematic use.

  14. An Examination of Opinions Toward Marijuana Policies Among High School Seniors in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Palamar, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Support for marijuana (cannabis) legalization is increasing in the US, and state-level marijuana policies are rapidly changing. Research is needed to examine correlates of opinions toward legalization among adolescents approaching adulthood as they are at high risk for use. Data were examined from a national representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (years 2007-2011; N = 11,594) to delineate correlates of opinions toward legalization. A third of students ...

  15. Older adults who use or have used marijuana: Help-seeking for marijuana and other substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2017-06-01

    Increasing numbers of older adults are using marijuana and may experience problems related to marijuana use. This study examined relationships (1) between help-seeking for marijuana use and the presence of other substance use and/or mental disorders and (2) between help-seeking for other substance use disorders and marijuana use among adults aged 50+. The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions provided data (N=14.715). Bivariate analyses were used to compare never, past-year, and ex-marijuana users on lifetime substance use and mental disorders and help-seeking for associated problems. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the correlates of help-seeking for marijuana and other substance use problems. 21.20% of past-year and 13.72% of ex-marijuana users with lifetime marijuana use disorder sought help for marijuana problems. The odds of help-seeking were higher for those with lifetime marijuana use disorders if they also had other drug (OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.39-5.80) and/or nicotine use disorder (OR=2.96, 95% CI=1.28-6.87). The odds of help-seeking for alcohol problems among those with alcohol use disorder were significantly higher if they were also ex- or past-year marijuana users. The odds of help-seeking for nicotine problems among those with nicotine use disorder were significantly higher only if they were ex-marijuana users. Adults aged 50+ with marijuana use disorder often have other substance use and mental disorders. Healthcare providers should screen for marijuana and other substance use along with mental disorders and provide education about harms from polysubstance use and referrals for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone

  17. Parent and Grandparent Marijuana Use and Child Substance Use and Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Epstein, Marina; Abbott, Robert D.; Steeger, Christine M.; Skinner, Martie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Using prospective longitudinal data from 3 generations, this study seeks to test whether and how parent and grandparent marijuana use (current and prior) predicts an increased likelihood of child cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Methods Using multilevel modeling of prospective data spanning 3 generations (N = 306 families, children ages 6-22), this study tested associations between grandparent (G1) and parent (G2) marijuana use and child (G3) past-year cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses tested whether G3 substance-related norms mediated these associations. Current G1 and G2 marijuana use was examined, as was G2 high school and early adult use and G1 marijuana use when G2 parents were in early adolescence. Controls included G2 age at G3 birth, G2 education and depression, and G3 gender. Results G2 current marijuana use predicted a higher likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use, but was not related to the probability of G3 cigarette use. G3's perceptions of their parents' norms and G2 current marijuana use both contributed independently to the likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use when included in the same model. G3 children's own norms and their perceptions of friends' norms mediated the link between G2 current marijuana use and G3 alcohol and marijuana use. Conclusions Results are discussed in light of the growing trend toward marijuana legalization. To the extent that parent marijuana use increases under legalization, we can expect more youth to use alcohol and marijuana and to have norms that favor substance use. PMID:27265424

  18. Does using marijuana increase the risk for developing schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M

    2013-04-01

    As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Exploring Marijuana Advertising on Weedmaps, a Popular Online Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierut, Tatiana; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the USA, advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational marijuana retailers in Colorado and Washington were examined on Weedmaps. We studied the age verification practices made in retailers' own websites, the presence of health claims they made about marijuana on Weedmaps, and the characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on social media sites. Many retailers had no security measure to determine age (41 % in Colorado, 35 % in Washington). Approximately 61 % of retailers in Colorado and 44 % in Washington made health claims about the benefits of marijuana, including anxiety reduction, treatment of depression, insomnia, and pain/inflammation. Inferred demographic characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on Twitter and Instagram revealed that over 60 % were male and nearly 70 % or more were age 20-29 years old, yet some (15-18 %) were under the age of 20. Our findings indicate that marijuana retailers have a visible presence on the Internet. Potential customers might be enticed by retailers who tout health claims about marijuana use. It may also be appealing for a younger demographic to overlook age restrictions and engage with marijuana retailers via social media. As a whole, our findings can help to guide future policy making on the issue of marijuana-related advertising.

  20. Committee Opinion No. 637: Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes, and its use by pregnant women could increase even further as a result. Because of concerns regarding impaired neurodevelopment, as well as maternal and fetal exposure to the adverse effects of smoking, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. Obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation. Pregnant women or women contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue use of marijuana for medicinal purposes in favor of an alternative therapy for which there are better pregnancy-specific safety data. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on infants during lactation and breastfeeding, and in the absence of such data, marijuana use is discouraged.

  1. Committee Opinion No. 722: Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes, and its use by pregnant women could increase even further as a result. Because of concerns regarding impaired neurodevelopment, as well as maternal and fetal exposure to the adverse effects of smoking, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. Obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation. Pregnant women or women contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue use of marijuana for medicinal purposes in favor of an alternative therapy for which there are better pregnancy-specific safety data. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on infants during lactation and breastfeeding, and in the absence of such data, marijuana use is discouraged.

  2. "Time for dabs": Analyzing Twitter data on marijuana concentrates across the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Carlson, Robert G; Lamy, Francois R; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Smith, G Alan; Sheth, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Media reports suggest increasing popularity of marijuana concentrates ("dabs"; "earwax"; "budder"; "shatter; "butane hash oil") that are typically vaporized and inhaled via a bong, vaporizer or electronic cigarette. However, data on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use remain limited. This study aims to explore Twitter data on marijuana concentrate use in the U.S. and identify differences across regions of the country with varying cannabis legalization policies. Tweets were collected between October 20 and December 20, 2014, using Twitter's streaming API. Twitter data filtering framework was available through the eDrugTrends platform. Raw and adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets per state were calculated. A permutation test was used to examine differences in the adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets among U.S. states with different cannabis legalization policies. eDrugTrends collected a total of 125,255 tweets. Almost 22% (n=27,018) of these tweets contained identifiable state-level geolocation information. Dabs-related tweet volume for each state was adjusted using a general sample of tweets to account for different levels of overall tweeting activity for each state. Adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets were highest in states that allowed recreational and/or medicinal cannabis use and lowest in states that have not passed medical cannabis use laws. The differences were statistically significant. Twitter data suggest greater popularity of dabs in the states that legalized recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The study provides new information on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use and contributes to the emerging field of social media analysis for drug abuse research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal Beliefs and Professional Responsibilities: Ethiopian Midwives' Attitudes toward Providing Abortion Services after Legal Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sarah Jane; Berhe, Aster; Cherie, Amsale

    2015-03-01

    In 2005, Ethiopia liberalized its abortion law and subsequently authorized midwives to offer abortion services. Using a 2013 survey of 188 midwives and 12 interviews with third-year midwifery students, this cross-sectional research examines midwives' attitudes toward abortion to understand their decisions about service provision. Most midwives were willing to provide abortion services. This willingness was positively and significantly related to clinical experience with abortion, but negatively and significantly related to religiosity, belief that providers have the right to refuse to provide services, and care of patients from periurban as opposed to rural areas. No significant relationship was found with perceptions of abortion stigma, years of work as a midwife, or knowledge of the law. Interview data suggest complex dynamics underlying midwives' willingness to offer services, including conflicts between professional norms and religious beliefs. Findings can inform Ethiopia's efforts to reduce maternal mortality through task-shifting to midwives and can aid other countries that are confronting provider shortages and high levels of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly due to unsafe abortion. © 2015 The Population Council, Inc.

  4. Trends in and correlates of medical marijuana use among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beth; Compton, Wilson M; Blanco, Carlos; Jones, Christopher M

    2018-03-14

    Trends in and correlates of medical marijuana use are important to inform ongoing clinical, research, policy, and programmatic efforts. This study assessed trends in and correlates of medical marijuana use among U.S. adults. We analyzed data from approximately 147,200 U.S. civilians aged 18 or older who participated in the 2013-2015 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses, multivariable logistic regressions, and zero-truncated native binomial regressions were applied. Among U.S. adults, the prevalence of medical marijuana use increased from 1.2% in 2013 to 1.6% in 2015 (p = 0.0007). After adjusting for covariates, adults residing in medical marijuana states (states with legalized medical marijuana use) were 1.3 times more likely to use marijuana medically in 2015 than in 2013 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.61), and adults in nonmedical marijuana states were 1.4 times more likely to report medical marijuana use in 2015 than in 2013 (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.05-1.90). Among adults who used marijuana exclusively for medical purposes in the past 12 months, trends in 12-month cannabis use disorders, daily or near daily use, and the number of days of marijuana use remained unchanged during 2013-2015. We identified how correlates of medical marijuana use among adults in medical marijuana states differed from their counterparts in nonmedical marijuana states. Adults were more likely to use marijuana medically in 2015 than in 2013 in both medical and nonmedical marijuana states. Clinicians need to learn about and address evolving patterns of medical marijuana use in patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Clients' reports on postabortion family planning services provided in Mexico City's public sector legal abortion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Davida; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G.; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective First trimester abortion was decriminalized in Mexico City in 2007. We studied client views of family planning services provided during abortion care at public facilities and acceptance of postabortion contraception. Methods We surveyed 402 clients seeking first trimester abortion care in Mexico City. We used logistic regression to test whether postabortion contraception varied by abortion visit characteristics or client sociodemographics. Results Most participants (81.6%) reported being offered contraception at their visit and 89.5% selected a contraceptive method postabortion, with 58.9% selecting the IUD. Surgical abortion clients were more likely to report being offered contraception than medical abortion clients (p<.001), as were clients attended by a female physician (p<.05). Clients at the general hospital were less likely to report being offered contraception (p<.001). Conclusion Public sector facilities in Mexico City are providing a generally high level of postabortion family planning care and uptake of postabortion contraception is high. PMID:23499047

  6. Underbanked: Cooperative Banking as a Potential Solution to the Marijuana-Banking Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous states have recently legalized recreational marijuana, which has created a burgeoning marijuana industry needing and demanding access to a variety of banking and financial services. Due, however, to the interplay between the federal criminalization of marijuana and federal anti-money laundering laws, U.S. financial institutions cannot handle legally the proceeds from marijuana activity. As a result, most financial institutions are unwilling to flout federal anti-money laundering laws, and so too few marijuana-related businesses can access banking services. This Note argues that the most viable policy option for resolving this "underbanking" problem is a financial cooperative approach such as a cannabis-only financial cooperative. Even in light of federal anti-money laundering laws, this Note contends that the Federal Reserve is legally authorized to grant some cannabis-only financial cooperatives access to its payment system services under the Monetary Control Act of 1980.

  7. The Current Landscape of Marijuana and Pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaran, Kerry Anne; Chu, Michael; Johnson, Tyler B; Alzghari, Saeed K

    2017-07-30

    The treatment of medical conditions with cannabis and cannabinoid compounds is advancing. Although there are numerous reports related to the genetic variations of the cannabinoid receptor, a lack of studies that examine the relationship between other pharmacogenetic markers and health outcomes currently exists. Herein, we advocate for the legalization of marijuana in the United States in order to perform more randomized controlled trials to help elucidate the role of other pharmacogenetic targets and cannabis for use in clinical practice.

  8. The Current Landscape of Marijuana and Pharmacogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Rambaran, Kerry Anne; Chu, Michael; Johnson, Tyler B; Alzghari, Saeed K

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of medical conditions with cannabis and cannabinoid compounds is advancing. Although there are numerous reports related to the genetic variations of the cannabinoid receptor, a lack of studies that examine the relationship between other pharmacogenetic markers and health outcomes currently exists. Herein, we advocate for the legalization of marijuana in the United States in order to perform more randomized controlled trials to help elucidate the role of other pharmacogenetic tar...

  9. The medical-legal quandary of healthcare in capital punishment: an ethical dilemma for the anesthesia provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin W

    2008-12-01

    The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"?

  10. Marijuana and Cannabinoids in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Joshua L; Wyatt, Christina M

    2018-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, and legal recreational and medicinal use has gained public acceptance during the last decade. Twenty-nine US states have established medical marijuana programs, 8 of which have also legalized recreational marijuana, and Canada is expected to legalize recreational marijuana in 2018. Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are chronic conditions with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients experience substantial symptom burden that is frequently undertreated due to adverse medication side effects. This article reviews the available evidence for the use of medical marijuana to manage chronic pain, nausea/vomiting, anorexia/cachexia, and pruritus, all of which are frequently reported by patients with advanced CKD or ESRD. Potential adverse health effects of medical and recreational marijuana use are also discussed. Regardless of personal, social, and political beliefs, marijuana use is becoming mainstream, and nephrologists should be aware of the potential impact on our patient population. Further research is warranted to investigate the renal endocannabinoid system, the impact of marijuana use on kidney disease outcomes, and the risks and benefits of medical marijuana use on symptoms of advanced CKD and ESRD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby’s system. How much is known about the effects of marijuana on a pregnancy? It is difficult to accurately ... go away within a few days. Can my marijuana smoking affect the brain development of the baby? Differences in brain activity, ...

  12. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  13. Not this time: Canadians, public policy, and the marijuana question, 1961 - 1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    ... substances, such as heroin and cocaine, its social impact is a matter for debate. In the 1960s, many Canadians began demanding changes to the Narcotics Control Act that would decriminalize or legalize the possession of marijuana. In Not This Time , Marcel Martel explores the recreational use of marijuana in the 1960s and its emergence as a ...

  14. Not this time: Canadians, public policy, and the marijuana question, 1961-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    ... substances, such as heroin and cocaine, its social impact is a matter for debate. In the 1960s, many Canadians began demanding changes to the Narcotics Control Act that would decriminalize or legalize the possession of marijuana. In Not This Time , Marcel Martel explores the recreational use of marijuana in the 1960s and its emergence as a ...

  15. Marijuana: Views on Its Medical Use Recorded at the Slovak Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolena, Branislav; Petrovicová, Ida; Trnovec, Tomáš; Pilka, Tomáš; Bicanová, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    We describe opinions on medical use of "Cannabis sativa L." under conditions of Slovakia (n = 717). Personal experience with marijuana was detected in 77.42% (n = 553) in age categories younger than 20 years (n = 96) and in 77.06% (n = 457) of adults. Almost 86% of respondents (n = 618) agreed with legal use of marijuana for medical…

  16. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Leer en Español: La marihuana ...

  17. High on Life? Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Using state-level data for the period 1990 through 2007, we estimate the effect of legalizing medical marijuana on suicide rates. Our results suggest that the passage of a medical marijuana law is associated with an almost 5 percent reduction in the total suicide rate, an 11 percent reduction in the suicide rate of 20- through 29-year-old males, and a 9 percent reduction in the suicide rate of 30- through 39-year-old males. Estimates of the relationship between legalization and female suicide...

  18. Factors Associated With Marijuana use and Problems Among College Students in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristina T; Phillips, Michael M; Duck, Kerry D

    2018-02-23

    Past studies have shown that heavy marijuana use can impact student outcomes. Frequent use and misuse of marijuana have been associated with a range of psychological and personality factors in young adults, but there has been limited research focused on the college environment in states where marijuana has been legalized for recreational purposes. We examined whether marijuana use and problems were associated with a range of demographic, personality, and psychological variables among college students at a midsized Colorado university. This cross-sectional study included 300 university students who submitted a urine screen and completed measures on marijuana use, problem marijuana use, anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and openness to experience. Last year and recent marijuana use were high (65%, 29%; respectively), as assessed through self-report and a urine screen. Using logistic regression, male sex and greater openness to experience were associated with greater marijuana use when assessed with a urine screen, while greater openness to experience and impulsivity were associated with greater self-reported marijuana use within the last year. In the final step of a hierarchical linear regression model, male sex and greater impulsivity and depression-but not openness to experience, general anxiety or social anxiety-were associated with greater problem marijuana use. This study extends the literature on psychological and personality correlates of marijuana use among college students. It may be useful to assess these correlates to identify students who are at risk of developing problems and in intervening with students with problem use.

  19. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  20. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  1. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana, which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  2. Marijuana Use and Renal Function Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang; Papatheodorou, Stefania I; Danziger, John; Mittleman, Murray A

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the number of states that have legalized medical marijuana or retail sales has increased, bringing potential changes of marijuana use pattern among the general population. However, health effects of acute and chronic marijuana use on many relevant health outcomes, including renal function, remain largely unexamined. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between recent and past marijuana use and renal function. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 13,995 US adults aged 18 to 59 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2014. We examined associations between marijuana use and serum creatinine concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and odds of having stage 2 or greater chronic kidney disease using weighted multivariable linear regression. In the study population, 6483 were never users, 5499 were past users, and 2013 were current users. Marijuana use did not have a significant association with serum creatinine, eGFR, or odds of having stage 2 or greater chronic kidney disease. Serum creatinine and eGFR had an increasing trend comparing past and current users with never users that did not reach statistical significance. All associations remained unchanged in the sensitivity analysis restricted to people without cardiovascular disease. We did not observe any clinically significant association between current or past self-reported marijuana use and measures of kidney function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality, marijuana norms, and marijuana outcomes among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P; Neighbors, Clayton; Conner, Bradley T; Bravo, Adrian J

    2018-01-01

    Based on the high prevalence of marijuana use among college students, we examined distal and proximal antecedents to marijuana-related outcomes in this population. Specifically, we examined three marijuana-related perceptions (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and internalization of college marijuana use culture) as potential mediators of the associations between four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and marijuana-related outcomes (marijuana use, negative marijuana-related consequences). In a large sample of college student marijuana users (n=2129), our path analysis revealed marijuana-related perceptions to significantly mediate the associations between personality and marijuana-related outcomes. Specifically, internalization of college marijuana use culture mediated the effects of both impulsivity and sensation seeking on marijuana-related outcomes. Not only do our findings suggest the importance of distinct types of marijuana-related norms in predicting marijuana involvement, but also the possibility that such normative beliefs could be targeted as part of personality-tailored interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  5. Marijuana and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of psychosis Long-term use of marijuana can lead to: The same breathing problems as smoking cigarettes (coughing, wheezing, trouble with physical activity, and lung cancer) Decreased motivation or interest Lower intelligence Mental health problems, such ...

  6. Current Marijuana Use by Industry and Occupation - Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roberta; Hall, Katelyn E; Etkind, Paul; Van Dyke, Mike

    2018-04-13

    The effects of marijuana use on workplace safety are of concern for public health and workplace safety professionals. Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have enacted laws legalizing marijuana at the state level for recreational and/or medical purposes. Employers and safety professionals in states where marijuana use is legal have expressed concerns about potential increases in occupational injuries, such as on-the-job motor vehicle crashes, related to employee impairment. Data published in 2017 by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) showed that more than one in eight adult state residents aged ≥18 years currently used marijuana in 2014 (13.6%) and 2015 (13.4%) (1). To examine current marijuana use by working adults and the industries and occupations in which they are employed, CDPHE analyzed data from the state's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) regarding current marijuana use (at least 1 day during the preceding 30 days) among 10,169 persons who responded to the current marijuana use question. During 2014 and 2015, 14.6% of these 10,169 Colorado workers reported current marijuana use, with the highest reported prevalence among workers in the Accommodation and Food Services industry (30.1%) and Food Preparation and Serving (32.2%) occupations. Understanding the industries and occupations of adults with reported marijuana use can help direct and maximize impact of public health messaging and potential safety interventions for adults.

  7. Recent rapid decrease in adolescents' perception that marijuana is harmful, but no concurrent increase in use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John E; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-03-01

    National trends in adolescent's marijuana risk perceptions are traditionally used as a predictor of concurrent and future trends in adolescent marijuana use. We test the validity of this practice during a time of rapid marijuana policy change. Two repeated cross-sectional U.S. nationally-representative surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th-graders: Monitoring the Future (MTF) (1991-2015; N = 1,181,692) and National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2002-2014; N = 113,317). We examined trends in the year-to-year prevalence of perceiving no risk of harm in using marijuana regularly, and prevalence of regular marijuana use within the previous month. A piecewise linear regression model tested for a change in the relationship between trends. Similar analyses examined any past-month use and controlled for demographic characteristics. Among MTF 12th-graders, the prevalence of regular marijuana use and risk perceptions changed similarly between 1991 and 2006 but diverged sharply afterward. The prevalence of regular marijuana use increased by ∼1 percentage point to 6.03% by 2015. In contrast, the proportion of 12th-graders that perceived marijuana as posing no risk increased over 11 percentage points to 21.39%. A similar divergence was found among NSDUH 12th-graders and other grades, for any past month marijuana use, and when controlling demographic characteristics. An increase in adolescent marijuana use has not accompanied recent rapid decreases in marijuana risk perceptions. Policy makers may consider broader prevention strategies in addition to targeting marijuana risk perceptions. Further monitoring of predictors of marijuana use trends is needed as states legalize recreational marijuana use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding Marijuana Use Among Adolescents Over the Past Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard; Johnston, Lloyd; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    Adolescent marijuana prevalence has not increased since 2005 despite a substantial decrease in the percentage of adolescents who believe marijuana use leads to great risk of harm. This finding calls into question the long-standing, inverse connection between marijuana prevalence and perceived risk of use, a connection central to many arguments opposing marijuana legalization. We tested 2 hypotheses for why marijuana prevalence did not increase after 2005: (1) decreases in adolescent use of cigarettes and alcohol reduced risk for marijuana use and counteracted the expected risk in marijuana prevalence, and/or (2) perceived risk of harm now plays a smaller role in marijuana use. Data came from the annual, nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study from 1991 to 2016, in which 1 100 000 US students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grade were surveyed. The entire sample was stratified into 3 mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups on the basis of cigarette and alcohol use. Within each of the 3 groups, marijuana prevalence increased from 2005 to 2016. Paradoxically, when the 3 groups were combined into 1 analysis pool, overall marijuana prevalence did not increase. The seeming paradox results from a decline in the percentage of adolescents who used cigarettes; as this group grew smaller, so too did its disproportionately large contribution to overall marijuana prevalence. Perceived risk of harm from marijuana remained a strong indicator of use throughout 2005 to 2016. Perceived risk of marijuana remains tightly associated with use, and adolescent marijuana prevalence today would be at or near record highs if cigarette use had not declined since 2005, according to study projections. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Female marijuana users

    OpenAIRE

    Šlégrová, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on specifics of marijuana use among teenage girls. Marijuana use is widely spread among young people and still considered deliquent. In the first part of thesis theories of girl's delinquency are summarized, followed by social control theory by Travis Hirschi on which the analytical part of thesis is based on. The last part completes the information obtained with new findings from qualitative research. The aim of this thesis is to study social situation of girl users, thei...

