WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal sustainability economic

  1. SUSTAINABLE, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND LEGAL COORDINATES OF HUMAN WITH NATURE AND WITH OTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because man is a natural and social being at the same time, the imperatives of protection, conservation and sustainable development of the environment are related to both man’s relationship with nature, of which he is an integral part, and to his relationships with the others concerning the natural elements. The purpose of this article is to point out in a historical perspective, the political, economic and legal measures through which can be provided and, if necessary, redressed the balance and the harmony between human being’s interests and life needs and the need for health, protection and conservation of the Earth. The political, economic, legal strategies concern the state and the plurality of legal concepts that it can establish and maintain: the domestic law, the international legal order and the community order.

  2. Sustainable development in the Arctic in a legal and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyck, L.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is discussed with a focus on making it operational. A critique of the concept indicates that one of the problems is the theoretical treatment of intergenerational equity in a legal perspective. There is a need for change in decision making towards greater emphasis on long-term perspectives and the possibility of using environmental impact assessments to achieve this emphasis is outlined. The concept of sustainable development is then applied to the Arctic regions. The main impacts met by the Arctic from pollution and economic development are presented and analyzed in the context of sustainable development. It is concluded that the Russian Federation will develop an energy supply similarly to the USA and Canada, but lessons learned from the development of the Arctic, notably from Prudhoe Bay, will give the unambiguous signal that increased cooperation between nations and large corporations is necessary to give room for sustainable development with respect to investments within a frame work of even economic growth. Environmental standards and safeguards of Arctic species and environment will improve, influenced by lobbying from Arctic organizations and environmental groups. 19 refs

  3. Legal, Institutional, and Economic Indicators of Forest Conservation and Sustainable Management: Review of Information Available for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Calder M. Hibbard; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the Nation’s legal, institutional, and economic capacity to promote forest conservation and sustainable resource management. It focuses on 20 indicators of Criterion Seven of the so-called Montreal Process and involves an extensive search and synthesis of information from a variety of sources. It identifies ways to fill information gaps and improve...

  4. Criterion V: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for rangeland conservation and sustainable management [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonn E. Mitchell; Stan Hamiliton; Thomas Lustig; Kenneth Nelson; Tom Roberts; Brian Czech

    2010-01-01

    Laws, institutions, and economic policies play a large role in determining the sustainability of rangelands. They provide the basic framework from which many lasting decisions about rangeland management are made. The SRR has identified 10 primary indicators to assess how this framework influences the long-term health and productivity of rangeland in this country. The...

  5. Criterion 7: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This criterion focuses on the social context of forests—the laws, policies, administrative rules, and social and economic institutions—that governs forest resource management and use. What society permits or restricts, encourages or discourages all influence the sustainability of forest resources. Criterion 7 captures this by turning attention to all the different...

  6. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  7. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  8. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  9. Armenia's Economic Growth Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Tatsuji

    2015-01-01

    Armenia enjoyed 15 years of uninterrupted high economic growth prior to the global financial crisis in 2009. Investment, particularly in the mining and metallurgy sectors, played a key role as a driver of economic growth. Remittances,mostly from Russia, had an effect in sustaining consumption and boosting construction. Armenia has shown some weaknesses in the external sector, due to demands for natural gas, mineral products, machinery, and equipment. Armenia's exports and FDI suffer from the ...

  10. Indonesian legal framework to support innovation sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    The successful economy in a country can be measured by the number of commercializing intellectual property rights (IPR). To pursue IPR growth, triple helix component becomes a backbone to weave academia, business and government to collaborate with each other. Generally, collaborations move from their common interest, but within triple helix the collaboration can be run structurally and sustain. Depart from the arguments; the question arises: How is the condition of Indonesia Innovation System? Through legal approach, this paper will explain current legal condition and legal structure of the Indonesian innovation system. The reason to review the law is to relate with the government’s target to create 1000 digital start-ups alike as in Silicon Valley level size. Therefore, legal framework review becomes useful to explain the condition of the law as a supporting system. In this sense, the legal prescription can be generated to confirm Indonesian laws, whether supported the national innovation system or conversely. Within law perspective, Indonesian government categorizes the innovative industry as a creative industry. However, there is still no resolute concept to follow. Therefore, some of law adjustment is needed to support the government’s plan to pursue commercialized innovation.

  11. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Woodruffe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  12. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  13. International Legal Concept of Environmentally Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Kopylov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with a comparative legal analyses of the concept of environmentally sustainable cities elaborated by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP and the UN–Habitat Program, on the one hand, and in the subregion of East Africa, wider Caribbean region and in the South-East Asian region, presented by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN - on the other. The competence of the ASEAN working group on environmentally sustainable cities, the criteria of sustainability, established in the ASEAN and conditions of nomination on environmentally sustainable city title are disclosed. The problems of wastes in the Southeast Asian region are analyzed and different possible ways of their solution are suggested separately. Several examples of environmental problems settlement in different cities of different parts of the Earth are suggested. Special attention is paid to different criteria, which are used in the framework of ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable Cities Program with concern to the air, water, soil and energy supply. In connection with the latest problem the problem of alternative energy sources in ASEAN Member States is raised and the task of possible transition to alternative sources of energy of all Southeast Asia states is discussed.

  14. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  15. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  16. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  17. Legal, ethical,and economic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libassi, F.P.; Donaldson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the legal, ethical, and economic constraints to developing a comprehensive knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. These constraints are not fixed and immutable; rather they are determined by the political process. Political issues cannot be evaded. The basic objective of developing a comprehensive knowledge about the biological effects of ionizing radiation exists as an objective not only because we wish to add to the store of human knowledge but also because we have important use for that knowledge. It will assist our decision-makers to make choices that affect us all. These choices require both hard factual information and application of political judgment. Research supplies some of the hard factual information and should be as free as possible from political influence in its execution. At the same time, the political choices that must be made influence the direction and nature of the research program as a whole. Similarly, the legal, ethical, and economic factors that constrain our ability to expand knowledge through research reflect a judgment by political agents that values other than expansion of knowledge should be recognized and given effect

  18. ALDOT economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This research used quantitative methods to document 15-year trends in various economic factors, from the very detailed (e.g., cost per ton for aggregate) to the very broad (total ALDOT annual receipts and expenditures), and for categories of receipts...

  19. Legal perspectives on the role of culture in sustainable development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces some legal perspectives on the role of culture in sustainable development. The authors agree that sustainable development has been designed as an environmental concept but that room exists for the more prominent inclusion of some form(s) of the notion "culture" in the sustainable development ...

  20. Legal analysis of the European Union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a legal analysis and review of the European Union (EU) sustainability criteria for biofuels, presented in Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper discusses the EU sustainability criteria as a tool that could be efficiently utilized to operationalize and implement the concepts of sustainable development and ...

  1. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  2. Legal Education for Sustainability: A Report on US Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernbach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is an overview of sustainability efforts in US law schools. It describes two sets of drivers for these efforts--inside and outside the legal profession. Drivers from within the legal profession include the American Bar Association as well as several state and local bar associations; law firms and other law organisations; and current…

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  4. The legal status of sustainable development in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a moral or ...

  5. the legal status of sustainable development in the nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    ABSTRACT. Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a ...

  6. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL MECHANISMS TO COUNTER TERRORIST THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Startsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.

  7. Legal Mechanism for Achieving Environmental Sustainability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act defined the environment as including water, air, land and all plants ... It also acts as a vast sink for the wastes and polluting substances he generates. This increasing hostile and ... Today, human activities and the demand for economic growth and development have negatively ...

  8. International Legal Regime on Sustainable Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrullah M Yahya

    2007-01-01

    Tropical forests—a resource of great value to humanity—are now in jeopardy. Tropical deforestation has been accelerated dramatically in the last three decades. In 1991, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that more than fifty percent of tropical forests were cut. In estimation, our planet loses 100 acres of tropical forest every minute, meaning that 40 to 50 million acres (11 million hectares) annually. Due to its potential adverse impact on social, economic, cultural and e...

  9. Sustainable management of Nigeria's oil wealth: legal challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article discusses the need for stronger legal regimes for the efficient management of Nigeria's oil wealth, and identifies the roles that active stakeholder engagement, such as the Nigerian public and civil society organizations (CSOs) should play. Keywords: CSOs, sustainable management, oil wealth, mismanagement, ...

  10. On the concept and legal nature of sustainable development: Does 'environmental law' exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable development has developed within the triangular framework of economic, social and environmental policy. It has been the result of man's endeavor in the course of development of mankind to harmonize the relations between economy and ecology for the purpose of satisfying the present needs but without endangering the prospects of future generations to satisfy their own needs. The principle of sustainable development has been present in the international legislation for the past 40 years. The antagonism between economy and ecology has never ceased. Quite the reverse, at the beginning of the 21st century, mankind has encountered the dramatic effects of the rampant global politics and the unpromising prospects of man's subsistence and development. The reason is certainly to be found in the fact that the environment protection policy does not have an adequate legal framework, which is not a matter of legal technique but a matter of substance in global politics. Consequently, this discussion on the legal nature of sustainable development takes us from technique to substance. First, the author analyzes the international legislation and judicature on the issues of sustainable development; thereupon, the author concludes that the principle of sustainable development has not obtained the rank and the outreach of a legal principle (source of law in the international law, which ultimately makes the very existence of environmental law highly disputable. If sustainable development as a fundamental principle (supra-principle does not have the power of a binding principle, the existing international legal sources concerning certain aspects of the living environment are nothing but arable land covered by sand. Actually, the significant feature of the existing international sources on sustainable development is 'the legal ideology' which, being an instrument of environmental policy rather than an instrument of environmental law, actually

  11. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotschol, A.; De Giovanni, P.; Esposito Vinzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to

  12. Economic and Legal Aspects of Air Transport in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisoo Mihandoust

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aviation sector has highlighted the importance of economic and legal regulations in conjunction with the changes in the conditions of competition with the acceleration of globalization. The regulations in the aviation sector directly or indirectly affect the airline operators, which is critical as a result of its effects on the economic systems of the countries. Legal responsibilities in terms of influencing passenger rights and competition law issues; has a natural impact on shaping aviation regulations, sector dynamics and competitive conditions which is effecting the dynamic structure of the sector. This study aims to examine the economic and legal aspects of air transportation carried out in Turkey and to contribute to the literature as a result of the researches.

  13. Venezuela's Economic Recovery: Is It Sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Jake Johnston; Mark Weisbrot

    2012-01-01

    Venezuela’s current growth is generally described as unsustainable, with various negative scenarios put forth, including spiraling debt, inflation, and balance of payments crises. However, these pessimistic forecasts have been far off the mark for most of the past decade. This paper looks at the available economic data to see if Venezuela’s economic recovery could be sustained, or even accelerated. It finds that Venezuela’s current economic growth is sustainable and could continue at the curr...

  14. Between economic and legal analysis of incorporeal things: A critical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author uses practical economic examples to argue for the development of common law. The author identifies relevant Roman law principles which justify the legal nature of incorporeal things. It is demonstrated that the value of incorporeal things depends greatly on future circumstances. It is argued in this article that the ...

  15. The Dutch "Crisis and Recovery Act": Economic recovery and legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Netherlands, the 2010 Crisis and Recovery Act aims at speeding up decisionmaking on a wide variety of activities, hoping that after the financial and economic crisis has passed, development projects can immediately be carried out without any delay caused by legal procedures in court or elsewhere. The Act meets ...

  16. Legal, economic and cultural aspects of file sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Poort, J.P.; Rutten, P.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution seeks to identify the short and long-term economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, films and games, while taking into account the legal context and policy developments. The short-term implications examined concern direct costs and benefits to society, whereas the

  17. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...

  18. Economic and legal consequences of concluded apparent legal on national interests in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Draginja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concluding contracts on long-term leases of state-owned properties, beaches and bathing grounds should bring about positive economic effects through the payment of lease fees and the construction of tourist complexes, which in turn should be reflected on the development of tourism, and therefore on a better quality of life of citizens. In order to have legal effect, a contract as a legal transaction must be concluded in accordance with positive legal regulations. The respect for the institution of public order is the only condition limiting the fundamental principle of the law of obligations - the freedom of contract (autonomy of will. Through a detailed legal analysis, we want to draw attention to the examples of contracts on long-term leases that are unlawful. It is a particular type of apparent legal transactions (simulated contracts, because in concluding contracts on long-term leases of state-owned property, leases are simulated in public, while the contracts actually contain elements of sales. It is particularly interesting that the lessor in the concluded contracts is a relevant state authority (a ministry, on whose behalf the contract is signed by an authorized representative who had also led the negotiations with foreign investors. The consequences of such contracts negatively influence the economic development, tourism industry, and therefore also the standard of living of citizens.

  19. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Verschuuren

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, “things” lawyers call “principles” of environmental law will be discussed from a theoretical perspective. Three fundamental questions are answered: 1. Where does the high moral value that is usually attributed principles come from? 2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and between a principle and a policy? 3. What is the relationship between a principle and more concrete legal rules and policies? It is argued that principles of environmental law receive their high moral value from the ideal of sustainable development. An ideal is a value that is explicit, implicit or latent in the law, or the public and moral culture of a society or group that usually cannot be fully realised, and that partly transcends contingent, historical formulations, and implementations in terms of rules and principles. Principles form a necessary link between directly applicable and enforceable environmental legal rules and the underlying ideal. They are a necessary medium for ideals to find their way into concrete rules and can be used to bridge the gap between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration. Because of their basis in (written or unwritten law and their possible direct and intense influence on legal rules concerning activities that may harm the environment, they must be placed within the morality of duty: a bridgehead within the morality of duty reaching out for the morality of aspiration. From the general function of principles of forming a beachhead in the morality of duty, nine more concrete functions can be derived. These functions principles, both of a substantive and of a procedural nature, have, make it possible to distinguish them from legal rules. It must be acknowledged, however, that there is no very strict separation between principles on one side and rules on the other: environmental norms can be placed on a sliding scale with rules on one side and principles on the other side

  20. On the economics of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to work toward reconciliation of the neoclassical consumer choice axiom that 'more is better' and the ecological concern that 'more is not sustainable.' The key is to divide the desired 'more' into its rival and nonrival components, for it is the consumption of rival goods (such as plastic) that strains the ecosystem. In contrast, the consumption of nonrival goods (such as bird-watching) leaves little to no footprint. While sustainability can be enhanced through changing preferences, a menu of taxes, subsidies and/or vouchers can also motivate greater nonrival consumption - and therefore sustainability - without reducing consumer welfare. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the legal framework for promoting sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extraction of oil and mineral wealth has some environmental, social, economic and political impact on the host communities. In many instances these communities do not derive any sustainable developmental benefit from the wealth extraction activities in their area and where they do, it is less than the magnitude of ...

  2. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...... the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development...

  3. New Economic and Financial Indicators of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, James; Wilhelm, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Financial accounting methods fall short of fully accounting for the relative sustainability of college and university operations. Management of social, environmental, and economic performance will be aided by changes to and new developments in financial accounting practices to complement other indicators of sustainability.

  4. Economics of Sustainable Development and the Bioeconomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, David; Gordon, Ben; Hochman, Gal; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable development can be attained by policies that are derived by analyses that integrate biophysical considerations into economic models. We show that policies and incentives that correct market failure can attain sustainable resources, and development of the bioeconomy, which relies on

  5. Nearshore Service Transfers in the EU: Legal and Economic Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Kedziora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second decade of the XXI century, the rapid growth of service offshoring industry can be observed in Poland and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Such international corporate transformations wield significant influence on economies and societies of the states involved. The legal issues regulating international services migrations are among the most demanding managerial challenges at the pre-transition phase (i.e. before the commencement of a transition project which is supposed to successfully relocate processes from one country to another, and are directly linked to the sociological and economic aspects of the multidimensional changes in transnational business environments. The paper presents the review of selected legal issues regulating international process transfers within the European Union (EU, in the light of the economic and social conditions that are important for the offshoring industry’s managerial community at the pre-transition phase.

  6. Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

  7. ECONOMIC CRISIS SUSTAINS BLACK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicoi Daniel -Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to bring out the fact that during the periods of economic crisis, the black market finds a warm place to develop and even to diversify the ways of expressing. Based on some data of the National Institute of Statistics and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD1 , I’m trying to prove the fact that during the last two years while the world economic crisis has occurred, the black market has been increasing and there have been new forms of expressing this phenomenon. Although there are some positive ways of this phenomenon, on the whole, the increasing of the black market percent of GDP represents a wound within a healthy economy, which if it cannot be stopped at least to be reduced. This work intends to make radiography of the present economic society, a period of economic crisis, during which the black market has found a warm place to express and extend, in most of the countries, including the developed ones, this phenomenon has reached alarming limits.

  8. Economic and legal aspects of utility consortiums for heliostat purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Sheppard, W.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    A preliminary exploration is given of the legal and economic considerations surrounding the formation and operation of some form of utility-sponsored collective buying arrangement for heliostats. Particular attention is focused on considerations of federal antitrust law surrounding collective buying and other joint operations by electric utilities. Attention is also given to considerations suggested by the economic theory of monopsony (markets with a single buyer) and oligopsony (markets with a small number of buyers). The advantages and disadvantages of such arrangements are examined from the viewpoints of the buyer and the seller. (LEW)

  9. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschol, Antje; De Giovanni, Pietro; Esposito Vinzi, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to be clarified. Would firms and suppliers adjust their environmental strategies if the higher economic value that environmental management generates is reinvested in greening actions? We found out that environmental management positively influences economic performance as second order (long term) target, to be reached conditioned by higher environmental performance; in addition, firms can increase their performance if they reinvest the higher economic value gained through environmental management in green practices: While investing in environmental management programs is a short term strategy, economic rewards can be obtained only with some delays. Consequently, environmental management is an economically sustainable business only for patient firms. In the evaluation of these reciprocal relationships, we discovered that green supply chain initiatives are more effective and more economically sustainable than internal actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards More Effective Water Quality Governance : A Review of Social-Economic, Legal and Ecological Perspectives and Their Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/099909189; Wuijts, S.; Driessen, P.P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069081417

    2018-01-01

    In this article, social-economic, legal and ecological perspectives on effectiveness of water quality governance and their interactions have been studied. Worldwide, authorities are facing the challenge of restoring and preserving aquatic ecosystems in accordance with the United Nations Sustainable

  11. Key considerations for an economic and legal framework facilitating medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eHinrichs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medical travel has the capacity to counter increasing costs of healthcare by creating new markets and increased revenue for health services, potentially benefiting local populations, economies and health care systems. This paper is part of a broad, comprehensive project aimed at developing a Global Health Access Policy (GHAP. It presents key issues to consider in terms of ensuring economic viability, sustainability, and limiting risk to the many stakeholders involved in the rapidly expanding industry of medical travel. The noted economic and legal barriers to medical travel are based on a synthesis of themes found in an extensive review of the available literature. Economic considerations when setting up a GHAP include a dynamic approach to pricing that is fair to the local population. Legal considerations include the implementation of international quality standards and the protection of the rights of those travelling as well as those of local populations in recipient countries. By taking into account these opportunities, the GHAP will more adequately address existing gaps in the economic and legal regulation of medical travel.

  12. A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals

  13. Economics, Corporate Sustainability and Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that corporate sustainability requires a corporation to make a profit, to act in a socially responsible manner and to engage in policies that are environmentally sustainable. This is sometimes called the corporation’s triple bottom line. In this paper it is argued that in practice profitability or more general maintaining economic variability constitutes a corporation’s bottom line and that it is limited by this consideration in showing social responsibility and in acting w...

  14. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the Multiple-Use...

  15. Sustainable development for mineral and energy industries (from a legal pont of view)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The principle of sustainable development has become a central idea of environmental law. The idea has been around in legal discussion and political declarations for some time. Now, the principle has been legally fixated. This leads to serious consequences for the legal framework in which mineral and energy industries operate. The concept of sustainable development emerged towards the end of the 70s. It has been incorporated into political declarations, first of all, into the Brundtland report from 1987, later into the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and into Agenda 21 from 1992. According to these documents the needs of future generations must be safeguarded. Furthermore, ecological, economic and social interests must be reconciled. Significantly, the principle could demand from mineral and energy industries to limit the extraction of non-renewable resources. This could imply new restrictions for the mining and energy industrial sector. The following presents ideas which have been developed in connection with Collaborative Research Center 525 'A Resource-Orientated Analysis of the Material Flow of Metallic Raw Materials'. 8 refs

  16. Climate change loss and damage. Economic and legal foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinninti, Krishna Rao

    2014-01-01

    This text works to establish essential foundations and guidelines in the current process of providing strategies, mechanisms and resources for mitigating loss and damage from the adverse impacts of climate change and climate variability. This builds on the groundwork done by the UNFCCC and other entities to facilitate the processes at the international level, pursuing a pragmatic approach and the objective specification of relevant frameworks for further actions. The primary goal is the development of integrated approaches to the assessment and reduction of loss and damage due to climate change (including climate variability), encompassing both economic and legal dimensions.

  17. [Legal termination of pregnancy. Economic and social aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delachaux, A; Wietlisbach, V

    1979-12-01

    The article analyzes the socioeconomic aspects, but especially the economic ones, of induced abortion, whether it is legal or illegal, and of an unwanted pregnancy. Costs are based on 1979 prices in the Vaud canton, Switzerland. Obviously, the pure economic cost of induced abortion is much lower than that of regular or even complicated delivery, much lower than the cost of treating complications from illegally induced abortion, and enormously lower than the cost involved in raising a child, whether the expenses are paid for by the mother, or by the community, as it very often happens with teenage mothers. In a world where money is getting an ever increasing importance, psychological side effects of abortion are almost completely discarded. To encourage young couples to have children, or to keep a baby, governments should consider financial benefits and/or social advantages, such as free lodgings for the family.

  18. Adoption of Sustainable Practices And Certification ISO 14001: A Case Study in a Law and Legal Advice Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Eugênia Arenhart

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze how the company X Advocacy and Legal Consultancy can implant sustainable and quality practices to obtain the environmental certification ISO 14001. To achieve the objective, a qualitative and quantitative approach study was conducted. Regarding procedures, it consisted in a case study with a descriptive focus. From observation of the reality of X Advocacy and Legal Consultancy and its claims in relation to obtaining ISO 14001 certification, it is possible to propose as solution the implementation of a number of initiatives and sustainability actions in three pillars – social, environmental and economic. Suggestions were also developed about the dimensions of quality in order to formulate the basis for X Advocacy and Legal Consultancy environmental policy and possible implementation of ISO 14,001. 