  10. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  11. Associations Between Parental and Grandparental Marijuana Use and Child Substance Use Norms in a Prospective, Three-Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Hill, Karl G; Guttmannova, Katarina; Epstein, Marina; Abbott, Robert D; Steeger, Christine M; Skinner, Martie L

    2016-09-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from three generations, this study seeks to test whether and how parent and grandparent marijuana use (current and prior) predicts an increased likelihood of child cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Using multilevel modeling of prospective data spanning three generations (n = 306 families, children ages 6-22), this study tested associations between grandparent (G1) and parent (G2) marijuana use and child (G3) past-year cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses tested whether G3 substance-related norms mediated these associations. Current G1 and G2 marijuana use was examined, as was G2 high school and early adult use and G1 marijuana use when G2 parents were in early adolescence. Controls included G2 age at G3 birth, G2 education and depression, and G3 gender. G2 current marijuana use predicted a higher likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use but was not related to the probability of G3 cigarette use. G3's perceptions of their parents' norms and G2 current marijuana use both contributed independently to the likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use when included in the same model. G3 children's own norms and their perceptions of friends' norms mediated the link between G2 current marijuana use and G3 alcohol and marijuana use. Results are discussed in light of the growing trend toward marijuana legalization. To the extent that parent marijuana use increases under legalization, we can expect more youth to use alcohol and marijuana and to have norms that favor substance use. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluations and expectancies of alcohol and marijuana problems among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2007-12-01

    Two studies examined the associations between evaluations (good-bad) and expected likelihood (likely-unlikely) of alcohol- and marijuana-related problems and hazardous consumption and problems among college students. Participants provided data on alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and expectancies and evaluations of alcohol problems; marijuana use indices, marijuana-related problems, marijuana effect expectancies, and likelihood and evaluations of marijuana problems. Evaluations of alcohol problems were positively related to the number of binge drinking occasions and alcohol-related problems. The interaction between evaluations and expectancies was significant in predicting the number of binge drinking occasions. Expectancies demonstrated a curvilinear relationship with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Marijuana users evaluated marijuana-related problems as less negative and less likely to occur than did nonusers. Expectancies, but not evaluations, of negative consequences were significantly associated with marijuana use intensity. Expectancies of problems demonstrated a curvilinear relationship with marijuana-use intensity and marijuana problems. Men evaluated alcohol and marijuana problems less negatively than did women. In summary, the expected likelihood of alcohol-marijuana problems and the evaluation of such problems represent a vulnerability factor associated with increased liability for hazardous alcohol and marijuana use.

  13. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  14. High Time for Conservation: Adding the Environment to the Debate on Marijuana Liberalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carah, Jennifer K.; Howard, Jeanette K.; Thompson, Sally E.; Short Gianotti, Anne G.; Bauer, Scott D.; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Dralle, David N.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Hulette, Lisa L.; Johnson, Brian J.; Knight, Curtis A.; Kupferberg, Sarah J.; Martin, Stefanie L.; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Power, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The liberalization of marijuana policies, including the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana, is sweeping the United States and other countries. Marijuana cultivation can have significant negative collateral effects on the environment that are often unknown or overlooked. Focusing on the state of California, where by some estimates 60%–70% of the marijuana consumed in the United States is grown, we argue that (a) the environmental harm caused by marijuana cultivation merits a direct policy response, (b) current approaches to governing the environmental effects are inadequate, and (c) neglecting discussion of the environmental impacts of cultivation when shaping future marijuana use and possession policies represents a missed opportunity to reduce, regulate, and mitigate environmental harm. PMID:26955083

  15. Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons From Alcohol and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes—not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century. PMID:24825201

  16. Developing public health regulations for marijuana: lessons from alcohol and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Chaloupka, Frank J; Caulkins, Jonathan P

    2014-06-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes-not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century.

  17. Physicians-in-training are not prepared to prescribe medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, Anastasia B; Quan, Tiffany; Dufault, Carolyn; Awad, Michael; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2017-11-01

    While medical marijuana use is legal in more than half of U.S. states, evidence is limited about the preparation of physicians-in-training to prescribe medical marijuana. We asked whether current medical school and graduate medical educational training prepare physicians to prescribe medical marijuana. We conducted a national survey of U.S. medical school curriculum deans, a similar survey of residents and fellows at Washington University in St. Louis, and a query of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Curriculum Inventory database for keywords associated with medical marijuana. Surveys were obtained from 101 curriculum deans, and 258 residents and fellows. 145 schools were included in the curriculum search. The majority of deans (66.7%) reported that their graduates were not at all prepared to prescribe medical marijuana, and 25.0% reported that their graduates were not at all prepared to answer questions about medical marijuana. The vast majority of residents and fellows (89.5%) felt not at all prepared to prescribe medical marijuana, while 35.3% felt not at all prepared to answer questions, and 84.9% reported receiving no education in medical school or residency on medical marijuana. Finally, only 9% of medical school curriculums document in the AAMC Curriculum Inventory database content on medical marijuana. Our study highlights a fundamental mismatch between the state-level legalization of medical marijuana and the lack of preparation of physicians-in-training to prescribe it. With even more states on the cusp of legalizing medical marijuana, physician training should adapt to encompass this new reality of medical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Opinions on Marijuana: Sex Differences at a Western Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hugh

    1972-01-01

    College freshmen were surveyed to determine their opinions regarding marijuana. Analysis of the data showed that male students in all cases were ahead of female students in exploring the marijuana sub-culture. The data provides a basis for judging future trends in this controversial area of student life. (Author)

  19. Availability of tobacco products associated with use of marijuana cigars (blunts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Lee, Juliet P; Morrison, Chris; Freisthler, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    This study examines factors associated with availability of tobacco products for marijuana cigars (i.e., blunts) in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. The study is based on data collected in 943 tobacco outlets. Neighborhood demographics, community adult marijuana prevalence, medical marijuana policy and access to medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services were included. Multilevel logistic regression analyses indicated that compared with small markets, availability of tobacco products associated with use of blunts was significantly higher in convenience stores, smoke/tobacco shops and liquor stores. None of the neighborhood demographics were associated with availability of blunt wrappers and only a small percent of Whites was positively associated with availability of blunt cigars, small cigars or cigarillos at the store. Controlling for outlet type and neighborhood demographics, higher city prevalence of adult marijuana use was associated with greater availability of blunt wrappers. Also, policy that permits medical marijuana dispensaries or private cultivation was positively associated with availability of tobacco products for blunts. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services, however, was negatively associated with greater availability of these products at tobacco outlets. Results suggest that availability of tobacco products associated with blunts is similar in neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and racial and ethnic composition. Results also suggest the important role that community norms that support marijuana use or legalization of medical marijuana and medical marijuana policy may play in increasing availability of tobacco products associated with blunts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using deviance regulation theory to target marijuana use intentions among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Raeder, Cody A; Kramer, Matthew P; Sargent, Emily; Stevenson, Brittany L; Helmy, Mai

    2018-02-01

    Several large epidemiological studies have shown increasing trends on a number of indices of marijuana use among college age samples. This may be due to changing attitudes about marijuana use linked to legalization efforts. Interventions that can target problematic use on a broad scale are lacking. Recent research has shown that deviance regulation theory (DRT) can be used to design effective web-based substance use interventions. DRT relies on the interplay between perceived norms and an appropriately framed message about the given behavior. The current study examines the use of DRT to change marijuana use intentions. Participants (n = 694 college students) completed measures of marijuana use and marijuana use norms. They were then assigned to receive a positively framed message about marijuana abstainers or a negatively framed message about marijuana users. Following the manipulation, participants rated intentions to use marijuana over the next three months. Consistent with DRT, there was an interaction between message frame and marijuana use norms. The positive frame attenuated the association between marijuana use norms and use intentions. A negative frame resulted in the lowest levels of use intentions among those with low use norms. Results suggest that DRT may be used to modify use intentions in college students, a population that has shown increasing rates of use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Marijuana in the Workplace: Guidance for Occupational Health Professionals and Employers: Joint Guidance Statement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennan A; Holland, Michael G; Baldwin, Debra D; Gifford-Meuleveld, Linda; Mueller, Kathryn L; Perkison, Brett; Upfal, Mark; Dreger, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    medical marijuana, prescription medications, illegal drugs, alcohol, over-the-counter medications, fatigue, or any combination thereof. 8. In states where marijuana use is permitted, employers should provide educational resources regarding the detrimental effects of marijuana use, including caution regarding dose and delayed effects of edible products. This information may be obtained from SAMHSA and state governmental agencies. The safety of workers and the public must be central to all workplace policies and employers must clearly articulate that legalization of marijuana for recreational or medical use does not negate workplace policies for safe job performance. The evolving legal situation on medical and recreational marijuana requires employers to consult with legal experts to craft company policy and clarify implications of impaired on-duty workers. This changing environment surrounding marijuana use requires close collaboration between employers, occupational health professionals, and legal experts to ensure that workplace safety is not compromised.

  2. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  3. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA USE AMONG BLACKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, C.; Vincent, M.; Rogers, A.; Donat, M.; Ojike, N. I.; Necola, O.; Yousef, E.; Masters-Israilov, A.; Jean-Louis, G.; McFarlane, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased legalization of marijuana has resulted in renewed interest in its effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk. Conflicting data exist regarding marijuana effects on body weight, waist circumference as well as lipid profiles, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there is a dearth of data available on this effect in the black population. Objective To assess the metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors as well as body weight and waist circumference among urban black marijuana users. Methods A cross sectional study design involving 100 patients seen in a Family Practice clinic at University hospital of Brooklyn, NY, USA, over a period of 3 months from January 2014 to March 2014. Participants were administered a questionnaire regarding marijuana use, and other associated behaviors. Socio-demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were collected. We report measures of central tendencies, and dispersion for continuous variables and the frequency of distribution for categorical variables. Results Of the 100 patients surveyed, 57% were females. The mean (±SEM) age of the entire cohort was 46.3 years±1.5; range, 19–78 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.6 kg/m2±0.73; SBP=128.0 mmHg±1.69; DBP=76.1 mmHg±1.17. Current marijuana users had the lowest waist circumference compared to former or never users respectively (32.9±0.66 vs. 35.9±0.88 vs. 33.4±0.74), pmarijuana users compared to current or never users, (80.0±2.1 vs. 73.3±2.3 vs. 73.4±1.6), pmarijuana users showed a tendency (not statistically significant) towards lower total cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure, compared to former users or never users. Conclusion Current marijuana use is associated with significantly lower waist circumference, compared to former users and never users. Except for diastolic BP that was

  4. One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially Impairs Vascular Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Liu, Jiangtao; Narayan, Shilpa; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Le, Stephenie; Danforth, Olivia M; Pinnamaneni, Kranthi; Rodriguez, Hilda J; Luu, Emmy; Sievers, Richard E; Schick, Suzaynn F; Glantz, Stanton A; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-07-27

    Despite public awareness that tobacco secondhand smoke (SHS) is harmful, many people still assume that marijuana SHS is benign. Debates about whether smoke-free laws should include marijuana are becoming increasingly widespread as marijuana is legalized and the cannabis industry grows. Lack of evidence for marijuana SHS causing acute cardiovascular harm is frequently mistaken for evidence that it is harmless, despite chemical and physical similarity between marijuana and tobacco smoke. We investigated whether brief exposure to marijuana SHS causes acute vascular endothelial dysfunction. We measured endothelial function as femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in rats before and after exposure to marijuana SHS at levels similar to real-world tobacco SHS conditions. One minute of exposure to marijuana SHS impaired FMD to a comparable extent as impairment from equal concentrations of tobacco SHS, but recovery was considerably slower for marijuana. Exposure to marijuana SHS directly caused cannabinoid-independent vasodilation that subsided within 25 minutes, whereas FMD remained impaired for at least 90 minutes. Impairment occurred even when marijuana lacked cannabinoids and rolling paper was omitted. Endothelium-independent vasodilation by nitroglycerin administration was not impaired. FMD was not impaired by exposure to chamber air. One minute of exposure to marijuana SHS substantially impairs endothelial function in rats for at least 90 minutes, considerably longer than comparable impairment by tobacco SHS. Impairment of FMD does not require cannabinoids, nicotine, or rolling paper smoke. Our findings in rats suggest that SHS can exert similar adverse cardiovascular effects regardless of whether it is from tobacco or marijuana. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Marijuana Use and Driving Under the Influence among Young Adults: A Socioecological Perspective on Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Daniel, Carmen N; Vu, Milkie; Li, Jingjing; Martin, Kathleen; Le, Lana

    2018-02-23

    Given increases in marijuana use and driving under the influence (DUI), it is critical to identify those at risk in order to inform intervention efforts. We used a socioecological framework to examine correlates of level of marijuana use and DUI in the past month among young adult marijuana users. We recruited 1567 participants aged 18-34 years via Facebook ads targeting tobacco and marijuana users in August 2014 to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use and DUI, as well as related multilevel factors. Analyses focused on 649 participants reporting past 30-day marijuana use. The sample was an average age of 24.48 (SD = 5.10), 43.9% female, and 76.4% White and used marijuana an average of 17.86 (SD = 11.29) days in the past month. Notably, 48.4% reported driving after marijuana use at least once in the past month, and 74.0% were passengers. Multivariable regression indicated that greater use was associated with: being older; being male; greater symptoms of dependence; residing in a state with recreational marijuana legalized; having a medical marijuana card; having parents and more friends who use; higher coping motives; lower perceived harm to health; and less concern about driving after marijuana use (adjusted R-squared = 0.294). Correlates of driving after using marijuana in the past month included: being younger; more frequent use; having more friends who use; higher enhancement motives; and less concern about driving after using (Nagelkerke R-squared = 0.442). Conclusions/Importance: Interventions and campaigns should address social norms and risk perceptions regarding marijuana use, particularly as it relates to DUI.

  6. Dynamic transitions between marijuana use and cigarette smoking among US adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-07

    Marijuana and tobacco are considered two closely related substances. It is of great significance to understand the mutual impact of marijuana and cigarette use when more states in the US have legalized marijuana use. This study aims to investigate the transitions between marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents and emerging adults. Guided by the probabilistic discrete events systems (PDES) theory, a five-stage model with 21 transition paths was constructed to quantify dynamic transitions between marijuana and cigarette use. The five stages were NU: Never-user, MU: Current marijuana user, CU: Current cigarette user, MCU: Current marijuana-cigarette user, and FU: Former-user. The proposed five-stage PDES model was tested using the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data (N = 26,665, 50.45% male). Transition probabilities were estimated using the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse matrix method. Among the adolescents, 51.14% of the CUs transited to use marijuana (MCU/MU), higher than the proportion of those who first used marijuana and then transferred to cigarettes (MCU/CU) (41.66%). The quitting rates for MUs, CUs and MCUs were 29.38%, 25.93% and 27.76%, respectively. Of the total FUs, 31.90% transited to MUs, 17.06% to CUs, and 17.39% to MCUs. Among the young adults, more people progressed from MUs to CUs. Transition probabilities by single year of age were also estimated. This is the first study to quantify marijuana-cigarette transitions. Study findings indicate more cigarette-to-marijuana transitions for adolescents and more marijuana-to-cigarette transitions for emerging adults. Future intervention programs should consider this age-related difference in marijuana-cigarette use transitions.

  7. Legalization of Cannabis in the USA : A System Dynamics Approach to Drug Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, R.; Thompson, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Colorado and Washington State have made history by approving measures to make marijuana sale and use legal for people over the age of 21, in direct opposition to federal law. While there is a sizable discussion of the actual repercussions that legal marijuana would entail, no one knows what will

  8. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  9. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  10. The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal marijuana has already been legalized in over 23 states with more considering legalization. Despite the trend toward legalization, to date, there has been no systematic review of the existing literature for the efficacy of medicinal marijuana for many of the conditions for which it is proposed to treat. This study seeks to understand the current literature regarding the use of medicinal marijuana in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data Sources: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched until April 2014 for articles outlining outcomes of case files, control studies, and observational studies regarding the efficacy of medicinal marijuana in treating PTSD. Various combinations of the following search terms were used: marijuana, medicinal marijuana, cannabis, cannabinoid, PTSD, efficacy, trial, and neurobiology. Study Selection: Full text of each article was reviewed, and those directly addressing the question of efficacy of medicinal marijuana on PTSD symptomatology were included. Data were extracted from a total of 46 articles. Results: Analysis revealed that most reports are correlational and observational in basis with a notable lack of randomized, controlled studies. Many of the published studies suggest a decrease in PTSD symptoms with marijuana use. Though the directionality of cannabis use and PTSD could not be fully differentiated at this time, there appears to also be a correlation between PTSD and problematic cannabis use. Despite this finding, there is a growing amount of neurobiological evidence and animal studies suggesting potential neurologically based reasons for the reported efficacy. Conclusions: Posttraumatic stress disorder is 1 of the approved conditions for medicinal marijuana in some states. While the literature to date is suggestive of a potential decrease in PTSD symptomatology with the use of medicinal marijuana, there is a notable lack of large-scale trials, making any final conclusions difficult

  11. Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolikonda, Murali K; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Enja, Manasa; Sagi, Vishwanath; Lippmann, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-refractory epilepsy remains an important clinical problem. There is considerable recent interest by the public and physicians in using medical marijuana or its derivatives to treat seizures. The endocannabinoid system has a role in neuronal balance and ictal control. There is clinical evidence of success in diminishing seizure frequencies with cannabis derivatives, but also documentation about exacerbating epilepsy or of no discernible effect. There are lay indications and anecdotal reports of success in attenuating the severity of epilepsy, but without solid investigational corroboration. Marijuana remains largely illegal, and may induce adverse consequences. Clinical applications are not approved, thus are restricted and only recommended in selected treatment unresponsive cases, with appropriate monitoring.

  12. State of transition: Marijuana use among young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-09-01

    California may vote on marijuana legalization in 2016. Young adults have the highest rates of marijuana use, but little is known about the correlates of use in this age group, including factors that may be affected by policy change. We investigated whether there are differences in marijuana use by sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, loneliness and social support, controlling for risk factors such as alcohol and cigarette use as well as perceived harm of marijuana. Bivariate and multivariable analysis of past 30day marijuana use using the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multi-mode survey of (N=1324) young adults (aged 18-26years) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties, stratified by race/ethnicity. 291 (27%) sample participants reported current marijuana use. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (referent) Asian/Pacific Islander respondents were less likely to use marijuana (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80) while multiracial participants were twice as likely (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.85). Psychological distress was not related to marijuana use, but social support (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88) and loneliness (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86) were. Perceived harm of marijuana was inversely related to marijuana use (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70), while smoking cigarettes (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.28-6.84) and binge drinking (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) were positively related. Legalization policies should include public education campaigns addressing potential harms of marijuana use particularly targeting multiracial young adults who also engage in other risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and binge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the overlap between tobacco and marijuana: Trends in patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana in adults from 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Berg, Carla J; Kegler, Michelle C; Donovan, Dennis M; Windle, Michael

    2015-10-01

    As marijuana legalization and acceptability increase in the U.S., it is important to understand the potential impact on tobacco use. Accordingly, we assessed prevalence, correlates, and ten-year trends in co-use of marijuana and tobacco among U.S. adults. Data came from 378,459 adults participating in the 2003-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual, cross-sectional, household survey. Data from 2011-2012 were used to compute the most recent prevalence of past 30-day marijuana and tobacco use (co-use). Data from 2003-2012 were used to compute demographic correlates of co-use, overall trends in co-use, and trends by age, race, and sex. We also assessed trends in tobacco use among marijuana users and marijuana use among tobacco users. From 2011 to 2012, 5.2% of participants were past month co-marijuana and tobacco users, 24.0% were tobacco-only users, and 2.3% were marijuana-only users. From 2003 to 2012, prevalence of co-use increased overall (pmarijuana legalization policies expand and become more integrated in communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating ballot initiative support for legalised marijuana: The case of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, Loren; O'Brien, Ben Gonzalez; Dreier, Sarah

    2018-03-11

    In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first U.S. states to legalise recreational marijuana. By 2016, eight states and the District of Columbia had legalised recreational marijuana, with more expected to consider it in 2018. Despite this trend, little academic research explains what drives ballot-initiative vote choice on marijuana legalisation. This paper uses a pre-election random sample voter survey to examine the individual characteristics that correlated with Washington voters' support for legal recreational marijuana. We find that voting on marijuana ballot initiatives largely reflects public opinion about marijuana and is particularly shaped voters' political ideology, party affiliation, religious affiliation and practice, and education. Notably, we find that those reporting experiences (i.e., someone they know) with the criminal justice system are more supportive of legalisation than those who do not. We conclude that marijuana legalisation voting behavior generally aligns with public opinion on the issue. However, one key aspect of Washington's legalisation campaign-the criminal injustices of marijuana illegality-helped shape Washington state voting behavior. Further research is needed to examine if, when, and in what contexts criminal justice campaign themes are likely to strengthen or undermine future states' marijuana legalisation efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994-2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994-June 2009 while July 2009-2011 represented the post-commercialization period. In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), pmarijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marijuana use and mortality following orthopedic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Andrew S; Smith, Walter; Mullen, Sawyer; Ponce, Brent A; McGwin, Gerald; Shah, Ashish; Naranje, Sameer M

    2018-03-20

    The association between marijuana use and surgical procedures is a matter of increasing societal relevance that has not been well studied in the literature. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between marijuana use and in-hospital mortality, as well as to assess associated comorbidities in patients undergoing commonly billed orthopedic surgeries. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2010 to 2014 was used to determine the odds ratios for the associations between marijuana use and in-hospital mortality, heart failure (HF), stroke, and cardiac disease (CD) in patients undergoing five common orthopedic procedures: hip (THA), knee (TKA), and shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), spinal fusion, and traumatic femur fracture fixation. Of 9,561,963 patients who underwent one of the five selected procedures in the four-year period, 26,416 (0.28%) were identified with a diagnosis of marijuana use disorder. In hip and knee arthroplasty patients, marijuana use was associated with decreased odds of mortality compared to no marijuana use (p<0.0001), and increased odds of HF (p = 0.018), stroke (p = 0.0068), and CD (p = 0.0123). Traumatic femur fixation patients had the highest prevalence of marijuana use (0.70%), which was associated with decreased odds of mortality (p = 0.0483), HF (p = 0.0076), and CD (p = 0.0003). For spinal fusions, marijuana use was associated with increased odds of stroke (p<0.0001) and CD (p<0.0001). Marijuana use in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty was associated with decreased odds of mortality (p<0.001) and stroke (p<0.001). In this study, marijuana use was associated with decreased mortality in patients undergoing THA, TKA, TSA and traumatic femur fixation, although the significance of these findings remains unclear. More research is needed to provide insight into these associations in a growing surgical population.

  17. The science of marijuana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iversen, Leslie L

    2008-01-01

    ... 1930s, which essentially eliminated all medical research in the field for almost 30 years. This action was tragic for science, as chemists were extremely close to isolating the active chemical ingredient of marijuana prior to World War II. The identification of delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) had to wait for the elegant efforts of Raphael ...