  19. 36 CFR 219.21 - Social and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sustainability. 219.21 Section 219.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Economic Sustainability § 219.21 Social and economic sustainability. To contribute to economic and social sustainability, the responsible official involves interested and affected people in planning for National Forest...

  20. Legal pluralism and social justice in economic and political development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, von F.

    2001-01-01

    Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vergina CHIRITESCU; Manuela Rodica GOGONEA; Ruxandra Daniela ANDREI; Mihaela KRUZSLICIKA; Viorica GAVRILA

    2013-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...

  2. Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)......Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)...

  3. Discounts and their Effects - Economic and Legal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funta Rastislav

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the economic and legal effects of single-product loyalty discounts. It is clear that arguments concerning the “pro-competitive” effects of such discounts must be judged with skepticism. This applies in particular to the assumed effects of loyalty discounts resulting from double profit surcharges or falling average costs, as well as in the context of price discrimination. I argue that many of the alleged effects could also be achieved with discount forms where the risk of restrictive effects on competition should be lower. Also, the assumed anti-competitive effects of loyalty discounts must be better justified economically. This article suggests using a form-based approach for the assessment of discount schemes. However, this should not amount to a restrictive assessment of certain discount schemes. For the development of such a form-based approach, it is necessary to review the theories about pro-competitive and anti-competitive effects. Therefore, this article attempts to identify which positive effects are more likely to be achieved by means of which discount forms and under which circumstances.

  4. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  5. Theory of imprevision from the economic and legal perspective of contract analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ştefan PĂTRU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The new realities of the 21st century ask for a revitalization of the economic and legal systems so as to overcome the effects of the economic crisis. The current economic crisis is at the same time a challenge for the scientific milieu which is called to find the best solutions for the reversal and adaptation of the main scientific institutions. For the legal system, the contract represents an essential factor both theoretically and practically so that the new legislative decisions appear to be as highly important. As a particular case study, we intend to analyse the theory of imprevision both from the theoretical viewpoint and the one of practical consequences that the regulation of this institution might generate in the domestic legislative environment through the provisions of the New Civil Code. Far from our affiliation to the opinions that vividly sustain or reject the regulation of this theory, this article intends to be an objective analysis of the theory of imprevision representing one of the greatest challenges for the New Civil Code.

  6. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECO-EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana\tLUPAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  7. A law and economics approach to cost shifting, fee arrangements and legal expense insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis); T. Schepens (Tom)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of the economic literature regarding cost shifting, fee arrangements and legal expense insurance. In the economic analysis of law, legal rules are regarded as instruments which can provide actors with behavioural incentives. In

  8. TAX EVASION THROUGH FICTITIOUS ECONOMIC OPERATIONS, OBSTACLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIU-BOGDAN CONSTANTIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion means the avoidance of declaring and paying taxes. The purpose of the research is to identify ways and mechanisms of tax evasion through fictitious economic operations and how this kind o tax evasion can influence sustainable development. The principal methods are researching tax evasion cases investigated by the Romanian authorities responsible for combating this phenomenon, court trials on tax evasion and using the bibliographic references in the field. The data used are obtained through open sources of the authorities specialized in combating tax evasion for the cases made public, the media and also from specialised literature. The principal results are that this type of tax evasion is manifested through transactions with “ghost companies”, with offshore companies and transactions between associated enterprises. The main causes of this problem are: high taxation, corruption, inefficient government and tax authorities, no fiscal education and very hard tax legislation. The consequences are that the state budget is affected, the companies that do business legally are affected and also the final consumers, so Romania will not have economic growth and the quality of life will not improve. The main conclusion is that in order to have sustainable development, tax evasion in general and this kind of tax evasion in particular must be eradicated. The measures that have to be taken are to prevent tax evasion and to tighten controls but without violating taxpayers rights and without making abuses

  9. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or - more precisely - better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate (''the trend'') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995]. (author)

  10. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, P.; Kelly, B.; Passmore, J.

    1997-01-01

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO 2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  11. The privatization of electricity distribution in Turkey: A legal and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulusoy, Ali; Oguz, Fuat

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the recent regulatory reform in the Turkish Electricity Distribution Market from a legal and economic perspective. We highlight tensions between the judiciary, politicians and bureaucracy and discuss their economic consequences. The paper engages in a discussion of economic consequences of legal procedures. We stress interactions between legal decisions and economic institutions. The historical positions of the Constitutional Court and Danistay (Council of State), on privatizations have been ambivalent and it is hard to qualify them as an incentive for privatization and reform, despite some recent liberal decisions. We address reasons behind their decisions and offer some suggestions toward improving the privatization process

  12. The Seductive Logic of Subtractive Sustainability: Reflections on Sustainable Socio-economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the drivers and impediments sustainability of social systems.
    Design / Research methods: Analysis of and reflections on the discussions on campus antifragility during the 4th international conference on efficiency, sustainable business and sustainable economic development,

  13. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  14. Sustainability economics – general versus specific, and conceptual versus practical

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Baumgärtner; Martin F. Quaas

    2010-01-01

    We clarify the definition and interpretation of 'sustainability economics' (Baumgärtner and Quaas 2010) in response to recent comments by van den Bergh (2010), Bartelmus (2010) and others. For that sake, we distinguish between general and specific definitions of sustainability and sustainability economics, as well as between conceptual and practical approaches.

  15. Vegetable Charcoal and Pyroligneous Acid: Technological, Economical and Legal Aspects of its Production and Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Daroit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable charcoal generates atmospheric emissions, which can be controlled by the instalation of collectors for the condensation of such emissions, forming the pyroligneous acid. The development of collectors for the condensations and characterization of the acid for commerce can contribute with the local sustainable development. This study intends to investigate the technological, economical and legal aspects of the production and commerce of the pyroligneous acid. The chosen method was case study in Presidente Lucena/RS, Brazil, with use of surveys, interviews with producers and responsible government sectors’ representatives. The results indicate that the pyroligneous acid extraction technique is little-known and little used by the producers, that the current market does not absorb the pyroligneous acid offering and the ruling is not relevant.

  16. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, “things” lawyers call “principles” of environmental law will be discussed from a theoretical perspective. Three fundamental questions are answered: 1. Where does the high moral value that is usually attributed principles come from? 2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and ...

  17. Labour productivity as a factor of sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Elena BALU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania aims at reducing the economic and social gaps to the EU developed Member States. This requires an economic sustainable growth. An increased labour productivity is one of the main factors of competitiveness at national level and of sustainable economic development.

  18. Social and Economic Indicators of the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Mitchell; Daniel W. McCallum; Lewis E. Swanson; John Tanaka; Mark Brunson; Aaron Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2006-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide a context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability that have possible relevance in the United States. A brief...

  19. legal analysis of the european union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper discusses the EU sustainability criteria as a tool that could be effi- ciently utilized to ... 4 H Pacini, L Assunção, J van Dam, JrR Toneto, The price for biofuels sustainability (Energy. Policy, 59, August 2013) ... of this type of cars is expected to be modest in the near future, in A Lendle, M Schaus, Sus- tainability Criteria in ...

  20. the dutch crisis and recovery act: economic recovery and legal crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jonathan

    THE DUTCH CRISIS AND RECOVERY ACT: ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND. LEGAL CRISIS? J Verschuuren. 1 Introduction. Throughout the world, governments are responding to the financial and economic crisis. Such responses vary from supporting the banking system to adopting economic stimulus packages. The latter ...

  1. A novel dataset on legal traditions, their determinants, and their economic role in 155 transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Guerriero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The law and the economy are deeply influenced by the legal tradition or origin, which is the bundle of institutions shaping lawmaking and dispute adjudication. The two principal legal traditions, common law and civil law, have been transplanted through colonization and occupation to the vast majority of the jurisdictions in the world by a group of European countries. Here, I illustrate a novel dataset recording the lawmaking institution employed by 155 of these jurisdictions at independence and in 2000 and four discretion-curbing adjudication institutions adopted by 99 of these “transplants” at the same two points in time. Contrary to the “legal origins” scholars׳ assumption, 25 transplants changed the transplanted lawmaking institution and 95 modified at least one of the transplanted lawmaking and adjudication rules. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a [12], I document that these reforms are consistent with a model of the design of legal institutions by societies heterogeneous in their endowment of both the extent of cultural heterogeneity and the quality of the political process. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b [13] moreover, I show the relevance of considering legal evolution and the endogeneity between legal traditions and economics outcomes. The data illustrated here also include the proxies for the determinants of legal evolution I use in “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a [12] and the novel measure of economic outcomes I employ in “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b [13].

  2. evaluation of the legal framework for promoting sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    2 Lugard, S. Bontur, “Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility: Recipe for Sustainable Peace .... Region of Nigeria: A Review of the Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies of the Oil Companies” (2015), ..... companies and stipulate what level of community development projects that would be expected of ...

  3. Sustainable Economic Growth: a Perspective for Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Rexhepi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective analysis shows that since 1990’s, ex-socialist economies were in transition. This process was multidimensional and had deep roots. In most transition economies, output (GDP is determined by the availability of labour, capital and their productivity (TFP. Hence, these indicators are not generating the business cycles, which is typical for market economies in the long-term. At this point, it is vital to understand the reasons of low-level of capital accumulation in transition economies in order to find opportunities to make better use of physical, human and social capital. Furthermore, it is observed that in these economies, institutions needed to be re-established or the rules of the game needed to be changed to regulate incentive structures that will lead to growth. The main objective of this research is to identify the peculiarity of economic growth in Macedonia and to examine if achieving smart growth in long-term is possible; which is supported by fundamental notions of sustainable development.

  4. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    with development rights and development in the high intensity area is contingent on the purchase of the rights, which are transferred via a market. By comparing these two policy regimes, which are often analyzed separately, we can gain a better sense of the relative costs involved and the potential trade-offs and/or benefits from a hybrid policy. Furthermore, we will also investigate the potential barriers of adopting economic incentive approach specifically for the groundwater management context. These research results will assist policymakers at all levels to better understand how to design effective trading programs and realize the potential costs savings associated with these approaches for sustainable groundwater management.

  5. Legal conditions of entrepreneurship in Poland during global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kola-Bezka

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the key factors of socio-economic development and one of the key factors for countering the results of economic crisis. During the economic crisis, the way for enabling entrepreneurship, which has a relatively low costs in comparison to effects that may be achieved, results in changes in economic law relying on simplification in regulatory entrepreneurship environment. The cognitive aim of the paper is identifying and characterizing the most important changes in Pol...

  6. Does corruption influence the sustainability of economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polajeva Tanya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.

  7. Legal Regulatory Framework for the Sustainable Extraction of Australian Offshore Petroleum Resources. A Critical Functional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable development of petroleum resources in Australia forms the study of this thesis. Sustainable development in this thesis is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. It encompasses three interconnected pillars: economic development, social development and environmental protection. This thesis is confined to an analysis of the sustainable socio-economic extraction of Australia’s o...

  8. Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Factory Farming in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Asbjørn Lupo; Giersing, Josephine; Magrane, David; Breitenstein, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper is written with the purpose of looking into sustainable development. More specifically, it will look at the relationship between the environmental and economical pillars of sustainability. In order for sustainable development to take place, the economy must be growing while maintaining earth’s natural resources. Factory farming might be strong from an economic point of view, but it does not seem to be environmentally friendly. Therefore we used factory farming as an example of an i...

  9. Economic and legal conceptual framework of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic and online communications are modern, and perhaps the most common form of communication between individuals and legal entities, and thus have become one of the most used ways of market communication. Viral marketing is evolving into the dominant form of marketing and exchange of information for the purpose of advertising, promoting, or achieving other goals. In this paper we present and analyse the phenomenon of viral marketing-its purpose, effects, and power of influence, and discuss it in terms of ethical and legal standards. Special emphasis is placed on the right to privacy and personal data protection, harassment, acting in good faith and in accordance with good business practices, the presentation of false or fraudulent information. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of marketing activity have been observed.

  10. The final management of nuclear fuel. Legal and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2009-01-01

    This article gives a brief summary of the characteristics of spent fuel and the lines of action considered for its management. It describes the legal framework that supports the Radioactive Waste Management Plan (PGRR), which contains the lines applicable to Final Spent Fuel Management, as well as the evolution of this legal framework. The article contains the 2008 updated costs of the various items of the PGRR, with a more detailed description of those related to this type of fuel, as well the source and amount of the financial contributions to the fund for meeting these costs, including how they have evolved over time. finally, it provides some personal reflections on this issue. (Author)

  11. Comparison of Country Risk, Sustainability and Economic Safety Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankeviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Country Risk Index, European Economic Sustainability Index as well as for Economic Security Index were made and the results of EU country ranking based on three criteria were provided. Furthermore, the data for the Baltic States was summarised and the corresponding index of consistency for random judgments was evaluated.

  12. Dance business - accounting, tax, legal and economic connections

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlík, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The thesis summarizes the most important conditions and duties of the beginning and process of dance business of sole trader from tax, accounting and business law view. Theoretic part mainly deals with the choice of legal form of business, tax accounting as an example of evidence of business process of sole trader and calculation of tax liability of sole trader. Practical part describes business process of dance school and applies to this real example some of the information of theoretic part...

  13. No Win, No Fee: Some Economics of Contingent Legal Fees.

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Hugh; Waterson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects on the litigation process of alternative contracts between plaintiffs and their lawyers. Three contracts are compared: normal (hourly fee), contingent mark up fees, and contingent share contracts. The focus is on the first two, a recent change in English law governing legal fees providing the motivation. The influences of the contract type on the acceptance of settlement offers, the settlement probability, the accident probability, the demand for trials, and th...

  14. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  15. The Crisis Response in Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union: overview of legal developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.

    2015-01-01

    The WP analyses the changes to the law of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in response to the crisis, and discusses these major changes, their legal form, and the judicial challenges to them. The adaption of economic governance of the EU resulted in incisive regulation of Member States’ budgetary

  16. Legal Framework and Mechanism of Marine Fisheries Subsidies in the Aspects of International Trade and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adijaya Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues in fisheries have been regulated in various international conventions. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (UNCLOS 1982 has builta regime in the field of conservation and management of fishery resources based upon maritime zones or fish species that exist and available in this zone. However, UNCLOS 1982 only focuses on the issue of fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ and the high seas, thus it was not sufficient to overcome the problems of high frequent of fishing in maritime zones which are fully subject to the jurisdiction of coastal states, such as in the Inland waters, archipelagic waters and the Territorial Sea. This article aims to examine the legal framework and mechanisms of fisheries subsidies in the aspects of trade and sustainable development. In this article, discussion would carried out in order to examine the legal framework and mechanisms of marine fisheries subsidies that are implemented with the principles of fair-trade and sustainable development, both in the international level, as well as in the national level. Thus, this research is expected to be able to bridge the interests of developed countries and developing countries, especially Indonesia, in order to achieve fair trade in the field of fisheries and resource utilization of sustainable fisheries.

  17. health needs sustainable development, not more economic growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH NEEDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, NOT MORE ECONOMIC GROWTH. The pursuit of carbon-emitting economic growth has not provided economic and social stability – key determinants of health - for much of the world's population. Better health for all ...

  18. Challenges for sustainability of home based economic activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors accountable for successful and sustainable home based economic activities were determined. Impacts of home based economic activities were found to be significant in the education of the children, income security and social welfare of families. The study emphasized home economic entrepreneurial education, ...

  19. Modelling management process of key drivers for economic sustainability in the modern conditions of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchulina E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is about issues concerning the management of driver for manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability and manufacturing enterprise sustainability assessment as the key aspect of the management of enterprise economic sustainability. The given issues become topical as new requirements for the methods of manufacturing enterprise management in the modern conditions of market economy occur. An economic sustainability model that is considered in the article is an integration of enterprise economic growth, economic balance of external and internal environment and economic sustainability. The method of assessment of economic sustainability of a manufacturing enterprise proposed in the study allows to reveal some weaknesses in the enterprise performance, and untapped reserves, which can be further used to improve the economic sustainability and efficiency of the enterprise. The management of manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability is one of the most important factors of business functioning and development in modern market economy. The relevance of this trend is increasing in accordance with the objective requirements of the growing volumes of production and sale, the increasing complexity of economic relations, changing external environment of an enterprise.

  20. Legal-Economic Ownership and Generational Transfer in Family Business: Facets of Owner's Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Nemilentsev, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper a conceptual framework of the owner’s responsibility is created in order to study the transgenerational legal-economic ownership in the family business. Responsible ownership involves a sense of accountability and entrepreneurship to some extent. However, legal and social responsibilities naturally supplement each other in the family firm. Owners by means of personal relationships and financial guarantees are responsible for carrying out daily business operations and ma...

  1. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    challenges and propose an economically, politically, and legally viable ADR option. Much like waste management on Earth, cleaning up space junk will likely lie somewhere between a public good and a private sector service. An international, cooperative, public-private partnership concept can address many of these issues and be economically sustainable, while also driving the creation of a proper set of regulations, standards and best practices.

  2. Identity, Commons and Sustainability: An Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Setti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Commons represent a wide, heterogeneous class of resources but its composition is the subject of growing tensions. The question “What is a commons?” has become even more complex while the answer still remains elusive. Current research focuses on two main attributes of commons—nonexclusivity and rivalry—centered on regulatory and operational aspects, conveying the notion of usability. Instead, this study argues that the definition of commons should be derived from their function. It is proposed that identity, in its individual and collective integrated dimensions, is the ultimate goal of commons. Despite the pivotal function that commons can perform, availability of resources is indeed just one of the conditions for human development. Moreover, commons can deploy their identity-oriented functions only if a sustainability transition is pursued. Based on these considerations, the study analyzes the concept of sustainability, and addresses the question “What is to be sustained?” While the capability approach offers a coherent conceptualization of the diversity of individuals—a crucial issue for sustainability—some limitations arise when it is adopted as evaluative space of well-being. This study argues that the assumed notion of identity delivers a broader concept of sustainability and delineates the ultimate goal of sustainability (sustainable identity.

  3. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  4. Foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Jiyong; LIU Wei; HU Yi

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has exhibited growth in both foreign trade and the economy. Promoting environmental protection and sustainable economic growth are main concerns in the academic profession in the country. This paper makes an empirical analysis of trade and environmental pollution, and discusses the inherent relationship between foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth. In addition, this paper makes several policy suggestions with a view to adjusting trade ...

  5. Economic Sustainability in International Business: Peculiarities, Methods and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna Pavlivna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a contribution to the ongoing analysis of economic sustainability in international business. This study is presented with a view toward further understanding and agreement of the key concepts of sustainability. Approaches to sustainability are considered, important benchmarks and essential characteristics of sustainable development in international business are included. The article demonstrates how the concept of economic sustainability can be applied to the business level. The main ideas of the most widespread concepts on resource management are presented. Incorporation of ESG and financial factors in the concept of sustainable investing is considered. Emissions that are responsible for climate change, namely top emitters, key issues and figures are presented.

  6. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  7. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  8. Public Debt, Corruption and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.

  9. Economic vitality in a transition to sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Neva

    2007-01-01

    The good news is that many of the solutions to this extraordinary problem are within reach. Many of the solutions to global warming are not only feasible, they are economically and socially beneficial. While some claim that addressing global warming will have a negative impact on the economy, the most recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ("IPCC") asserts that there is substantial economic potential for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade...

  10. Evolutionary economic theories of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development has become the dominant concept in the study of interactions between the economy and the biophysical environment, as well as a generally accepted goal of environmental policy. So far, economists have predominantly applied standard or neo-classical theory to environmental

  11. Sustainable City Policy: Economic, Environmental, Technological

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campagni, R.; Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental problems have become a worldwide concern for economists, as is witnessed by the development of many theories and policies aimed at driving the economy towards a 'sustainable economy'. The problem becomes even greater if we discuss cities. As recognised in many studies, a high

  12. Economic and Legal Aspects of the Regulation of Population Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Luzina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a current problem of regional development, such as the regulation of labour migration. In the article, the causes of the inefficient use of labour resources are identified and the solutions to reduce tension in the labour market both at the state level and at the level of an individual employee are proposed. The formal rules and informal constraints that have a significant impact on migration are allocated. The institutional support for the regulation of migration in Russia is considered. At the level of the entities of the Russian Federation, the analysis of migration flows for the period from 2012 to 2014 is carried out; the entities of the Russian Federation are grouped according to the degree of the influence of the indicators of the natural movement and the migration of population as well as to the qualification structure of migrants (professional education, age structure. The basic imbalances in the labour market in the entities of the Russian Federation are revealed. The authors have proposed a model for assessing the attractiveness of workplaces based on the objective indicators of the development of Russian regions presented in the statistical report of Federal State Statistics Service. A feature of the model is the ability to determine the main factors influencing the attraction of labour resources to the region. The methodological tools of the research include the mathematical methods of processing statistical data. Testing of the model is conducted for the Federal districts of the Russian Federation. According to the developed model, the coefficient of the attractiveness of a workplace in 2010 and 2014 for all Federal districts of the Russian Federation is calculated. In the article, the legal framework regulating the flow of the human capital is also analysed. The assessment of the implementation of the state program of support for the resettlement in the Russian Federation of compatriots residing abroad is

  13. The Legal Design of Sustainability Criteria on Biofuels Used by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the legal power of the European Union - and the use of this power - to promote the sustainable use of biofuels by formally binding criteria in the Renewable Energy Directive. The use of the criteria has the twofold goal of making it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions...... caused by the use of fuels and to prevent the conversion of land characterized by high carbon stock and high biodiversity for biofuel production....

  14. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so...... that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can...

  15. In Search of a Sustainable Economic Development Agenda in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since independence, Ghana has adopted different strategies in a quest for a sustainable economic development agenda to better the lives of her citizens. The Nkrumah administration initiated the process through an Import-Substitution Industrialisation-led economic development policy agenda from 1957 to 1966. That was ...

  16. Contributions of Esan women to sustainable economic development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights aspects of Production amongst Esan Women for Sustainable Economic Development and the Consolidation of Intra and Inter Group Relations between1850-1960: Lesson for Nigeria Still in Search of Economic Relations. This paper is timely due to the dearth of literature on women and their ...

  17. Sustainability of Beekeeping as a Means of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability of Beekeeping as a Means of Economic Empowerment, Biodiversity and Food Security. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... The economic viability and potential of beekeeping as discussed in this work using benefit- cost-ratio analysis, cash flow and net present value suggest that ...

  18. Theoretical Review on Indonesian Academic Legal Education in Conjunction with ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariawan Gunandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia will be welcoming the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015 as a multilateral agreement to create integrated regions such as: (a a single market and production base, (b a highly competitive economic region, (c a region of equitable economic development, and (d a region fully integrated into the global economy. These characteristics are interrelated and mutually reinforcing in a sense that overall development would not be complete without total completion of the previous sector. This article discusses the participation of Indonesia as part of ASEAN as a single market and production base, through free flow of services which targets higher education in law. The author researched that Indonesian higher education system still faces issues, especially in legal education. Compared to other states that manages higher education in a relatively guided term, Indonesian legal education is still regulated generally by the government, operated by state and private educational entity, and further trained by profession organization. Indonesian legal education standard has not been supported by proper accreditation bureaucracy from BAN-PT or fair treatment from the government between state and private university. As a result, the quality of Indonesian law graduate still varies. Indonesian legal education is special in nature since it is considered profession and regulated by code of ethic. According to the author, legal education should be integrated with profession organization so that upon graduation, law graduates can directly conduct internship according to their desired profession and compete against ASEAN law graduates.

  19. (Judicial mediation in Italy and Serbia: Comparative legal and economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojašević Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes the (judicial mediation in Italy and Serbia from the legal and economic aspects. Given the fact that Serbia and Italy belong to the same legal system, that there are many similar problems in the regulation and implementation of mediation in practice, but also considering that Italy has gone a step further in the regulation of this legal institution primarily by introducing mandatory mediation, the aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the concepts and institutional forms of mediation in the two countries and, consequently, to observe if there are any legal solutions that Serbia could possibly adopt from the Italian legal system. We assume that the Italian experience in the regulation and implementation of mediation, and its mandatory form in particular, could serve as a solid basis for finding certain legal solutions that could potentially contribute to improving the efficiency of this legal institution in our country. The main finding is that the institutionalizing of mandatory mediation in specific disputes, primarily in disputes on civil and commercial matters, would improve the efficiency of mediation in Serbia.

  20. Tackling the dual challenge of sustainable consumption and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Antunes, Paula; Asara, Viviana

    to ecosystem services have spurred parts of the academic and policy communities into identification of problems and solutions. Some of the most fundamental debates, led by researchers from various disciplines, centre around economic growth and sustainable consumption. However, there is often a lack...... research questions that link the challenges of sustainable consumption with economic growth debates and critiques. The research questions have been identified through an extensive participatory process involving leading researchers and policy makers responsible for sustainability policies throughout....... This paper presents some results of the RESPONDER project, Linking Research and Policy Making for Managing the Contradictions of Sustainable Consumption and Economic Growth, funded by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme, 2011–2014....

  1. Sustainable economic development under The perspective of the agrarian right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Araújo Guimarães

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is about an analysis of the principle of the sustainable economic development under the optics of the agrarian economic activity, tends in view to growing environmental crisis after the Green Revolution and the emergence of agroindustrial complexes. It is studied the juridical conflict between the sectors, aiming the balance for the full guarantee to the environment, to the economic development and the function of the property foreseen in the Constitution. It is looked for to introduce a study to reach agrarian sustainable development. The methodology used understood the bibliographical revision of the literature related to the theme.

  2. Safeguards in a world of ambient intelligence: A social, economic, legal, and ethical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2011-01-01

    The book "Safeguards in a world of ambient intelligence" is unique in its kind. It discusses social, economic, legal, technological and ethical issues related to identity, privacy and security in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It introduces AmI and, subsequently, makes it vivid by describing four

  3. The principle(s) of co-existence in Europe: Social, economic and legal avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The European policy of coexistence follows a number of well-established social, economic and legal principles. Applying these principles in practice has resulted in a complex “rag rug” of coexistence policies in Europe. This rag rug makes enforcement of these principles difficult, at times even

  4. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  5. Soliton sustainable socio-economic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresvyannikov, M. A.; Petrova, M. V.; Tshovrebov, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    In the work presented, from close positions, we consider: 1) the question of the stability of socio-economic distributions; 2) the question of the possible mechanism for the formation of fractional power-law dependences in the Cobb/Douglas production function; 3) the introduction of a fractional order derivative for a general analysis of a fractional power function; 4) bringing in a state of mutual matching of the interest rate and the production function of Cobb/Douglas.

  6. Management of biogas projects. Legal, technical and economic aspects; Management von Biogas-Projekten. Rechtliche, technische und wirtschaftliche Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Joerg (ed.)

    2013-08-01

    Which requirements must be met in order to implement a biogas projects successfully? Legal enforceability and reliability of contracts as well as technical reliability are prerequisites for a successful financial and economic viability. Under this aspect, the book under consideration offers the first comprehensive overview of the technical, legal and economic aspects of biogas projects. Renowned experts from research and practice consider various aspects.

  7. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE PLANNED DAMAGES ACTIONS FOR THE BREACHES OF EC ANTITRUST LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Isac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the planned damages actions for breaches of EC antitrust law in order to assess their impact on consumer welfare. It first examines the current legal situation and concurs that the European Union needs to regulate damages actions for breaches of EC antitrust law so that a higher number of consumers could be compensated for their losses. This paper then discusses the main legal provisions proposed by the Commission in the Green and in the White paper on damages actions for breaches of EC antitrust law. The analysis of these proposed legal provisions is done using arguments specific to the economic analysis of law. It is demonstrated that most of these proposed legal provisions will enhance consumer welfare but that there are also proposed legal provisions which will damage consumer welfare. The paper concludes that the planned damages actions for breaches of the EC law will be an improvement compared to the current situation. However, the Commission should amend some of the proposed legal provisions in order to help consumers further.

  8. Inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Miomir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent two decades, due to contributions of political macroeconomics, the focus of macroeconomics turned away from a narrow perspective based on market and privatisation (market fundamentalism towards a broader perspective based on institutions and values (institutionalism. Within the institutional paradigm, the emphasis nowadays is put on inclusive institutions. The main thesis of one of leading proponents of political macroeconomics, D. Acemoglu, is: “growth is much more likely under inclusive (economic and political institutions than extractive institutions.” Good institutions are characterized by three attributes: 1 they establish and protect property rights; 2 they restrict social elites which strive to expropriate income and property of others members of society; 3 they provide equal chances for employment, social security and civil rights to all individuals. Good institutions contribute to political stability, successful macroeconomic policy, and enhance initiatives. The key role of institutions is to secure stability and continuity. Extractive institutions can negatively affect entrepreneurship and entire economic development in two ways: a by increasing the opportunity cost, resulting in upward movement of the opportunity cost curve; and b by affecting return to entrepreneurship resulting in leftward movement of the return to entrepreneurship curve. Apart from independence and accountability of institutions what is needed is sufficient level of inclusion. Inclusion should encompass three dimensions: personal, financial, and political. The introduction of principles of independence, accountability, and inclusion is essential for emergence and performance of all institutions.

  9. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-25

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens' tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada's black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. CRESCIMENTO ECONÔMICO E SUSTENTABILIDADE / Economic Growth and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Montibeller-Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject “economic growth and sustainability” refers to the relationship between economicgrowth and its positive impact on the wellbeing of the population and on the environment. It is,therefore, about economic, as well as social and environmental, sustainability, i.e. the root ofthe sustainable development paradigm. A historical review is needed for understanding theroots of the emergence of this new socio-political and scientific paradigm. It starts from themoment when the economy was mainly viewed as an evil against the environment, to the pointwhen the new sustainable development, or eco-development, is developed. Then the paperpresents the present, and most important, ways that several public and private actions attemptto develop their economic activities guided by this paradigm, emphasising the Brazilian context.

  11. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  13. NOx Emission Trading in a European Context: Discussion of the Economic, Legal, and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P.A. Dekkers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission trading is a new instrument in environmental policy. It is an alien notion in most European countries and it is often viewed with hesitation. The paper discusses the economic, legal, and perhaps more importantly, the cultural aspects to consider when one tries to explore the prospects for trading emissions of NOX and other substances in Europe. Issues to be addressed are the present legal framework in Europe in relation to the national emission ceilings on NOX and other substances on the basis of relevant EU directives and UNECE protocols. The paper will discuss the extent to which the legal framework within the EU imposes constraints on the design of a national emission trading scheme, and what options are available to fit emission trading into that legislative structure. The NOX emission trading programme developed in the Netherlands will be used to demonstrate the various aspects in a European context.

  14. Economically sustainable: market synergies in hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    As interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier grows, it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of a market-based approach to its introduction. While there will always be niche markets in which it makes sense to employ what is currently a comparatively expensive form of energy storage and delivery, this will not enable the sort of large-scale penetration that will allow for economies of mass-manufacture to bring the cost of hydrogen down. In addition, energy markets are becoming increasingly liberalised, and because of this it is important to understand the sort of market pressures that are arising where none have existed before. These pressures may actually lead to opportunities for hydrogen in energy storage and for use in power generation and transport fuel modes, and allow market penetration to occur more rapidly than might be the case in a centralised energy structure. In the liberalised energy market within the UK, for example, there are two areas of potentially major growth in hydrogen production and consumption: energy storage for renewable generators; and backup systems at weak electricity grid links. The first of these is due, in part, to potential changes in regulation governing the way that electricity is sold into the market, while the second is dependent more on an increasingly congested electricity grid and the high costs of building supplementary infrastructure. In both cases there is potential for the early use of hydrogen energy systems in an economically competitive environment. (author)

  15. Legal Analysis of Coal Mining in Efforts to Maintain The Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Irawan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article was to suggest the government to make the appropriate laws and policies in order to optimize the utilization of coal based on environmental sustainability. The research applied library research from several research results and the Act no. 4 of 2009. Data were analyzed qualitatively by the way of decomposition, connecting with the rules, and the legal experts’ opinion. It can be concluded that investors are not optimal in managing and conserving the coal mining and the government has not standaridized the environmental management. 

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Veselovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the perspective of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises is investigated, the factors infl uencing stability of development of the enterprises are analyzed, defi nition of different types of economic stability in the period of economic instability is given, internal and external factors of stability of the enterprises are allocated, is underlined that economic stability, first of all, is distinguished from the major factors infl uencing stability of development of the industrial enterprises. At the same time, authors consider factors of the available instability and their infl uence on rates of development of the industrial enterprises. Change of the current situation requires weakening of a number of the factors resulting in economic instability.Purposes. The purpose of article is the analysis of factors of the industrial enterprises infl uencing a sustainable development in the conditions of economic instability and development of the off ers providing on their sustainable development. Article tasks: to investigate and allocate factors, in the conditions of the worsening economic situation which are expedient for considering at a solution of the problem of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises.Methodology. When carrying out the real research materials of the state statistics were the main sources of basic data. Comparative methods of the analysis are the basis for methodical development.Results. The concept is given and types of economic stability of the industrial enterprises are given. Infl uence of internal and external factors of the enterprises infl uencing stability is shown. Infl uence of an economic situation on a role of these factors is allocated. For achievement of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises it is off ered to realize measures for weakening of the factors resulting in economic instability.Conclusions / importance. In the conditions of new economic

  17. The Economic and Legal Status of Cryptocurrency Both in Ukraine and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadievets Luidmila M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of cryptocurrency, researching the foreign experience in the use of digital currency in market economies and the possibilities of its adaptation to the conditions of Ukraine. Attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of using cryptocurrency in the development of the modern economy. Definitions of the category of «cryptocurrency» from different literary sources have been generalized. It has been defined that the first and most widespread cryptocurrency in different countries of the world is the Bitcoin. The features of issue and circulation of cryptocurrency both in Ukraine and abroad have been clarified. The international experience of work with cryptocurrency was considered and its potential influence on development of the national economy was determined. The economic and legal status of national and foreign cryptocurrencies was researched. The ways of overcoming the legal vacuum of the mode of work with national and foreign cryptocurrencies have been proposed.

  18. THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BOARDS OF NORMATIVISM: ECONOMIC AND LEGAL AT LOCAL AUTHORITY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration is an area with particularly social impact over all members of society. In the autonomous administrative authorities, local councils have important responsibilities in the organization of local community life. Within these councils several specialized committees operate and those that have the highest volume of activity are usually economic and legal committee. Their role is to filter out under a particular form, the specific procedure being the approval of local initiatives in the field of specific activity, namely economic and financial and legal. The effects of this operation need to be reflected in the adoption of decisions that meet not only the initiator's intentions, but also the point of view of local elected officials who are specialized in a particular area and reunited within the previous committees.

  19. Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torielli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

  20. Sustainable Management of Natural Resources for Socio-Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies sustainable management of natural resources for socio economic development in Imo state. This it does with the aim to determine the extent to which the exploration and exploitation of natural resources has affected the ecological and environmental conditions of the area. The research also tends to ...

  1. Economic sustainability of sheabutter production in Kwara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of sheabutter has the economic potentials in sustaining income generation for rural dwellers. The potentials of shea nuts productivity could only be achieved when technical efficiency of the processing becomes relevant. The study examines the patterns, efficiency and productivity of processing harvested shea ...

  2. Economic sustainability of palm oil plantations among smallholders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the economic sustainability indicators of oil palm smallholders in Lahad Datu, Sabah. A survey based on a set of questionnaires with 58 smallholder respondents were carried out. The findings indicated that majority smallholders have income above the poverty income level,, The income earned by the ...

  3. Ensuring innovation competitiveness and economic sustainability of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru A. GRIBINCEA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major economic and environmental change. Climate change, demographic issues, global urbanization pose challenges and constraints over the last decades. International bodies are worried about population growth, including urban over 7 billion, of which about 60% live in urban areas. More than 76% of Europe’s energy consumption is in the urban environment. Effective measures are needed to reduce emissions of gases and harmful substances in order to avoid the worst scenarios coming. The aim of the research is to investigate the real situation in the economic sector aiming at sustainable development and the experience of promoting economic development with the protection of the oikumene.

  4. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... models can be selected by operations managers depending on the manufacturer's motivation to improve service levels. We have also proposed an algorithm for determining optimum values of the decision variables for these sustainable economic production quantity models. Finally, the formulated models...

  5. Legal System as a Determinant of Economic Performance: Factual Records in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clipa Raluca Irina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the legal system in generating economic performance is enjoying increased attention inliterature. Our scientific endeavour tries to underline, from an original perspective, the incoherence whichcharacterises the Romanian law and judicial system; at the same time, it also offers a few solutions meant torestore and reconsider the role of public institutions in the legislative and judicial process. Considering thefacts presented in our study, the existence of efficient legal institutions, who enforce contracts ex post whileusing the judicial infrastructure (courts and judicial procedures, is more than critical for the formation of anagreement of will between contracting parties, thus generating economic performance for privateorganisations by reducing transaction costs and by limiting the opportunism of economic agents. Equity,predictability, transparency and reduced costs are advantages deriving from the legal enforcement ofcontracts, which stimulate competition and trade, while reducing the risks associated with different types oftransactions. Thus, it is necessary to implement an anti-corruption policy, to enhance the predictability of thelaw-making process, to reconsider and restore the attributions of institutions involved in the Romanianlegislative and judiciary process, in order to promote proper civil and commercial judicial procedures,together with the analysis of the possibility to acknowledge jurisprudence as a source of law.

  6. Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsuddoha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

  7. IMPACTS OF TIMBER LEGALITY VERIFICATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TIMBER INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvida Yosefi Suryandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International market requires producers to proof the legality of their wood products to address the issues of illegal logging and illegal trade. Timber Legality Verification System (TLVS has been prepared by the Government of Indonesia that covering the upstream and downstream wood industries. This paper aims to evaluate gaps in the implementation of TLVS policy and its impact on the sustainability of timber industry. This study was using gap, descriptive and costs-structure analyzes. The study was conducted in three provinces, namely: DKI Jakarta, West Java and D.I. Yogyakarta. Research found that the effectiveness of the TLVS implementation was low due to relatively rapid policy changes. This situation became disincetive for investments in timber business. Private sector perceived that TLVS policy should be applied in the upstream of timber business. Hence, the industry and market in the downstream have not been fully support to this system. Furthermore, TLVS policy implementation was considered ineffective by timber industry as well as private forest managers, especially by micro industry and smallholder private forests. This situation threatened the sustainability of timber industry and private forests. Therefore, Institutions should be strengthened in order to improve the quality of human resources and the competitiveness of products.

  8. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  9. An Interdisciplinary Education of Sustainability, Energy and Green Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, M. V.; Mazzatenta, C.; Wong, K.; Socha, A.

    2017-12-01

    This following project demonstrates an interdisciplinary method of teaching Sustainability, Energy and Green Economics. It is shown that an interdisciplinary approach to introduce students to the foundations of sustainability strongly connects education with real world applications, and highlights the growing influence of sustainable practices on the world at large. The authors will present results from the interdisciplinary course "Sustainability, Energy and Green Economy" taught at the Center of Sustainable Energy, Bronx Community College, City University of New York (CSE-BCC-CUNY) by faculty from Physics, Chemistry, Biology. The course curriculum covers the relationship of humans within their environment, the facts of climate change, an analysis of the current global energy portfolio, the burgeoning renewable energy sector, and connections between consumption and quality of life. The students are exposed to empirical data and asked to evaluate trends to ascertain the future energy and resource demands of a growing global population. The students are lead through an estimation of their own carbon footprint. Emphasis is made on the concept of `Life Cycle Analysis' and how such analyses can be used to create market value and a "green product". The interdisciplinary approach to teach students on how the principles of sustainability are building the green economy and how to build a successful career within today's workforce encourages students to apply the critical lens of sustainability to all aspects of their personal lives, as well as local, regional and global economies. The authors will present data collected by students to formulate and articulate a hypothesis specifically related to the sustainability of societal and economic market trends.

  10. Law Review of Islamic Capital Market Role to Support Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helza Nova Lita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of this paper is to assess on how the rule of Islamic capital markets to support   sustainable economic development and what kind of instruments can be developed.Method – The method used in this research is the study of normative juridical approach to legislation and the concept of Islamic economics through literature review.Result – Issuer's business activities related to support for environmentally friendly business activities are part of the implementation of sharia principles despite the provisions of the implementation of Islamic finance through a decision has not been stated . All types of instruments issued by issuers of sharia in Indonesia should be consistent with Islamic economic values, including the commitment to enforcement of environmentally friendly business activities.Conclusion – This finding suggests to strengthen the legal instruments in the issuer's issuance of Islamic instruments in the form of regulations issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission  and through the National Fatwa Council of Sharia.Keywords : Islamic Capital Markets, sustainable economic development, friendly environment

  11. Towards More Effective Water Quality Governance: A Review of Social-Economic, Legal and Ecological Perspectives and Their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Wuijts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, social-economic, legal and ecological perspectives on effectiveness of water quality governance and their interactions have been studied. Worldwide, authorities are facing the challenge of restoring and preserving aquatic ecosystems in accordance with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6. Over the last few decades, governance approaches have often been used to realise these ambitions. To date, scholars have identified that it is difficult to relate governance approaches to water quality improvement and have offered several different explanations for this. Combined with a targeted conceptualisation of the perspectives and their interactions, the systematic literature review demonstrates the gap that exists in the current understanding of these interactions and what their effects are on water quality improvement, especially in regard to the identification of ecological issues and their boundary conditions for the legal framework and the development of measures and follow-up. The review also reveals that the scientific debate is focused on the planning rather than implementation phase. A step forward can be made by supplementing existing analytical frameworks by the interactions between the different perspectives, especially those related to problem definition and the development and realisation of measures.

  12. Economic and environmental packaging sustainability: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González Boubeta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze the suitability of the packaging strategy of an important Spanish agro-food company, regarding to economic and environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Three different types of packaging are analyzed to obtain a diagnostic of the initial situation. In this process, cost and carbon footprint are calculated in order to measure the economic and environmental impacts, respectively. Then, a new packaging allocation logic is proposed with the aim of improving both aspects. Findings: The results show that the carbon footprint is strongly and positively affected by the cost reduction, showing the viability of a win-win relationship between both aspects. Research limitations/implications: The strength of this win-win relationship may be conditioned by the input values considered in this case study. Conversion factors used to calculate carbon footprint vary a lot among researchers, showing the need of standardization in this topic. Practical implications: Since the existence of a positive relationship between economic and environmental sustainability has been demonstrated, organizations should find this kind of situations in themselves to satisfy their own stakeholders. Originality/value: This article shows the potential of unite waste elimination with eco-friendly activities with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of companies. This paper also contributes to the knowledge of economic and environmental sustainability and reinforces theoretical aspects, paving the way for further research on these topics.

  13. Democratizing economics: pluralism as a path toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderbaum, Peter; Brown, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Climate scientists point to a number of unsustainable trends concerning the environment and natural resources. There is also ongoing concern about poverty reduction, labor rights, and other social aspects of sustainable development. Growing numbers argue that change is required, but still at issue is the extent of change and how to facilitate it. In this paper, the focus is on the dominant interpretive schema of influential actors with respect to ideas about science in society, paradigms in economics, and ideological orientations. The authors argue that the monopolistic position of neoclassical economics at university departments of economics in different parts of the world, and the spread of its associated technocratic logic within broader policy arenas, should be abandoned in favor of a more ideologically open attitude that facilitates discussion and debate within academia, public policy, and in civil society more generally. In a sense, economics requires "democratization" with implications for approaches to sustainability monitoring, accounting, and the assessment of projects and policies. The paper provides suggestions for developing sustainability assessment technologies and practices that take pluralism seriously.