  18. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  19. Perceptions of the relative harmfulness of marijuana and alcohol among adults in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Farrelly, Matthew C; Duke, Jennifer C; Kamyab, Kian; Nonnemaker, James M; Wylie, Sarah; Dutra, Lauren; Gourdet, Camille

    2018-04-01

    This study documents perceptions of the relative harmfulness of marijuana and alcohol to a person's health among adults in Oregon just before the first legal sales of marijuana for recreational use. We surveyed 1941 adults in Oregon in September 2015. Respondents were recruited using an address-based sampling (ABS) frame (n = 1314) and social media advertising (n = 627). Respondents completed paper surveys (ABS-mail, n = 388) or online surveys (ABS-online, n = 926; social media, n = 627). We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to examine perceptions of the relative harmfulness of marijuana and alcohol by sample characteristics, including substance use. About half of adults in Oregon (52.5%) considered alcohol to be more harmful to a person's health than marijuana. A substantial proportion considered the substances equally harmful (40.0%). Few considered marijuana to be more harmful than alcohol (7.5%). In general, respondents who were younger, male, and not Republican were more likely than others to consider alcohol more harmful than marijuana. Respondents who were older, female, and Republican were more likely to consider marijuana and alcohol equally harmful. Most individuals who reported using both marijuana and alcohol (67.7%) and approximately half of those who used neither substance (48.2%) considered alcohol to be more harmful than marijuana. Perceptions about the relative harmfulness of marijuana and alcohol may have implications for public health. As state lawmakers develop policies to regulate marijuana, it may be helpful to consider the ways in which those policies may also affect use of alcohol and co-use of alcohol and marijuana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Health care providers' opinions on abortion: a study for the implementation of the legal abortion public policy in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvina; Romero, Mariana; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2014-09-24

    In Argentina, abortion has been decriminalized under certain circumstances since the enactment of the Penal Code in 1922. Nevertheless, access to abortion under this regulatory framework has been extremely limited in spite of some recent changes. This article reports the findings of the first phase of an operations research study conducted in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina, regarding the implementation of the local legal and safe abortion access policy. The project combined research and training to generate a virtuous circle of knowledge production, decision-making, and the fostering of an informed healthcare policy. The project used a pre-post design of three phases: baseline, intervention, and evaluation. It was conducted in two public hospitals. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire (n = 157) and semi-structured interviews (n = 27) were applied to gather information about tacit knowledge about the regulatory framework; personal opinions regarding abortion and its decriminalization; opinions on the requirements needed to carry out legal abortions; and service's responses to women in need of an abortion. Firstly, a fairly high percentage of health care providers lack accurate information on current legal framework. This deficit goes side by side with a restrictive understanding of both health and rape indications. Secondly, while a great majority of health care providers support abortion under the circumstances consider in the Penal Code, most of them are reluctant towards unrestricted access to abortion. Thirdly, health care providers' willingness to perform abortions is noticeably low given that only half of them are ready to perform an abortion when a woman's life is at risk. Willingness is even lower for each of the other current legal indications. Findings suggest that there are important challenges for the implementation of a legal abortion policy. Results of the study call for specific strategies targeting health care providers in order

  1. Alcohol, marijuana, and opioid use disorders: 5-Year patterns and characteristics of emergency department encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahorik, Amber L; Satre, Derek D; Kline-Simon, Andrea H; Weisner, Constance M; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2018-01-02

    Changes in substance use patterns stemming from opioid misuse, ongoing drinking problems, and marijuana legalization may result in new populations of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) using emergency department (ED) resources. This study examined ED admission trends in a large sample of patients with alcohol, marijuana, and opioid use disorders in an integrated health system. In a retrospective design, electronic health record (EHR) data identified patients with ≥1 of 3 common SUDs in 2010 (n = 17,574; alcohol, marijuana, or opioid use disorder) and patients without SUD (n = 17,574). Logistic regressions determined odds of ED use between patients with SUD versus controls (2010-2014); mixed-effect models examined 5-year differences in utilization; moderator models identified subsamples for which patients with SUD may have a greater impact on ED resources. Odds of ED use were higher at each time point (2010-2014) for patients with alcohol (odds ratio [OR] range: 5.31-2.13, Ps < .001), marijuana (OR range: 5.45-1.97, Ps < .001), and opioid (OR range: 7.63-4.19, Ps < .001) use disorders compared with controls; odds decreased over time (Ps < .001). Patients with opioid use disorder were at risk of high ED utilization; patients were 7.63 times more likely to have an ED visit in 2010 compared with controls and remained 5.00 (average) times more likely to use ED services. ED use increased at greater rates for patients with alcohol and opioid use disorders with medical comorbidities relative to controls (Ps < .045). ED use is frequent in patients with SUDs who have access to private insurance coverage and integrated medical services. ED settings provide important opportunities in health systems to identify patients with SUDs, particularly patients with opioid use disorder, to initiate treatment and facilitate ongoing care, which may be effective for reducing excess medical emergencies and ED encounters.

  2. Can I Use Marijuana Safely? An Examination of Distal Antecedents, Marijuana Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Marijuana Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Given the high prevalence of marijuana use among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. We examined marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a proximal predictor of marijuana-related outcomes and a mediator of the associations between other known risk/protective factors and marijuana-related outcomes. Using data from a sample of 2,129 past-month marijuana users, collected from 11 universities in the United States, we examined marijuana PBS use as a mediator of the effects of sex, age at first use, impulsivity-like traits, and marijuana use motives on marijuana use frequency and marijuana related consequences. Marijuana PBS was identified as a robust negative predictor of marijuana use frequency and marijuana-related consequences. Further, Marijuana PBS use fully or partially mediated the effects of sex, premeditation, perseverance, coping motives, enhancement motives, conformity motives, and expansion motives on marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana PBS use is a good candidate to be considered as a mechanism by which marijuana users moderate their marijuana use and attenuate their risk of experiencing marijuana-related consequences.

  3. Ontario court affirms that medical marijuana regulations are unconstitutional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Gordon

    2003-12-01

    On 7 October 2003, the Ontario Court of Appeal upheld the Ontario Superior Court of Justice decision in Hitzig, which found that the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) represented an unconstitutional barrier to accessing a legal supply of marijuana for persons with a recognized medical need. The Court of Appeal tailored its remedial order by striking down the second specialist test required for certain applicants, and eliminating the unconstitutional eligibility and supply provisions, rather than declaring unconstitutional the entire MMAR as the lower court had done. The court's declaration was made effective immediately, in order to maintain the prohibition for non-medicinal possession of marijuana under section 4 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), and to constitutionalize the medical exemption for marijuana possession created under the MMAR.

  4. Interrelationships between marijuana demand and discounting of delayed rewards: Convergence in behavioral economic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Elizabeth R; Metrik, Jane; Amlung, Michael; Kahler, Christopher W; MacKillop, James

    2016-12-01

    Distinct behavioral economic domains, including high perceived drug value (demand) and delay discounting (DD), have been implicated in the initiation of drug use and the progression to dependence. However, it is unclear whether frequent marijuana users conform to a "reinforcer pathology" addiction model wherein marijuana demand and DD jointly increase risk for problematic marijuana use and cannabis dependence (CD). Participants (n=88, 34% female, 14% cannabis dependent) completed a marijuana purchase task at baseline. A delay discounting task was completed following placebo marijuana cigarette (0% THC) administration during a separate experimental session. Marijuana demand and DD were quantified using area under the curve (AUC). In multiple regression models, demand uniquely predicted frequency of marijuana use while DD did not. In contrast, DD uniquely predicted CD symptom count while demand did not. There were no significant interactions between demand and DD in either model. These findings suggest that frequent marijuana users exhibit key constituents of the reinforcer pathology model: high marijuana demand and steep discounting of delayed rewards. However, demand and DD appear to be independent rather than synergistic risk factors for elevated marijuana use and risk for progression to CD. Findings also provide support for using AUC as a singular marijuana demand metric, particularly when also examining other behavioral economic constructs that apply similar statistical approaches, such as DD, to support analytic methodological convergence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The predicted impact of VOCs from Marijuana cultivation operations on ozone concentrations in great Denver, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Ashworth, K.

    2016-12-01

    Colorado is the first the marijuana legal states in the United States since 2014. As a result, thousands of legal Marijuana cultivation operations are at great Denver area now. Those Marijuana cultivation operations could be the potential to release a lot of biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpene(C10H16), alpha-pinene, and D-limonene. Those alkene species could rapidly increase the peroxy radicals and chemical reactions in the atmosphere, especially in the urban area which belong to VOC-limited ozone regime. These emissions will increase the ozone in Denver city, where is ozone non-attainment area. Some previous research explained the marijuana smoke and indoor air quality (Martyny, Serrano, Schaeffer, & Van Dyke, 2013) and the smell of marijuana chemical compounds(Rice & Koziel, 2015). However, there have been no studies discuss on identifying and assessing emission rate from marijuana and how those species impact on atmospheric chemistry and ozone concentration, and the marijuana emissions have been not considered in the national emission inventory, either. This research will use air quality model to identify the possibility of ozone impact by marijuana cultivation emission. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions, CAMx, are applied for this research to identify the impact of ozone concentration. This model is government regulatory model based on the Three-State Air Quality Modeling Study (3SAQS), which developed by UNC-Chapel Hill and ENVIRON in 2012. This model is used for evaluation and regulate the ozone impact in ozone non-attainment area, Denver city. The details of the 3SAQS model setup and protocol can be found in the 3SAQS report(UNC-IE, 2013). For the marijuana emission study scenarios, we assumed the monoterpene (C10H16) is the only emission species in air quality model and identify the ozone change in the model by the different quantity of emission rate from marijuana cultivation operations.

  6. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  7. Shifting drug policy: the politics of marijuana in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Zathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Medical and recreational marijuana legalization, and public acceptance, is in a rapid state of change across the nation. Currently, there are 20 states along with the District of Colombia that have medical marijuana laws. Each of these state governments has passed legislation on a drug for medical purposes, in which the federal government maintains there was, and still remains, no basis for medical use. Additionally, Colorado and Wash...

  8. Neurocognition in College-Aged Daily Marijuana Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Use, particularly when it occurs early, has been associated with cognitive impairments in executive functioning, learning, and memory. Methods This study comprehensively measured cognitive ability as well as comorbid psychopathology and substance use history to determine the neurocognitive profile associated with young adult marijuana use. College-aged marijuana users who initiated use prior to age 17 (n=35) were compared to demographically-matched controls (n=35). Results Marijuana users were high functioning, demonstrating comparable IQs to controls and relatively better processing speed. Marijuana users demonstrated relative cognitive impairments in verbal memory, spatial working memory, spatial planning, and motivated decision-making. Comorbid use of alcohol, which was heavier in marijuana users, was unexpectedly found to be associated with better performance in some of these areas. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of neurocognitive impairment in the context of adolescent and young adult marijuana use. Findings are discussed in relation to marijuana’s effects on intrinsic motivation and discrete aspects of cognition. PMID:24620756

  9. Older marijuana users' marijuana risk perceptions: associations with marijuana use patterns and marijuana and other substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2017-12-10

    Compared to their non-using age peers, older marijuana users are known to have lower marijuana risk perceptions. We examined associations of older marijuana users' risk perceptions with their marijuana use patterns and substance use disorders. Data are from 2013 to 2015 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (N = 24,057 respondents aged 50+ years). Bivariate logistic regression was used to compare risk perceptions among never users, former users, and past-year users aged 50+ years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between risk perception and marijuana use status and between risk perception and marijuana use patterns. Among the total sample, former (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.27-0.32) and past-year (AOR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.04-0.06) marijuana users had significantly lower odds of moderate/great risk perception (as opposed to no/slight risk perception) than never users. Among past-year users, odds of moderate/great risk perception were lower among those who used marijuana more frequently (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.07-0.28 for 300+ days of use compared to 1-11 days of use) and who reported any medical marijuana use (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.14-0.51). However, those who had marijuana use disorder were 3.5 times more likely to report moderate/great risk perception (AOR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.62-7.58). Those who had a college education, had higher incomes, and resided in states with medical marijuana laws also had lower risk perceptions. Public health education on scientific evidence about marijuana's benefits and harms and age-appropriate treatment for older adults with substance use problems are needed. Research on risk perception formation using longitudinal data among older adults is also needed.

  10. Three Facts About Marijuana Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth W. Clements

    2004-01-01

    Australians are among the largest consumers of marijuana in the world, and estimates show that their expenditure on marijuana is about twice that on wine. In this paper we analyse the evolution of marijuana prices in Australia and show that they have declined in real terms by almost 40 percent over the last decade. This decline is far above that experienced by most agricultural products. Why has this occurred and what are the implications? The extensive adoption of hydroponic techniques in gr...

  11. Medicinal applications of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, E A; Schwartz, R H

    1997-05-15

    The use of crude marijuana for herbal medicinal applications is now being widely discussed in both the medical and lay literature. Ballot initiatives in California and Arizona have recently made crude marijuana accessible to patients under certain circumstances. As medicinal applications of pure forms of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and crude marijuana are being considered, the most promising uses of any form of THC are to counteract the nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy and to stimulate appetite. We evaluated the relevant research published between 1975 and 1996 on the medical applications, physical complications, and legal precedents for the use of pure THC or crude marijuana. Our review focused on the medical use of THC derivatives for nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy, glaucoma, stimulation of appetite, and spinal cord spasticity. Despite the toxicity of THC delivered in any form, evidence supports the selective use of pure THC preparations to treat nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy and to stimulate appetite. The evidence does not support the reclassification of crude marijuana as a prescribable medicine.

  12. Pregnant Women's Access to Information About Perinatal Marijuana Use: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Tarr, Jill A; Holland, Cynthia L; Farrell, David; Chang, Judy C

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in pregnancy. Little is known about how pregnant women who use marijuana obtain and understand information about perinatal marijuana use. We conducted a qualitative study among pregnant women who had used marijuana to understand their information-seeking patterns and perceptions of usefulness of available information about perinatal marijuana use. We conducted semistructured interviews with 26 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care and who either disclosed marijuana use or had urine samples testing positive for marijuana. Interviews assessed women's sources of information about risks of perinatal marijuana use and perceptions regarding the usefulness of such information. Interview data were coded independently by two coders who iteratively refined the codes and reviewed transcripts for themes. Commonly reported sources of information about perinatal marijuana use included Internet searching and anecdotal experiences or advice from family or friends. Few women reported receiving helpful information from a health care provider or social worker. Women perceived a lack of evidence about harms of perinatal marijuana use, and reported being dissatisfied with the quality of information. Most women said they desired information about the effects of perinatal marijuana use on infant health. Women who used marijuana before or during pregnancy did not find available information about perinatal marijuana use to be useful, and sought more information pertaining to infant health and well-being. Efforts to reduce perinatal marijuana use should focus on addressing this need in both clinical and public health settings. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns and factors of problematic marijuana use in the Canadian population: Evidence from three cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, W I Andrew; Andkhoie, Mustafa; Thompson, Charlene; Farag, Marwa; Szafron, Michael

    2017-06-16

    The objectives of this study are to describe marijuana use in Canada and explore factors associated with problematic use. Data from the 2010-2012 circulations of the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey were used to create three logistic regression models for the purposes of identifying and comparing factors associated with the degree of marijuana use, as determined via the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Abuse Involvement Screening Test (non-problematic, problematic) and European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (experiential, recent, current) methods. Canadians aged 15-24 years are 15 times (p marijuana use being 10 times (p marijuana use are 2.46 times (p marijuana use are 41.0% (p = 0.031) and 53.0% (p = 0.008) greater for marijuana users with household incomes $40,000-$80,000 and less than $40,000 respectively compared to those with household income over $80,000. An earlier age of first marijuana use is associated with problematic use but not necessarily with being a current user. The majority of our findings are consistent with the literature, showing that Canadians who are: male, adolescent or young adult, smokers, heavy drinkers, other illicit drug users, and who have poorer mental health status are more likely to engage in any marijuana use, particularly higher levels of marijuana use. These findings can be used to inform the development of policy in Canada to address problematic marijuana use and prepare for its possible legalization.

  14. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. PMID:27262456

  15. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use.

  16. The Marijuana-discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Bottalico Dougie Kevin, Edoardo; Duerto-Orlando, Ramòn; Muszala, Lukas; Santamaria, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Questo progetto si prefigge lo scopo d’indagare su quanto la televisione influenzi l’opinione delle persone nei confronti della marijuana. Siamo partiti dal presupposto che il mezzo televisivo desse un’immagine particolarmente negativa della cannabis e dei suoi derivati, soprattutto nell’abito dell’informazione scientifica, dipingendola principalmente come un qualcosa di esclusivamente dannoso per la salute. Abbiamo deciso d’investigare questo fenomeno sul campo, tramite la creazione, in prim...

  17. Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolikonda, Murali K.; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Enja, Manasa; Sagi, Vishwanath; Lippmann, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-refractory epilepsy remains an important clinical problem. There is considerable recent interest by the public and physicians in using medical marijuana or its derivatives to treat seizures. The endocannabinoid system has a role in neuronal balance and ictal control. There is clinical evidence of success in diminishing seizure frequencies with cannabis derivatives, but also documentation about exacerbating epilepsy or of no discernible effect. There are lay indications and anecdotal...

  18. Are there secondary effects on marijuana use from brief alcohol interventions for college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helene R; Jiao, Yang; Ray, Anne E; Huh, David; Atkins, David C; Larimer, Mary E; Fromme, Kim; Corbin, William R; Baer, John S; LaBrie, Joseph W; Mun, Eun-Young

    2015-05-01

    This study examined whether brief motivational interventions (BMIs) designed for reducing heavy drinking among college students have secondary effects on reducing marijuana use. The data came from Project INTEGRATE, which combined data from 24 independent trials of BMIs and other individual-focused interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking and related problems among college students. We analyzed data from 10 samples across nine studies that used random assignment of participants into either a BMI or a control group and assessed marijuana use outcomes (N = 6,768; 41.5% men; 73.2% White; 57.7% first-year students; 19.2% current marijuana users at baseline). We derived three marijuana use groups within studies by cross-tabulating baseline and follow-up data: Nonusers, Reducers, and Stayers/Increasers. Peto's one-step odds ratio analyses for meta-analysis revealed no significant intervention effects on marijuana use at either short-term (1-3 month) or long-term (6-12 month) follow-up. Subsequent exploratory analyses showed that those who reduced drinking were more likely to be a marijuana Reducer or Nonuser, compared with a Stayer/Increaser, at both follow-ups. The BMIs to reduce heavy drinking evaluated in this study did not reduce marijuana use. However, our exploratory results suggest that if we can develop interventions for college students that effectively reduce drinking, we may also reduce their marijuana use. Furthermore, as recreational use of marijuana becomes legal or decriminalized and marijuana becomes more readily available, it may be necessary to develop interventions specifically targeting marijuana use among college students.

  19. Frequent marijuana use, binge drinking and mental health problems among undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; McNeil, Michael P; Silver, Rae; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-09-01

    In light of the rapidly changing legal status of marijuana in the U.S., there has been increased interest in the potentially adverse outcomes of heavy marijuana use among young persons. The goal of this study was to investigate frequent marijuana use among undergraduates, and its association with the use of illicit substances, mental health problems, and stress. Undergraduates from one university in the Northeast were surveyed using a questionnaire derived from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (N = 1,776). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between frequency of marijuana use and other substance use, binge drinking, negative consequences of drinking, mental health problems, and perceived stress. Analyses were adjusted for demographics differences such as gender, race, year in school, and sorority/fraternity membership. Approximately 1 in 12 undergraduates (8.5%) reported using marijuana more than 10 days in the past month. Frequent marijuana use was associated with increased likelihood of other substance use and alcohol-related negative outcomes. Marijuana use was associated with increased reports of anxiety, and frequent use was associated with depression and substance use problems. Perceived stress was not associated with marijuana use. These findings, indicating that frequent use is related to depression, other substance use and negative outcomes, contribute to our understanding of marijuana use among undergraduates. Given the relatively high prevalence of marijuana use among young persons, future studies should seek to uncover potentially causal relationships between frequent marijuana use and a variety of negative outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Committee Opinion Summary NO. 722: Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes, and its use by pregnant women could increase even further as a result. Because of concerns regarding impaired neurodevelopment, as well as maternal and fetal exposure to the adverse effects of smoking, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. Obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation. Pregnant women or women contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue use of marijuana for medicinal purposes in favor of an alternative therapy for which there are better pregnancy-specific safety data. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on infants during lactation and breastfeeding, and in the absence of such data, marijuana use is discouraged.

  1. Proving personal use: the admissibility of evidence negating intent to distribute marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Against the backdrop of escalating state efforts to decriminalize marijuana, U.S. Attorneys' Offices continue to bring drug-trafficking prosecutions against defendants carrying small amounts of marijuana that are permitted under state law. Federal district courts have repeatedly barred defendants from introducing evidence that they possessed this marijuana for their own personal use. This Note argues that district courts should not exclude three increasingly common kinds of "personal use evidence" under Federal Rules of Evidence 402 and 403 when that evidence is offered to negate intent to distribute marijuana. Three types of personal use evidence are discussed in this Note: (1) a defendant's possession of a state-issued medical marijuana license, (2) evidence that a state has legalized possession of marijuana for recreational purposes, and (3) evidence that a defendant suffers from a disease that marijuana arguably treats. Part I examines each of these three categories of personal use evidence and contends that district courts are likely to confront disputes over such evidence with increasing frequency. Part II analyzes objections to the admissibility of personal use evidence on direct examination, focusing primarily on Rules 402 and 403. Part III responds to those objections and argues that the evidence is probative of intent to distribute in federal marijuana-trafficking prosecutions.

  2. A case of butane hash oil (marijuana wax)-induced psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J; Chen, Evan C; Brodsky, Kimberly; Yoon, Jong H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is one of the most widely used controlled substances in the United States. Despite extensive research on smoked marijuana, little is known regarding the potential psychotropic effects of marijuana "wax," a high-potency form of marijuana that is gaining in popularity. The authors present a case of "Mr. B," a 34-year-old veteran who presented with profound psychosis in the setting of recent initiation of heavy, daily marijuana wax use. He exhibited incoherent speech and odd behaviors and appeared to be in a dream-like state with perseverating thoughts about his combat experience. His condition persisted despite treatment with risperidone 4 mg twice a day (BID), but improved dramatically on day 8 of hospitalization with the return of baseline mental function. Following discharge, Mr. B discontinued all marijuana use and did not exhibit the return of any psychotic symptoms. This study highlights the need for future research regarding the potential medical and psychiatric effects of new, high-potency forms of marijuana. Could cannabis have a dose-dependent impact on psychosis? What other potential psychiatric effects could emerge heretofore unseen in lower potency formulations? Given the recent legalization of marijuana, these questions merit timely exploration.