  14. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  15. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Krupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  16. REDDuced: From sustainability to legality to units of carbon—The search for common interests in international forest governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Global forest governance has narrowed in focus from sustainability to carbon. ► Translating forests into carbon units creates an appearance of global transparency. ► Controversial environmental and social concerns have been reframed as “safeguards”. ► Resulting in a proliferation of safeguarding initiatives and new complexities. ► Hence flows of information increase but fail to facilitate global coordination. -- Abstract: This paper examines the institutional history of international forest governance, from the emergence of global intergovernmental forestry forums, to non-state market-based certification schemes, to regional illegal logging initiatives, to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation and forest enhancement (REDD+) under the UNFCCC. It observes how the early initiatives were criticised for their failure to achieve coordinated and widespread action on forest conservation due to a lack of economic incentives and conflict over environmental and social priorities. This failure has been proceeded by a narrowing of core focus across each successive institution—from sustainability to legality to units of carbon—thereby transforming forest conservation into an increasingly legible and tradable commodity. Indeed, a wide range of environmental, economic and social actors appear to share the goal of making forest management more globally legible. This narrowing of focus, however, has served to displace rather than resolve a large array of environmental and social conflicts. The issues have been displaced across both space and time, generating a growing plethora of institutions involved in defining REDD+ modalities and “safeguards”, including various UN bodies and programmes, international development banks, private certification schemes and national and subnational governments. Meanwhile there is little evidence of whether, where and how these efforts might affect forest change. In fact, the largest impact of REDD

  17. Legal and economic aspects of contracts of insurance of crops and yields against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contract of insurance of crops and yields against drought is based on the risk of decrease of precipitation in comparison with an earlier relevant period. The authors analysed the specificities of the case of draught risk, but also other regulations characteristic of this contractual relationship, both from the economic and the legal point of view. The paper also treats the position of contractual parties in this contractual relationship, partly arising from the monopolising position of the insuring organisation. That part also analyses the contract freedom that is endangered due to unequal positions of contractual parties. Special attention is paid to legal sources, especially the general and special conditions of insurance organisations, seeing as they are the main source of law, as there is a lack of legal regulation of this field. The number of Serbian insurance organisations that offer this type of insurance is extremely low, as well as the percentage of insurance against this risk. The authors analyse the reasons for which this type of insurance is underdeveloped in Serbia, as well as the consequences of such a state to a safe agricultural production. The paper also covers the topic of the role of legislators and the state in general, in terms of regulation of certain elements of this contractual relation, but also in terms of state incentives that would contribute to a higher percentage of insured agricultural areas. This would reduce the uncertainty and the damage suffered by agricultural producers due to increasing weather fluctuations. Taking into account the inadequate legal and economic tradition, education in this field would represent a significant contribution to the development of this kind of insurance. The authors analyse the difference between the contracts of insurance of crops and yields against drought and the weather derivative contracts, which can be traded on the stock market.

  18. The sustainability of economic growth in Abu Dhabi

    OpenAIRE

    Smeets, Bram

    2013-01-01

    Abu Dhabi has experienced an unprecedented development during the last half century, growing rapidly from a remote desert settlement to a thriving metropolitan. Today, the Emirate ranks among the countries with the highest GDP per capita in the world, and this impressive development is anticipated to continue in the decades to come.However, there are several challenges to the sustainability of the current economic prosperity, and the environmental degradation that was caused by the rapid deve...

  19. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    Aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) has been the fastest-growing animal food-producing sector in the world during the last three decades. At present, more than half of the world’s human fish consumption comes from aquaculture. Despite the positive trend, the aquaculture industry faces...... challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable....... To this end, key challenges should be thoroughly examined to identify sustainable and efficient solutions. Thus, the thesis focuses on two important bottlenecks in the growth of the aquaculture sector—namely, lack of nutritionally suitable live feed items for marine finfish production and negative...

  20. AN ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE: TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development is complex challenge, so only complex decisions and approaches could be possible to implement in the most efficient way. There is still open question – what is the optimal volume of new energy resources using to support sustainable development and environment safety for any state of the world. Article deals with the availability of convergence to serve for the more effective usage of analytic and system approaches for modeling ecological-economic spillovers in the case of transition to sustainable energy. The economic effects of sustainable energy transition are considered. The analysis of dynamic of energy consumption in the scale of different type of resources during 1820-2030 years depicted the situation of complicated analysis of “economy-energy-environment” linkage. It arises the agenda of necessity to implement complex approaches for modeling and forecasting of new energy systems development. Different types of models and techniques to analyze economy-energy systems are listed and compared.

  1. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  2. Legal Guarantees of Economic Competition in the European Union Public Procurement Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kosiński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this publication is to assess legal guaranties of competition (free competition between contractors in broadly perceived process of granting public procurement, which means not only entering into a contract subject to the specific legal regime, concluded by a public purchaser, or possible private purchaser subordinated to that legal regime, with a contractor (contractors in order to satisfy its demand for certain goods or services, but also a due course of the whole process of granting public procurement, perceived as a sequence of factual and legal actions beginning with the moment of public announcement of a procurement, sending an invitation for submitting offers or sending invitation to negotiate for selection of an offer of a given contractor, up till final fulfilment of all obligations of the parties under the public procurement contract. Methods: the major research method is the dogmatic-legal method, namely an analysis of legal text of different laws. Moreover, there is a critical analysis of scholar literature. The most important in this context is to indicate mutual co-relations between competition and fair competition in area of public procurement system and to point other major principles of the public procurement process, such as non-discrimination rule, transparency, impartiality and objectiveness rule, legality rule, openness, rule of written form, primate of using tender mode (competitive mode, in another words it is a rule of extraordinary application of non-competitive modes or primate of granting public procurement in a tender mode. All of those rules constitute together components of the guarantee of genuine competition within the whole process of granting a public procurement. It must be stressed that the literature in the area of research in not really rich. This is accurate in terms of Polish literature and EU literature, too. Results. Conclusions and relevance: results of the research are such

  3. Academics for International Criminal Justice: The Role of Legal Scholars in Creating and Sustaining a New Legal Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Jarle

    The article is a sociological investigation into the crucial role of legal academics in the professional mobilization that characterized the creation and development of international criminal justice. Analyzing the different stages in the evolution of international criminal law culminating...... consultants and scholarly experts in the nascent field of international criminal justice. Investing professionally in the creation and development of international criminal justice, this role as double agents allowed groups of academics to have a significant impact on the genesis and evolution...... of international criminal justice as a scientific discipline as well as an innovative legal practice that has remained a controversial element in global governance....

  4. Sustainable Development, Moral Law and Legality in Defense of Cultural and Landscape Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Maria Cogo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Moved by Pope Frances’ urgent call to protect our common home by dealing with the environmental challenge and its human roots to achieve sustainable and integral development, the historical-legislative and institutional recognition act was drawn up on the protection and valorization of cultural-landscape-environmental heritage, matrix of the progress of civilization outlined in the fundamental principles of the Italian Constitution in the “cultural programme” focused on the relationship between cultureperson and environment-person. It recalls the action of the institutions to protect nature and the ecological-environmental balance and the activities of international organizations to safeguard nature from human actions. They are a sign of the critical issues of codification in the field of cultural, landscape and environmental heritage (2006-2009 due to a departure from natural legal right (jus envisaged as a moral law for enjoyment, compatible with a loving, responsible and prudent use, aimed at guaranteeing an integral sustainable development for future generations. In losing the natural moral law, one encounters the decisive factor in the fall of legality, with serious consequences for heritage protection and people’s growth, based on shared standards. A glimmer of hope can be discerned in the community/EU legislation to harmonize the protection and valorization of the environment according to criteria of substantive law, where the primary aims for the guarantee of future generations lead to regulatory processes anchored to the ethics of natural moral law, under the bulwark of true cooperation and good faith, in a strict justicial and sanctioning system, tempered by the use of fairness when the general interest of the common good prevails.

  5. Measuring economic performance, social progress and sustainability using an index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)

  6. Expropiation and seizure goods as penalties for drug traffic. Economic analysis of the legal regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article through the use of economic categories tries to identify the reasons that did not allow that former legislation (Law 333 1996 produced the result expected from the administration of seizure goods. This law pretended that this goods were not only productive, but also that they may generate employment. It is proposed in this article some remedies for the problems that were not solve by the new legislation (laws 785-793 2002 with the aim to establish the legal and institutional adjustments that permit that permit the fulfillment of the original objectives.

  7. Analysis of the Ethical, Legal and Economic Domains of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Business Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Peláez Villada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of organizations is to achieve positioning and legitimacy through strategies of corporate social responsibility (CSR. This article focuses on the analysis of CSR practices and it seeks, through a business case, to define a method to examine the benefits of its application in society and in organizations. From the proposal of Schwartz (2011 on the domains of corporate social responsibility, where the ethical, economic, and legal dimensions of philanthropic organizations converge, financial reports and social balances of a company, were studied, where we identified, financial, ethical, and tax variables which allowed us to establish the orientation and balance between social responsibility practices and corporate image.

  8. Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Five Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sorrell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: (a the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; (b the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; (c the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficiency; (d sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and (e a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a fractional reserve banking system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a "blind spot" or "taboo subject" that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.

  9. Technical conditions for sustainable growth in economic theory. An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda C, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    Economic theory and its models point out returns to scale, substitution among productive factors and technological progress as conditions for sustainable growth. This work aims at a critical appraisal of these conditions, particularly the ones related to substitution between natural resources and manmade capital and technical change, by recognizing the inevitable physical scarcity of resources concomitant to the human actions in a world governed by hemodynamic restrictions. To do so, the role that the mentioned conditions play in the theories of economic growth with resources is analyzed, and its limitations and objections from a biophysical perspective are indicated as well. Finally, a brief consideration as to how inappropriate the theoretical representations of economic activities are to take account of growth in spite of resource exhaustion or degradation is carried out

  10. The Three Colorado Rivers: Comparing the Physical, Legal, and Economic Allocation of a Shared River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    : For many rivers, the legal allocation of surface water was settled decades ago. The process of apportioning surface water between multiple stakeholders is an arduous process with opposing interests competing for scarce resources. The political capital spent initially allocating a river often cannot be regained, stymieing future attempts for re-allocation. The Colorado River Compact (Compact), signed in 1922, has been "the law of the river" for over 90 years. Since its signing, the Colorado River Basin (CRB) population has increased tenfold, while average river flows have decreased due to threats unforeseeable to Compact signers, such as global climate change. Water sharing agreements, like the Compact, legally re-allocate physical river flows; however, water is increasingly shared through trade rather than aqueducts. Virtual water, or the water embodied by a good or service, is a trade adaption to resource scarcity, namely water and land. This study presents findings of a virtual water complement to the Compact. The goal of this study is to determine how the legal allocation of physical water resources are re-allocated as virtual water via economic trade in a shared river basin. Results are presented by at the sub-basin, state, and county-level, showing the geographic origin and destination of virtual water from CRB states and the Upper and Lower basins. A water stress index is calculated to show the indirect water stress of Colorado River water resources and network statistics are employed to rank the importance of virtual water sources in the CRB.

  11. Economic Analysis of Legal Regulations Regarding Liability for Loss Resulting from a Dangerous Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers fundamental issues associated with economic analysis of legal regulations pertaining to liability for damage caused by a dangerous product. The discussion is conducted from the perspective of a lawyer analysing the conclusions stemming from economic analyses of the aforementioned liability by individual authors, which constitutes a base for subsequent observations. The relationships between the various potential configurations of manufacturer liability are discussed, in particular a situation where such liability is not stipulated, as well as where there is the introduction of liability based on the risk or fault principles and the ensuing motivation for maintaining an appropriate level of carefulness. Attention is focused on the search for an economically efficient solution. An analysis of current regulation is performed, as well as de lege ferenda conclusions grounded in economic analysis of law with reference to the shape of the regulatory liability regime for damage caused by a dangerous product. Many reservations are also listed, including ones concerning the fact that it does not seem that the legislative process should be guided only by conclusions stemming from economic analysis of law (especially considering the differences of opinion in that area, which does, however, unquestionably constitute a useful tool in such matters.

  12. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. → Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. → Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  13. Legal harvesting, sustainable sourcing and cascaded use of wood for bioenergy : Their coverage through existing certification frameworks for sustainable forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Junginger, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; van Dam, Jinke; Stegeman, Gerben; Durrant, David; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development). One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the

  14. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  15. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  16. IMPORTANCE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANKICA TODOROVIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of tourist resources and tourist products, competitive ability and positioning of the destinations in the tourist market affect the economic development of the national economy. Natural resources are key, but under-utilized resources necessary for the tourism development, whereby reaching the level where the key development resources are on the verge of carrying capacities, thus making the model structure of the future development to be a significant contribution in searching the optimal model of sustainable development. The paper points to the importance of previous positive experience in the development of tourism and related activities especially in terms of development planning in accordance with the available resources, spatial opportunities and sustainable development. The research the possibility of defining an optimal model for sustainable tourism development in the case of mountain destinations in Zlatibor District will indicate the need to precisely define economic-geographical resources which determine the individual role of an each resource in creating the tourist offer, as well as, to show that the inadequate management of tourist resources and marketing activities leads to their degradation.

  17. Big Social Network Data and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Can

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have led to the rapid and effective growth of social networks. The amount of data produced by social networks has increased the value of the big data concept, which is one of the popular current phenomena. The immediate or unpredictable effects of a wide array of economic activities on large masses and the reactions to them can be measured by using social media platforms and big data methods. Thus, it would be extremely beneficial to analyze the harmful environmental and social impacts that are caused by unsustainable business applications. As social networks and big data are popular realms currently, their efficient use would be an important factor in sustainable economic development. Accurate analysis of people’s consumption habits and economic tendencies would provide significant advantages to companies. Moreover, unknown consumption factors that affect the economic preferences of individuals can be discovered and economic efficiency can be increased. This study shows that the numerous solution opportunities that are provided by social networks and big data have become significant tools in dynamic policy creation by companies and states, in solving problems related to women’s rights, the environment, and health.

  18. Pollution prevention and its role in sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos de Lemos, H.

    1992-01-01

    The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs

  19. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Biewinga, E.E.; Bijl, G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO 2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  20. Toward an Economic Definition of Sustainable Yield for Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, J. W.; Habana, N. C.; Lander, M.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of aquifer sustainable yield has long been criticized, debated, and even disparaged among groundwater hydrologists, but policy-makers and professional water resource managers inevitably ask them for unequivocal answers to such questions as "What is the absolute maximum volume of water that could be sustainably withdrawn from this aquifer?" We submit that it is therefore incumbent upon hydrologists to develop and offer valid practical definitions of sustainable yield that can be usefully applied to given conditions and types of aquifers. In coastal aquifers, water quality—in terms of salinity—is affected by changes in the natural water budget and the volume rate of artificial extraction. In principle, one can identify a family of assay curves for a given aquifer, showing the specific relationships between the quantity and quality of the water extracted under given conditions of recharge. The concept of the assay curve, borrowed from the literature of natural-resource extraction economics, has to our knowledge not yet found its way into the literature of applied hydrology. The relationships between recharge, extraction, and water quality that define the assay curve can be determined empirically from sufficient observations of groundwater response to recharge and extraction and can be estimated from models that have been reliably history-matched ("calibrated") to such data. We thus propose a working definition of sustainable yield for coastal aquifers in terms of the capacity that ultimately could be achieved by an ideal production system, given what is known or can be assumed about the natural limiting conditions. Accordingly, we also offer an approach for defining an ideal production system for a given aquifer, and demonstrate how observational data and/or modeling results can be used to develop assay curves of quality vs. quantity extracted, which can serve as reliable predictive tools for engineers, managers, regulators, and policy

  1. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuran Sivapalan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For carbon capture and storage (CCS to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and

  2. Economic sustainability of organic dairy sheep systems in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro-Mujica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems in regions with a Mediterranean climate are important in social, economic and environmental terms. Modeling these systems allows, among others, evaluation of the costs efficiencies which in turn permits assessing the expected effects of changes in production variables. This paper presents a prototype analysis of the economic sustainability of ecological dairy sheep systems of Castilla-La Mancha, Central Spain evaluated through the estimation of costs efficiencies. Costs functions were developed using data from 31 farms. Rate of supplementary feeding, labour use, and flock size were used to measure the cost efficiency. On average, cost efficiency was 61.7±15.5%, with significant differences among typological groups. High efficiency was found in only 29% of the farms. The economic analyses performed suggest that the continued existence of economically unsustainably farms is explained by the available subsidies, lack of amortization of fixed assets leading to progressive decapitalization, and subsistence incomes by family groups (gross family income.

  3. ECONOMIC NATURE AND THE ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES PAYMENTS UNDER SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zalievska-Shyshak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  4. Indicadores de sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde na Amazônia Legal, Brasil Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os desafios atuais para a Saúde Pública está o de estruturar sistemas de indicadores que permitam monitorar as condições e tendências da sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde. Neste artigo procuramos enfrentar esse desafio tendo como foco de análise os estados integrantes da Macrorregião Amazônia Legal, que desde a segunda metade do século XX vem sofrendo intensos processos de mudanças sócio-econômicas, ambientais, de saúde e bem-estar. Para a reunião e análise do conjunto de indicadores adotamos o modelo Forças Motrizes, Pressão, Situação, Exposição, Efeito e Ação (FMPSEEA proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstram que, ao mesmo tempo em que as forças motrizes e pressões vêm contribuindo para o crescimento econômico e populacional, resultando em melhoras de indicadores tradicionais de saúde (redução da mortalidade infantil e aumento da expectativa de vida, são grandes as desigualdades sociais e econômicas e a sobreposição dos impactos na saúde da população, em um quadro bastante heterogêneo. Além disso, a situação ambiental também aponta para um modelo de desenvolvimento insustentável para as gerações presentes e futuras, exigindo respostas dos setores ambientais e de saúde à altura dos desafios colocados na atualidade.One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures

  5. Nuclear energy economics in a sustainable development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Morrison, R.

    2001-01-01

    In order to contribute effectively to sustainable development goals, a technology option must meet the test of economic efficiency to justify its use of scarce capital. However, in a sustainable development perspective, this test should be considered in a broad context, taking into account the need to preserve capital assets of all kinds: natural, man-made, human and social. Assessments of competitiveness in this context should be based upon comparisons of full costs to society of a product or a service. At present, many of the costs associated with the supply of goods and services are not reflected in their market prices. Economists are looking for ways of valuing these costs and incorporating them into price, i.e. internalizing the externalities. Within a sustainable development framework, getting the prices right so that market mechanisms can operate efficiently implies taking into account social and environmental costs for present and future generations. On that basis, the comparative assessment of alternative technologies will become an effective policy-making tool. (authors)

  6. The Economic-Managerial Substantiation of Quality through the Prism of the Philosophical-Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beztelesna Liudmyla I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical foundations of origin and use of the concept of «quality» in the economic environment. The evolution of the concept of «quality» was researched, as a result it was found that the term «quality» has both objective (measurable and computational and subjective (measurable only individually characteristics. Systematization in relation to the concept of «quality» is carried out both at the macro level – through development of the whole of normative-legal acts, and at the micro level – when the enterprises choose their own management strategies. The assessment of the legal interpretation of the category of «quality» in the article allowed to assert that the key is the Law of Ukraine «On protection of consumer rights», but in their activity domestic enterprises in parallel apply the standards of DSTU ISO of the Series 9000, the use of which is a kind of evidence of the reliability of a business partner. Evidence of the quality of each individual product or service is compliance with certain industry standards.

  7. [Legal aspects of medical expert testimony and non-economic damage in civil liability of physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauković, Hrvoje

    2008-01-01

    In the establishment of civil liability of physicians for damage caused, it is extremely important to establish all relevant facts for the court to render the appropriate verdict. One of the crucial instruments in the establishment of a presumed civil liability of physicians as well as in the establishment of the criteria for the assessment of a proper award, is the medical expert testimony--utilised as an essential proof. The comprehension of medical and legal professionals' replies to questions which every profession must answer in order to provide an objective access to the claim and a right and full establishment of the factual situation, is the imperative for a correct application of the law in the handling and settling of these claims, especially in the light of the new set up of the concept of non-economic damage. The medical and legal profession shall help placing the problems of civil liability of physicians into real frameworks, preventing any attempts of unnecessary stigmatization of medical profession and cases of unjustified and unfounded indemnification, and it shall objectively and professionally, based on the law, enable a full and absolute protection of patients and third parties and their rights to physical and mental health.

  8. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities - economic, legal, and political aspects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the approaches taken in other countries, in Germany the licensing regime as well as the political attitude foster a tendency to rather delay decommissioning, which in the end entails unproportionally high costs. This is why the conference focuses on the economic, legal and political aspects of nuclear facility decommissioning and their relevance to the site regions and the near-site environment and population. The conference is intended to provide a forum for learning from the information and experience available at the national, European and international level, in order to identify required policy and action planning leading to improvements in the future. The conference was concluded with a visit of the nuclear facilities at Greifswald. (orig./DG)

  9. The final management of nuclear fuel. Legal and economic aspects; La gestion final del combustible nuclear. Aspectos legales y economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villota, C. de

    2009-07-01

    This article gives a brief summary of the characteristics of spent fuel and the lines of action considered for its management. It describes the legal framework that supports the Radioactive Waste Management Plan (PGRR), which contains the lines applicable to Final Spent Fuel Management, as well as the evolution of this legal framework. The article contains the 2008 updated costs of the various items of the PGRR, with a more detailed description of those related to this type of fuel, as well the source and amount of the financial contributions to the fund for meeting these costs, including how they have evolved over time. finally, it provides some personal reflections on this issue. (Author)

  10. Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, D B

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and

  11. Legal framework for a sustainable biomass production for bioenergy on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The EU H2020 funded project SEEMLA is aiming at the sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe. Partners from Germany, Italy, Ukraine and Greece are involved in this project. Whereas Germany can be considered as well-established and leading country with regard to the production of bioenergy, directly followed by Italy and Greece, Ukraine is doing its first steps in becoming independent from fossil energy resources, also heading for the 2020+ goals. A basic, overarching regulation is the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) which has been amended in 2015; these amendments will be set in force in 2017. A new proposal for the period after 2020, the so called RED II, is under preparation. With cross-compliance and greening, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) offers measures for an efficient and ecological concept for a sustainable agriculture in Europe. In country-specific National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) a concept for 2020 targets is given for practical implementation until 2030 which covers e.g. individual renewable energy targets for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport sectors, the planned mix of different renewables technologies, national policies to develop biomass resources, and measures to ensure that biofuels are used to meet renewable energy targets are in compliance with the EU's sustainability criteria. While most of the NREAP have been submitted in 2010, the Ukrainian NREAP was established in 2014. In addition, the legal framework considering the protection of nature, e.g. Natura 2000, and its compartments soil, water, and atmosphere are presented. The SEEMLA approach will be developed in agreement with this already existing policy framework, following a sustainable principle for growing energy plants on marginal lands (MagL). Secondly, legislation regarding bioenergy and biomass potentials in the EU-28 and partner countries is introduced. For each SEEMLA partner an overview of regulatory

  12. BIOFUELS AND THE INCLUSIVE GREEN ECONOMY: SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, some debates lead the country to develop new policies and implement the National Biodiesel Use and Production Program (PNPB, with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster sustainable regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the linkages between family farmer’s living standard and the adoption of oil seed activity in northern Brazil, in a region of transition between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Amazon rain forest. Ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among smallholders who cultivate soybean. A fuzzy logic set theory based on living standard criteria and a non-linear probit model was applied to assess the inclusion of poor rural families in the biodiesel chain. Preliminary results point towards a negative relation between the family degree of deprivation and adoption of oil seed activity, for the soybean production.

  13. Criterion IV: Social and economic indicators of rangeland sustainability (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2010-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...