  3. New product trial, use of edibles, and unexpected highs among marijuana and hashish users in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer C; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian R; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between trial of new marijuana or hashish products and unexpected highs, and use of edible products and unexpected highs. We conducted an online survey of 634 adult, past-year marijuana users in Colorado. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between new product trial or edible use and unexpected highs. In the first year that recreational marijuana was legal in Colorado, 71.4% of respondents tried a new marijuana or hashish product, and 53.6% used an edible product. Trial of new products was associated with greater odds of experiencing an unexpected high after controlling for age, gender, education, mental health status, current marijuana or hashish use, and mean amount of marijuana or hashish consumed in the past month (OR=2.13, pmarijuana or hashish products, or use edible marijuana or hashish products, are at greater risk for an unexpected high. It is possible that some negative outcomes associated with marijuana use and unexpected highs may be averted through a better understanding of how to use product packaging to communicate with consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitudes Toward Medical Cannabis Legalization Among Serbian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Isidora; Pavlovic, Aleksandar; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2017-07-29

    Currently, medical cannabis polices are experiencing rapid changes, and an increasing number of nations around the world legalize medical cannabis for certain groups of patients, including those in Serbia. To determine medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Fourth-year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, had participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire. Overall, 63.4% students supported medical cannabis legalization, and only 20.8% supported its legalization for recreational use. Students who previously used marijuana (p marijuana recreational use was also related to prior marijuana (p marijuana and alcohol use, while beliefs that medical cannabis poses health risks correlated most strongly with previous marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance: The medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization were significantly correlated with previous use of marijuana and alcohol, knowledge about medical indications and side effects, and their beliefs regarding medical cannabis health benefits and risks.

  5. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. PMID:27503447

  6. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, T; Castro, N; Jacobus, J; Tapert, S

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Filbey, Francesca M.; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on the long-term effects of marijuana on the brain provides an inconsistent picture (i.e., presence or absence of structural changes) due to methodological differences across studies. We overcame these methodological issues by collecting multimodal measures in a large group of chronic marijuana using adults with a wide age range that allows for characterization of changes across lifespan without developmental or maturational biases as in other studies. Our findings sug...

  8. MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was ...

  9. Indicated prevention for college student marijuana use: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Kilmer, Jason R; Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C; Zheng, Cheng; Walker, Denise D; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    Marijuana is the most frequently reported illicit substance used on college campuses. Despite the prevalence, few published intervention studies have focused specifically on addressing high-risk marijuana use on college campuses. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an in-person brief motivational enhancement intervention for reducing marijuana use and related consequences among frequently using college students. Participants included 212 college students from 2 campuses who reported frequent marijuana use (i.e., using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month). Participants completed Web-based screening and baseline assessments and upon completion of the baseline survey were randomized to either an in-person brief intervention or an assessment control group. Follow-up assessments were completed approximately 3 and 6 months post-baseline. Marijuana use was measured by number of days used in the past 30 days, typical number of joints used in a typical week in the last 60 days, and marijuana-related consequences. Results indicated significant intervention effects on number of joints smoked in a typical week and a trend toward fewer marijuana-related consequences compared with the control group at 3-month follow-up. This study provides preliminary data on short-term effects of a focused marijuana intervention for college students at reducing marijuana use during the academic quarter. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  11. Marijuana use/cessation expectancies and marijuana use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbury, Lauren M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that marijuana expectancies are associated with problematic marijuana use; however, these marijuana-related cognitions remain relatively understudied. This study examined marijuana-related decision-making among college students by exploring the relationships among marijuana expectancies and marijuana use variables. College students (N = 357) endorsing lifetime marijuana use completed an online survey on marijuana use expectancies, marijuana cessation expectancies, marijuana use, and future marijuana use intentions. A simple regression framework was used to test the effect of each type of expectancies on marijuana outcome; a hierarchical regression framework tested the unique predictive validity when both types were entered into the same model. Both marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies independently predicted a number of marijuana use variables. Additionally, marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of marijuana use. It is important to consider both use expectancies and cessation expectancies, as these two domains of marijuana-related cognitions appear to act independently, rather than as opposite ends of the same construct. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine how these factors interact to influence marijuana use and problems over time.

  12. Marijuana Use and Dependence in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with Family and Peer Marijuana Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, Mónica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the

  13. Marijuana Use and Dependence in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with Family and Peer Marijuana Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, Monica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Margriet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the

  14. From Toques to Tokes: Two challenges facing nationwide legalization of cannabis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada. Irrespective of UN conventions that appear to prohibit legalization of cannabis the Government is preparing to bring forward legislation as this article goes to print. At the same time significant squabbles impede the selling of even beer and wine inter-provincially in Canada. This paper identifies the challenges facing Canadian legalization efforts, but also shows how the legalization legislation may provide opportunities to engender significant change beyond the simple legalization of a specific drug. This commentary does not argue for any specific course of action for Canada, but rather explores the nuance of legalization absent from the declaration in the Liberal party platform. The paper argues that Canada's efforts may hasten the dismantling of the UN drug control structure, and provide renewed opportunities for intern-provincial trade in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This ch...

  16. Medical Marijuana Users are More Likely to Use Prescription Drugs Medically and Nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L; Humphreys, Keith

    2018-04-17

    Previous studies have found a negative population-level correlation between medical marijuana availability in US states, and trends in medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. These studies have been interpreted as evidence that use of medical marijuana reduces medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. This study evaluates whether medical marijuana use is a risk or protective factor for medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. Simulations based upon logistic regression analyses of data from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compute associations between medical marijuana use, and medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. Adjusted risk ratios (RRs) were computed with controls added for age, sex, race, health status, family income, and living in a state with legalized medical marijuana. Medical marijuana users were significantly more likely (RR 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-1.74) to report medical use of prescription drugs in the past 12 months. Individuals who used medical marijuana were also significantly more likely to report nonmedical use in the past 12 months of any prescription drug (RR 2.12, 95% CI 1.67-2.62), with elevated risks for pain relievers (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.41-2.62), stimulants (RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.09-3.02), and tranquilizers (RR 2.18, 95% CI 1.45-3.16). Our findings disconfirm the hypothesis that a population-level negative correlation between medical marijuana use and prescription drug harms occurs because medical marijuana users are less likely to use prescription drugs, either medically or nonmedically. Medical marijuana users should be a target population in efforts to combat nonmedical prescription drug use.

  17. Legal and Financial Issues Associated with Providing Services in Schools to Children with Swallowing and Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power-deFur, Lissa; Alley, Nancy S. N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This review of federal statutes and regulations, state and federal administrative and case law, and policy documents is designed to provide information regarding the treatment of children with swallowing and feeding disorders in the law for the purpose of identifying best practice procedures for school personnel serving children with…

  18. Providing a Safe Learning Environment for Queer Students in Canadian Schools: A Legal Analysis of Homophobic Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…

  19. Leaf enclosure measurement for determining marijuana volatile organic compound emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Ashworth, K.; Harley, P. C.; Ortega, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, Colorado became the first US state to legalize the industrial-scale cultivation of marijuana plants. There are now more than 700 marijuana cultivation facilities (MCFs) in operation in the greater Denver area. High concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), predominantly monoterpenes (C10H16) such as alpha-pinene, myrcene, and limonene have been observed in the grow rooms of MCFs, suggesting MCFs have the potential to release a significant amount of reactive VOCs into the atmosphere. Further, many MCFs are located in the urban core, where other urban emission sources are concentrated, resulting in interactions which can lead to the formation of ozone, impacting air quality. The little research done on marijuana has focused on indoor air quality and occupational exposure, or identification of the compounds associated with the characteristic smells of marijuana plants. We know of no previous studies that have identified or quantified the monoterpene emission rates from marijuana. Here, we collected air samples from leaf enclosures from different marijuana clones at different growth stages onto sorbent cartridges. These samples were analyzed using GC-MS/-FID to identify and quantify the VOCs emitted by growing marijuana plants. These results were then used to estimate basal emission rates at standard conditions (T=30 C, PPFD = 1000 umol/m2/s) using standard algorithms. We discuss the potential impact on air quality from these VOCs emitted into the atmosphere using air quality models.

  20. Lung Disease Associated With Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; Zabert, Ignacio; Chatkin, Gustavo; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos Andrés; de Granda-Orive, Jose Ignacio; Buljubasich, Daniel; Solano Reina, Segismundo; Figueiredo, Ana; Ravara, Sofia; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Gratziou, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Marijuana is the most widely usedillegal drug in the world, with a prevalence of 2.5%-5%, and the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. The components of smoke from combustion of marijuana are similar to those produced by the combustion of tobacco, but they differ in terms of psychoactive components and use. Inhalation of cannabis smoke affects the respiratory tract, so the available evidence must be updated in order to provide pulmonologists with the latest scientific information. In this article, we review the impact of cannabis consumption on the lungs, taking into account that the respiratory route is the most popular route of cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Women's reports on postabortion family-planning services provided by the public-sector legal abortion program in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Davida; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G; Harper, Cynthia C

    2013-05-01

    To investigate patients' views of family-planning services provided in Mexico City during abortion care at public facilities and their acceptance of postabortion contraception. In total, 402 women seeking first-trimester abortion care in Mexico City were surveyed. Logistic regression was used to test whether postabortion contraception varied according to abortion visit characteristics or patient sociodemographics. Most participants (328 [81.6%]) reported being offered contraception at their visit and 359/401 (89.5%) selected a contraceptive method for postabortion use, with 236/401 (58.9%) selecting an intrauterine device. Women who underwent surgical abortion were more likely than those who underwent medical abortion to report being offered contraception (PMexico City provide a high level of postabortion family-planning care, and uptake of postabortion contraception is high. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Marijuana use, craving, and academic motivation and performance among college students: An in-the-moment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristina T; Phillips, Michael M; Lalonde, Trent L; Tormohlen, Kayla N

    2015-08-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the U.S., with high rates among young adults in the state of Colorado. Chronic, heavy marijuana use can impact cognitive functioning, which has the potential to influence academic performance of college students. It is possible that craving for marijuana may further contribute to diminished cognitive and affective functioning, thus leading to poor outcomes for students. College student marijuana users (n=57) were recruited based on heavy use and completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) via text-messaging. The association between marijuana use and craving in a college setting was explored, as well as how these variables might relate to academic motivation, effort and success. The participants were sent text messages for two weeks, three times per day at random times. A temporal association between craving and marijuana use was found, where momentary craving positively predicted greater marijuana use. Similarly, as craving levels increased, the number of minutes spent studying decreased at the next assessment point. A negative association between momentary craving for marijuana and academic motivation was found in the same moment. Greater academic self-efficacy positively predicted cumulative GPA, while average minutes spent smoking marijuana was negatively related. Using EMA, marijuana craving and use were significantly related. These findings provide further evidence that heavy marijuana use is negatively associated with academic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender Differences in the Relationships among Young Adults' Religiosity, Risk Perception, and Marijuana Use: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Audrey Hang

    2017-12-27

    Studies show that religiosity is a protective factor against marijuana use. Given many religions' teachings to promote risk perception of substance use, risk perception possibly mediates the relationship between religiosity and marijuana use. Moreover, since males and females differ in religiosity, risk perception, and marijuana use, gender may moderate religiosity's indirect effect on marijuana use through risk perception and religiosity's direct effect on marijuana use. Despite substantial research on religiosity and adolescent marijuana use, little research has targeted the young adult population. This study is the first to investigate the conditional nature of religiosity's influence on marijuana use through risk perception among young adults in the U.S. Using a nationally representative sample from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 12,646), conditional process analysis was examined through significant test of the index of moderated mediation. Additionally, mediation analysis was conducted in male (n = 6042) and female (n = 6604) groups separately to further characterize the nature of the relationships. Religiosity's indirect effect on marijuana use through risk perception was found to be significantly different between males and females, while there were no gender differences in religiosity's direct effect on marijuana use. The indirect effect of religiosity on marijuana use via risk perception was significant among both males and females and was larger for females than males. Prevention interventions for young adults' marijuana use that incorporate religiosity should emphasize factors related to risk perception and have a gender informed perspective. Direction for future research is provided.

  4. Joint Effects: A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Bipolar Disorder and Marijuana Use on Cognitive Function and Mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Sagar

    Full Text Available Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in those diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether marijuana may alleviate or exacerbate mood symptomatology. As bipolar disorder and marijuana use are individually associated with cognitive impairment, it also remains unclear whether there is an additive effect on cognition when bipolar patients use marijuana. The current study aimed to determine the impact of marijuana on mood in bipolar patients and to examine whether marijuana confers an additional negative impact on cognitive function. Twelve patients with bipolar disorder who smoke marijuana (MJBP, 18 bipolar patients who do not smoke (BP, 23 marijuana smokers without other Axis 1 pathology (MJ, and 21 healthy controls (HC completed a neuropsychological battery. Further, using ecological momentary assessment, participants rated their mood three times daily as well as after each instance of marijuana use over a four-week period. Results revealed that although the MJ, BP, and MJBP groups each exhibited some degree of cognitive impairment relative to HCs, no significant differences between the BP and MJBP groups were apparent, providing no evidence of an additive negative impact of BPD and MJ use on cognition. Additionally, ecological momentary assessment analyses indicated alleviation of mood symptoms in the MJBP group after marijuana use; MJBP participants experienced a substantial decrease in a composite measure of mood symptoms. Findings suggest that for some bipolar patients, marijuana may result in partial alleviation of clinical symptoms. Moreover, this improvement is not at the expense of additional cognitive impairment.

  5. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, Mai-Ly N; Neighbors, Clayton; Hove, M Christina; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M

    2015-09-01

    Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults' passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention.

  6. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  7. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users.

  8. Mental health problems and interest in marijuana treatment among marijuana-using college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Cohen, Alex S

    2010-09-01

    There is growing recognition that marijuana use among college students is associated with marijuana-related problems. Yet little work has examined whether use is associated with mental health problems and whether there is a dose effect such that individuals engaging in more frequent use evince relatively greater psychiatric impairments. Further, little is known about factors related to interest in marijuana treatment among students experiencing marijuana-related problems. The current study examined academic and psychiatric functioning as well as interest in marijuana treatment among undergraduates (N=1,689). Approximately 29% acknowledged marijuana use, with 9.8% using weekly or more. More frequent marijuana use was related to more academic difficulties. Marijuana use (among both weekly and less frequent users) was related to greater psychiatric impairment. Interest in marijuana treatment was examined among students with 2+ marijuana-related problems (n=251). Of those, 22.7% expressed interest in marijuana treatment. Factors positively related to treatment interest included: marijuana use frequency, use-related problems, friends' marijuana use, age, employment status, and some types of mental health problems. Marijuana use among college students is associated with academic, psychiatric, and marijuana-related impairments. However, there is some interest in treatment to manage marijuana use among undergraduates, particularly among those with more frequent and more problematic marijuana use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toking, Vaping, and Eating for Health or Fun: Marijuana Use Patterns in Adults, U.S., 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; King, Brian A; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Promoff, Gabbi; McAfee, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    Policies legalizing marijuana for medical and recreational use have been increasing in the U.S. Considering the potential impact of these policies, important knowledge gaps exist, including information about the prevalence of various modes of marijuana use (e.g., smoked in joints, bowls, bongs; consumed in edibles or drinks) and about medical versus recreational use. Accordingly, this study assessed (1) prevalence and correlates of modes of current and ever marijuana use and (2) prevalence of medicinal and recreational marijuana use in U.S. adults. Data came from Summer Styles (n=4,269), a nationally representative consumer panel survey of adults aged ≥18 years, collected in 2014. The survey asked about past 30-day (current) and ever mode of marijuana use and current reason for use (medicinal, recreational, both). Weighted prevalence estimates were computed and correlates were assessed in 2014 using logistic regression. Overall, 7.2% of respondents reported current marijuana use; 34.5% reported ever use. Among current users, 10.5% reported medicinal-only use, 53.4% reported recreational-only use, and 36.1% reported both. Use of bowl or pipe (49.5%) and joint (49.2%) predominated among current marijuana users, with lesser use of bong, water pipe, or hookah (21.7%); blunts (20.3%); edibles/drinks (16.1%); and vaporizers (7.6%); 92.1% of the sample reported combusted-only marijuana use. Combusted modes of marijuana use are most prevalent among U.S. adults, with a majority using marijuana for recreation. In light of changing policies and patterns of use, improved marijuana surveillance is critical for public health planning. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of Marijuana Users and Nonusers On A Number of Personality Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study compares marijuana users and nonusers in terms of (a) psychological needs, (b) self-descriptions, (c) self-esteem, (d) academic achievement, (e) ordinal position of birth, and (f) attitudes toward the legalization of various items. Some significant differences were reported between groups of users. (Author/PC)

  11. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  12. Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceived Ease of Access Before and After Recreational Marijuana Implementation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, Scott B; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ma, Ming; James, Katherine A; Levinson, Arnold H

    2018-02-23

    As of January 1, 2017, eight states have approved laws for recreational marijuana use. While the social impacts of these changes remain under debate, the influence on adolescent marijuana use is a key policy and health issue across the U.S. To examine changes in adolescent marijuana-use behaviors in the first year after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, and to analyze the effect of retail marijuana store proximity on youth use and perceptions. Secondary analysis of Healthy Kids Colorado Survey data from 40 schools surveyed before and after recreational marijuana sales were implemented (2013 student n = 12,240; 2014 student n = 11,931). Self-reported marijuana use, ease of access, and perceived harms were compared between years and by proximity of recreational marijuana stores to surveyed schools. Adolescent marijuana use behaviors, wrongness of use, and perceptions of risk of harm were unchanged from baseline to one-year follow-up. Perceived ease of access to marijuana increased (from 46% to 52%). Proximity of recreational marijuana stores was not significantly associated with perceived ease of access to marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: In the first study of adolescent marijuana use and perceptions after state retail implementation of recreational marijuana, there was little change in adolescent marijuana use but a significant change in perception of ease of access. Public health workers and policymakers should continue to monitor these changes as essential for evaluating the impact of liberalization of marijuana policies.

  13. Marijuana use in Pregnancy: Anaesthetic Implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    gesting drug use in pregnancy (including marijuana) include ab- sence of prenatal care, ... used for recreational purposes in many developed societies.1 Its health- and psychological effects ... Key words: Marijuana, Cannabis, Cannabinoids, Drug abuse, Chemical dependency, Drug addiction, Pregnancy. Correspondence:.

  14. Medical Marijuana in Certain Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Systematic Review for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES MEDICAL MARIJUANA IN CERTAIN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS This fact sheet presents the current research on medical marijuana (cannabis) for treating certain neurological disorders. The American ...

  15. An Internet survey of marijuana and hot shower use in adults with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Thangam; Sengupta, Jyotirmoy; Lodhi, Atena; Schroeder, Abigail; Adams, Kathleen; Hogan, Walter J; Wang, Yanzhi; Andrews, Christopher; Storr, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic disorder characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. A large proportion of patients use marijuana to control their symptoms. Several case reports implicate marijuana as a cause of intractable vomiting with compulsive hot water bathing considered pathognomonic of "cannabinoid hyperemesis." We sought to examine the relationship between marijuana use and CVS. Patients >18 years of age diagnosed by a health care provider were invited to participate in an anonymous internet-based survey. A total of 514 patients participated and 437 completed questions about marijuana use. Mean age was 34 ± 12 years with patients being predominantly female (63%), Caucasian (92%) and from the USA (82%). Nineteen percent never used marijuana and 81% did. Fifty-four percent used marijuana for health issues and 43% for recreational purposes. Users stated that it improved nausea, appetite, general well-being, stress levels and vomiting. Users were more likely to be male and have an associated anxiety disorder. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported taking hot showers/baths for symptom relief, and this was associated with marijuana use. (OR 2.54, CI 1.50-4.31, P = 0.0006). Eighty-one percent of patients with CVS who completed an internet survey reported frequent use of marijuana. With marijuana use, patients noted the greatest improvement with stress levels, appetite and nausea. Marijuana users were more likely to be male and have associated anxiety. Hot showers were not pathognomonic of marijuana use though they were more likely to be associated with its use.

  16. Burden of arrhythmia in recreational marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rupak; Patel, Upenkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Kumar, Gautam

    2018-03-27

    Marijuana or Cannabis is extensively used as a recreational substance globally. Case reports have reported cardiac arrhythmias immediately following recreational marijuana use. However, the burden of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users have not been evaluated through prospective or cross-sectional studies. Therefore, we planned to measure temporal trends of the frequency of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database in the United States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Being Blunt About Marijuana: Parent Communication About Marijuana with Their Emerging Adult Children

    OpenAIRE

    Napper, Lucy E.; Froidevaux, Nicole M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    While research suggests that parents continue to influence students’ marijuana use after matriculation to college, there is limited data examining how parents communicate about marijuana use and what impact parent marijuana communication has on college student outcomes. The aim of the current study is to investigate the types of parent marijuana messages that college students receive and the relationship between parent communication and students’ marijuana attitudes and behaviors. Students (N...

  18. Marijuana Effect Expectancies: Relations to Social Anxiety and Marijuana Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2008-01-01

    High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...

  19. WHEN ONSET MEETS DESISTANCE: COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION AND ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA EXPERIMENTATION*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes. PMID:27478762

  20. Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel A; Herman, Debra S; Britton, Willoughby B; Hagerty, Claire E; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = -2.42, p = .015), 7.81 (z = -2.78, p = .005), and 6.83 (z = -2.23, p = .026) fewer days at Months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Marijuana and Breastfeeding: Applicability of the Current Literature to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourh, Jasminder; Rowe, Hilary

    2017-12-01

    With recent legalization of marijuana in numerous U.S. states, the risk of marijuana exposure via breast milk is a rising concern. This review analyzes the available human and animal literature regarding maternal use of marijuana during lactation. The findings can be categorized into four areas of analysis: effects of marijuana on the mother, transfer into milk, transfer to the offspring, and effects on the offspring. Human and animal data have reported decreased prolactin levels as well as potential maternal psychological changes. Animal and human studies have reported transfer into milk; levels were detected in animal offspring, and metabolites were excreted by both human and animal offspring. Further, animal data have predominately displayed motor, neurobehavioral, and developmental effects, whereas human data suggested possible psychomotor outcomes; however, some studies reported no effect. Despite these results, many human studies were marred by limitations, including small sample sizes and confounding variables. Also, the applicability of animal data to the human population is questionable and the true risk of adverse effects is not entirely known. There are large gaps in the literature that need to be addressed; in particular, studies need to focus on evaluating the short- and long-term consequences of maternal marijuana use for the infant and the potential for different risks based on the frequency of maternal use. Until further evidence becomes available, practitioners need to weigh the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child, with the potential influence of marijuana on infant development when determining the infant's most suitable form of nutrition.

  2. Oral fluid testing for marijuana intoxication: enhancing objectivity for roadside DUI testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Mitchell L; Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S

    2018-02-01

    Reducing marijuana-impaired driving is an important part of any strategy to prevent motor vehicle traffic injuries. In Colorado, the first of eight US states and the District of Columbia to legalise marijuana for recreational use, drivers with positive tests for the presence of marijuana accounted for a larger proportion of fatal MVCs after marijuana commercialisation. The use of blood tests to screen for marijuana intoxication, in Colorado and elsewhere in the USA, poses a number of challenges. Many high-income countries use oral fluid drug testing (OF) to provide roadside evidence of marijuana intoxication. A 2009 Belgium policy implementing OF roadside testing increased true positives and decreased false positives of suspected marijuana-related driving under the influence (DUI) arrests. US policy-makers should consider using roadside OF to increase objectivity and reliability for tests used in marijuana-related DUI arrests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Association between Nonmedical Marijuana and Pain Reliever Uses among Individuals Aged 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana and pain reliever use for medical and nonmedical purposes has been increasing among older adults. Using the 2012-2013 U.S. National Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined: (1) the association between past-year nonmedical marijuana and pain reliever use among adults aged 50+ years (N = 14,715); and (2) sociodemographic, health, and pain-related correlates of nonmedical marijuana and/or pain reliever use. The findings show that 3.87% and 3.12%, respectively, used marijuana and pain relievers nonmedically and 14.40% of marijuana users, compared to 2.67% of nonusers, used pain relievers nonmedically. Controlling for sociodemographics, health status, pain interference, and mental and other substance use disorders, marijuana use anduse disorder were significantly associated with nonmedical pain reliever use and opioid use disorder, respectively. Compared to marijuana users (with or without nonmedical use of pain relievers), nonmedical pain reliever users (without marijuana) are older, married, and women. Users of both substances nonmedically are a small group (0.56% of the 50+ age group), but they are at greatest risk of lifetime opioid, alcohol, and nicotine use disorders. Pain interference is a significant correlate of nonmedical pain reliever use. Healthcare providers should assess for the nonmedical use of these medicines/drugs and help older adults receive effective pain treatment.

  4. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  5. Clearing the haze: the complexities and challenges of research on state marijuana laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther K; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-04-01

    As states increasingly liberalize marijuana laws, high-quality research is needed that will inform the public and policymakers about the health and societal impact of these laws. However, there are many challenges to studying marijuana policy, including the heterogeneity of the drug and its use, the variability in the laws and their implementation from state to state, the need to capture a wide variety of relevant outcomes, and the poorly understood influence of marijuana commercialization. Furthermore, current instruments generally fail to distinguish between types of users and lack accurate and detailed measures of use. This review provides a background on marijuana laws in the United States and an overview of existing policy research, discusses methodological considerations when planning analysis of state marijuana laws, and highlights specific topics needing further development and investigation. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Social meanings of marijuana use for Southeast Asian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliet P; Kirkpatrick, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes findings from a pilot study of drug use and environment for Southeast Asian youths in the San Francisco Bay Area. From interviews with 31 drug-involved youths living in two low-income predominantly ethnic minority neighborhoods, smoking marijuana emerged as pervasive and highly normative. Smoking marijuana provided a means for coping with the stresses of home and community life, and located youths, moreover, within an alternative ghetto lifestyle of rap music, marijuana smoking, and youth crime, as modeled by co-resident ethnic minority peers, with which many Southeast Asian youths identified. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment as well as social status in the substance use of this group of second-generation youth.

  7. Prevalence of Marijuana-Related Traffic on Twitter, 2012-2013: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah; Rivara, Frederick P; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed marijuana-related content posted by adolescents on Twitter and examined content variation before and after the 2012 U.S. election legalizing recreational use in two states. For two 3-week periods occurring 6 months before and after the election, a 1% random sample was obtained of all tweets matching a set of marijuana-related queries. Original content was separated from reposted content (retweets), and foreign language tweets and those not related to marijuana were excluded. Using a structured codebook, tweet content was categorized (e.g., mention of personal marijuana use, parents' views, perceived effects.) Self-reported age was extracted from tweet metadata when available. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in content by whether the user self-identified as an adolescent and to compare content pre- versus post-election. The full sample consisted of 71,901 tweets. After excluding nonrelevant tweets and separating original tweets from retweets, the analytic sample included 36,969 original tweets. A majority (65.6%) of original tweets by adolescents (n=1,928) reflected a positive attitude toward marijuana, and 42.9% indicated personal use. Of adolescents' tweets that mentioned parents, 36.0% of tweets indicated parental support for the adolescent's marijuana use. Tweets about personal marijuana use increased from 2012 to 2013, as did positive perceptions about the drug. Adolescents and others on Twitter are exposed to positive discussion normalizing use. Over the study period, Twitter was increasingly used to disclose marijuana use.

  8. Developmental pathways from prenatal marijuana exposure to Cannabis Use Disorder in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonon, Kristen; Richardson, Gale A; Cornelius, Jack; Kim, Kevin H; Day, Nancy L

    Earlier studies reported an association between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and cognitive and behavioral problems in the offspring. A recent publication demonstrated the relation between PME and offspring marijuana use at age 22. There are no reports of the association between PME and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) at 22years, the age when use of marijuana and CUD peak. Subjects are from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Study, a longitudinal study of PME and other exposures during pregnancy. The cohort of mothers and their offspring has been followed since the fourth prenatal month through 22years of age. A path analysis was conducted on 590 mother-child pairs, representing 77% of the birth cohort, to examine potential pathways from PME to CUD in offspring at 22years of age. There is no direct effect of PME on CUD. There are, however, two indirect pathways from PME to CUD. In the first, the pathway from PME to CUD goes through offspring early age of marijuana onset. In the second, offspring depression at age 10 and early age of marijuana onset predict CUD. Although there is no direct effect of PME on CUD, there are significant indirect pathways from PME to CUD that affect the rate of CUD in the population. Thus, PME, offspring depression, and an early age of marijuana initiation, are significant points for intervention. As marijuana is legalized in more states, the rates of marijuana use will increase significantly, including during pregnancy, and the consequences of the association between PME and CUD will become even more significant from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pros and cons: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B

    2013-03-01

    Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and cons toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and cons scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and cons, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and cons subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. Cons did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and cons showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and cons of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Regulating the for-profit private healthcare providers towards universal health coverage: A qualitative study of legal and organizational framework in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Narula, Indermohan S; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter S

    2018-01-01

    Regulating the behavior of private providers in the context of mixed health systems has become increasingly important and challenging in many developing countries moving towards universal health coverage including Mongolia. This study examines the current regulatory architecture for private healthcare in Mongolia exploring its role for improving accessibility, affordability, and quality of private care and identifies gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were used including documentary review, analysis, and in-depth interviews with 45 representatives of key actors involved in and affected by regulations in Mongolia's mixed health system, along with long-term participant observation. There has been extensive legal documentation developed regulating private healthcare, with specific organizations assigned to conduct health regulations and inspections. However, the regulatory architecture for healthcare in Mongolia is not optimally designed to improve affordability and quality of private care. This is not limited only to private care: important regulatory functions targeted to quality of care do not exist at the national level. The imprecise content and details of regulations in laws inviting increased political interference, governance issues, unclear roles, and responsibilities of different government regulatory bodies have contributed to failures in implementation of existing regulations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P 5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-09-18

    Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two time points (prior to the program and 180 days from baseline). Participants were predominantly White and Hispanic/Latino(a). In cross-sectional analyses among alcohol and marijuana users, purchasing marijuana was associated with more frequent marijuana use and consequences, time spent around teens who use marijuana, higher likelihood of substance use disorders, and lower resistance self-efficacy compared to non-purchasers. Teens who purchased both alcohol and marijuana experienced similar outcomes to those who purchased only marijuana, and also reported more frequent and higher quantity of drinking, greater alcohol-related consequences, time spent around teens who use other drugs, and prescription drug misuse. Longitudinally, purchasing alcohol and marijuana at baseline was associated with more frequent and higher quantity of drinking compared to non-purchasers at follow-up. Marijuana only purchasers had a greater likelihood of substance use disorders at follow-up compared to non-purchasers. In an era where drinking is commonplace and attitudes towards marijuana use are becoming more tolerant, it is essential to evaluate how accessibility to AOD and subsequent purchasing behaviors affect youth consumption and intervene accordingly to prevent future consequences.

  13. Displays of dabbing marijuana extracts on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Mylvaganam, Shalinee; Zewdie, Kidist; Bierut, Laura J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    Dabbing involves heating marijuana extracts to a high temperature and inhaling the vapor. Little is known about this new method of using marijuana. YouTube, the most popular platform for sharing online videos, may be a go-to resource for individuals interested in learning about dabbing. Our objective was to explore the content of dabbing-related videos on YouTube. We searched for dabbing-related videos on YouTube using the search terms "dabbing" and "dabs" on January 22, 2015. For each term, videos were sorted by relevance and view count. A sample of 116 dabbing videos were viewed and coded for content. The 116 videos (published by 75 unique channels) had a total of 9,545,482 views. Most (76%) of the channels had a specific focus on marijuana and 23% were located in California. Eighty-nine percent of the videos showed at least one person dabbing, and 61% of these showed someone dabbing repeatedly. Most dabbers were male (67%) and many appeared to be >25 years old (42%). Approximately 34% of the videos contained a product review, 28% provided instructions on dabbing or other educational information, and 21% contained at least a brief cautionary message. Over half (54%) of the videos referenced medical marijuana, and only 20% of the videos had an age-restriction. Dabbing-related videos are easily found and can be readily viewed on YouTube. As marijuana use becomes more accepted by the general population, the popularity of dabbing-related videos could increase, potentially normalizing this potent form of marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  15. From Medical to Recreational Marijuana Sales: Marijuana Outlets and Crime in an Era of Changing Marijuana Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gaidus, Andrew; Tam, Christina; Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    A movement from medical to recreational marijuana use allows for a larger base of potential users who have easier access to marijuana, because they do not have to visit a physician before using marijuana. This study examines whether changes in the density of marijuana outlets were related to violent, property, and marijuana-specific crimes in Denver, CO during a time in which marijuana outlets began selling marijuana for recreational, and not just medical, use. We collected data on locations of crimes, marijuana outlets and covariates for 481 Census block groups over 34 months (N = 16,354 space-time units). A Bayesian Poisson space-time model assessed statistical relationships between independent measures and crime counts within "local" Census block groups. We examined spatial "lag" effects to assess whether crimes in Census block groups adjacent to locations of outlets were also affected. Independent of the effects of covariates, densities of marijuana outlets were unrelated to property and violent crimes in local areas. However, the density of marijuana outlets in spatially adjacent areas was positively related to property crime in spatially adjacent areas over time. Further, the density of marijuana outlets in local and spatially adjacent blocks groups was related to higher rates of marijuana-specific crime. This study suggests that the effects of the availability of marijuana outlets on crime do not necessarily occur within the specific areas within which these outlets are located, but may occur in adjacent areas. Thus studies assessing the effects of these outlets in local areas alone may risk underestimating their true effects.

  16. Marijuana Smoking and Value Change Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Claiburne B.

    1975-01-01

    A report on a study of marijuana, the college student who smokes it, his relationship to his school, his family, the law, and to society in general. One hundred and one respondents drawn from the campus of three major universities provided the information. (Author)

  17. Marijuana abstinence effects in marijuana smokers maintained in their home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, A J; Hughes, J R; Moore, B A; Novy, P L

    2001-10-01

    Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Twelve daily marijuana smokers were assessed on 16 consecutive days during which they smoked marijuana as usual (days 1-5), abstained from smoking marijuana (days 6-8), returned to smoking marijuana (days 9-13), and again abstained from smoking marijuana (days 14-16). An overall measure of withdrawal discomfort increased significantly during the abstinence phases and returned to baseline when marijuana smoking resumed. Craving for marijuana, decreased appetite, sleep difficulty, and weight loss reliably changed across the smoking and abstinence phases. Aggression, anger, irritability, restlessness, and strange dreams increased significantly during one abstinence phase, but not the other. Collateral observers confirmed participant reports of these symptoms. This study validated several specific effects of marijuana abstinence in heavy marijuana users, and showed they were reliable and clinically significant. These withdrawal effects appear similar in type and magnitude to those observed in studies of nicotine withdrawal.

  18. Prolonged cardiac arrest complicating a massive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction associated with marijuana consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Orsini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recreational substance use and misuse constitute a major public health issue. The annual rate of recreational drug overdose-related deaths is increasing exponentially, making unintentional overdose as the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Marijuana is the most widely used recreational illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Although it is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity, heavy marijuana usage has been associated with life-threatening consequences. Marijuana is increasingly becoming legal in the United States for both medical and recreational use. Although the most commonly seen adverse effects resulting from its consumption are typically associated with neurobehavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms, cases of severe toxicity involving the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this report, the authors describe a case of cannabis-associated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction leading to a prolonged cardiac arrest.

  19. The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, B.

    1992-01-01

    The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court? The article examines questions of recourse to the competent court, problems concerning the admissibility of legal proceedings before the Federal Admininstrative Court, the competence of the Laender in performing administrative acts on behalf of the Federation, the effectiveness of legal protection and the relationship between the Laender and the Federation in terms of responsibility for constitutional rights. The legal protection offered by administrative law, against a directive of the Federal Government is wholly ineffective, as there is no legal position a Land could bring into play to defened itself against a directive leading to unlawful action. Inequites which thus occur can however be met via a dispute between the Federation and the Laender as provided by the constitution, as the content of a directive becomes relevant in attempts to exert influence on the competence issue. Ultimately the rulings of the Basic Law on competence serve to protect the citizen and the community against excesses. In this connection the constitutional rights in their capacity as negative competence rulings disqualify executive acts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Marijuana practices and patterns of use among young adult medical marijuana patients and non-patient marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Fedorova, Ekaterina V; Reed, Megan; Schrager, Sheree M; Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about young adult medical marijuana patients (MMP) and their marijuana using patterns and practices, which includes frequency of use, sourcing of marijuana products, forms/modes of administration, and patterns of illicit/prescription drug misuse, compared to non-patient marijuana users (NPU). Young adults (N=366) aged 18-26 years old were sampled in Los Angeles in 2014-15 and segmented into NPU (n=156), marijuana users who never had a medical marijuana (MM) recommendation, and MMP (n=210), marijuana users with a current, verified MM recommendation. Differences regarding self-reported marijuana and other drug use during the past 90days are expressed as unadjusted risk ratios or differences in means. MMP reported significantly greater mean days of use (76.4 vs. 59.2, pmarijuana products (564.5 vs. 266.9, pmarijuana obtained from a dispensary to someone else in the past 90days. MMP were more likely to report vaporization modalities for concentrates (URR=1.5, 95% C.I.=1.2, 2.0) and for marijuana (URR=1.5, 95% C.I.=1.1, 2.1) than NPU. Though not significant, trends toward lower misuse of prescription drugs in the past 90days were observed among MMP compared to NPU. MMP reported greater access to marijuana via dispensaries, more frequent and intensive use of marijuana, and greater use of non-combustible forms of marijuana compared to NPU. MMP reported less recent misuse of prescription drugs compared to NPU. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh

    2017-04-01

    Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential

  2. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain's Response to Marijuana The Brain's Response to Marijuana Print Hi, my name is Sara Bellum. Welcome ... issue, we'll investigate the fascinating facts about marijuana. You may have heard it called pot, weed, ...

  3. Marijuana and other cannabinoids as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Blessing, Esther M; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Hollahan, Laura C; Anderson, William T

    2017-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in the general population, yet there are limitations to the effectiveness, tolerability, and acceptability of available first-line interventions. We review the extant knowledge on the effects of marijuana and other cannabinoids on PTSD. Potential therapeutic effects of these agents may largely derive from actions on the endocannabinoid system and we review major animal and human findings in this area. Preclinical and clinical studies generally support the biological plausibility for cannabinoids' potential therapeutic effects, but underscore heterogeneity in outcomes depending on dose, chemotype, and individual variation. Treatment outcome studies of whole plant marijuana and related cannabinoids on PTSD are limited and not methodologically rigorous, precluding conclusions about their potential therapeutic effects. Reported benefits for nightmares and sleep (particularly with synthetic cannabinoid nabilone) substantiate larger controlled trials to determine effectiveness and tolerability. Of concern, marijuana use has been linked to adverse psychiatric outcomes, including conditions commonly comorbid with PTSD such as depression, anxiety, psychosis, and substance misuse. Available evidence is stronger for marijuana's harmful effects on the development of psychosis and substance misuse than for the development of depression and anxiety. Marijuana use is also associated with worse treatment outcomes in naturalistic studies, and with maladaptive coping styles that may maintain PTSD symptoms. Known risks of marijuana thus currently outweigh unknown benefits for PTSD. Although controlled research on marijuana and other cannabinoids' effects on PTSD remains limited, rapid shifts in the legal landscape may now enable such studies, potentially opening new avenues in PTSD treatment research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Vanishing Lung Syndrome: Compound Effect of Tobacco and Marijuana Use on the Development of Bullous Lung Disease – A Joint Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesel, Shimshon; Siddiqui, Faraz; Khan, Tahir; Hossri, Sami; El-Sayegh, Dany

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana use has been increasing across the United States due to its legalization as both a medicinal and recreational product. A small number of case reports have described a pathological entity called vanishing lung syndrome (VLS), which is a rare bullous lung disease usually caused by tobacco smoking. Recent case reports have implicated marijuana in the development of VLS. We present a case of a 47-year-old man, who presented to our hospital with shortness of breath, fevers and a producti...

  5. Use of marijuana for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Pinkas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug on the European market. Over 16 million young Europeans have used it at least once in the last few years. The recent trends in the consumption of marihuana differ between countries. Some countries face an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use, including Poland, where the level cannabis use has been systematically increasing since the 1990’s. According to a recent ESPAD study, 19% of Polish adolescents aged 15–16 have used cannabis in the last year. Marihuana is also a leading substance when analyzing the data of seizures and crimes. The recent EMCDDA Annual report on the drug situation in Europe notes the increasing potency in cannabis available on the market. Some countries face an increasing number of emergencies caused by marihuana, which was unlikely to have happened previously. In almost all European countries there is an ongoing discussion about loosening marijuana laws or its complete legalization. There is also ongoing discussion on the use of marihuana in therapy as a medicine. Many scientific studies are being conducted in this field. Some of the results are promising; however, there is no well-designed human trial which would unequivocally confirm that medical cannabis is effective as a medicine, or more effective than other medicines on the market. The problem is that the debate on the medical use of marihuana becomes more ideological and less professional. The medical use of marihuana is strongly supported by organizations lobbying for the legalization of cannabis use. Research on the medical use of cannabis should be continued, as there are some promising results supporting therapy in different medical conditions. However, the use of cannabis as a medicine should be discussed only among professionals. If marihuana is to be used for medical purposes, the fact that it is the most popular illicit drug in Europe is irrelevant.

  6. Patterns of Marijuana Use in a 6-Month Pain Management Sample in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope M Smiley-McDonald

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is a 6-month retrospective analysis of urine drug testing (UDT data from a pain management population among specimens with clinician-ordered marijuana testing (N = 194 809. Descriptive statistics about the specimen positivity of clinician-ordered marijuana UDT are provided as well as other drug positivity. Specimens from men and adults aged 18 to 34 years had the highest prevalence rates of marijuana positivity. The prevalence of past-month marijuana use among a comparative national population was lower than the prevalence of positive marijuana tests in the UDT specimens by all characteristics. Among the specimens tested for illicit drugs and marijuana, 4.0% were positive for amphetamine, 2.8% were positive for cocaine, and 0.9% were positive for heroin. The most common prescription drugs listed were opioids (64.7%, benzodiazepines (20.5%, and antidepressants (19.9%. In sum, the findings reflect previous research showing high rates of marijuana use, illicit drug use, and prescription drug use in a pain management population.

  7. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative ...

  8. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with mari...

  9. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-01-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to th...

  10. Cardiovascular effects of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, Pal; Steffens, Sabine; Haskó, György; Schindler, Thomas H; Kunos, George

    2018-03-01

    Dysregulation of the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids and their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB 1 R and CB 2 R) has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Activation of CB 1 R facilitates the development of cardiometabolic disease, whereas activation of CB 2 R (expressed primarily in immune cells) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is an agonist of both CB 1 R and CB 2 R, and exerts its psychoactive and adverse cardiovascular effects through the activation of CB 1 R in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. The past decade has seen a nearly tenfold increase in the THC content of marijuana as well as the increased availability of highly potent synthetic cannabinoids for recreational use. These changes have been accompanied by the emergence of serious adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, stroke, and cardiac arrest. In this Review, we summarize the role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disease, and critically discuss the cardiovascular consequences of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoid use. With the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes and/or recreational use in many countries, physicians should be alert to the possibility that the use of marijuana or its potent synthetic analogues might be the underlying cause of severe cardiovascular events and pathologies.

  11. What do we know about the impact of the laws related to marijuana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Mendelson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents information on the status and impact of medical and legalized marijuana as well as the latest data on attitudes and prevalence of use since implementation of these laws. Recent reports from epidemiologists in Denver and Seattle are summarized to give the readers a sense of the changes as these laws have taken effect in their communities. Methods The status of these laws is reviewed and the results of surveys taken before and after the laws were enacted are presented, along with data on changing potency and driving under the influence of marijuana. Summary Prevalence of use by youths has not increased but their negative attitudes towards the risk of using marijuana have decreased; use by adults has increased. Potency continues to increase, as has the proportion of drivers testing positive for use of the drug. Data from Denver show increases in hospital admissions, emergency department visits, and calls to poison centers, with decreasing arrests and admissions to substance abuse treatment programs. Data from the Seattle area show similar decreases in treatment admissions and police involvement, but also increased prevalence of more frequent use. Conclusions Current data suggest that increases in marijuana use preceded legalization in 2012. Treatment admissions were declining prior to these laws, but some indicators of morbidity appear to be increasing subsequent to legalization, with modest increases in poison center calls in both states and increases in acute medical visits in Denver. Data are needed to understand the relationship between the patterns and amounts of use in terms of consequences as well as data on the health conditions of those receiving medical marijuana and the impact of higher potency. PMID:26818826

  12. Colorado family physicians' attitudes toward medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrad, Elin; Reid, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of medical marijuana has expanded dramatically; it is now permitted in 16 states and the District of Columbia. Our study of family physicians in Colorado is the first to gather information about physician attitudes toward this evolving practice. We distributed an anonymous web-based electronic survey to the 1727 members of the Colorado Academy of Family Physicians' listserv. Items included individual and practice characteristics as well as experience with and attitudes toward medical marijuana. Five hundred twenty family physicians responded (30% response rate). Of these, 46% did not support physicians recommending medical marijuana; only 19% thought that physicians should recommend it. A minority thought that marijuana conferred significant benefits to physical (27%) and mental (15%) health. Most agreed that marijuana poses serious mental (64%) and physical (61%) health risks. Eighty-one percent agreed that physicians should have formal training before recommending medical marijuana, and 92% agreed that continuing medical education about medical marijuana should be available to family physicians. Despite a high prevalence of use in Colorado, most family physicians are not convinced of marijuana's health benefits and believe its use carries risks. Nearly all agreed on the need for further medical education about medical marijuana.