  14. PROBLEMS OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Primachev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a systematic consideration of the complex issues of sustainable development of the national maritime transport subsystems in the global maritime transport industry. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the real conditions of operation. There are feasible measures which should be taken to normalize the development of the national merchant fleet in order to achieve relative stability and to minimize the risk of losing the status of maritime power. Aspects of international administration in marine transport industry are highlighted in this article. The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the choice of governance of economic and investment activity in the system of market relations.

  15. Economic impact of the world summit on sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Martins

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa hosted the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD in 2002.  This event is regarded as the single biggest conference to be held anywhere in the world. The aim of this paper is to set out the estimated economic impact of the WSSD and its parallel events on South Africa.  This impact can be expressed in monetary terms as well as employment figures.  The impact is calculated by using an input-output model and employment spin-offs determined from the IO table by using partial multipliers.  The input data were derived from a survey amongst WSSD delegates as well as information on government and private investments made.

  16. Analysis of legal and economic aspects of precipitation weather derivatives for Serbian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are not present in Serbia nor in the neighbouring countries and have no significant application in the European Union, either. Weather derivatives originated in the USA, where the market for these instruments is most developed, in terms of both economy and law. However, positive effects of their application, through the decrease of influence of unfavourable weather conditions on agricultural crops, are a good basis for their further study. The most common reasons for their absence from our financial market are their complexity and the inexistence of prerequisites for their introduction. This paper analyses legal and economic aspects of weather derivatives, as forms of financial derivatives, as well as weather derivative contracts concluded with the aim of hedging against precipitation exposure. The goal of the analysis is to find an optimal contract structure, but also the conditions that have to be met in order for its signing to be economically justified for both contractual parties, as well as the creation of preconditions for this weather derivative contract to be the instrument of trade on the financial market. The paper also analyses normative frameworks for the conclusion of these derivative contracts, as well as the necessity to educate market participants, which refers both to agricultural producers and financial institutions. Furthermore, it emphasizes the difference in relation to the classical contract of insurance against drought risk.

  17. The Impact of Tourism in Economic Sustainability of Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The national park Mavrovo has rich and diverse natural resources which are an important and valuable part of the area. In addition to the territory there are numerous attractive tourist landscapes and ambiental values which together with the cultural and historical heritage enrich the tourist offer of the park. The tourist values of the National Park have been enriched and completed with the numerous accommodations and related tourism infrastructure that has been built in order to meet the traveler’s needs. According to the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Macedonia the National Park Mavrovo has a national and international tourist significance. Therefore, the authors consider it necessary to design a tourist development for the area which will improve the competitiveness of the demanding tourism market and to keep the importance of the region for the tourists. For this purpose, the authors made the projections by analysis which was made on the basis of the current situation in terms of tourism development and the basis of the concepts of sustainable tourism development. This approach should enable sustainable tourism management for the protected area and it will allow increased general economic development where tourism will be the main instigator.

  18. LEGAL ASPECTS OF A MANAGEMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE PUBLIC INVESTMENTS IN REGIONS. DILEMMAS OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryk Kosiński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides for an analysis of legal aspects of certain particular investment processes within technical infrastructure in the Polish regions (voivodeships, but in the counties and communes as well. Those mentioned investments are undertaken in the areas of roads, railroads, airports and telecommunication. The impact of the investments is crucial in terms of the socio-economic development of the modern state and society. All dilemmas in terms of the mentioned investments’ management are related to legal regulations imposed by the state. It is noteworthy that those special regulations are aimed at organising the investment process in an efficient and adequately speedy way. Those regulations provide for a broad legal environment of business within the infrastructure investments. All of those regulations are necessary in order to push the continuous progress of the Polish regions targeting at reacting the level of socio-economic development of the so-called western countries (old, early members of the EU.

  19. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  20. The Principle(s) of Co-existence in the Market for GMOs in Europe: Social, Economic and Legal Avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    The European policy of co-existence for GMOs follows a number of well-established social, economic and legal principles. Applying these principles in practice has resulted in a complex “rag rug” of co-existence policies in Europe. This rag rug makes enforcement of these principles difficult, at

  1. Addressing law and agroecosystems, sovereignty and sustainability from a legal pluralistic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper wants to contribute to the debate on the complex relationships between law and agroecosystems from a legal pluralistic perspective. For this purpose, it first explains what is legal pluralism, and then this notion is used to conceptualize law, the relationship between law and social

  2. Real effects of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Danial Ariff Burhanudin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The persistent increase of government debt in Malaysia in the recent years has raised con-cerns as to whether the borrowings have spurred the economy or became a drag on econom-ic growth. The present paper investigates the real effect of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach for the period of 1970-2015. The results show there are positive significant long- and short-run relationships between government debt and sustainable economic growth. There is also a unidirectional causality running from government debt to sustainable economic growth. The findings indicate that Malaysia’s government debt is an important macroeconomic element for sustainability of economic growth in Malaysia. There is no evidence, however, to con-clude that the level of government debt had any adverse impacts on sustainable economic growth.

  3. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS

  4. Sustainable development in the EU: a political and economic explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaco, Salvo

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to identify the principal actions needed to make sure that the process towards sustainability be given a much wider impulsion, the Fifth Environmental Action Programme of the ED underlined the increasing need for the application of a broader range of instruments aimed at influencing decisions which affect the environment. In this perspective economic tools were seen as the most adequate and powerful instruments available for efficient use and management of natural resource base in addition to and complementary not only to direct regulations but also to social pressure, negotiation and other forms of moral suasion. Thus, at the beginning of the 1990s, the European environmental policy began a transformation from merely growth-oriented model to sustainable development, moving into its second stage of environmental agenda. Widening the portfolio of policy instruments represents a main aspect of the Sixth Environmental Action Programme as well. In the search for innovative and sustainable solutions to the problems of the internalisation of the negative as well as positive impacts of production and consumption patterns on the environment, the new Programme requires, inter alia: encouraging reforms of subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development; analysing the environmental efficiency of tradable environmental permits as a generic instrument and of emission trading with a view to promoting and implementing their use where feasible; promoting and encouraging the use of fiscal measures such as environmentally related taxes and incentives, at the appropriate national or Community level; promoting the integration of environmental protection requirements in standardisation activities. In ardor to analyse whether the process towards sustainability started in 1992 has taken roots, several evaluation studies revealed that broadening the range of instruments had proved to be more difficulty than

  5. Legal means of the energy development in the respect of the environment in French law: research on the law of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatico, L.

    2003-05-01

    The energy regulation, in France, appears autonomous compared. to the environmental law. It was necessary to seek the reality of this autonomy, which resulted in analyzing its application at both national and community level. However, the autonomy of energy regulation has been kept in perspective through the influences of both public and economic policies, along with the general framework of life. This autonomy does not prevent the interdependence with environmental law. Indeed, the energy regulation is influenced by the environmental law, which can appear from differing viewpoints as either constraints for the energy sector or as opportunities. Here, the two regulations coexist with t:he environmental law trying to integrate completely with energy regulation. This seems to take place with difficulty through sustainable development, either requiring an evolution in traditional legal instruments or by the creation of new instruments. (author)

  6. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    OpenAIRE

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter; Conway, Anthony; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the s...

  7. Technical, Legal, Economic and Social Aspects of Biometrics for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Bule

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses technical, legal, economic and social aspects of biometrics for cloud computing, featuring application example, gains of such solution, current laws, directives and legislation for biometrics and cloud computing. It is primarily based on Slovenian example due to  common  general  EU  legislation  in  the  field  of  cloud  computing  and  biometrics. Authentication  on  the  Internet  is  still  mainly  done  using  passwords,  while  biometrics  is practically  not  used.  It  is  commonly  known  that  everything  is  moving  to  the  cloud  and biometrics is not an exception. Amount of biometric data is expected to grow significantly over the next few years and only cloud computing is possible to process such amounts of data. Due to these facts and increasing security needs, we propose and implement the use of biometry as a service in the cloud. A challenge regarding the use of biometric solutions in the cloud is the protection of the privacy of individuals and their personal data. In Slovenia privacy legislation is very strong, it permits usage of biometrics only for very specific reasons, but we predict that big players on the market will change this fact globally. One of the important reasons for that is also the fact that biometrics for cloud computing provides some strong benefits and economic incentives. Proper deployment can provide significant savings. Such solutions could improve people’s quality of life in terms of social development, especially in sense of more convenient, safer and reliable identification over multiple government and non-government services.

  8. Legal instruments for the promotion of a sustainable consumption. Using products as an example; Rechtliche Instrumente zur Foerderung des nachhaltigen Konsums. Am Beispiel von Produkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlacke, Sabine; Stadermann, Michael; Grunow, Moritz [Forschungsstelle fuer Europaeisches Umweltrecht (FEU), Bremen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The expertise under consideration attempts to identify, to analyze and to develop further the legal instruments for the promotion of asustainable consumption. Legal possibilities of impacting the consumer behaviour in the utilization phase of products shall be highlighted in order to promote the sustainable consumption. The focus of this expertise are instruments directly aimed at consumers. The activation of these instruments shall effectuate a more sustainable behaviour of consumption.

  9. Performance-Based Budgeting in South-Eastern Europe: A Legal and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maksimovska Veljanovski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2008–2013 period, a wave of fresh ideas for introducing performance-based budgeting (PBB occurred in the region of South-Eastern Europe. Based on a theoretical framework and empirical assessment using novel methodology, this study examines the preconditions and assesses the capacities for introducing PBB in South-Eastern European (SEE countries. Generally, SEE countries have demonstrated moderate progress in implementing elements of performance budgeting. All of them follow a similar approach to embarking on these reforms, but with a different policy attention to certain aspects. On the other hand, SEE countries with limited progress demonstrate strong political commitment to kick-start this area by investing in the development of budget administration skills. The study conveys a balanced mix of political, legal, administrative and economic analysis of the core elements of PBB. The novel idea of introducing a simpler model of PBB in SEE is examined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic attempt to provide a comprehensive analysis of the institutional arrangements and prospects for adopting PBB in the region of South-Eastern Europe.

  10. Post-2012 climate change agreement - Fitting commitments by cities. Political, economic, technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, B.; Wemaere, M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the crucial role that urban territories must and can play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, along with a growing power of a lobby dedicated to supporting the voices of urban territories vis-a-vis national states. The local level of organization and policy is relevant for two main reasons: density and spatial organization are key factors that influence energy consumption in transport and building; some of the major potentials for emission abatement need local coordination to overcome transaction costs. 'Engage, Empower and Resource': this formula, forged during the C40 Seoul Summit (May 2009), calls for clear and quantified commitments with a timetable for delivery; additional power and competencies for cities to increase their capacity to act; and substantial financial resources. Road-Map: This paper identifies key elements that need to be taken into account when developing a road-map that seeks empowerment of local governments in the UN post-2012 framework. It explores political, economic, technical and legal aspects, along with respective main issues to be addressed. (authors)

  11. "The Nature of the Business Corporation--Its Legal Structure and Economic Functions"

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhito Iwai

    2001-01-01

    There is a fundamental difference in legal structure between the classical firm and the business corporation. While the former consists of a single ownership relation between owners and assets, the latter consists of two overlapping ownership relations - one between shareholders and the corporation and the other between the corporation and corporate assets. The legal relation between shareholders and assets is indirect and only through the intermediary of the corporation that legally performs...

  12. Entropy-Based Economic Denial of Sustainability Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Sotelo Monge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an important increase in the amount and impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS threats has been reported by the different information security organizations. They typically target the depletion of the computational resources of the victims, hence drastically harming their operational capabilities. Inspired by these methods, Economic Denial of Sustainability (EDoS attacks pose a similar motivation, but adapted to Cloud computing environments, where the denial is achieved by damaging the economy of both suppliers and customers. Therefore, the most common EDoS approach is making the offered services unsustainable by exploiting their auto-scaling algorithms. In order to contribute to their mitigation, this paper introduces a novel EDoS detection method based on the study of entropy variations related with metrics taken into account when deciding auto-scaling actuations. Through the prediction and definition of adaptive thresholds, unexpected behaviors capable of fraudulently demand new resource hiring are distinguished. With the purpose of demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposal, an experimental scenario adapted to the singularities of the EDoS threats and the assumptions driven by their original definition is described in depth. The preliminary results proved high accuracy.

  13. Green dynamics as the motor for sustainable welfare. An essay on economic control with regard to the process of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, J.; Warmenhoven, H.

    2011-03-01

    The core question in this essay is how, in these times of economic turbulence in which ecological awareness is crumbling, we can change the course of our ecological development into a sustainable direction. Chapter 2 - in the light of the economic theory - characterizes sustainability issues as a new type of scarcity. In chapter 3, the analysis broadens towards the new generation of environmental problems that dominate the 21st century. Chapter 4 explores points of action for 'green dynamics': a strategic perspective in which countries and businesses with sustainable ambitions expand their action opportunities to bring the targeted scenario closer. The focus in the final chapter is on the Netherlands in 2011. [nl

  14. Vlijaet li korrupcija na ustojchivost' jekonomicheskogo rosta? [Does corruption influence the sustainability of economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polajeva Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.

  15. Local power production at the end consumer - legal, political and economical external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Hunnes, Arngrim; Naesje, Paal; Wangensteen, Ivar; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-12-01

    The report deals with the external conditions for local power production, suggested as a production close to or at the end consumer. The political, legal and economical frame conditions for such production including rating are discussed. The report shall together with a technical report regarding appropriate technologies for such production (A5712), serve as a basis for case studies and monitors later in the project. Through the case studies it will be uncovered how the external conditions are functioning which will make foundations for recommendations concerning possible alterations in the conditions in order to make the local power production more profitable. In the discussion on the political and legal external conditions the system of today is studied. From the political area the general development is described and a short analysis is made of what to expect from case handling procedures, and some challenges are pointed out At present there is a simplified handling of cases of minor and smaller power plants. In order to obtain a more realistic construction of such plants the requirements of license handling may need sharpening. The tariffing of energy deliverance is studied. The regulations for tariffing and income regulation in the distribution network is mainly designed with the consumer and the central power production in mind. A study is made of how the regulations work, to what extent precessions and additional rules are needed and to what extent alterations in the regulations are needed in order to incorporate the local power production in a rational way. While a local power producer at best, will want a price for power which is sold at the power market of the size of 20 oere/kWh, the power will increase in value further down in the voltage level. At the 230 V level the power price will be of the size of 60 oere/kWh all expenses included and the network rent (during normal precipitation conditions). Therefore the production for own consumption will be met

  16. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  17. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? : An Exploration of Factors that Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, A.

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher

  18. Sustainable innovation, business models and economic performance: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development requires radical and systemic innovations. Such innovations can be more effectively created and studied when building on the concept of business models. This concept provides firms with a holistic framework to envision and implement sustainable innovations. For researchers,

  19. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ORDER’S EFFECT ON ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE GERMAN SECTOR OF SPORTS ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur GRABOWSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article  shows legal order in which German sports (football enterprises exist. Due to the fact that German is the homeland of ordoliberalism and Walter Eucken was its leading representative we compare the principles of this legal order with the current situation in the sector of sports organization. Legal solutions that are applied, encourage the development of both professional football leagues where licensing procedure corresponds to the assumed objectives set out by the League Association. The following research methods were applied: a descriptive, historical and comparison analysis. Literature studies on the law relating to the operation of professional football leagues in Germany and the history of economic thought (in particular ordoliberalism were performed on German sources and legislation.

  20. Increasing the Economical Efficiency and Sustainability of Indoor Fish Farming by Means of Aquaponics - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Blidariu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on increasing economical efficiency and sustainability of indoor fish farming. Aspects like sustainability and economical efficiency were reviewed. In order to improve man`s health we must reconsider the agricultural sciences, by this we understand that we must develop technologies friendly for the environment. Sustainable indoor fish farming is the farming of the new millennium. Combining aquaculture with hydroponics we obtain a new innovation named aquaponics which respects principles of sustainable agriculture (wastewater biofiltration by plants and gives us the possibility to increase economical efficiency with an additional production (organic vegetables.

  1. China-U.S. Currency Conflict:The Economic and Legal Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For more than a decade, China has a policy of managing its currency exchange rate (RMB to limit its appreciation against other currencies like U.S dollar. This policy has been subjected to many criticisms from United States’ lawmakers as currency manipulation. The U.S. argues that China is gaining an advantage of export and attracting direct foreign investment at the expense of other countries including the United State. The claim also has included that China’s manipulation causes U.S. trade deficit as well as high rate of unemployment. Meanwhile, China’s policy makers argue that its policy of exchange rate is a mechanism tool to enhance the development of the country and attaining market growth to make China rich and powerful. This research paper underlines the root of this argument and how china’s currency policy has affected both economics of U.S. and China. Many economists have emphasized on the appreciation of RMB as an important factor to attain the trade balance. However, this research argues that the appreciation is not going to matter. Pressure has been put on Obama’s Administration to push China to appreciate its currency and to designate China as a "currency manipulator". Several Bills have been introduced to discuss this issue. From a legal perspective, two entities could tackle this issue. They are the World Trade Organization (WTO and the International Monetary Fund (IMF. However, IMF lack legitimacy and leverage and WTO has no jurisdiction over the exchange rate. So, none of these entities could handle the currency issue. Therefore, this paper analyzes some possible solutions such as Omnibus Act, tariffs, import quotas and forming new legislation. Where, it concludes that the best solution could be via forming a new international agency.

  2. Environmental Regulation, Economic Network and Sustainable Growth of Urban Agglomerations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaohui Chong; Chenglin Qin; Xinyue Ye

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the influence of environmental regulation on sustainable economic growth from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Our research is twofold. First, we apply a modified NEG (New Economic Geography) model to analyze how environmental regulation influences firms’ location choices and cities’ sustainable economic growth. Second, we test a spatial econometric model employing panel data of the three largest urban agglomerations in China from 2003 to 2013 to study th...

  3. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  4. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  5. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild rhinoceros population above its current size was to provide a medium increase in antipoaching effort and to increase the monetary fine on conviction. Without legalizing the trade, implementing such a scenario would require covering costs equal to approximately $147,000,000/year. With a legal trade in rhinoceros horn, the conservation enterprise could potentially make a profit of $717,000,000/year. We believe the 35-year-old ban on rhinoceros horn products should not be lifted unless the money generated from trade is reinvested in improved protection of the rhinoceros population. Because current protection efforts seem to be failing, it is time to evaluate, discuss, and test alternatives to the present policy. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by wiley

  6. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization – adolescent usage and impaired driving – and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization – specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use – that have to date not received adequate attention.

  7. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  8. Evolutionary Theory and Economic Policy with Reference to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy

    2005-01-01

    The policy recommendations of most economists are driven by a view of economic reality embodied in Walrasian general equilibrium theory. Ironically, the Walrasian system has been all but abandoned by leading economic theorists. It has been demonstrated to be theoretically untenable, its basic assumptions about human decision making have been empirically falsified, and it consistently makes poor predictions of economic behavior. The current revolution in welfare economics offers opportunities ...

  9. Integration of life cycle assessment software with tools for economic and sustainability analyses and process simulation for sustainable process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable future of the world challenges engineers to develop chemical process designs that are not only technically and economically feasible but also environmental friendly. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for identifying and quantifying environmental impacts of the chemical product...... with other process design tools such as sustainable design (SustainPro), economic analysis (ECON) and process simulation. The software framework contains four main tools: Tool-I is for life cycle inventory (LCI) knowledge management that enables easy maintenance and future expansion of the LCI database; Tool...... and/or the process that makes it. It can be used in conjunction with process simulation and economic analysis tools to evaluate the design of any existing and/or new chemical-biochemical process and to propose improvement options in order to arrive at the best design among various alternatives...

  10. Plural economics and territorial development from the perspective of sustainable development: theoretical elements of an economic sociology and a socio-economics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lévesque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This text focuses on the contribution that the concept of plural economics is able to make today toward the advancement of research on the viability of territorial dynamics for sustainable development. The first part of our line of argumentation is centered on clarifying the concept of plural economics, based on studies on economic and social solidarity and on proposals emerging from the New Economic Sociology and the socio-economics of territories. In the second part, the concept of sustainable development is characterized from the angle of the so-called societal paradigm and its interactions with territory and with a plural and social economics. Aligned with the critique of the premises of neo-classical economics, the author accepts the need to re-connect the economy to a broader social and ecological perspective and to seek more effective answers to the challenges raised by the planetary socio-environmental crisis.. Keywords: Sustainable territorial development, plural economics, New Economic Sociology, economics of solidarity, ecological economics.

  11. NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH TOURISM PROMOTION/SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor N. ITUMO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is currently facing economic growth and development challenge. The economic challenge is occasioned by mono-cultural economic reliance on the single resource of crude oil export revenue as well as other internal and international effects that affect her economic drive for heightened growth and development. The Nigerian government had over the years searched for ways of diversifying its economy for greater growth and development especially given the various challenges in the economy, mainly the steep reduction in crude oil revenue arising from volatility of global oil price. This paper therefore uses the research methodology of case study to do a holistic assessment of the possibility of Nigeria diversifying into her tourism potentials for economic growth and development. This would be done equally by drawing relevant comparative analysis of other countries bringing economic benefits in Africa and across the globe.

  12. The role of tourism in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Salvo Creaco; Giulio Querini

    2003-01-01

    Tourism is now one of the world's largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism growth can result in such a deterioration of ...

  13. SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "? development that ?meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future' ?" However, a mathematical theo...

  14. Sustainable development - the challange for Irish economic policy-makers

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Daniel A.

    1993-01-01

    The Barrington prize lecture 1992/1993 Sustainable development has become a key phrase during the last decade in development and environmental literature. Governments and international bodies have adopted the goal of sustainable development with surprising alacrity since the concept was brought to prominence in the early 1980s by the World Conservation Strategy. The concept became enshrined by the influential 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development...

  15. 10th Anniversary Focus: From mainstream 'environmental economics' to 'sustainability economics'. On the need for new thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderbaum, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Traditional ideas of science as being separate and separable from ideology and politics have to be reconsidered. Each interpretation of sustainable development is not only scientific but at the same time ideological. For this reason our ideas about good science should also be related to normal imperatives of democracy. Mainstream neoclassical economics is specific in scientific and ideological terms. This paradigm is useful for some purposes and has played a role as a mental map in guiding us towards economic growth and other ideas about progress in society and the economy. Sustainable development, however, represents an ideological turn in our ideas about progress and it is no longer clear that neoclassical theory will be enough. Alternative perspectives in economics are being developed as part of a pluralistic strategy and the monopoly position of neoclassical economists at university departments of economics is thereby challenged. A 'political economic person' is suggested as alternative (complement) to Economic Man assumptions and a 'political economic organization' to be compared with the neoclassical profit maximizing firm. Alternative ways of understanding markets and international trade, efficiency, decision-making, monitoring and assessment are also needed. It is argued that such an alternative mental map is useful for actors who take the challenge of sustainable development seriously.