  13. Maternal marijuana use and neonatal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Shayna N; Carter, Ebony B; Tuuli, Methodius G; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2015-09-01

    Marijuana use is becoming increasingly common in the obstetric population; however, it is unknown whether it is associated with poor neonatal outcomes. We sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for marijuana use in pregnancy and to evaluate whether marijuana use is independently associated with poor neonatal outcomes. This was a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive, nonanomalous, term deliveries at 1 institution over a 4-year study period. Women with marijuana use during pregnancy, either by self-report or positive urine drug screen, were compared with women who did not use marijuana. The primary outcome was a composite neonatal morbidity including birthweight less than 2500 g, neonatal intensive care unit admission, 5-minute Apgar score less than 7, and umbilical artery pH less than 7.10. Univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Among the 8138 women in the cohort, 680 (8.4%) used marijuana during pregnancy. Women who used marijuana were younger; more likely to be of African American race; have inadequate prenatal care; and use tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Medical comorbidities did not differ between groups. After adjusting for smoking, other drug use, and African American race, the composite and all individual markers of poor neonatal outcome were not significantly higher among women who used marijuana during pregnancy. Marijuana use is common in pregnancy but may not be an independent risk factor for poor neonatal outcomes in term pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Marijuana craving in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Filbey, Francesca M.; Schacht, Joseph P.; Myers, Ursula S.; Chavez, Robert S.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    Craving is one of the primary behavioral components of drug addiction, and cue-elicited craving is an especially powerful form of this construct. While cue-elicited craving and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms have been extensively studied with respect to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, the same cannot be said for marijuana. Cue-elicited craving for other drugs of abuse is associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas, particularly the reward pathway. This study use...

  15. Epilepsy and marijuana - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas, Fábio Galvão

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The medicinal use of components of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) has been studied around the world. Some of these components may have anti-convulsive properties, though the reports are controversial, and sometimes come from single case reports and clinical anecdotes. Because of ethical aspects, as some of the components of cannabis have psychotropic effects, this is a very important issue. New researches have demonstrated that some components of cannabis that don't have psychotropic ac...

  16. Public Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Resko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns in public perceptions and attitudes toward marijuana use among adolescents. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI was used to collect data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan identified through random-digit dialing (n = 560. CATI interviews were supplemented with web- and paper-based surveys for nonrespondents. We used latent class analysis to characterize patterns in public perception, using a vignette technique that assessed (a whether adults recognize adolescent marijuana use as a problem, (b how they view the efficacy of treatment, (c how they view help-seeking with mental health professionals, and (d whether they support prevention services for adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between class membership and demographics, substance use, and methodological factors. Three latent classes were identified: (a a discriminating group, (b a low-concern group, and (c a high-concern group. Age and substance use were among the strongest determinants for membership in the discriminating group. Results provide insight into how the general public perceives marijuana use and marijuana-related problems among adolescents.

  17. State-level medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived availability of marijuana among the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Mauro, Christine M; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Kim, June H; Cerda, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S; Galea, Sandro; Wall, Melanie

    2016-12-01

    Little is known on how perceived availability of marijuana is associated with medical marijuana laws. We examined the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MML) and the prevalence of past-month marijuana use, with perceived availability of marijuana. Data were from respondents included in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health restricted use data portal 2004-2013. Multilevel logistic regression of individual-level data was used to test differences between MML and non-MML states and changes in prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perceived availability from before to after passage of MML among adolescents, young adults and older adults controlling for demographics. Among adults 26+, past-month prevalence of marijuana use increased from 5.87% to 7.15% after MML passage (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.24 [1.16-1.31]), but no change in prevalence of use was found for 12-17 or 18-25 year-olds. Perceived availability of marijuana increased after MML was enacted among those 26+ but not in younger groups. Among all age groups, prevalence of marijuana use and perception of it being easily available was higher in states that would eventually pass MML by 2013 compared to those that had not. Perceived availability was significantly associated with increased risk of past-month marijuana use in all age groups. Evidence suggests perceived availability as a driver of change in use of marijuana due to MML. To date, this has only occurred in adults 26+ and different scenarios that could explain this change need to be further explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in Marijuana Use Among Undergraduate Students at the University of Maryland. Research Report No. 3-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, James D.

    Five hundred ninety-five students enrolled in undergraduate classes in psychology and business administration at the University of Maryland completed an anonymous questionnaire inquiring about their use or nonuse of marijuana, their reasons for using or not using the substance, and their attitudes toward the legal penalties for marijuana…

  19. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  20. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale with young recreational marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Harold; Cross, Nicole; Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bradbury, Stacey; Feuille, Margaret; Lackey, Jennifer H; Hawley, Anna; Leith, Jaclyn

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the cue-reactivity and several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess marijuana users' self-efficacy to employ 21 specific cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce their marijuana use. Using a web-based recruitment and data-collection procedure, 513 regular marijuana users completed dependent measures following marijuana-related or control cue exposure. Although exposure to marijuana-related stimuli significantly increased reported craving, mean reduction-strategy self-efficacy scores did not differ as a function of cue exposure. Reliability analyses supported retaining all 21 items as a single scale. Reduction-strategy self-efficacy was positively associated with marijuana-refusal self-efficacy and with recent past use of reduction strategies, was negatively associated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems, and was positively but weakly associated with general self-efficacy. The most frequently reported strategies that were employed reflected restricting marijuana use to once per day, not keeping a large stash available, turning down unwanted hits, and not obtaining more marijuana right away if one's supply runs out. These findings further support the reliability and validity of the questionnaire when administered to a diverse sample of regular marijuana users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  3. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Maisha Kelly Freeman; Pilar Z Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders); drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included med...

  4. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Adverse psychosocial outcomes associated with drug use among US high school seniors: a comparison of alcohol and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Fenstermaker, Michael; Kamboukos, Dimita; Ompad, Danielle C; Cleland, Charles M; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-11-01

    There is debate about whether marijuana (cannabis) use is more dangerous than alcohol use. Although difficult to make objective comparisons, research is needed to compare relative dangers in order to help inform preventive efforts and policy. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2007-2011; Weighted n = 7437; modal age: 18) who reported lifetime use of alcohol or marijuana. Students were asked to indicate whether they experienced various adverse psychosocial outcomes resulting from use of each substance. We examined which outcomes were more prevalent for each substance. Compared to alcohol use, marijuana use was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with teachers or supervisors, result in less energy or interest, and result in lower school or job performance. Compared to marijuana use, alcohol was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with friends and significant others; it was also reported to lead to more regret (particularly among females), and driving unsafely. Marijuana users were more likely to report no adverse outcomes. Females and white students were more likely to report various adverse outcomes and higher frequency use of each substance also increased occurrences of reported adverse outcomes. Marijuana and alcohol are associated with unique adverse psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes differ by sex and race/ethnicity, and perception or experience of outcomes may also be related to legal status and associated stigma. Public health interventions may be more effective by focusing on harm reduction strategies for these drug-specific outcomes.

  6. Experiences of marijuana-vaporizer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their experiences with a vaporizer and their use of marijuana with tobacco. Users identified 4 advantages to using a vaporizer over smoking marijuana: perceived health benefits, better taste, no smoke smell, and more effect from the same amount of marijuana. Users identified 2 disadvantages: inconvenience of setup and cleaning and the time it takes to get the device operating for each use. Only 2 individuals combined tobacco in the vaporizer mix, whereas 15 combined tobacco with marijuana when they smoked marijuana. Almost all participants intended to continue using a vaporizer. Vaporizers seem to have appeal to marijuana users, who perceive them as having harm-reduction and other benefits. Vaporizers are worthy of experimental research evaluating health-related effects of using them.

  7. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...

  8. Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

  9. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high. People who are trying to quit using marijuana can: be in a bad mood feel nervous have trouble sleeping They will feel a strong need to take the drug. Previous Index Next Español ... people around me." ©istock.com/ UberImages To stop using marijuana, Cristina is making positive changes in her life. ...

  10. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules.

  11. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6% were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p’s <.05. Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules.

  12. Microaggressions and marijuana use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro, George; Sahker, Ethan; Marzell, Miesha

    2017-03-09

    This study examines the association between exposure to microaggressions and marijuana use, using original survey data from a sample of racial/ethnic minority college students (n = 332) from a large Division I university in the United States. Nearly all of our sample (96%) reported at least one experience with microaggressions in the past 6 months, while 33% reported using marijuana regularly. We modeled regular use of marijuana using multiple logistic regression, with consideration of sex, age, race/ethnicity, and microaggression scale scores as covariates. Age, sex, the microinvalidations subscale score, and the full microaggression scale score were significantly associated with marijuana use in our full models (p marijuana use increase. Academic communities may consider the primary prevention of discriminatory behavior when addressing student substance use.

  13. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  14. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  15. Effect of Marijuana Smoking on Blood Chemistry and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of marijuana smoking on blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations in humans was investigated. Eighty Marijuana addicts and twenty non- marijuana smokers were used in the study. Blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations of the marijuana addicts and controls, were ...

  16. Neural mechanisms of risky decision making in adolescents reporting frequent alcohol and/or marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Eric D; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Magnan, Renee E; Montanaro, Erika; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2018-04-01

    Because adolescence is a period of heightened exploration of new behaviors, there is a natural increase in risk taking including initial use of alcohol and marijuana. In order to better understand potential differences in neurocognitive functioning among adolescents who use drugs, the current study aimed to identify the neural substrates of risky decision making that differ among adolescents who are primary users of alcohol or marijuana, primary users of both alcohol and marijuana, and controls who report primary use of neither drug. Participants completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison of brain activation during risky decisions versus non-risky decisions across all subjects revealed greater response to risky decisions in dorsal anterior cinguate cortex (dACC), anterior insula, ventral striatum, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Group comparisons across non-using controls, primary marijuana, primary alcohol, and alcohol and marijuana users revealed several notable differences in the recruitment of brain regions. Adolescents who use both alcohol and marijauna show decreased response during risky decision making compared to controls in insula, striatum, and thalamus, and reduced differentiation of increasing risk in dACC, insula, striatum, and superior parietal lobe compared to controls. These results provide evidence of differential engagement of risky decision making circuits among adolescents with varying levels of alcohol and marijuana use, and may provide useful targets for longitudinal studies that explicitly address causality of these differences.

  17. Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer?s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexi...

  18. Medical Marijuana programs: implications for cannabis control policy--observations from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Room, Robin

    2015-01-01

    While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, an increasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, including decriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although it has among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and the current (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabis control. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implement a 'medical marijuana access regulations' program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic use and access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program's regulations and approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low and most medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program's auspices. This year, the government introduced new 'marijuana for medical purposes regulations', which allow physicians to 'authorize' medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial; supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozens of commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting - as with medical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California--de facto 'legalization'. We discuss the question whether the evolving scope and realities of 'medical cannabis' provisions in Canada offer a 'sneaky side door' or a 'better third way' to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are of these developments. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: implications for health education and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; McDonald, Emily Anne; Sidhu, Sohrab; Barry, Rachel; Richers Maruyama, Tracey A; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate how young adults perceive and compare harms and benefits of marijuana and tobacco products in the context of a legal marijuana market in Colorado. Semi-structured qualitative interviews. Denver, CO, USA. Thirty-two young adults (aged 18-26 years) who used tobacco/marijuana/vaporizers. Semi-structured interviews addressed perceived harms and benefits of various tobacco and marijuana products and personal experiences with these products. Young adults evaluated harms and benefits using five dimensions: (1) combustion-smoking was considered more harmful than non-combustible products (e.g. e-cigarettes, vaporizers and edibles); (2) potency-edibles and marijuana concentrates were perceived as more harmful than smoking marijuana flower because of potential to receive too large a dose of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); (3) chemicals-products containing chemical additives were seen as more harmful than 'pure' or 'natural' plant products; (4) addiction-participants recognized physiological addiction to nicotine, but talked primarily about psychological or life-style dependence on marijuana; and (5) source of knowledge-personal experiences, warning labels, campaigns, the media and opinions of product retailers and medical practitioners affected perceptions of harms and benefits. Among young adults in Colorado, USA, perceived harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana include multiple dimensions. Health educational campaigns could benefit from addressing these dimensions, such as the potency of nicotine and cannabis concentrates and harmful chemicals present in the organic material of tobacco and marijuana. Descriptors such as 'natural' and 'pure' in the promotion or packaging of tobacco and marijuana products might be misleading. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Differences in Tobacco Product Use Among Past Month Adult Marijuana Users and Nonusers: Findings From the 2003-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Berg, Carla J; Kegler, Michelle C; Donovan, Dennis M; Windle, Michael

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed differences in individual tobacco product use between past month marijuana users and nonusers, and trends in overall tobacco use and use of specific tobacco products among marijuana users. Data were obtained from 378 459 adults participating in the 2003-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a cross-sectional, household interview survey conducted annually. Data from the most recent 2 years (2011-2012) were used to assess differences in the prevalence of various tobacco products by past month marijuana status. Data from all years were used to assess historical trends in overall tobacco use, and use of cigarettes, cigars, and blunts among marijuana users; trend significance was assessed using orthogonal polynomials. From 2011-2012, the prevalence of any past month tobacco use among the 9727 past month marijuana users was 68.6% excluding blunts, and 78.3% including blunts (vs. 25.3% for nonusers, P marijuana users reported past month combusted tobacco use (vs. 23.4% of non-MJ users, P marijuana users reported past month cigarette use, 42.0% reported past month blunt use, and 20.6% reported past month cigar use. Overall, adjusted trends in past month cigarette use decreased, while trends in past month blunt use increased; cigar use did not change. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among adult marijuana users and represents an important potential comorbidity of marijuana use. In light of increasing policies legalizing marijuana, it is critical to monitor changes in overall and specific tobacco product use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sex and grade level differences in marijuana use among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Hoffman, Ashlee R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana in the past year, while 1 in 10 (10%) used marijuana in the past month. Students at highest risk for marijuana use were those who felt use was not harmful/somewhat harmful, felt it was easy/very easy to access marijuana, and had parents/peers who did not disapprove of use. Findings can assist prevention specialists to more thoroughly understand how perceived harm, ease of access, and parent/peer disapproval affect marijuana use among youth. Consistent parent-child communication on marijuana use should be encouraged.

  2. Determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in indoor air as an indicator of marijuana cigarette smoking using adsorbent sampling and in-injector thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Su-Lien; Ling, Yong-Chien; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Pai, Chung-Yen

    2007-08-13

    The marijuana leaves are usually mixed with tobaccos and smoked at amusement places in Taiwan. Recently, for investigation-legal purposes, the police asked if we can identify the marijuana smoke in a KTV stateroom (a private room at the entertainment spot for singing, smoking, alcohol drinking, etc.) without marijuana residues. A personal air-sampler pump fitted with the GC liner-tube packed with Tenax-TA adsorbent was used for air sampling. The GC-adsorbent tube was placed in the GC injector port and desorbed directly, followed by GC-MS analysis for the determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in indoor air. The average desorption efficiency and limit of detection for delta9-THC were 89% and 0.1 microg m(-3), respectively, approximately needing 1.09 mg of marijuana leaves smoked in an unventilated closed room (3.0 m x 2.4 m x 2.7 m) to reach this level. The mean delta9-THC contained in the 15 marijuana plants seized from diverse locations was measured to be 0.32%. The delta9-THC in room air can be successfully identified from mock marijuana cigarettes, mixtures of marijuana and tobacco, and an actual case. The characteristic delta9-THC peak in chromatogram can serve as the indicator of marijuana. Positive result suggests marijuana smoking at the specific scene in the recent past, facilitating the formulation of further investigation.

  3. Young Adults' Exposure to Alcohol- and Marijuana-Related Content on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Nguyen, E Peter; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Bierut, Laura J; Moreno, Megan A

    2016-03-01

    Twitter is among the most popular social media platforms used by young adults, yet it has been underutilized in substance use research compared with older platforms (e.g., MySpace and Facebook). We took a first step toward studying the associations between exposure to pro-alcohol- and marijuana-related content among young adults via Twitter and current heavy episodic drinking and current marijuana use, respectively. We conducted an online survey of 587 (254 men, 333 women) Twitter users between ages 18 and 25 years in February 2014 using an online survey system that has been previously used in research on health behaviors and attitudes. Current heavy episodic drinking was significantly associated with higher levels of exposure to pro-alcohol content. Similarly, current marijuana use was significantly associated with higher levels of exposure to pro-marijuana content. Our findings suggest that in-depth research regarding young adults' exposure to pro-alcohol- and marijuana-related content via Twitter may provide a foundation for developing effective prevention messages on this social media platform to counter the pro-alcohol and marijuana messages.

  4. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent marijuana use: risk factors and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, M; Reynolds, I; Finlayson, P F

    1990-03-01

    A sample of 1,270 students in Years 7, 10 and 11 attending seven State high schools in a middle class area of Sydney answered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure many aspects of their family situation, school performance, spare time activities, drinking and drug taking behaviour and sexual activity. Data on the reported prevalence of marijuana use and the variables significantly associated with marijuana use are presented and discussed. Marijuana use was reported by 4.2% of 12 year olds (Year 7), 26.5% of 15 year olds (Year 10) and 26.7% of 16 year olds (Year 11). More than half of those who had ever used marijuana had used it during the week prior to the survey and there were no significant differences in the characteristics between these recent and the remaining users. Marijuana users reported significantly poorer family relationships than non-users and were about twice as likely as non-users to come from a broken home and/or to have a mother who works full-time, which is often a consequence of marital break-up. Marijuana users also displayed poorer school performance, spent less time on homework and had more school absenteeism than non-users. Marijuana users were more than three times as likely as non-users to have had heterosexual intercourse, drunk alcohol 3 or more times in the past week and to smoke cigarettes. Also, the reported use of stimulants, hallucinogens, narcotics (heroin) and sedatives was almost entirely restricted to those who reported marijuana use. Improvements in the quality of family life may prevent the use of marijuana and other probably more harmful drugs, as well as the indulgence in other acting-out behaviours.

  6. Marijuana protective behavioral strategies as a moderator of the effects of risk/protective factors on marijuana-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Anthenien, Amber M; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-06-01

    Given that both marijuana use and cannabis use disorder peak among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. From a harm reduction perspective, the present study examined whether the use of marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) buffers or amplifies the effects of several distinct risk and protective factors that have been shown to relate to marijuana-related outcomes (i.e., use frequency and consequences). Specifically, we examined marijuana-PBS use as a moderator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits, marijuana use motives, gender, and marijuana use frequency on marijuana-related outcomes in a large sample of college students (n=2093 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). In all models PBS use was robustly related with use frequency and consequences (i.e., strongly negatively associated with marijuana outcomes). Among interactions, we found: 1) unique significant interactions between specific impulsivity-like traits (i.e., premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana consequences, 2) unique significant interactions between each marijuana use motive and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana use frequency and 3) marijuana-PBS use buffered the risk associated with male gender in predicting both marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana-PBS use can buffer risk factors and enhance protective factors among marijuana using college students. Future research is needed to understand context-specific factors and individual-level factors that may make marijuana-PBS use more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical marijuana: the state of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirken, B

    1996-10-18

    Recent raids on buyers' clubs in San Francisco have focused attention on medicinal uses of marijuana. The Clinton administration's policy is that there is no scientific evidence that smoked marijuana is useful in treating pain and nausea in AIDS and cancer patients. However, mainstream medical literature has supported the use of cannabis in managing symptoms of diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Well designed, controlled studies of marijuana are needed to determine the effective medical uses of the drug and break the political stalemate on this issue.

  8. How four U.S. states are regulating recreational marijuana edibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, Camille; Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine; Wiley, Jenny; Cates, Sheryl

    2017-05-01

    Sales of edible marijuana products have been strong in Colorado and Washington State since the legalization of recreational marijuana. Initially, these states did not have comprehensive labelling or packaging requirements in place. In response to increases in marijuana-related emergency room visits and poison control centre calls, additional regulations were implemented. Currently, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington each have passed into law various labelling and packaging requirements for edibles. This article presents the primary legal research findings of relevant statutes and regulations for edibles in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. These laws were identified by using Boolean terms and connectors searches in these states' legal databases in LexisNexis. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington vary greatly in how they regulate labelling and packaging. Colorado, Oregon and Washington require a Universal Symbol to be affixed to edibles, but only Oregon and Washington require that the use of pesticides be disclosed on the label. Only Colorado and Oregon require that the packaging for edibles bear a Nutrition Facts Panel on the label. Δ 9 -Tetrahydracannabinol (THC) in a single serving or single edible product as Alaska and Oregon. All four states prohibit the manufacture or packaging of edibles that appeal to youth. State laws governing recreational marijuana edibles have evolved since the first recreational edible products were available for sale. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington now require edible product labels to disclose a variety of product information, including risk factors associated with consumption. However, there still remain concerns about the regulatory gaps that exist in each of these states, inherent difficulties in enforcing laws around the labelling, packaging, and manufacturing of edibles, and the outstanding question of whether these edible laws are actually informing consumers and keeping the public safe. Copyright

  9. Being Blunt About Marijuana: Parent Communication About Marijuana with Their Emerging Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E; Froidevaux, Nicole M; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2016-10-01

    While research suggests that parents continue to influence students' marijuana use after matriculation to college, there is limited data examining how parents communicate about marijuana use and what impact parent marijuana communication has on college student outcomes. The aim of the current study is to investigate the types of parent marijuana messages that college students receive and the relationship between parent communication and students' marijuana attitudes and behaviors. Students (N = 506) completed a survey assessing marijuana approval, use, negative consequences, and parent communication. A factor analysis of parent communication items yielded three factors: risk communication, permissive communication, and marijuana use communication. Risk communication was the most common form of communication. In multivariate models, risk communication was associated with increased odds of a student remaining abstinent but not with frequency of marijuana use or negative consequences. Greater permissive communication was associated with more approving student attitudes, greater odds of non-abstinence, more frequent use in the past year, and more negative consequences. These findings highlight the need to consider the different types of messages parents deliver when designing interventions aimed at engaging parents in marijuana prevention efforts.

  10. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  11. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  12. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system.

  13. Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This causes the "high" that people feel. Other effects include: altered senses (for example, seeing brighter colors) altered sense of time changes in mood impaired body movement difficulty with thinking and problem-solving impaired memory hallucinations (when taken in high doses) delusions (when ...

  14. Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... health, and treatment options ( February 2018 ) En Español View all related publications Related NIDA Notes Articles Why ...

  15. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Carreiro, Stephanie P; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-03-01

    Despite their widespread Internet availability and use, many of the new drugs of abuse remain unfamiliar to health care providers. The herbal marijuana alternatives, like K2 or Spice, are a group of herbal blends that contain a mixture of plant matter in addition to chemical grade synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic cathinones, commonly called "bath salts," have resulted in nationwide emergency department visits for severe agitation, sympathomimetic toxicity, and death. Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects. Methoxetamine has recently become available via the Internet and is marked as "legal ketamine." Moreover, the piperazine derivatives, a class of amphetamine-like compounds that includes BZP and TMFPP, are making a resurgence as "legal Ecstasy." These psychoactives are available via the Internet, frequently legal, and often perceived as safe by the public. Unfortunately, these drugs often have adverse effects, which range from minimal to life-threatening. Health care providers must be familiar with these important new classes of drugs. This paper discusses the background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures.

  16. Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple...

  17. Cannabinoids in oral fluid following passive exposure to marijuana smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christine; Coulter, Cynthia; Uges, Donald; Tuyay, James; van der Linde, Susanne; van Leeuwen, Arthur; Garnier, Margaux; Orbita, Jonathan

    2011-10-10

    The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolite 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) as well as cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) were measured in oral fluid following realistic exposure to marijuana in a Dutch coffee-shop. Ten healthy subjects, who were not marijuana smokers, volunteered to spend 3h in two different coffee shops in Groningen, The Netherlands. Subjects gave two oral fluid specimens at each time point: before entering the store, after 20 min, 40 min, 1h, 2h, and 3h of exposure. The specimens were collected outside the shop. Volunteers left the shop completely after 3h and also provided specimens approximately 12-22 h after beginning the exposure. The oral fluid specimens were subjected to immunoassay screening; confirmation for THC, cannabinol and cannabidiol using GC/MS; and THC-COOH using two-dimensional GC-GC/MS. THC was detectable in all oral fluid specimens taken 3h after exposure to smoke from recreationally used marijuana. In 50% of the volunteers, the concentration at the 3h time-point exceeded 4 ng/mL of THC, which is the current recommended cut-off concentration for immunoassay screening; the concentration of THC in 70% of the oral fluid specimens exceeded 2 ng/mL, currently proposed as the confirmatory cut-off concentration. THC-COOH was not detected in any specimens from passively exposed individuals. Therefore it is recommended that in order to avoid false positive oral fluid results assigned to marijuana use, by analyzing for only THC, the metabolite THC-COOH should also be monitored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Challenges in the Growing Medical Marijuana Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    Unique clinical challenges arise with the growing number of patients who possess medical marijuana cards. Medical marijuana patients with mental disorders can have worsening symptoms with marijuana use. Often there is sparse continuity of care between the patient and the medical marijuana practitioner. Lack of communication between the patient's treating practitioners and the practitioner who has authorized the medical marijuana can be problematic. This article is a discussion of the new clinical challenges practitioners are likely to encounter with the growing number of medical marijuana patients. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-03.asp].

  19. Clinical Challenges in the Growing Medical Marijuana Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jonathan

    2018-02-02

    Unique clinical challenges arise with the growing number of patients who possess medical marijuana cards. Medical marijuana patients with mental disorders can have worsening symptoms with marijuana use. Often there is sparse continuity of care between the patient and the medical marijuana practitioner. Lack of communication between the patient's treating practitioners and the practitioner who has authorized the medical marijuana can be problematic. This article is a discussion of the new clinical challenges practitioners are likely to encounter with the growing number of medical marijuana patients. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-02.asp].

  20. La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  1. From Outlaw to Citizen: Police Power, Property, and the Territorial Politics of Medical Marijuana in California’s Exurbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    As governments worldwide justify the transformation of marijuana governance from one police power (law enforcement) to others (e.g. public health, zoning), the place of marijuana in lawful society is transforming rapidly. No venue in California is more central to this than land use regulatory bodies, which decide how marijuana rights, practices, and relations become territorial. Land use powers, as a declaration of the state’s police power, require a definitional rendering of “community.” This article analyzes an episode of outdoor marijuana cultivation policymaking and the struggles over the definition of community in a conservative exurban California county. From debates on fences, property line setbacks, rental terms, and nuisance complaints to racial and economic anxieties and the roaming stigma of crime, marijuana advocates confronted a powerful logic of private property and the moral-aesthetic propriety it implies. Despite the subordination of advocates’ claims to the terms of private property, outlaw communities sustained their own forms of territorial governance, informal regulatory and enforcement powers, and understandings of community. This episode, which illuminates territorial production across illegal/legal lines, has implications for understandings of liberal rule of law, political possibility, and the practice of citizenship. PMID:29517073

  2. The Interplay Between Marijuana-Specific Risk Factors and Marijuana Use Over the Course of Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Skinner, Martie L; Oesterle, Sabrina; White, Helene R; Catalano, Richard F; Hawkins, J David

    2018-03-05

    Permissive attitudes and norms about marijuana use and perceptions of low harm from use are considered risk factors for adolescent marijuana use. However, the relationship between risk and use may be reciprocal and vary across development and socializing domains. We examined the bidirectional relationships between marijuana-specific risk factors in individual, parent, peer, and community domains and adolescent marijuana use. Longitudinal data came from a sample of 2002 adolescents in 12 communities. Controlling for sociodemographic covariates and communities in which the individuals resided, autoregressive cross-lagged models examined predictive associations between the risk factors and marijuana use. After accounting for concurrent relationships between risk and use and stability in behavior over time, early adolescence and the transition to high school were particularly salient developmental time points. Specifically, higher risk in all four domains in grades 7 and 9 predicted greater use 1 year later. Moreover, youth's perception of lax community enforcement of laws regarding adolescent use at all time points predicted increases in marijuana use at the subsequent assessment, and perceived low harm from use was a risk factor that prospectively predicted more marijuana use at most of the time points. Finally, greater frequency of marijuana use predicted higher levels of risk factors at the next time point in most socializing domains throughout adolescence. Prevention programs should take into account developmental transitions, especially in early adolescence and during the transition to high school. They also should focus on the reciprocal relationships between use and risk across multiple socializing domains.

  3. Marijuana withdrawal and aggression among a representative sample of U.S. marijuana users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H.; Homish, Gregory G.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Collins, R. Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous laboratory-based research suggests that withdrawal from marijuana may cause increased aggression. It is unclear whether this finding extends beyond the laboratory setting to the general population of marijuana users. The purpose of this study was to test a cross-sectional association between marijuana withdrawal symptoms and aggression among a representative sample of U.S. adult marijuana users, and to test whether this association was moderated by previous history of aggression. Methods Data were analyzed from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Wave Two data (2004–2005) were used for all variables except for history of aggression, which was assessed during the Wave One interview (2001–2002). Two outcomes were examined: self-report general aggression and relationship aggression. Odds ratios for aggression based on withdrawal symptoms and the interaction between withdrawal symptoms and history of aggression were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for covariates and accounting for the complex survey design. Results Among marijuana users with a history of aggression, marijuana withdrawal was associated with approximately 60% higher odds of past year relationship aggression (p aggression among those without a history of aggression, and no association with general aggression regardless of history of aggression. Conclusions The findings from this study support the notion that laboratory-based increases in aggression due to marijuana withdrawal extend to the general population of marijuana users who have a previous history of aggression. PMID:23380439

  4. Pediatric Concerns Due to Expanded Cannabis Use: Unintended Consequences of Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam

    2017-03-01

    An "unintended consequence" of marijuana legalization is the impact on the pediatric population. From prenatal exposure to unintentional childhood exposures, through concerns of adolescence abuse and marijuana use for medicinal indications in children, marijuana exposure can affect pediatric patients at every stage in childhood. Regardless of the stage or reason of exposure, concerns exist about short-term and long-term consequences in a child's physical and mental health. The use of cannabidiol (CBD) may have some benefit for the treatment of epilepsy, but emphasis needs to be on rigorous clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. As more states allow both medical and recreational marijuana, availability and prevalence of use will likely increase and more surveillance and research is needed to evaluate the consequences on the pediatric population.

  5. Relationship between marijuana and other illicit drug use and depression/suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2016-04-01

    Despite growing numbers of older-adult illicit drug users, research on this topic is rare. This study examined the relationship between marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and major depressive episode (MDE) and serious suicidal thoughts among those aged 50+ years in the USA. The public use files of the 2008 to 2012 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provided data on 29,634 individuals aged 50+ years. Logistic regression analysis was used to test hypothesized associations between past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and MDE and serious suicidal thoughts. Nearly 6% of the 50+ years age group reported past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use. Compared to non-users of any illicit drug, the odds of past-year MDE among those who used marijuana only, other illicit drugs only, and marijuana and other illicit drugs were 1.54 (95% CI = 1.17-2.03), 2.75 (95% CI = 1.75-4.33), and 2.12 (95% CI = 1.45-3.09), respectively. Those who used marijuana and other drugs also had higher odds (2.44, 95% CI = 1.58-3.77) of suicidal thoughts than non-users of any illicit drug. However, among users of any illicit drug, no difference was found among users of marijuana only, marijuana and other illicit drugs, and other illicit drugs only. Among marijuana users, marijuana use frequency was a significant correlate of suicidal thoughts only among those with MDE. Health and mental health (MH) service providers should pay close attention to the potential reciprocal effects of marijuana and other illicit drug use and MDE and suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

  6. Differences in treatment outcome among marijuana-dependent young adults with and without antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Caroline J; Oberleitner, Lindsay M; Scott, Melanie C; Crowley, Michael J; Babuscio, Theresa A; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have addressed comorbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and marijuana dependence in young adults, and results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study evaluated differences in pretreatment characteristics and treatment outcomes between marijuana-dependent young adults with and without ASPD. Data for this study were derived from a randomized trial, in which marijuana-dependent young adults (n = 136) between 18 and 25 years of age were randomized to four behavioral conditions: (1) MET/CBT with CM, (2) MET/CBT without CM, (3) DC with CM, and (4) DC without CM. Forty-four percent of the participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ASPD. ASPD clients had significantly more lifetime alcohol dependence disorders, marijuana use in the 28 days pretreatment, arrests, and assault and weapon charges compared to those without ASPD. ASPD clients did not differ in retention or substance use outcomes at 8 weeks posttreatment or the 6-month follow-up. In general, both groups had more attendance in the voucher condition, but there were no significant ASPD by treatment interactions. These data suggest that marijuana-dependent young adults with comorbid ASPD do not necessarily have poorer retention or substance use outcomes compared with marijuana-dependent young adults who do not have ASPD when treated in a well-defined behavioral therapy protocol. Previous research has shown increased risks for clients with comorbid ASPD and marijuana dependence; however, our findings suggest that specialized programs for clients with ASPD may not be necessary if they are provided with empirically supported, structured treatments.

  7. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  8. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  9. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  10. Regular Marijuana Users May Have Impaired Brain Reward Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... users may have impaired brain reward centers Regular marijuana users may have impaired brain reward centers Email ... July 30, 2014 New research shows that regular marijuana users show impairments in the brain’s ability to ...

  11. Delay Discounting in Current and Former Marijuana-Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Bickel, Warren K.; Baker, Forest; Moore, Brent A.; Badger, Gary J.; Budney, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that a variety of drug dependent groups discount delayed rewards more than matched-controls. This study compared delay discounting for a hypothetical $1000 reward among dependent marijuana users, former dependent marijuana users, and matched-controls. Discounting of marijuana was also assessed in the currently marijuana-dependent group. No significant difference in discounting was detected among the groups, however currently dependent users showed a trend to discount money ...

  12. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-05-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit. In contrast to its medical use, the recreational use of marijuana cannot be justified for at least three reasons. First, as scientists have amply documented, it harms the organic functioning of the human body. Second, it impedes our ability to reason and in so doing does harm to us. Finally, it has lasting detrimental effects on the user and his neighbor, even when it occurs in a casual setting. Intoxication is always contrary to the integral good of the person. Thus, the use of marijuana is never warranted even for good, non-medical reasons.

  13. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tsai

    2017-06-01

    In conclusion, among adult ever users of marijuana, current tobacco use is high and strongly associated with suboptimal SRH; regular marijuana smoking with or without current tobacco use is significantly associated with suboptimal SRH.

  14. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  15. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  16. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  17. Therapeutic Value of Medical Marijuana in New Jersey Patients: A Community Partnership Research Endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Tara L

    2017-01-01

    The Public Health Program at Stockton University partnered with the Compassionate Care Foundation to ascertain the impact of medical marijuana on patients in New Jersey. Patients volunteered to complete a survey once a month for 8 months. The survey explored their use, form, and strain of medical marijuana and its influence on pain and 12 other physical and mental health variables. Also, an increase or decrease in other medication taken and any unexpected outcomes were recorded. From a total of 955 patients, patients responding to the surveys varied from 501 for visit 1, 290 for visit 2, to 179 for visit 3. Results provide insight into the diagnoses for which patients used medical marijuana. Results indicate increased mood, general overall condition, and energy as the highest consequences; level of pain in the middle range; and most frequent usage as 3 to 4 times a day. Repeated measures done after visit 2 showed eight statistically significant differences for patients after using medical marijuana: an increase in general quality of life, mobility, and mood, with a decrease in inflammation, intraocular pressure, spasms, seizures, and pain. Results after visit 3 indicated seven significant differences compared to visit 1: decreased seizures, intraocular pressure, spasms, nausea, and pain, along with increased energy and mobility. No differences were found by patient diagnosis or age, but sex-related differences occurred in inflammation, mood, and energy. Results support positive therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana, and despite methodological limitations, our study contributes to the growing body of literature.

  18. Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C; Nunes, Edward V; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilcoxon Exact Test was used to compare cognitive functioning test scores between completers and dropouts, and the Fisher Exact Test was used to compare proportion of negative urines between those with higher and lower scores on the cognitive tests. Marijuana abstinence was unrelated to cognitive functioning. However, dropouts scored significantly lower than completers on measures of abstract reasoning and processing accuracy, providing initial evidence that cognitive functioning plays a role in treatment retention of adult marijuana dependent patients. If supported by further studies, the findings may help inform the development of interventions tailored for cognitively impaired marijuana dependent patients. PMID:18329188

  19. The widening gender gap in marijuana use prevalence in the U.S. during a period of economic change, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Mauro, Pia M; Brown, Qiana L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Rahim-Juwel, Reanne; Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Martins, Silvia S; Carliner, Geoffrey; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-01-01

    Concurrently with increasingly permissive attitudes towards marijuana use and its legalization, the prevalence of marijuana use has increased in recent years in the U.S. Substance use is generally more prevalent in men than women, although for alcohol, the gender gap is narrowing. However, information is lacking on whether time trends in marijuana use differ by gender, or whether socioeconomic status in the context of the Great Recession may affect these changes. Using repeated cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002-2014), we examined changes over time in prevalence of past-year marijuana use by gender, and whether gender differences varied across income levels. After empirically determining a change point in use in 2007, we used logistic regression to test interaction terms including time, gender, and income level. Prevalence of marijuana use increased for both men (+4.0%) and women (+2.7%) from 2002 to 2014, with all of the increase occurring from 2007 to 2014. Increases were greater for men, leading to a widening of the gender gap over time (pgender gap in prevalence of marijuana use over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Perceptions of Social Norms and Exposure to Pro-Marijuana Messages Are Associated with Adolescent Marijuana Use

    OpenAIRE

    Roditis, Maria L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Chang, Audrey; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to...

  1. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  2. Altered orbitofrontal activity and dorsal striatal connectivity during emotion processing in dependent marijuana users after 28 days of abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kaeli; Yao, Shuxia; Heinz, Marcel; Zhou, Feng; Dau, Wolfgang; Banger, Markus; Weber, Bernd; Hurlemann, René; Becker, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Intact cognitive and emotional functioning is vital for the long-term success of addiction treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between chronic marijuana use and lasting alterations in cognitive brain function. Despite initial evidence for altered emotion processing in dependent marijuana users after short abstinence periods, adaptations in the domain of emotion processing after longer abstinence remain to be determined. Using task-based and resting state fMRI, the present study investigated emotion processing in 19 dependent marijuana users and 18 matched non-using controls after an abstinence period of > 28 days. Relative to the control subjects, negative emotional stimuli elicited increased medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) activity and stronger mOFC-dorsal striatal and mOFC-amygdala functional coupling in dependent marijuana users (p < 0.022, FWE-corrected). Furthermore, mOFC-dorsal striatal functional connectivity was increased at rest in marijuana users (p < 0.03, FWE-corrected). Yet, processing of positive stimuli and subjective ratings of valence and arousal were comparable in both groups. Together, the present findings provide the first evidence for persisting emotion processing alterations in dependent marijuana users. Alterations might reflect long-term neural adaptations as a consequence of chronic marijuana use or predisposing risk factors for the development of marijuana dependence.

  3. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use: 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aged 12 to 17 across the nation used marijuana in the past month. Adolescent marijuana use ranged from 4.98 percent in Alabama ...  adolescents nationwide perceived great risk in smoking marijuana once a month (i.e., monthly use), ranging ...

  4. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.

  5. Medical marijuana use in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David A; Nabavizadeh, Nima; Romer, Jeanna L; Chen, Yiyi; Holland, John M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to better understand why patients with history of head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiotherapy are using medical marijuana (MM). Established HNC quality of life questionnaires and our own MM quality of life questionnaire were sent to 15 HNC patients treated at our institution who reported using MM. Patients are clinically disease free and currently using MM to manage long-term side effects after curative HNC treatment. There was a 100 % response rate. Median time from treatment was 45 months (21-136 months). Most patients smoked marijuana (12 patients), while others reported ingestion (4 patients), vaporizing (3 patients), and use of homemade concentrated oil (1 patient). Six patients reported prior recreational marijuana use before diagnosis. MM provided benefit in altered sense, weight maintenance, depression, pain, appetite, dysphagia, xerostomia, muscle spasm, and sticky saliva. HNC patients report MM use to help with long-term side effects of radiotherapy.

  6. Marijuana: a time-honored but untested treatment for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Richard S

    2015-03-01

    The biology of the endocannabinoid system in the brain provides a possible basis for a beneficial pharmacological effect of marijuana on seizures. However, evidence for efficacy of cannabis treatment of epilepsy is anecdotal because no acceptable randomized controlled trials have been done. Proper dosage and means of administration remain unknown. Cannabis is safer than other controlled substances, including tobacco or alcohol, and appears to be relatively safe compared with most pharmaceuticals used to treat epilepsy. This is a review of this topic from a Canadian perspective.

  7. The effects of chronic marijuana use on circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Fogler, Kethera; Hall, Kate; Hartmann, Matthew; Dyche, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Animal literature suggests a connection between marijuana use and altered circadian rhythms. However, the effect has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The present study examined the effect of chronic marijuana use on human circadian function. Participants consisted of current users who reported smoking marijuana daily for at least a year and non-marijuana user controls. Participants took a neurocognitive assessment, wore actigraphs and maintained sleep diaries for three weeks. While no significant cognitive changes were found between groups, data revealed that chronic marijuana use may act as an additional zeitgeber and lead to increased entrainment in human users.

  8. Archival Sources for Legal Biography at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...

  9. The influence of baseline marijuana use on treatment of cocaine dependence: application of an informative-priors Bayesian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eGreen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1 examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2 apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect.Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided samples for the historical dataset (Study 1: N = 64 complete observations and current dataset (Study 2: N = 113 complete observations. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo, baseline marijuana use (days in past 30, and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES.Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect.

  10. Distinguishing subpopulations of marijuana users with latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R; Bravo, Adrian J; Conner, Bradley T

    2017-03-01

    Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, little is known about the effects of typical marijuana use patterns and whether there are distinct subgroups of marijuana users. The present study used latent profile analysis to determine the number of distinct subgroups of marijuana users in a large sample of college students (n=2129 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). We also examined how these distinct groups differ on several putative risk/protective factors (e.g., personality traits, perceptions of marijuana, and motives for using marijuana). Using the Lo-Mendell-Rubin Likelihood Ratio Test, we identified four latent classes with the largest class consisting of infrequent marijuana users, and three other classes demonstrating increasingly frequent use and more negative consequences with the most severe class being the smallest class. We found the largest between-class differences (i.e., distinctions across classes) to be on identification with being a marijuana user and use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), such that the heavier user classes showed higher identification with marijuana users and lower use of PBS. Our findings demonstrate that college student marijuana users are a heterogeneous group with different profiles of risk/protective factors and that those who use marijuana a few times per month are different from those who are near-daily or daily users. Our findings also serve as a call to action for the field to consider examining identification with being a marijuana user and the use of PBS in future marijuana studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Longitudinal influence of alcohol and marijuana use on academic performance in college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Alcohol and marijuana are the two most abused substances in US colleges. However, research on the combined influence (cross sectional or longitudinal of these substances on academic performance is currently scant.Data were derived from the longitudinal 2-year Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS study including 1142 freshman students who completed monthly marijuana use and alcohol consumption surveys. Subjects were classified into data-driven groups based on their alcohol and marijuana consumption. A linear mixed-model (LMM was employed using this grouping factor to predict grade point average (GPA, adjusted for a variety of socio-demographic and clinical factors.Three data-driven clusters emerged: 1 No/low users of both, 2 medium-high alcohol/no-low marijuana, and 3 medium-high users of both substances. Individual cluster derivations between consecutive semesters remained stable. No significant interaction between clusters and semester (time was noted. Post-hoc analysis suggest that at the outset, compared to sober peers, students using moderate to high levels of alcohol and low marijuana demonstrate lower GPAs, but this difference becomes non-significant over time. In contrast, students consuming both substances at moderate-to-high levels score significantly lower at both the outset and across the 2-year investigation period. Our follow-up analysis also indicate that when students curtailed their substance use over time they had significantly higher academic GPA compared to those who remained stable in their substance use patterns over the two year period.Overall, our study validates and extends the current literature by providing important implications of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use on academic achievement in college.

  12. Longitudinal influence of alcohol and marijuana use on academic performance in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza V; Pittman, Brian; Rosen, Rivkah R; Aslanzadeh, Farah; Tennen, Howard; Leen, Samantha; Hawkins, Keith; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca M; Austad, Carol S; Dager, Alecia; Fallahi, Carolyn; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana are the two most abused substances in US colleges. However, research on the combined influence (cross sectional or longitudinal) of these substances on academic performance is currently scant. Data were derived from the longitudinal 2-year Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS) study including 1142 freshman students who completed monthly marijuana use and alcohol consumption surveys. Subjects were classified into data-driven groups based on their alcohol and marijuana consumption. A linear mixed-model (LMM) was employed using this grouping factor to predict grade point average (GPA), adjusted for a variety of socio-demographic and clinical factors. Three data-driven clusters emerged: 1) No/low users of both, 2) medium-high alcohol/no-low marijuana, and 3) medium-high users of both substances. Individual cluster derivations between consecutive semesters remained stable. No significant interaction between clusters and semester (time) was noted. Post-hoc analysis suggest that at the outset, compared to sober peers, students using moderate to high levels of alcohol and low marijuana demonstrate lower GPAs, but this difference becomes non-significant over time. In contrast, students consuming both substances at moderate-to-high levels score significantly lower at both the outset and across the 2-year investigation period. Our follow-up analysis also indicate that when students curtailed their substance use over time they had significantly higher academic GPA compared to those who remained stable in their substance use patterns over the two year period. Overall, our study validates and extends the current literature by providing important implications of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use on academic achievement in college.