  16. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report shows that recycling and reuse of materials creates jobs, while also generating local and state tax revenues. The 2016 REI Report covers the economic activities of nine sectors: ferrous metals, nonferrous metals (aluminum), glass, paper, plastics, rubber, construction and demolition, electronics and organics (including food and yard trimmings). The 2016 REI Report builds on work from a 2001 REI study. In 2001, to encourage the development of an economic market for recycling, EPA supported the creation of a national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Project and the related REI report, based upon the work of several states and regions. The REI report was a ground breaking national study demonstrating the economic value of recycling and reuse to the U.S. economy. Compiled through a cooperative agreement with the National Recycling Coalition, the study confirmed what many have known for decades: there are significant economic benefits in recycling. The 2016 report focuses on the economic impacts of recycling rather than the environmental benefits, as the environmental benefits have been researched in detail. Accurately estimating the impact that recycling has on jobs, wages and taxes is important because the results can influence policy decisions and provide a more robust picture of recycling by a

  17. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...

  18. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, A. F.; Turner, M. F.; Rasky, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine and analyze architecture concepts for an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure system that can extend the life, functionality, and distance traveled of surface mobility missions.

  19. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  20. Sociological Foundation of Islamic Banking Law Legislation as The Legal Umbrella of Economic and Islamic Finance Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Sociologically, the existence of Law No.21/2008 on Islamic Banking in the splendor of economic development and Islamic finance is an interesting thing to observe. This paper wants to discuss the sociological foundation of Islamic banking law legislation as the legal umbrella of economic and Islamic finance development in Indonesia.Methods – qualitative Research, includes the study of law.Conclusions – At least, there are several spectrums that can be understood from the emergence of this law. First,the establishment of Islamic Banking Act is essentially a response to the provisions of Islamic law that has become the popular belief in the majority of Indonesian people who crave the realization of banking institutions which are free from usury, which is the Islamic law since his arrival in the archipelago until now classified as living law in the community. This reality is associated with the construction established by von Savigny. Second, the formation of Law No. 21/2008 concerning Islamic Banking is a response to social economic demand both nationally and globally. The presence of Islamic banks have become a necessity in managing the economy and coping with the economic crisis based on the underlying transaction. Third, the Establishment of Law No. 21/2008 concerning Islamic Banking in legal political perspective, has a basic principle, an aim and a response to the dynamic development of Indonesian society, particularly in relation to the development of Islamic economy. Fourth, formation of Islamic Banking Act affects the Islamic economic development in Indonesia, particularly in relation to the development of Islamic banking in Indonesia. Keywords:  Sociological Foundation, Islamic Banking Law, Economic Development.

  1. Economic sustainability of small construction enterprises of Ukraine: assessment, tendencies and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byelyenkova Olga Yu.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of economic sustainability of small construction enterprises of Ukraine on the basis of financial and economic indicators, which characterise financial, production and investment activity of enterprises. Having assessed dynamics of the ratios (liquidity, financial independence, profitability, labour productivity, wages, relation of the level of wages of workers to the average wage by all branches of economy, wear and tear of fixed assets, increase of floating assets and receivables, re-investment ratios and the share of gross capital investments in assets the article identifies factors that negatively influence economic sustainability of both small construction enterprises and the whole construction industry. These factors are unprofitableness of analysed enterprises during a long period, significant reduction of sizes of own capital and fall of investment activity. Prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of macro-economic factors that influence economic sustainability of small construction enterprises.

  2. Ecologic, Economic, and Social Considerations for Rangeland Sustainability: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; H. Theodore Jr. Heintz; Aaron J. Harp; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; David Radloff; Louis E. Swanson; William E. III Fox; Michael G. Sherm Karl; John E. Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Use and sustainability of rangelands are inherently linked to the health and sustainability of the land. They are also inherently linked to the social and economic infrastructures that complement and support those rangelands and rangeland uses. Ecological systems and processes provide the biological interactions underlying ecosystem health and viability. Social and...

  3. Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Regional Income Convergence in US BEA Economic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Up Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A question fundamental to sustainable economic growth is whether a poor region tends to grow faster than a rich one, such that the poor region catches up with the rich region in terms of the level of per capita income. In this article, we apply the spatial panel data approach to the analysis of regional income convergence across 177 economic areas in the contiguous US states over the period from 1969 to 2009. Using data on per capita incomes in the functionally defined economic areas, we find that the absolute value of the estimated coefficient of the initial per capita income decreases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial lag model and increases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial error model. This result implies that the growth rate in a specific economic area will be not only directly affected by an exogenous shock introduced into that economic area but also be impacted more by both the indirect effects of the first-order neighboring economic areas and the induced effects of the higher-order neighboring economic areas. This gives helpful hints on the issue of spatial interaction and regional policy coordination to start a virtuous circle of sustainable economic growth.

  4. Achieving resource sustainability and enhancing economic development through biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    As the problems associated with sustaining and enhancing the world's forest and agricultural resources compete with the needs of a rapidly increasing and affluent population, the management of our land becomes a much more complex and important issue. One of the most important environmental features of wood and other woody-like fibers is that they are renewable and...

  5. SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future". However, a mathematical theory e...

  6. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  7. The Economics of Ecosystems: Efficiency, Sustainability and Equity in Ecosystem Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Economics of Ecosystems demonstrates how the concepts of economic efficiency, sustainability and equity can be applied in ecosystem management. The book presents an overview of these three key concepts, a framework for their analysis and modelling and three case studies. Specific attention is

  8. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the sprin...

  9. Legal protectionism of the commercial agency in Colombia versus economic integration treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel C. García Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The business world tends to establish a set of uniform norms for international trade. It works on forms of contracting that produce local and international benefits for commercialization (products, goods, and services); this has been understood by commerce and the law. Nonetheless, there are many obstacles (fiscal, taxes, legal protection of some contractual practices, and limiting clauses, among others) and it is sought for these to disappear, especially those that imply exaggerated protecti...

  10. Gender Inequality in the Croatian Labour Market - Legal and Economic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Barkovic; Mario Vinkovic

    2006-01-01

    The normative analysis of solutions contained in the Croatian labor-regulative system prima facie does not find flagrant deficiences of legal provisions or their significant discrepancies from comparative national systems of European states or international labour standards, but anti-discrimination measures in the conditions of inadequate level of court protection and ineffi ciency of labour inspectors in protecting substance rights often result in further refl ections of discrimination arisi...

  11. On the economic sustainability of ethanol E85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, Shaun W.; Skinner, Sarah J.; Jackson, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have considered the sustainability of corn-based ethanol as produced in the US as a major fuel source from a technical perspective. However, not much attention has been paid to the market-based aspects of corn-based ethanol as a sustainable fuel. We address this question by offering an econometric analysis of the E85 (apparently the most viable of the potential substitutes for gasoline) market using demand and supply analysis. Reduced form price equation estimates indicate that the cross elasticity of E85's price with respect to the price of gasoline does not differ significantly from unity, so that any rise in gasoline prices will be matched (in percentage terms) by a corresponding rise in the price of E85. Thus, given the current market, which includes significant government subsidy, the prospect that E85 will ever be price competitive with gasoline is indeed dim. (author)

  12. FUNCTIONING OF SUSTAINABLE EDUCATIONAL ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT IN THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana (BADULESCU ANASTASE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses issues related to education management operation that determines the principles and requires an interdisciplinary approach, studying events that occur in the decision to organize a determined pedagogical activity and the management of educational programs. Managerial leadership involves emphasis on ideas, on a systematic approach, on change, innovation strategy, proposing a method of analyzing the functioning of sustainable educational management and positive effects. In this context, the article provides the principles, functions, methods and rules that a school must comply in order to ensure a sustainable future.The teaching staff represents an inexhaustible managerial resource valued at its social ladder of the system and education program.In the content of the paper are highlighted prominent school organization management functions as steps preceding decision making of their training where are presented applied studies on financial issues facing directors of schools who seek solutions to them.

  13. Determination of Economic Indicators in the Context of Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pavláková Dočekalová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on determination of the most significant economic indicators influencing corporate sustainability performance. Corporate sustainability performance is a multidimensional concept based on the original idea of sustainable development, replacing the traditional understanding of corporate performance only as capital appreciation for owners (shareholders. Compared to the original concept of sustainable development which consists of environmental, social and economic performance, the so-called triple-bottom-line, it is broaden to the responsibilities and the impact of Corporate Governance on the corporate performance. The basic set of economic indicators has been constructed from a synthesis of resources developed by international organizations (Global Reporting Initiative, International Federation of Accountants and research among manufacturing companies in the Czech Republic. The basic set of twenty-five key indicators is divided into seven groups: Costs, Investments, Economic Results, Asset & financial resources utilization, Suppliers reliability, Penalties and R&D expenses. Basic set of indicators was presented to 23 top-managers who quantified the potential effect of each indicator to the success and sustainability of their companies. Through the methods of descriptive statistics knowledge of the particularities of each indicator was obtained. Correlation analysis and factor analysis were applied in order to eliminate information duplicity and dimensionality reduction. The result is a reduction in the number of economic indicators, so that the loss of information on the influence of the original indicators on the corporate sustainability is minimized. Corporate sustainability indicators are a tool for measuring and managing progress towards sustainability goals and environmental, social and economic impacts.

  14. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INNOVATION CLUSTERS ON INCREASING ECONOMIC AGENTS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of enterprises integration into international innovation clusters on the increasing of enterprises, countries and regions economic sustainability under the global instability are explored. Potential sources of instability and threats of the integration into international cluster structures are defined. Author outlines the main benefits of international innovation cluster for enhancement of economic agents sustainability, such as: possibility for joint exploitation of market opportunities and efforts consolidation for overcoming market threats, cluster self-sufficiency, effective cluster internal reorganization and adaptation in response to external changes. Three clusters (engineering for agriculture production cluster (Hersonska oblast and German enterprises, IT cluster (Lvivska oblast and Poland enterprises, cluster for R&D commercialization (Slobodzanschina euroregion are examined to uncover the role of international innovation cluster formation on enhancement of economic agents' economic sustainability.

  15. The model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the new "National security strategy of the Russian Federation, sustainable socio-economic development is the basis of national economic security. UN conceptual model of sustainable development is considered. The “Club of Rome” founder’s Aurelio Peccei point of view that world could be presented by interrelated but sufficiently stable elements: Nature, Man, Society, science-based Technique is mentioned (early 1980s. Today, sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is determined by: Nature, Man, Society, Technology, Economy and Infrastructure. To support this opinion, statements of leading scientists, politicians, business representatives are given: A. Aganbegian, M. Friedman, V. Sidorov, V. Inozemtsev, G. Gref. The author's model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is presented. The position of Russia according to the “2016 Global R&D Funding Forecast”, compiled by well-known scientific periodical “R&DMagazine” is presented. Classification of indicators groups, taken from the Russian and foreign statistical data books (Russian Statistical Yearbook, IRI, R&D Magazine, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, CIA Factbook, OECD, according to the elements of an integrated system of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is given. Implementation aggregating partial indices into an integrated index for each group and their population as a whole is proposed. For each private indicator is proposed to develop three levels of threshold values (acceptable, marginal and critical for sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy and security. Since innovation is a key mechanism for the concept of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy in a new tenor of technology, the need for innovative development of all elements of the proposed integrated system is required.

  16. Sustainable Housing Production, thanks to the Economic Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    A drastic effect of the economic crises 2009 is the cutback of housing production in the Netherlands, a down-hill trend from 80.000 to 45.000 a year. Unless the population of the country is stable there is an enormous need for new housing every year. Housing production is required because of

  17. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  18. in_focus - Valuing the Environment: Economics for a Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... This book shows how researchers from four of IDRC 's regional environmental economics networks have dealt with questions like these in a wide variety of situations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It brings together insights from more than 15 years of research and assesses their impact on policy and the ...

  19. Agronomic, pests and economic factors influencing sustainability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    In Uganda, banana (Musa spp) and coffee (Coffea spp) form the economic base for a big population of small-scale farmers and provide ... Regular application of coffee husks in banana plantations lowers the incidence of banana weevil pest and gives bigger .... Data on banana pests and diseases were collected on.

  20. Environmental Public Policies: Legalization and Judicial Activism for Sustainable De-velopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, we intend to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development.

  1. Legal Harvesting, Sustainable Sourcing and Cascaded Use of Wood for Bioenergy: Their Coverage through Existing Certification Frameworks for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sikkema

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development. One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the EU’s 2010 recommendations for sustainable woody biomass sourcing for energy; the third one is the EU Waste Directive. The second objective was to benchmark the coverage of this (draft legislation, when wood product certificates for sustainable forest management (SFM are used as proof of the related legislative requirements. We studied North America, as it is a major biomass supplier to the EU-28. Together with existing forest legislation in the US and Canada, SFM certificates are actively used to cover the EU’s (draft legislation. However, North American forests are only partially certified with fibers coming from certified forests; these are referred to as forest management (FM fibers. Other certified fibers should come from complementary risk assessments downstream in the supply chain (risk based fibers. Our benchmark concludes that: (a FM fiber certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC international standards show the highest level of coverage with EU’s (draft legislation; (b There is insufficient coverage for risk based fibers by FSC Controlled Wood (FSC-CW, PEFC Due Diligence (PEFC-DD, or SFI-fiber sourcing (SFI-FS. Other weaknesses identified for elaboration are: (c Alignment in definitions are needed, such as for primary forest, high carbon stock, and wood waste (cascading; (d Imperfect mass balance (fiber check downstream needs to be solved, as non-certified fiber flows are inadequately monitored; (e Add-on of a GHG calculation tool is needed, as GHG life cycle reporting is not covered by any of the SFM frameworks.

  2. Social economic and ethical aspect of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncritical fostering of social development within the industrial paradigm often referred to as "unlimited growth", has caused so catastrophic effects that they could argumentatively be described as a real ecocide. This is not only reflected in the total pollution of environment, irrecoverable destruction of natural resources and non-renewable energy sources, but the very existence of elementary biological preconditions for survival of human and other life forms on Earth is endangered. Social development, perceived and applied as mere growth, has favored partial interests on behalf of those of the whole. It has also endorsed interests of present over future generations relying on partial, positivist knowledge against holism humanism and wisdom. These effects have contributed to the new knowledge of the necessity for radical change in dominant development paradigm. An alternative has been found by some authors in the concept of "sustainable development". This concept is based on the idea of adjustment of social growth and development to the natural adaptive capacities. The idea of sustainable development should represent a key for human duration in time and with this a concrete form of responsibility towards future generations. This strategy, now within the ecological paradigm, transcendent partiality of industrial paradigm and offers a uniquely new form for the rationalization of development. At the same time this strategy functions as a new form of ethics (biocentric instead of anthropocentric one and as a new model for wisdom of living. The concept of sustainable development is also the only operative way for radical and permanent elimination of the deepest causes of ecological crises instead of periodical and partial healing of its consequences.

  3. Green finance is essential for economic development and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tasnim; Datta, Rajib; Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Green finance is part of a broader occurrence; from the incorporation of various non-financial or ethical concerns onto the financial universe. Generally green finance is considered as the financial support for green growth which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions significantly. Green finance in agriculture, green buildings and other green projects should increase for the economic development of the country. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe green fi...

  4. Reconciling rapid economic growth with environmental sustainability in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Clinch, J. Peter

    2001-01-01

    Read before the Society, 10 May 2001. '... delivered under the auspices of the Barrington Trust (founded by the bequest of John Barrington, Esq.) with the collaboration of the Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland.' - p.1 The extraordinarily rapid rate of growth of the Irish economy in the past decade has provided many benefits in terms of increased living standards and higher employment levels. However, economic growth has also resulted in increased pressures...

  5. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  6. Legal protectionism of the commercial agency in Colombia versus economic integration treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. García Velasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The business world tends to establish a set of uniform norms for international trade. It works on forms of contracting that produce local and international benefits for commercialization (products, goods, and services; this has been understood by commerce and the law. Nonetheless, there are many obstacles (fiscal, taxes, legal protection of some contractual practices, and limiting clauses, among others and it is sought for these to disappear, especially those that imply exaggerated protection of national commerce. The States seek mechanisms that help them regulate their relations among the different players and treaties are the main source from which emerge mandates that affect national and world economies, facilitating the creation of companies to explore new market places. It is thus that in the trade treaties or agreements, the objective is for trade to flow freely and for the nations to benefit from commercial exchange. In the private laws of the different nations, there are legal institutions that due to their national protection hinder their application at the international level, as is the case of the commercial agency, a controversial contract since its beginnings, recognizing that it has been an alternative for doing business in Colombia. This article critically analyzes the legal framework of the contract of commercial agency versus the integrationist objectives in free trade agreement (FTA negotiations that tend to seek flexibility in this contractual form, according to the conditions imposed by the United States of modifying some contract benefits in the Colombian legislation. The aforementioned leads to ponder if with the modifications the Colombian State agreed to, within the framework of the Free Trade Agreement negotiations, the figure of this contract will continue being attractive, as a way of creating commercial representation companies in Colombia

  7. The Strategically Oriented Approach to Studying the Economic Sustainability of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko Tеtyana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the constructive consideration of modern approaches to the study of the essence of economic sustainability. It is noted that they are focused on sustainability as a status of the economic system. It is actualized that such an approach does not correspond to the system-synergetic methodology, according to which sustainability has a dualistic nature: as a status and as a property of the system to be stable. The key provisions of the traditional approach to understanding the essence of economic sustainability are systematized. Based on the productive synthesis of the system-synergetic methodology and modern achievements of the theory of strategic management, there formed the author’s conceptual approach that extends the traditional content of economic sustainability exclusively as a status. The proposed approach extends the temporal context of sustainability from the provision of a momentary state to the formation of the possibilities for the permanent functioning of an enterprise. It is argued that these opportunities are determined by the organizational ability of companies to realize their functional purpose. This changes the priority of the managerial focus: from orientation to providing material, financial and labor resources (the traditional approach to the accumulation of resources that can not be the subject of market-based sales transactions (the strategically oriented approach.

  8. The Social Security Reform And Its Legal, Social And Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiane Galiotto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the relationship between Reclusion-Aid and the application of the Principle of Equality through the analytical-deductive method with the analysis of doctrinal and legal aspects on the subject. The legislation after the Constitutional Amendment nº 20/1998 foresees a low-income requirement for granting Reclusion-Aid. Therefore, the benefit harms the Principle of Equality since it ensures the Pension Benefit only to the families with low-income. Before such discrimination, the families of policyholders inmates who received value greater than the stipulated in law are left helpless.

  9. Environmental Regulation, Economic Network and Sustainable Growth of Urban Agglomerations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Chong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the influence of environmental regulation on sustainable economic growth from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Our research is twofold. First, we apply a modified NEG (New Economic Geography model to analyze how environmental regulation influences firms’ location choices and cities’ sustainable economic growth. Second, we test a spatial econometric model employing panel data of the three largest urban agglomerations in China from 2003 to 2013 to study the relationship between environmental regulation and sustainable economic growth as well as the spillover channels of economic activities. The results reveal a remarkable negative effect of environmental regulation on economic growth. In addition, we find no sufficient evidence to prove the existence of long-term effects of environmental regulation on economic growth in the three urban agglomerations. Furthermore, using different weight matrices to illustrate the different economic networks of the urban agglomeration, we validate the difference in spillover mechanisms across these three urban agglomerations. Specifically, the disparity in environmental regulation acts as a spillover channel for the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, while it is not significant for Jing-Jin-Ji.

  10. Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Pauwels, Lieven; Hardyns, Wim; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-06-01

    Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied. Three cost components were considered: direct, indirect and intangible costs related to substance misuse. The direct and indirect cost of addictive substances was estimated at 4.6 billion euros in Belgium (419 euros per capita or 1.19% of the GDP) and more than 515,000 healthy years are lost due to substance misuse. The Belgian social cost study reaffirms that alcohol and tobacco impose the highest cost to society compared to illegal drugs. Health problems are the main driver of the social cost of legal drugs. Law enforcement expenditure exceed the healthcare costs but only in the case of illegal drugs. Estimating social costs of addictive substances is complex because it is difficult to determine to what extent the societal harm is caused by substances. It can be argued that social cost studies take only a 'snapshot' of the monetary consequences of substance misuse. Nevertheless, the current study offers the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the social costs of substance misuse in Belgium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic sustainability of a biomass energy project located at a dairy in California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T.; Jue, Michael B.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experience has demonstrated the tenuous nature of biomass energy projects located at livestock facilities in the U.S. In response, the economic sustainability of a 710 kW combined heat and power biomass energy system located on a dairy farm in California was evaluated. This biomass energy facility is unique in that a complete-mix anaerobic digester was used for treatment of manure collected in a flush-water system, co-digestates were used as additional digester feedstocks (whey, waste feed, and plant biomass), and the power plant is operating under strict regulatory requirements for stack gas emissions. Electricity was produced and sold wholesale, and cost savings resulted from the use of waste heat to offset propane demand. The impact of various operational factors was considered in the economic analysis, indicating that the system is economically viable as constructed but could benefit from introduction of additional substrates to increase methane and electricity production, additional utilization of waste heat, sale of digested solids, and possibly pursuing greenhouse gas credits. Use of technology for nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal had a minimal effect on economic sustainability. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the economic sustainability of a dairy biomass energy project. ► The project is economically sustainable as currently operated. ► The simple payback period could be reduced if the system is operated near capacity. ► Co-digestion of off-site waste streams is recommended to improve profitability.

  12. LEGAL REVIEW ON E-COMMERCE AND THE BLUEPRINT OF THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ikbal

    2017-01-01

    Revolution and development of Information and Transactions Elektrnik indirectly helped change the way of trading or buying and selling activities, using the virtual world (online) or better known as electronic transactions (e-commerce). In the framework of ASEAN Trade Integration and Liberalization it has been agreed that the Blueprint ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with one of its pillars is ASEAN as a region with high economic competitiveness, with elements of competition rules, consumer pr...

  13. Integrated assessment of policy interventions for promoting sustainable irrigation in semi-arid environments: a hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Purkey, David R

    2013-10-15

    Sustaining irrigated agriculture to meet food production needs while maintaining aquatic ecosystems is at the heart of many policy debates in various parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly calling for integrated approaches, and policy-makers are progressively supporting the inclusion of ecological and social aspects in water management programs. This paper contributes to this policy debate by providing an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling framework that captures the socio-economic and environmental effects of various policy initiatives and climate variability. This modeling integration includes a risk-based economic optimization model and a hydrologic water management simulation model that have been specified for the Middle Guadiana basin, a vulnerable drought-prone agro-ecological area with highly regulated river systems in southwest Spain. Namely, two key water policy interventions were investigated: the implementation of minimum environmental flows (supported by the European Water Framework Directive, EU WFD), and a reduction in the legal amount of water delivered for irrigation (planned measure included in the new Guadiana River Basin Management Plan, GRBMP, still under discussion). Results indicate that current patterns of excessive water use for irrigation in the basin may put environmental flow demands at risk, jeopardizing the WFD's goal of restoring the 'good ecological status' of water bodies by 2015. Conflicts between environmental and agricultural water uses will be stressed during prolonged dry episodes, and particularly in summer low-flow periods, when there is an important increase of crop irrigation water requirements. Securing minimum stream flows would entail a substantial reduction in irrigation water use for rice cultivation, which might affect the profitability and economic viability of small rice-growing farms located upstream in the river. The new GRBMP could contribute

  14. What Current Literature Tells Us about Sustainable Diets: Emerging Research Linking Dietary Patterns, Environmental Sustainability, and Economics12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.” Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  15. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Decoupling Transport from Economic Growth. Towards Transport Sustainability in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tight, M.R.; Site, P. Delle; Meyer-Ruehle, O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aimed to identify and assess measures which could be used to reduce travel demand while maintaining economic growth and enhancing environmental quality. The research methodology involved a detailed review of past research; contact with over 600 experts from around Europe and elsewhere for ideas on potential measures; detailed questionnaires from over 100 of these experts; and a series of three panel sessions held in different parts of Europe, each of which involved around 16 experts debating the merits of different measures and identifying case study evidence of their effectiveness. The end result was a short list of 13 measures, indicative of broad types, which are considered to be effective, and an indication of their effectiveness if applied across the European Union. Seven illustrative measures are discussed which stand out from the results as having proven potential (though not necessarily at a European scale) to influence transport intensity and/or unit environmental load whilst not having large detrimental effects on GDP. These are the areas where it is felt that European transport policy could most usefully be focussed in terms of decoupling of transport demand and economic growth

  17. Crise econômica e possíveis perspectivas jurídico-sociais Economic crisis and possible legal and social perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Fontenele Sampaio Cunha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho evidencia que o século xxi (recomeçou a partir dos efeitos globais da crise econômica de 2008, com imediatos reflexos na reconstrução interativa do direito, da economia e da política, examinando as novas perspectivas jurídicas e sociais daí decorrentes, principalmente no que diz respeito à redefinição da soberania estatal, e questionando-se o que se deve entender por desenvolvimento sustentável. O trabalho analisa, assim, as consequências possíveis nos mecanismos de regulação do mercado e nas relações de emprego, as afetações coletivas intra e intergeracionais, além das novas responsabilidades e interações entre os estados e os agentes econômicos no nível internacional, concluindo que os riscos provenientes da crise econômica não possuem respostas únicas, individuais ou exclusivas.This paper demonstrates that the twenty-first century (re started from the overall effects of the economic crisis of 2008, with immediate consequences for the interactive reconstruction of the right, the economy and politics, examining the new legal and social perspectives resulting mainly in regard to the redefinition of state sovereignty and questioning what is meant by sustainable development. The paper examines therefore the possible consequences in the mechanisms of market regulation and employment relations, and their collective effects intra and inter-generationals, in addition to new responsibilities and interactions between states and economic agents at the international level, concluding that risks from the economic crisis have no answers only, individual or nique.

  18. Collaborative innovation as a tool for environmental, economic and social sustainability in regional governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Hofstad, Hege

    2015-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries, the regional level of governance is neither the locus of large-scale policy reforms nor a significant provider of welfare to citizens. Nevertheless, it has some important policy tasks in the area of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. These policy ar...... collaborative innovation for economic, social and environmental sustainability. The ultimate goal is to assess the ability and potential of Norwegian regions to solve wicked and unruly problems through collaborative innovation.......In the Scandinavian countries, the regional level of governance is neither the locus of large-scale policy reforms nor a significant provider of welfare to citizens. Nevertheless, it has some important policy tasks in the area of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. These policy...

  19. Electronic Currency in the Light of Modern Legal and Economic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga А. Nikolaychuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a brief excursus on the crypto-currency development, the theoretical understanding of a new kind of digital money. Today in the world there is no single interpretation of the crypto-currency, in some sources it is treated as a currency, others as a commodity or raw material. The appearance and use of Bitcoin (the main crypto-currency are considered by some authors as the evolution of the global financial system. The history of the crypto-currency origin, the distinctive features of cryptocurrency from the usual currency, the specifics of their use and relation to these governments are investigated and characterized by their legal status. There are real limitations in Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, some US States and various offshore, they might constitute restrictive measures, as in Indonesia, China, Russia, and Ukraine. Many governments chose a wait – for example, the EU, UK, Switzerland, USA, Canada, Japan, countries of South-East Asia. The most significant signs of cryptocurrencies, such as decentralization, anonymity and lack of guarantees are marked. Two possible scenarios of crypto-currency development in Russia are proposed. The first scenario is prohibitive and the second one is regulatory. It is noted that the bitcoin should be banned, and should be studied, and then start to gradually adjust. Its benefits and disadvantages of the scenario use are highlighted. In addition, the author emphases the almost complete lack of a legal framework governing relations between clients of the new information network. As a result the study is focused not only on the necessity a detailed scientific study of crypto-currencies, but also on the need to develop institutional norms. Most of the developed countries adapt their legislation to regulate the new electronic money, which will allow slow to adapt innovation of the financial market - a crypto-currency to modern realities. As in Russia the legal basis

  20. Controlling for Sustainability - Implementing the environmental, social and economic perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Wirkus, Agnieszka Diana; Rutfjäll Rittner, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has become an undoubtedly popular and important topic, being discussed among many researchers as well as practitioners. Previous research has focused on the importance of implementing sustainability into organizations’ core business, as well as highlighting potential risk of an inadequate focus on the economic perspective of the triple bottom line (TBL). However, it has still been argued that there is not enough theoretical and practical knowledge on how to implement sustainabi...

  1. Economics of nuclear energy in a sustainable development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent OECD study on projected costs of generating electricity and other NEA studies on external costs including carbon emissions and global climate change risks. The overall objective of the analysis is to provide key elements for assessing nuclear energy in a sustainable development perspective, taking into account social and environmental aspects. Levelised lifetime costs of generating electricity are presented and compared for nuclear power plants and alternative generation technologies including gas-fired, coal-fired and wind power plants. The data presented refer to state-of-the-art power plants that could be commissioned by 2015 or earlier. Cost drivers and their variability from country to country and technology to technology are analysed. The paper also addresses external costs and benefits of nuclear energy as compared with those of alternative options. In particular, it provides insights regarding the impact of policy measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the relative competitiveness of fossil-fuelled power plants and nearly carbon-free technologies (e.g., nuclear or wind). Other external costs such as social concerns, environmental impacts of residual emissions and contribution to security of energy supply are discussed

  2. Preserving the 'commons': addressing the sustainable use of antibiotics through an economic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, C M; Edwards, S E; Harbarth, S

    2017-10-01

    As the growth of antibiotic resistance has resulted in large part from widespread use of antibiotics, every effort must be made to ensure their sustainable use. This narrative review aims to assess the potential contribution of health economic analyses to sustainable use efforts. The work draws on existing literature and experience with health economic tools. The study examines some of the weaknesses in the health, regulatory, and industry arenas that could contribute to inappropriate or suboptimal prescribing of antibiotics and describes how economic analysis could be used to improve current practice by comparing both costs and health outcomes to maximize societal wellbeing over the longer-term. It finds that economic considerations underpinning current antibiotic prescribing strategies are incomplete and short-termist, with the result that they may foster suboptimal use. It also stresses that perverse incentives that drive antibiotic sales and inappropriate prescribing practices must be dis-entangled for sustainable use policies to gain traction. Finally, payment structures can be used to re-align incentives and promote optimal prescribing and sustainable use more generally. In particular, eliminating or altering reimbursement differentials could help steer clinical practice more deliberately towards the minimization of selection pressure and the resulting levels of antibiotic resistance. This work highlights the need for appropriately designed cost-effectiveness analyses, incentives analysis, and novel remuneration systems to underpin sustainable use policies both within and beyond the health sector. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A Framework for Assessing the Social and Economic Impact of Sustainable Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räikkönen Minna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investments towards sustainable development are vital for the future and they must be carefully planned to deliver immediate and long-term benefits. Hence, the ability to communicate the forms of impact of sustainable investments to local societies, people, investors and other stakeholders can provide a competitive advantage. However, the assessments are often under pressure to demonstrate short-term effects rather than emphasise the long-term impact. In addition, indirect and intangible forms of impacts should not be measured solely in economic terms. This paper proposes an assessment framework to support the integrated economic and social impact assessment of sustainable investments aimed at improving physical and socio-economic wellbeing. The framework is demonstrated in two case studies: new construction and renovation investments in affordable housing and social impact investment in sustainable development. The investments in the case studies are evaluated, selected and prioritized not only in terms of money but also with regard to sustainability, social acceptability and their overall impact on society, as a whole. The results indicate that a systematic integrated assessment of monetary and non-monetary factors can be successfully combined with the sustainable development decisions.

  4. LEGAL REVIEW ON E-COMMERCE AND THE BLUEPRINT OF THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ikbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Revolution and development of Information and Transactions Elektrnik indirectly helped change the way of trading or buying and selling activities, using the virtual world (online or better known as electronic transactions (e-commerce. In the framework of ASEAN Trade Integration and Liberalization it has been agreed that the Blueprint ASEAN Economic Community (AEC with one of its pillars is ASEAN as a region with high economic competitiveness, with elements of competition rules, consumer protection, intellectual property rights, infrastructure development, taxation and E-commerce. Blueprint is a guide for ASEAN member countries to achieve a strategic timetable and timing of achievement of each pillar that has been agreed.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant

  6. Empirical Study towards the Drivers of Sustainable Economic Growth in EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at empirically investigating the drivers of sustainable economic growth in EU-28 countries. By means of panel data regression models, in the form of fixed and random effects models, alongside system generalized method of moments, we examine several drivers of real gross domestic product (GDP growth rate, as follows: higher education, business environment, infrastructure, technology, communications, and media, population lifestyle, and demographic changes. As regards higher education, the empirical results show that expenditure per student in higher education and traditional 18–22 year-old students are positively linked with sustainable economic growth, whereas science and technology graduates negatively influence real GDP growth. In terms of business environment, total expenditure on research and development and employment rates of recent graduates contributes to sustainable development, but corruption perceptions index revealed a negative association with economic growth. As well, the results provide support for a negative influence of infrastructure abreast technological measures on economic growth. Besides, we found a negative connection between old-age dependency ratio and sustainable economic growth.

  7. Sustainability as the integration of economics and ethics? Baden, Vienna/Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg

    2000-01-01

    In this study it is argued that the corporate pursuit of sustainability calls forth attitudes in the business world which seem to integrate economic, political and moral issues. The quest for sustainability calls forth reflection and reorientation in business life concerning visions, goals, role...... in society and practices. Evidence from two cases of corporate communication seems to indicate that the "language of sustainability" implicates a certain reorientation in business life. Whether this reorientation is merely "rhetorical" rather than "real" is not discussed in this paper, but when people use...

  8. Concerns in Water Supply and Pollution Control: Legal, Social, and Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D. Barlow, Jr.; And Others

    This bulletin contains three articles which focus on ground water's potential as a dependable supply source and some of the problems impeding the development of that potential. The authors' concerns are discussed from the vantage point of their areas of specialization: law, sociology, and economics. The first author states that water law abounds…

  9. Unweaving the CESL: legal-economic reason and institutional imagination in European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2013-01-01

    From a law-and-economics perspective, the European Commission’s proposal for the introduction of an optional Common European Sales Law (CESL) has been criticized for over-regulating consumer sales law in Europe and for being likely to yield more costs than benefits. In defense of CESL, it is

  10. Relationship between continuous state factors and sustainability factors in the economic, social and environmental dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreira Campos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain the relationship of the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of companies operating in Brazil, in its economic, social and environmental, and test the strength of this relationship. Accordingly, we performed an extensive literature review in works for national and international basis, the procedures adopted in order to answer the research question posed. Among the aspects that form the sustainable development and sustainability issues, there is the demand by developing metrics that allow accurate measurement of the degree of sustainable development and sustainability of the planet, nations and other organizations, such as companies. Were cited works that address issues related to the companies’ continuous state, studies that dealt with corporate sustainability and empirical research on key factors of sustainability of the sample companies. Also, quantified the strength of the relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of a sample of 49 companies operating in Brazil, by employing the technique of Canonical Correlation for the period 2006 to 2010. The results confirmed the existence of a relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of businesses as well as the intensity of this relationship.

  11. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada Comment on "Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-09-10

    A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization - adolescent usage and impaired driving - and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization - specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use - that have to date not received adequate attention. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  12. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  13. The benefit of sustainable industrial cooperation. Study on the economical and ecological benefits of industrial cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, D.H.J.M.; Lavrijsen, T.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2005-01-01

    From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management [nl

  14. Greenlining. Economic and Environmental Effects of Government Facilitated Lending to Sustainable Economic Activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-03-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on taxes, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. It is concluded that the policy instrument could be used much more effective

  15. Issues of sustainable socio-economic development of a region in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Saifullovich Khairullov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify ways of ensuring sustainable socioeconomic development of a region under the conditions of Russia39s joining the WTO to offer tools of state regulation. Methods a systematic approach was applied to the definition of the term conditions and factors of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region comparative method and situational analysis were applied for the study of the problems of sustainable socioeconomic development of a region under the Russia joining the WTO programtarget method and synthesis method were applied for determining the ways of ensuring the socioeconomic development of a region under the Russia joining the WTO. Results the concept conditions and factors of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region were identified the problems and peculiarities of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO were analyzed. Basing on the analysis of the problems of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO the path of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region was defined. The priority directions of regional economic policy were listed that meet the challenges of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO. Tools of state regulation and forecasting were offered. The necessity of the formation of an effective system of state regulation of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO was proved. The role of the state in restructuring the economy in the implementation of industrial social investment innovation and food policy was shown ensuring the safety and sustainability of socioeconomic development of the region. Scientific novelty the priority directions of regional economic policy were elaborated which according to the authors will contribute to sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO also tools of state

  16. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  17. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  18. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  19. Lao PDF Economic Monitor, September 2010 Update : Managing Macroeconomic Balances to Sustain High Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Lao PDR economic growth continues to be strong in 2010, against the backdrop of a fragile global recovery yet dynamic regional demand. Growth is projected at 8.5 percent in 2010, from 7.5 percent in 2009. The resources sector is projected to contribute about 4 percentage points of economic growth, of which electricity, water and gas about 3.2 percentage points. This update reports mainly on ...

  20. Reform Of The Russian Anti-Corruption Legislation: Oecd Economic Condition Or Legal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define the prospects for the criminalization of promises and offers a bribe to a foreign official or an official of a public international organization in the Russian criminal law. Despite the increased interest in the problem of implementation of international law in the national legal system, many aspects of the topic studied. These include punishment, the possibility of establishing criminal liability for bribery. OECD anti-corruption standards considered in working with three positions: through Russia ratified the convention, through the analysis of the experience of the criminalization of bribery of foreign public officials in foreign legislation and from the perspective of the established system of national criminal and administrative law. The paper presents a systematic analysis of the proposal and the promise of a bribe as socially dangerous acts. Refined methods of implementation of anti-corruption standards in the Russian legislation. Problems has led to widespread use of the system, comparative law and documentary approaches. The paper concludes formulate concrete proposals to improve the criminal law and identifies strategic directions of modern anti-corruption policy.

  1. REFORM OF THE RUSSIAN ANTI-CORRUPTION LEGISLATION: OECD ECONOMIC CONDITION OR LEGAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define the prospects for the criminalization of promises and offers a bribe to a foreign official or an official of a public international organization in the Russian criminal law. Despite the increased interest in the problem of implementation of international law in the national legal system, many aspects of the topic studied. These include punishment, the possibility of establishing criminal liability for bribery. OECD anti-corruption standards considered in working with three positions: through Russia ratified the convention, through the analysis of the experience of the criminalization of bribery of foreign public officials in foreign legislation and from the perspective of the established system of national criminal and administrative law. The paper presents a systematic analysis of the proposal and the promise of a bribe as socially dangerous acts. Refined methods of implementation of anti-corruption standards in the Russian legislation. Problems has led to widespread use of the system, comparative law and documentary approaches. The paper concludes formulate concrete proposals to improve the criminal law and identifies strategic directions of modern anti-corruption policy.

  2. The Economic and Legal Status of Cryptocurrency Both in Ukraine and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Nadievets Luidmila M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of cryptocurrency, researching the foreign experience in the use of digital currency in market economies and the possibilities of its adaptation to the conditions of Ukraine. Attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of using cryptocurrency in the development of the modern economy. Definitions of the category of «cryptocurrency» from different literary sources have been generalized. It has been defined that the first and m...

  3. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  4. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  5. How Can Innovative Practices In HEIs Facilitate Sustainable Social And Economic Development ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psillaki, M.; Youssef, A.B.; Filippov, S.; Ravesteijn, W.; Zvereva, T.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on analyzing net-based practices in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as a policy tool for instituting a sustainable social and economic development. The purpose of the study is to identify relationships between net-based HEIs and welfare perspective; to investigate the

  6. ECONOMIC QUESTIONS OF LAND USAGE – SCARCITY, SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Magda, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic importance of land usage. This topic is important because land is the basis of industrial and agricultural production, as well as energy and environmental security. The focus of the analysis is the relationship between land usage and scarcity and sustainability.

  7. Key-socio economic factors influencing sustainable land management investments in the West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, A.W.; Kessler, C.A.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Low investments in sustainable land management (SLM) limit agricultural production in the East African Highlands, leading to increased soil erosion, low productivity of land and food insecurity. Recent studies in the region show that different socio-economic factors influence SLM investments by

  8. Balancing limiting factors and economic drivers for sustainable midwestern U.S. agricultural residue feedstock supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading the soil and other natural resources. This review examine...

  9. Economic Dimensions of Sustainable Development, the Fight against Poverty and Educational Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    The arguments in the article are based on the ongoing discourse in the academic community and among stakeholders, which has contributed to the articulation of the concepts and premises of sustainable development and the role of learning modalities, technologies and networks. The article draws on this discourse to explore the economic aspects of…

  10. Sustainability and Economic Performance of the Companies in the Renewable Energy Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Busu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the sustainability and economic performance of the renewable energy sector of Romania. In our analysis, we have used Total Quality Management (TQM model, which is an economic modern tool used for improving the quality of management for all companies. The aim of this study is to bring into discussion the conceptualized TQM model of Edward Deming underlying different stages of its evolution as it is described in the economic literature. Conceptual model is applied in a case study of the renewable energy sector of Romania. The quantitative research evaluates the impact of the total quality management to achieve the sustainable development, performance objectives and the competitive advantage of the companies in the renewable energy sector. Data was collected through a survey and the questionnaire was addressed to the management and employees in the renewable energy sector. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used and the hypotheses were tested by partial least square (PLS equations. Data was analyzed through the Smart PLS 3 software. The main contribution of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relationship among sustainable development, economic performance of the companies and TQM model indicators. The conclusions of our research are in line with the existing literature and confirm the theoretical assumptions, underlining the fact that the undertaking’s performance and sustainable development is a direct consequence of the combination among a series of factors like decisional power quality, motivated workforce as well as integrity of operational process.

  11. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  12. A Framework for Sustainable Design of Algal Biorefineries: Economic Aspects and Life Cycle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    mathematically as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, and is solved first to identify the optimal designs with respect to economic optimality. These optimal designs are then analyzed further in terms of environmental performance using life cycle analysis. For sustainability analysis, in total five......In this chapter, a framework for sustainable design of algal biorefineries with respect to economic and environmental objectives is presented. As part of the framework, a superstructure is formulated to represent the design space – describing technologies developed for processing various types...... of algae feedstock for the production of biodiesel and co-products. Relevant data and parameters for each process such as yield, conversion, operational cost is then collected using a standardized format (a generic model) and stored in a database. The sustainable design problem is then formulated...

  13. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard; Garnett, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  14. Basic principles of water-use licensing - Summary of economical and legal expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter Ott, O.; Staub, C.; Leimbacher, J.

    2008-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the basic principles behind the definition of monetary compensation for the use of water resources in Switzerland for power generation. The basic aims of such compensation are briefly discussed as are the general economical and technical principles involved. Ownership of the rights pertaining to the use of water resources and the various definitions of licence fees and water taxes and their application are reviewed. Additional remuneration for water storage and appropriation is also discussed.

  15. An Islamic Model of Social Life: Legal and Economic Thought in Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Al-Daghistani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article I assert the societal dimension of Islam based on the duality of an Islamic worldview, based on the notion of tewhid, whose foundation is in Islamic law. One component of Islamic law is Islamic economic thought, irrevocably bounded within the Qu’ranic postulates of ethical conduct, founded on a logic contrary to global capitalism, as Max Weber also pointed out. Islamic banking is an expression of contemporary Islamic business ethics, regarded as a conjunction of the financial sector and shari'a-based principles.

  16. Revisiting the Economic Factors which Influence Fast Food South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce MASAMA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to stimulate both developing economies and developed economies around the globe policy makers have, over the years, focused their attention to Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs. These business entities are often regarded as the lifeblood of economies around the globe however SMMEs are reported to have high failure rates. For example, in a South African dispensation, the failure rate of SMMEs is considered to be among the worst in the world as approximately 75% fail within a period of 42 months after opening. Through research in the early-2000s, the cause of the excessive South African SMMEs failure rate has been pinned on a plethora of micro-economic factors and macro-economic factors. Over the years the list of economic factors which adversely influence the sustainability of South African SMMEs have not changed drastically, which may well probably explain the high failure rate of these business entities in more recent times. Thus, for this paper, empirical research was conducted to ascertain the extent to which 24 economic factors adversely influence the sustainability of South African SMMEs. Quantitative data were obtained from 116 members of management of South African SMMEs and stemming from the results, it was found that these economic factors still have a reasonable adverse influence on the sustainability of these business entities.