  13. Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

  14. Immediate antecedents of marijuana use: an analysis from ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Crosby, Ross D; Silgado, Jose; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2012-03-01

    Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance. Marijuana craving, anxiety, and peer marijuana use are thought to play important roles in the etiology and maintenance of marijuana use. The present study aimed to identify patterns between marijuana use and these affective and situational risk factors in the natural environment. The sample consisted of 49 current marijuana users (38.8% female), 63.2% of whom evinced a current cannabis use disorder. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of marijuana craving, state anxiety, and peer marijuana use over two weeks. Mixed effects linear models were used to examine within- and between-day antecedents, correlates, and consequences of marijuana use. Between-day analyses indicated that marijuana use days were associated with higher marijuana craving but lower state anxiety. Within-day analyses confirmed that marijuana craving was higher prior to marijuana use and lower following use. Anxiety was related to marijuana craving. Although anxiety was somewhat higher prior to marijuana use, it did not decrease significantly following use. The vast majority of marijuana use occurred when others were also using marijuana. The sample was comprised of college students, a group at particular risk for marijuana use and use-related problems. Future work is necessary to determine whether results generalize to other populations. These data support the contention that marijuana craving, anxiety, and peer use play important roles in the maintenance of marijuana use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  16. "Legal highs"--toxicity in the clinical and medico-legal aspect as exemplified by suicide with bk-MBDB administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Strona, Marcin; Maciów, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2012-10-10

    The easily available "legal highs", which are products containing psychoactive substances, such as cathinones, piperazines and synthetic cannabinoids, are abused by adolescents in Poland and in the world as alternatives to classic drugs, such as amphetamines or marijuana. The majority of these potentially dangerous substances are still legal and they are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death, and provide new challenges in clinical and forensic toxicological practice. Investigations in the field of "designer drugs" may be well illustrated by the case of a suicide of a 21-year old male who ingested a specified dose of a preparation called "Amphi-bi-a" that contains bk-MBDB, chemically 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl) butan-1-one, which belongs to the cathinone group, as a synthetic euphoric empathogen and psychoactive stimulant that is chemically similar to MDMA. It is one of more common components of "legal highs" examined in Poland and other countries. The documentation of the case includes a clinical assessment of the patient's health status performed during his almost 4-h hospitalization before death, autopsy and histological examinations supported by toxicological findings revealing bk-MBDB at extremely high concentrations (at 20 mg/l in the blood and 33 mg/kg in the liver); hence, this body of evidence contributes to knowledge in the field of "designer drugs". Inventions of designers of new psychoactive xenobiotics, which are much in demand, especially in view of the dynamic Internet marketing, which drums up narcobusiness, must be balanced by a national strategy developed by medical, legal and educational circles in the modern civilized world in order to prevent the spreading of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Weeding Out the Justification for Marijuana Treatment in Patients with Developmental and Behavioral Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Theodora; Liu, Yi Hui; Bagot, Kara S; Stein, Martin T

    Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home. Alex previously used alcohol and other drugs; at present, he reports that his current drug use consists of frequently smoking pot. Alex states that he uses marijuana to relieve his anxiety and does not understand why this is problematic as marijuana is now legal in his state.Kevin is a 24-year-old adult man with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder, mild intellectual disability, and schizoaffective disorder. He has a long history of challenging and problematic behaviors including aggression toward self and others, property destruction, inappropriate sexual behaviors, elopement, emotional outbursts, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. Past diagnoses include bipolar affective disorder, depression, and intermittent explosive disorder. Kevin is notably obese and somnolent. His current medications include 8 psychotropic medications, 3 antiallergy medications, levothyroxine, and a fish oil supplement. His father reports that medications have gradually been added and dosages increased over time. Two weeks ago, his new psychiatrist initiated a trial of medical marijuana. His father hopes that the marijuana will allow Kevin's other medications to be decreased or discontinued.Linda is an 11-year-old girl with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, and ADHD-inattentive subtype. Anxiety has been her most impairing condition, and Linda has been responding well to a treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and a selective serotonin reuptake

  18. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  19. Understanding Patients’ Process to Use Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L Crowell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medicinal marijuana—diagnosis, what prompted them to seek treatment, level of satisfaction with specific stages in the process, total length of time the process took, and patient’s level of pain. Results reveal numerous patient diagnoses for which medical marijuana is being prescribed; the top 4 most common are intractable skeletal spasticity, chronic and severe pain, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Next, results indicate a little over half of the patients were first prompted to seek alternative treatment from their physicians, while the remaining patients indicated that other sources such as written information along with friends, relatives, media, and the Internet persuaded them to seek treatment. These data indicate that a variety of sources play a role in prompting patients to seek alternative treatment and is a critical first step in this process. Additional results posit that once patients began the process of qualifying to receive medical marijuana as treatment, the process seemed more positive even though it takes patients on average almost 6 months to obtain their first treatment after they started the process. Finally, results indicate that patients are reporting a moderately high level of pain prior to treatment. Implication of these results highlights several important elements in the patients’ initial steps toward seeking medical marijuana, along with the quality and quantity of the process patients must engage in prior to

  20. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  1. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  2. Marijuana use trajectories and academic outcomes among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suerken, Cynthia K; Reboussin, Beth A; Egan, Kathleen L; Sutfin, Erin L; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug by college students. Prior studies have established an association between marijuana use and poor academic performance in college, but research on the frequency of marijuana use over the entire college career is limited. The study objective was to examine the association of marijuana use trajectories on academic outcomes, including senior year enrollment, plans to graduate on time, and GPA. Data were collected from a cohort of 3146 students from 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia at six time points across the college career. Group-based trajectory models were used to characterize longitudinal marijuana use patterns during college. Associations between marijuana trajectory groups and academic outcomes were modeled using random-effects linear and logistic regressions. Five marijuana trajectory groups were identified: non-users (69.0%), infrequent users (16.6%), decreasing users (4.7%), increasing users (5.8%), and frequent users (3.9%). Decreasing users and frequent users were more likely to drop out of college and plan to delay graduation when compared to non-users. All marijuana user groups reported lower GPAs, on average, than non-users. These results identify marijuana use patterns that put students at risk for poor academic performance in college. Students who use marijuana frequently at the beginning of the college career are especially at risk for lower academic achievement than non-users, suggesting that early intervention is critical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  4. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Joy L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

  5. Marijuana advertising exposure among current marijuana users in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Sehi, Auriann; Spitznagel, Edward L; Berg, Carla J; Bierut, Laura J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about marijuana advertising exposure among users in the U.S. We examined the prevalence of advertising exposure among young adult marijuana users through traditional and new media, and identified characteristics associated with seeking advertisements. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 18-34 year-old past-month marijuana users in the U.S. using a pre-existing online panel (N=742). The survey queried about passively viewing and actively seeking marijuana advertisements in the past month, sources of advertisements, and marijuana use characteristics. Over half of participants were exposed to marijuana advertising in the past month (28% passively observed advertisements, 26% actively sought advertisements). Common sources for observing advertisements were digital media (i.e., social media, online, text/emails; 77%). Similarly, those actively seeking advertisements often used Internet search engines (65%) and social media (53%). Seeking advertisements was more common among those who used medically (41% medical only, 36% medical and recreational) than recreational users (18%), who used concentrates or edibles (44% and 43%) compared to those who did not (20% and 19%), and who used multiple times per day (33%) compared to those who did not (19%) (all pmarijuana advertising among users is common, especially via digital media, and is associated with medical use, heavier use, and use of novel products with higher THC concentrations (i.e., concentrates) or longer intoxication duration (i.e., edibles). As the U.S. marijuana policy landscape changes, it will be important to examine potential causal associations between advertising exposure and continuation or frequency/quantity of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HTA and its legal issues: a framework for identifying legal issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.

  7. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  8. [Marijuana for medical purposes--public health perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdek, Davorka

    2014-01-01

    Studies show significant negative effects of smoking marijuana on physical and mental health as well as social and occupational functioning. At the same time, there are more considerations about its ability to treat a number of diseases. This review summarizes current data in scientific literature that examines the medical effects of marijuana on human health with particular emphasis on its potential in medicine. Marijuana has a range of adverse health effects, particularly relating to young people because of higher risk for psychosis, traffic accidents, and cognitive impairment. Marijuana may be helpful in relieving symptoms of nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite and pain relief for persons with cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis. Smoking marijuana can impose significant public health risks. If there is a medical role for using marijuana, it lies in the application of clearly defined medical protocols and chemically defined compounds, not with using the unprocessed cannabis plant.

  9. New York Physicians' Perspectives and Knowledge of the State Medical Marijuana Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Alexandra; Khan, Fahad; Boltunova, Alina; Cuff, Germaine; Gharibo, Christopher; Doan, Lisa V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: In 2014, New York (NY) became the 23rd state to legalize medical marijuana (MMJ). The purpose of this survey was to collect data about practicing NY physicians' comfort level, opinions, and experience in recommending or supporting patient use of MMJ. Materials and Methods: An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to medical societies and to academic departments in medical schools within NY. Results: A total of 164 responses were analyzed. Physician participants were primarily located in New York City and surrounding areas. The majority (71%) agreed that MMJ should be an option available to patients. Most respondents were not registered to certify MMJ in NY, but were willing to refer patients to registered physicians. Common reasons for not registering included specialty and federal status of cannabis. More than 75% reported having patients who used cannabis for symptom control, and 50% reported having patients who inquired about MMJ within the past year. Most respondents are willing to discuss MMJ with their patients, but had little familiarity with the state program and a modest knowledge of the endocannabinoid system. Pain was a common symptom for which cannabis was recommended by registered physicians (69%) and purportedly used by patients (83%). Most respondents would consider MMJ as an adjuvant to opioids, and 84% believed opioids have greater risks than MMJ. Conclusion: Given that the majority of surveyed physicians support MMJ as an option for patients, few are registered and have adequate knowledge of MMJ. Although our study sample is small and geographically limited, our survey results highlight key physician issues that are likely applicable to practitioners in other states. Concerted efforts are needed at the federal, state, and academic levels to provide practitioners with evidence-based guidelines for the safe use of MMJ.

  10. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  11. Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-04-21

    The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia/wasting syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease, epilepsy and seizures, glaucoma, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis and muscle spasticity, severe and chronic pain, and severe nausea. Post-traumatic stress disorder was also included in the review, as it is the sole psychological disorder for which medical marijuana has been allowed. Studies for this narrative review were included based on a literature search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Findings indicate that, for the majority of these conditions, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of medical marijuana at this time. A significant amount of rigorous research is needed to definitively ascertain the potential implications of marijuana for these conditions. It is important for such work to not only examine the effects of smoked marijuana preparations, but also to compare its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in relation to existing pharmacological treatments.

  12. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    OpenAIRE

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were reg...

  13. Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users

    OpenAIRE

    McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depr...

  14. Life Goal Appraisal and Marijuana Use Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Leslie L.; Palfai, Tibor P.

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the motivational context of marijuana use among college students using idiographic and nomothetic goal assessment approaches. One hundred and ninety-eight introductory psychology students completed a questionnaire that included measures of life goals and marijuana use behavior. Forty-three percent of students surveyed reported the use of marijuana in the past 90 days. Students rated a set of five personally salient, self-generated and five normative l...

  15. Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic marijuana demand curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Elizabeth R; Farris, Samantha G; MacKillop, James; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Drug demand, or relative value, can be assessed via analysis of behavioral economic purchase task performance. Five demand indices are typically obtained from drug purchase tasks. The goal of this research was to determine whether metrics of marijuana reinforcement from a marijuana purchase task (MPT) exhibit a latent factor structure that efficiently characterizes marijuana demand. Participants were regular marijuana users (n = 99; 37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days [5 days/week], 15.2% cannabis dependent) who completed study assessments, including the MPT, during a baseline session. Principal component analysis was used to examine the latent structure underlying MPT indices. Concurrent validity was assessed via examination of relationships between latent factors and marijuana use, past quit attempts, and marijuana expectancies. A two-factor solution was confirmed as the best fitting structure, accounting for 88.5% of the overall variance. Factor 1 (65.8% variance) reflected "Persistence," indicating sensitivity to escalating marijuana price, which comprised four MPT indices (elasticity, O max , P max , and breakpoint). Factor 2 (22.7% variance) reflected "Amplitude," indicating the amount consumed at unrestricted price (intensity). Persistence factor scores were associated with fewer past marijuana quit attempts and lower expectancies of negative use outcomes. Amplitude factor scores were associated with more frequent use, dependence symptoms, craving severity, and positive marijuana outcome expectancies. Consistent with research on alcohol and cigarette purchase tasks, the MPT can be characterized with a latent two-factor structure. Thus, demand for marijuana appears to encompass distinct dimensions of price sensitivity and volumetric consumption, with differential relations to other aspects of marijuana motivation.

  16. marijuana smoking among secondary school students in zaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    de pair et assistance du tabagisme social de marijuana d'influence de fonction. Un programme d'éducation sanitaire d'école d'enseignement secondaire devrait être institué pour raccourcir cette menace. Mots clés: Marijuana fumant, prédominance, influençant des facteurs. Introduction. Marijuana is a product of hemp plant ...

  17. Medical marijuana: clearing away the smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted.

  18. Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted. PMID:22629287

  19. The availability and current use of marijuana among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R

    1983-05-01

    The bulk of previous research on marijuana use shares three common features. First, it focuses on "high-risk" student or adolescent populations. Second, researchers have emphasized the "ever-used" category of marijuana use. Third, reported use rates are generally based on the percentage of users in the total population of interest. By using the total population as the denominator when calculating use rates, researchers assume that everyone has an equal opportunity to smoke marijuana. This paper suggests using a use-availability ratio to adjust for potential access to marijuana and to determine which segments of the population are "high risk."

  20. Do Alcohol and Marijuana Use Decrease the Probability of Condom Use for College Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (Mage = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation-seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking (HED) than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; additionally, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest that marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  1. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  2. A search algorithm for identifying likely users and non-users of marijuana from the free text of the electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Salomeh; Vali, Marzieh; Cohen, Beth; Woodbridge, Alexandra; Arenson, Melanie; Eilkhani, Elnaz; Aivadyan, Christina; Hasin, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    The harmful effects of marijuana on health and in particular cardiovascular health are understudied. To develop such knowledge, an efficient method of developing an informative cohort of marijuana users and non-users is needed. We identified patients with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease using ICD-9 codes who were seen in the San Francisco VA in 2015. We imported these patients' medical record notes into an informatics platform that facilitated text searches. We categorized patients into those with evidence of marijuana use in the past 12 months and patients with no such evidence, using the following text strings: "marijuana", "mjx", and "cannabis". We randomly selected 51 users and 51 non-users based on this preliminary classification, and sent a recruitment letter to 97 of these patients who had contact information available. Patients were interviewed on marijuana use and domains related to cardiovascular health. Data on marijuana use collected from the medical record was compared to data collected as part of the interview. The interview completion rate was 71%. Among the 35 patients identified by text strings as having used marijuana in the previous year, 15 had used marijuana in the past 30 days (positive predictive value = 42.9%). The probability of use in the past month increased from 8.8% to 42.9% in people who have these keywords in their medical record compared to those who did not have these terms in their medical record. Methods that combine text search strategies for participant recruitment with health interviews provide an efficient approach to developing prospective cohorts that can be used to study the health effects of marijuana.

  3. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  4. Comparing injunctive marijuana use norms of salient reference groups among college student marijuana users and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students and has the potential for various negative outcomes. Perceptions of what constitutes typical approval/acceptability of a reference group (i.e. injunctive social norms) have been shown to have strong utility as predictors of health-risk behaviors in the college context, yet this construct remains significantly understudied for marijuana use despite its potential for use in social norms-based interventions. The current research evaluated individuals' marijuana approval level and their perceptions of others' marijuana approval level (i.e. injunctive norms) for various reference groups (typical student on campus, one's close friends, and one's parents) as a function of individual user status (abstainers, experimenters, occasional users, and regular users). A diverse sample of 3553 college students from two universities completed an online survey. Among all user status groups, individual approval yielded mean scores paralleling that of perceived close friends' approval and all groups were relatively uniform in their perception of typical students' approval. Higher levels of marijuana use tended to produce higher endorsements of individual approval, perceived close friends' approval, and perceived parental approval. Among occasional and regular users, there were no differences between one's own approval level for use and the perceptions of close friends' approval, nor did they think the typical student was more approving than themselves. Abstainers and experimenters, however, perceived typical students and close friends to have more permissive attitudes than themselves. Implications and future directions for research regarding the role of injunctive marijuana use norms in the development of social norms intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  6. Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC or divalproex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Hart, Carl L; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Nasser, Jennifer; Bennett, Andrew; Zubaran, Carlos; Foltin, Richard W

    2004-01-01

    Abstinence following daily marijuana use can produce a withdrawal syndrome characterized by negative mood (eg irritability, anxiety, misery), muscle pain, chills, and decreased food intake. Two placebo-controlled, within-subject studies investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: Study 1), and a mood stabilizer, divalproex (Study 2), on symptoms of marijuana withdrawal. Participants (n=7/study), who were not seeking treatment for their marijuana use, reported smoking 6-10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 6-7 days/week. Study 1 was a 15-day in-patient, 5-day outpatient, 15-day in-patient design. During the in-patient phases, participants took oral THC capsules (0, 10 mg) five times/day, 1 h prior to smoking marijuana (0.00, 3.04% THC). Active and placebo marijuana were smoked on in-patient days 1-8, while only placebo marijuana was smoked on days 9-14, that is, marijuana abstinence. Placebo THC was administered each day, except during one of the abstinence phases (days 9-14), when active THC was given. Mood, psychomotor task performance, food intake, and sleep were measured. Oral THC administered during marijuana abstinence decreased ratings of 'anxious', 'miserable', 'trouble sleeping', 'chills', and marijuana craving, and reversed large decreases in food intake as compared to placebo, while producing no intoxication. Study 2 was a 58-day, outpatient/in-patient design. Participants were maintained on each divalproex dose (0, 1500 mg/day) for 29 days each. Each maintenance condition began with a 14-day outpatient phase for medication induction or clearance and continued with a 15-day in-patient phase. Divalproex decreased marijuana craving during abstinence, yet increased ratings of 'anxious', 'irritable', 'bad effect', and 'tired.' Divalproex worsened performance on psychomotor tasks, and increased food intake regardless of marijuana condition. Thus, oral THC decreased marijuana craving and withdrawal symptoms at a dose that was

  7. Factors influencing marijuana self-administration by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, M; Comer, S D; Ward, A S; Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W

    1997-06-01

    The self-administration of marijuana cigarettes varying in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content was measured by having participants choose between marijuana and an alternative reinforcer, i.e., snack food. Twelve marijuana users (eight men, four women), in groups of four, participated in a 16-day residential study. Each day, participants had the opportunity to choose repeatedly between a marijuana cigarette and a snack. The THC concentration of the cigarette changed each day (0.0, 2.2 or 3.9% delta 9-THC w/w), as did the number of snack items (one or two); each THC concentration was compared to each snack condition twice. Days were divided into a work period (09.15-16.45 h), comprising performance and subjective-effects tasks, and a recreation period (17.15-23.30 h). Each day at 10.00 h, participants "sampled" a marijuana cigarette containing the delta 9-THC concentration available that day, and selected the number of snack items available that day. Six "choice" trials occurred from 14.00-19.00 h, when participants responded under a modified progressive ratio schedule for either marijuana or snacks. At 18.15 h, participants could participate in a 10-min math task, in which each correct answer earned $1.00. Cigarettes containing 2.2 or 3.9% delta 9-THC were self-administered more often than placebo. The only other factor influencing marijuana choice was the opportunity to earn additional money, with participants choosing not to smoke immediately before the math task. By the end of the study, active marijuana had smaller effects on ratings of "high", "stimulated," and "good drug effect." These data demonstrate that: (a) delta 9-THC is an essential reinforcing component of marijuana; (b) marijuana use may be manipulated by monetary contingencies; and (c) tolerance may develop more readily to marijuana's subjective effects than its reinforcing effects.

  8. Characterizing marijuana concentrate users: A web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Lamy, Francois R; Barratt, Monica; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Sheth, Amit; Carlson, Robert G

    2017-09-01

    The study seeks to characterize marijuana concentrate users, describe reasons and patterns of use, perceived risk, and identify predictors of daily/near daily use. An anonymous web-based survey was conducted (April-June 2016) with 673 US-based cannabis users recruited via the Bluelight.org web-forum and included questions about marijuana concentrate use, other drugs, and socio-demographics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify characteristics associated with greater odds of lifetime and daily use of marijuana concentrates. About 66% of respondents reported marijuana concentrate use. The sample was 76% male, and 87% white. Marijuana concentrate use was viewed as riskier than flower cannabis. Greater odds of marijuana concentrate use was associated with living in states with "recreational" (AOR=4.91; p=0.001) or "medical, less restrictive" marijuana policies (AOR=1.87; p=0.014), being male (AOR=2.21, p=0.002), younger (AOR=0.95, pmarijuana concentrate users reported daily/near daily use. Greater odds of daily concentrate use was associated with being male (AOR=9.29, p=0.033), using concentrates for therapeutic purposes (AOR=7.61, p=0.001), using vape pens for marijuana concentrate administration (AOR=4.58, p=0.007), and lower perceived risk of marijuana concentrate use (AOR=0.92, p=0.017). Marijuana concentrate use was more common among male, younger and more experienced users, and those living in states with more liberal marijuana policies. Characteristics of daily users, in particular patterns of therapeutic use and utilization of different vaporization devices, warrant further research with community-recruited samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inverse association of marijuana use with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghee Kim

    Full Text Available The impact of marijuana on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is largely unknown. We studied the association between marijuana and NAFLD utilizing cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2014 and NHANES III (1988-1994.Suspected NAFLD was diagnosed if serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT was > 30 IU/L for men and > 19 IU/L for women in the absence of other liver diseases (NHANES 2005-2014. In NHANES III cohort, NAFLD was defined based on ultrasonography.Of the 14,080 (NHANES 2005-2014 and 8,286 (NHANES III participants, prevalence of suspected NAFLD and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD were inversely associated with marijuana use (p < 0.001. Compared to marijuana-naïve participants, marijuana users were less likely to have suspected NAFLD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.99 for past user; OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80 for current user and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.98 for current user in the age, gender, ethnicity-adjusted model. On multivariate analysis, the ORs for suspected NAFLD comparing current light or heavy users to non-users were 0.76 (95% CI 0.58-0.98 and 0.70 (95% CI 0.56-0.89, respectively (P for trend = 0.001 with similar trends in ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.59-1.00 for current user; OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97 for current light user. In insulin resistance-adjusted model, marijuana use remained an independent predictor of lower risk of suspected NAFLD.In this nationally representative sample, active marijuana use provided a protective effect against NAFLD independent of known metabolic risk factors. The pathophysiology is unclear and warrants further investigation.

  10. Civil Legal Services and Medical-Legal Partnerships Needed by the Homeless Population: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service