  17. MAJOR EVENTS IN THE ARAB ORDER: THE DECLINE OF SUSTAINABILITY AND THE TRANSITION TO ECONOMIC RESILIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA IOANA OPREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab world particularities are not solely the ones derived from natural wealth (oil and gas, but are also driven from historical particularities which mark this region, together with specific Islamic politics and economic organizational framework, with deep roots in religious concepts. In a global context, where the rules from the West are the ones leading globalization, the Arab World brings its contribution, even though the Islamic space defines a different socio-economic concept. In the East lies a series of features that place the Arab world in a different plan than the one shown frequently in the discussions about world order, with geopolitical but also economic implications. Conflicts in this region lead to declining sustainable development and trigger the need to strengthen the economic resilience. As the least peaceful region of the contemporary world, Arab World integrated the concept of economic resilience, in order to recover from shocks and continue further development.

  18. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges......; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  19. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y

  20. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  1. The International Trade Policy for Technology Transfers: Legal and Economic Dilemmas on Multilateralism versus Bilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    In the book, the Researcher addresses the importance of international technology transfers for economic development, as well as the underlying causes for the different institutional arrangements that promote such activity. The work provides a systematic interpretation of the wide range of interests...... among developed and developing countries, and how they affect the scope and content of international agreements dealing with technology transfers, especially given the anarchic structure of international trade relations. The research also finds that, contrary to the general view that bilateral trade...... agreements tend to undermine the effects of multilateral agreements, for the specific case of technology transfers these modalities seem to enjoy a mutually positive effect, and should thus be concurrently promoted...

  2. The legal and economic forces that will shape the international market for cybersurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas R

    2006-12-01

    Despite the common use of medical devices most health care providers have little understanding how a device alters medical malpractice litigation. Such knowledge will be increasingly valuable as cybersurgery (i.e. remote robotic surgery) becomes routine. Review of the laws governing products and telecommunication liability. Litigation after cybersurgery will be complex. In addition to being able to sue physicians and hospitals, patients who sustain an adverse outcome after cybersurgery will have the potential to sue the robotic manufacturer and telecommunication company. Robotics manufacturers can obtain virtual immunity from liability if they elected to place their devices on the market after obtaining [see text]360 per-market approval from the FDA. However, because [see text]360 pre-market approval is expensive and time consuming most medical devices on the market (including the robotic surgical instruments) do not have immunity to products liability. Consequently, after an adverse cybersurgical outcome a manufacturer of a robotic surgical instrument faces liability for failure to warn, design defects, and failure to properly manufacture. As for telecommunication providers, existing law provides them with immunity from liability. Litigation following cybersurgery will involve multiple defendants who are likely to use "finger pointing" defenses. Accordingly, there will be liability traps associated with providing cybersurgery. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Through The Decades - Changes in Social, Economic, Legal and Planning Determinants of Residential Development across Decades - Evidence from Suburban Areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Źróbek-Różańska, Alina; Zysk, Elżbieta; Źróbek, Ryszard

    2017-10-01

    Poland has experienced many political, legal, social and economic transformations. For the last twelve decades, this country was under foreign partition, in the war, under the influence of socialist system with centrally planned economy and finally regained autonomy and rapidly introduced market economy. Each epoch had its own characteristic, that can be recognized also in the residential buildings development. Therefore, the authors focused on the social, economic, legal and planning conditionings that shaped the development of the residential buildings with the most characteristic periods: pre-II world war, 50-ties, 60-ties, 70-ties, 80-ties, 90-ties and XXI century. Some of them are visible in the still existing residential buildings, especially in the suburban villages. The most recent process that can be observed in the study area is urban sprawl. Since the beginning of the XXI century, urban population in Poland has been gradually declining, while suburban villages transform into ‘urban-like’ districts. The aim of the study was to arrange and present in the decade-by-decade manner, the social, economic, legal and planning conditionings that were valid in particular periods. It was realized by correlating information on the contemporary social trends, economic conditions, legal framework and planning regulations. Presentation was enriched by the examples of the buildings developed in the accordance with the contemporary restrictions.

  4. Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, S; Morio, M; Bartke, S; Rohr-Zänker, R; Finkel, M

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of an integrated assessment model which evaluates redevelopment options of large contaminated brownfields and we present the application of the model in a case study. Aiming to support efficient and sustainable revitalization and communication between stakeholders, the presented assessment model integrates three pinnacles of brownfield revitalization: (i) subsurface remediation and site preparation costs, (ii) market-oriented economic appraisal, and (iii) the expected contribution of planned future land use to sustainable community and regional development. For the assessment, focus is set on the early stage of the brownfield redevelopment process, which is characterized by limited data availability and by flexibility in land use planning and development scope. At this stage, revealing the consequences of adjustments and alterations in planning options can foster efficiency in communication between the involved parties and thereby facilitates the brownfield revitalization process. Results from the case-study application indicate that the integrated assessment provides help in the identification of land use options beneficial in both a sustainable and an economical sense. For the study site it is shown on one hand that brownfield redevelopment is not automatically in line with sustainable regional development, and on the other hand it is demonstrated that additional contributions to sustainability are not intrinsically tied to increased costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Socio-Economic Priorities for the Sustainable Development of Russian Arctic Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaevich Leksin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To properly justify the priorities for the Russian Arctic Zone sustainable development is methodologically challenging for two reasons. Firstly, this challenge is due to fast changes of external and internal conditions for the development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF. Secondly, the interpretation of the concept of “sustainability” is too wide inconsistent. As the concepts of “sustainability” as well as the concept of “sustainable growth” in this wide sense are frequently used to characterize economic, social and other processes and systems, these key categories are difficult to apply as development’ targets and evaluation criteria practice of public administration in Russia. Using the case of Arctic macro-region, the paper substantiates the concept of spatial systems’ sustainability as their ability to maintain functionality under destabilizing impact of exogenous and endogenous factors. Such an ability is particularly important because of variations in structure and intensity of these negative impacts, including from climate change. Within this methodological framework, we have specified the indicators of sustainability relating to the practice of public management in the AZRF development. The paper has discussed the existing and emerging exogenous and endogenous impacts on the AZRF development sustainability. We set two priorities among the goals and objectives for ensuring the AZRF sustainable functioning under the conditions of climate. In social (socio-economic sphere, it is necessary to maintain and improve the public health. In economic sphere, the most needed are strengthening of coherency and reliability of the transportation system, energy supplies to distant consumers, and stimulating of investment and industrial activities of the large industrial corporations.

  6. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  7. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  8. A framework for techno-economic & environmental sustainability analysis by risk assessment for conceptual process evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Sin, Gürkan; Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The need to achieve a sustainable process performance has become increasingly important in order to keep a competitive advantage in the global markets. Development of comprehensive and systematic methods to accomplish this goal is the subject of this work. To this end, a multi-level framework...... for techno-economic and environmental sustainability analysis through risk assessment is proposed for the early-stage design and screening of conceptual process alternatives. The alternatives within the design space are analyzed following the framework’s work-flow, which targets the following: (i) quantify...

  9. A new productivity index to measure economic sustainability of the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Xose A

    2010-01-01

    This document aims to introduce a total productivity index to measure the economic sustainability of the mining industry. This index will take into account any technical developments, means of use of productive factors (i.e. inefficiencies and scale effects) and the effects on the growth of the geological properties in the resources to be exploited (particularly the effects of resource reduction or reserves depletion). This new index will then be applied to the example of the Spanish mining industry, with some interesting findings regarding the configuration of sustainable mining policies.

  10. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  11. Economic and Environmental Performance of Fashion Supply Chain: The Joint Effect of Power Structure and Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fashion supply chain members now search for trade-offs between sustainable investment and the related incentives, such as savings on environmental taxes and gains in incremental demands. To evaluate the economic and environmental performance of sustainable investment from a power perspective, we develop an analytical model to study a two-echelon sustainable supply chain consisting of one retailer and one manufacturer with three different power structures. We derive the optimal solutions for various cases associated with different supply chain power structures and sustainable investors. Though it is beneficial for both the manufacturer and retailer to make sustainable investment, they often utilize high power to gain economic benefit with less sustainable investment. Interestingly, the follower with less supply chain power has more incentive to make a sustainable effort to achieve a higher profit. The optimal amount of sustainable investment in the apparel manufacturer investment case is greater than that in the retailer investment case in most scenarios.

  12. Does Renewable Energy Drive Sustainable Economic Growth? Multivariate Panel Data Evidence for EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy is crucial to economic progress, but the contemporary worldwide population increase that demands greater energy generated from conventional exhaustible resources, an energy price upsurge, and environmental concerns, imperils sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, switching to renewable energy produced from naturally replenished resources promotes energy security, likewise addressing issues such as global warming and climate change. This paper aims at exploring the influence and causal relation between renewable energy, both overall and by type, and sustainable economic growth of European Union (EU-28 countries for the period of 2003–2014. We notice that the mean share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption is 15%, while the mean share of renewable energy in transport fuel consumption is 3%, which are below the thresholds of 20% and 10%, respectively, as set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. By estimating panel data fixed-effects regression models, the results provide support for a positive influence of renewable energy overall, as well as by type, namely biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, and solar energy on gross domestic product per capita. However, biomass energy shows the highest influence on economic growth among the rest of renewable energy types. In fact, a 1% increase of the primary production of solid biofuels increases GDP per capita by 0.16%. Besides, cointegrating regressions set on panel fully modified and dynamic ordinary least squares regressions confirm the positive influence related to the primary production of renewable energies on economic growth. A 1% increase in primary production of renewable energies increases GDP per capita by 0.05%–0.06%. However, the results of Granger causality based on panel vector error correction model indicate both in short-run and long-run a unidirectional causal relationship running from sustainable economic growth to the primary production of

  13. [Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.

  14. Opportunities for petroleum company leadership in host nations sustainable petroleum economic development business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stultz-Karim, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the dynamic international political economic environment in which petroleum exploration and production companies must operate when considering investments in the economically transitional nations of the former Soviet Union or developing nations In this period of critical global changes low oil prices is only one factor with which petroleum companies Must be. concerned in their investment decisions Other factors include the transition from a bipolar world to a multipolar world of free trade zones. the general malaise of the international economy public and political recognition that nations and industries can no longer practice environmental {open_quotes}beggar-thy-neighbor{close_quotes} policies, and the rejection of aggregate national economic growth policies for sustainable economic development policies in both the Developed and developing world This paper focuses on actions which investing petroleum exploration and production companies can take in order to gain a leadership role in the sustainable Petroleum economic development business, to work with host countries regulations, and to develop a cooperative environment with host countries so that both the investing company and the host country can progress, not just survive.

  15. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  16. Decision Support For Digester Algae Integration For Improved Environmental And Economic Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has teamed with University of Idaho and Boise State University to make the use of ADs more attractive by implementing a two-stage AD and coupling additional processes to the system. The addition of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) reactor, algae cultivation system, and a biomass treatment system such as fast-pyrolysis or hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) would further sequester carbon and nutrients, as well as add valuable products that can be sold or used on-site to mitigate costs. The Decision-support for Digester-Algae IntegRation for Improved Environmental and Economic Sustainability (DAIRIEES) technoeconomic model will play a key role in evaluating the effectiveness and viability of this system to achieve economic and environmental sustainability by the dairy industry.

  17. Resource Management As Panacea For Sustainable National Economic Development And National Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanbi Oluwajuwon Mayomi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Resource Management as a Panacea for Sustainable National Economic Development and National Unity. The nation has been besieged by numerous problems due to poor resource management. These problems include corruption health implications poverty and inequality in income distribution ethnic crisis pollutions and it has also resulted in economic losses. These problems have militated against the countrys ability to create wealth for the present and future generation. The paper also looked at the concept of conservation and sustainability and their relationship with resource management. The main thrust of the recommendations was hinged on the problems mentioned. These recommendations include making revenue from resources more equitably distributed compensating the people of the area through the development of infrastructures like health facilities and provision of pipe borne water making and enforcing laws that will reduce pollution and development of capital projects.

  18. Hydrogen movement and the next action: fossil fuels industry and sustainability economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1997-01-01

    Since the hydrogen movement started in 1974, there has been progress in research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities, covering all aspects of the hydrogen energy system. In order to solve the interrelated problems of depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the combustion products of fossil fuels, it is desirable to speed up the conversion to the hydrogen energy system. Most established industries have joined the hydrogen movement. There is one exception: the fossil fuel industry. A call is made to the fossil fuel industry to join the hydrogen movement. It is also proposed to change the present economic system with a sustainability economics in order to account for environmental damage, recyclability and decommissioning, and thus, ensure a sustainable future. (Author)

  19. Tourism for pro-poor and sustainable growth: economic analysis of tourism projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tun; De Guzman, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of tourism in economic development and the rise of “pro-poor” tourism development strategies, properly designing and implementing tourism projects remain generally a difficult process. There are both theoretical and practical challenges in justifying public sector investments in tourism and properly measuring the projects’ benefits and sustainability. There is a need to come up with an analytical framework that would address these challenges and help evaluate...

  20. Designing an economic instrument for sustainable solid waste management in the household sector

    OpenAIRE

    Welivita, Indunee

    2014-01-01

    Household Solid Waste Management has become problematic in urban areas especially in developing countries like Sri Lanka due to increased waste generation and financial constraints. The main objective of this research was to design an economic instrument with policy suggestions in order to address the household solid waste management problem in Dehiwala – the Mt. Lavinia Municipal Council area in Sri Lanka. In order to reduce the quantity of waste by encouraging sustainable solid waste manage...

  1. Economic performance and sustainability of HealthGrids: evidence from two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, Alexander; Scholz, Stefan; Zegners, Dainis; Stroetmann, Karl A; Semler, Sebastian C

    2009-01-01

    Financial sustainability is not a driving force of HealthGrids today, as a previous desk research survey of 22 international HealthGrid projects has showed. The majority of applications are project based, which puts a time limit of funding, but also of goals and objectives. Given this situation, we analysed two initiatives, WISDOM and MammoGrid from an economic, cost-benefit perspective, and evaluated the potential for these initiatives to be brought to market as self-financing, sustainable services. We conclude that the topic of HealthGrids should be pursued further because of the substantial potential for net gains to society at large. The most significant hurdle to sustainability - the discrepancy between social benefits and private incentives - can be solved by sound business models.

  2. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China. Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yong; Oberheitmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO 2 -emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)

  3. Sustainability Analysis of Coffee Farming in Protected Forestof West Lampung Based on Enviromental Economic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Study on sustainability of multistrata coffee systems is important related to community forest program. This research aims to study: (1 sustainability of coffee farming in protected forest of West Lampung (2 willingness to pay the external cost and its determinant factors. The study was conducted in Sumberjaya, West Lampung Regency from Juni to October 2009. The study used random sampling method with 50 protected forest farmers were interviewed. Extended Cost Benefit Analysis (ECBA was used to address the purpose (1 while analysis of ordinal logistic regression was to address the purpose (2 Financial analysis showed that coffee farming in protected forest is feasible with NPV of IDR 17,719,505/ha, BCR 1.86 and IRR 24.96%. Coffee with complex multipurpose shade (MPTS, multipurpose tree species generated highest NPV. Based on ECBA, sustainability depended on externality cost (environmental and social cost. Coffee farming was not sustainable (shown by negative NPV when externality cost was more than US $536/ha. When externality cost was 458 USD ha-1 year-1 (minimum value NPV is Rp1.648.633/ha, BCR 1,04 and IRR 26,88. Complex multipurpose shade coffee was the most sustainable among the systems. To sustain the environment, farmers willing to pay external cost in average of Rp475,660/year for soil conservation, planting more shade trees, environmental tax, and reforestation. Based on ordinal logistic regression, farm size, land productivity, household income, household size, and knowledge of forest benefits, positively influencid WTP. Policy of community forest (HKm permit that require a minimum of 400 trees/ha could improve sustainability of coffee farming.Key words: Coffee farming, sustainable, protection forest, economic value

  4. Sustainability of processed foods supply chain: Social, economic and territorial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beber Caetano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global market, food companies engaged in sustainable development must now integrate the economic and social component. However the tools to assess it are lacking. Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to define social sustainability and its implementation. The attributional approaches, pathways or capabilities methods have emerged, based on a functional unit of a good or service along the supply chain. This paper proposes a new method to assess social economic and territorial performances of a food chain as a whole on a Territory. It is divided into four components: (i dignity and well-being of workers, (ii contribution to local life, (iii fairness and integrity of business practices, and (iv creation of material and intangible wealth. 50 criteria are used according to international, national or sectoral references. This generic method applicable to any sector of processed food products aims to identify where are the areas of improvement to qualify the sector as socially sustainable. An application to the wine Beaujolais and Burgundy wine was performed from surveys of 35 production and trade operators in 2014. The results show that the sector is particularly effective for the promotion of the territory, local life participation, loyalty and integrity of business practices; some improvement is still possible for the welfare of workers and the creation of material wealth. This method can be coupled with the environmental performance determined by the life cycle analysis in order to assess the sustainability in its entirety.

  5. Features of the Formation of Economic Sustainability at Different Stages of the Enterprise’s Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butnik-Sivers?kyy Oleksandr B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of stakeholders in ensuring economic sustainability, the aim of the article is to determine the priority of their groups at different stages of the enterprise’s functioning (creation, adaptation, growth, development. It is shown that at the stage of creating the company, the priority stakeholders are the shareholders and creditors as providers of financial resources, as well as customers as the source of formation of the market resource. At the growth stage, stakeholders should be ranked based on their ability to meet the company’s needs at the new level and create conditions for expanding the debt financing tools. It is noted that the formed high ranking positions of the enterprise reduce the role of financial stakeholders and actualize the priority of partnership relations that ensure its innovative development. Attention is focused on the fact that corporate conflicts: “agent-principal” and “principal-principal” present the threat of loss of economic sustainability at any stage of the enterprise’s functioning, which requires their compromise resolving. It is stated that the formation of the economic sustainability of enterprises is largely determined by the expansion of partnership relations and balancing the interests of stakeholders. The latter should be based on the priority of the resource contribution (volume, specificity of resources and the opportunities of the influence of a certain interested party on the company (destructive, constructive ones.

  6. Legal pluralism, hydraulic property creation and sustainability: the materialized nature of water rights in user-managed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.; Vos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, most irrigation systems are managed by farmer collectives, in contexts of legal pluralism. National and supranational legislation and policy-making, however, focus on governance frameworks established by State and market actors. Consequently, development planning often ignores farmers’

  7. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  8. Effect of Economic Vulnerability on Competitive Advantages, Enterprise Performance and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of economic vulnerability upon competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability of micro-enterprises owned and managed by micro-entrepreneurs who participate in varied development initiatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly collected from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the eKasih program (national poverty data bank located in four states of Peninsular Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected by conducting structured interview sessions with the respondents held from September until November 2017. The findings revealed that the state of economic vulnerability among the respondents had a significantly negative effect on the aspects of competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability among micro-enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia. Despite of the widely acknowledged and empirically examined effects of socioeconomic antecedents upon micro-enterprise performance, the focus on the effect of a more comprehensive measure of socioeconomic condition, that is, economic vulnerability, among low-income households appears to be scant. Hence, the outcomes of this study are able to provide critical insights for development organizations pertaining to development programs and their effectiveness on economically vulnerable, particularly among low-income households in Peninsular Malaysia.

  9. An Incentive-Based Solution of Sustainable Mobility for Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrador

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Incentivized Sustainable Mobility” is a conceptual business model which involves four stakeholders: citizens, municipalities, commerce and mobility services. A platform named “ISUMO” (Incentivized Sustainable Mobility provides technological support to this business model, integrating a set of metaservices that unifies the existing ICTs of transportation plus a unique patented QR-based (Quick Response low-cost charging device for electric vehicles. Essentially, the system tracks and registers citizens’ transportation activities (anonymously and voluntarily and evaluates each through a scoring system while their ecological footprint is calculated. Afterwards, citizens are able to exchange their accumulated points for discount QR coupons, to be redeemed in the associated commerce in order to purchase their products or services. The breakthrough of this business model is that it enhances awareness of sustainable mobility practices, increasing their attractiveness as perceived by the stakeholders with diverse benefits; citizens (and indirectly, the municipalities initiate a new consumption pattern of “coupons culture” linked to sustainable mobility, the urban economy is stimulated, and the use of mobility services grows, providing a new business opportunity regarding electric vehicles. It is expected that continuous exploration of the model and implementation will contribute to sustainable social and economic development aiming at CO2 emissions reduction, headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS WITHIN FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Usmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategy of social and economic development of regions has to be a basis for formation budgetary and tax and a monetary policy. Formation of strategic plans have to provide an exit to the new level of innovative economic and social development of Russia. Adaptation of the current legislation is necessary for the solution of the set major problems regarding budgetary and tax and a monetary policy in the Russian Federation. The important direction of development of social and economic development of territories is the clustering and formation of projects of the public-private partnership (PPP. Within integration of the countries into the world economy the organizations as systems in the form of clusters and the PPP projects can only be the competitive. Within formation of the organizations as systems it is necessary to provide formation of standards of a sustainable development (SEU for social protection of the population and increase of the human capital.

  11. Arbitrability limitation in consumer (B2C disputes? : Consumers´ protection as legal and economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Bělohlávek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of consumers became a phenomenon of many governmental politics. Retrieval of a balance between privat autonomy and protection of a weaker party is very sensitive. The particular degree of consumers protection through limitation of contractual autonomy (in B2C contracts as well as procedural autonomy (regarding B2C dispute resolution mechanisms, as chosen by particular governments, has both legal and economic effects, in positive and negative sense. The European Court of Human Rights adjudicated repeatedly that traditional court litigation is not capable to grant effective protection to contractual claims in many countries. Arbitration is therefore one of possible tools for B2C dispute resolution, even if many countries and obviously the EU Commission followe rather an opposite strategy (keeping down arbitrability of B2C disputes in the opposite to US trends. Arbitration is not a cure-all and definitely not a method suitable for the resolution of any and all types of disputes. It has its proponents as well as opponents. Indeed, it is hard to claim that a particular type (class of disputes is a priori fit to be resolved in arbitration, rather than litigation, or vice versa. This also applies to consumer disputes (disputes from consumer contracts. It is fairly undisputable that consumers deserve a certain degree of specific protection in cases in which they are forced to enter into a particular contract and have no other option than to accept the conditions stipulated by the other party (the professional. But we cannot principally claim that the resolution of these disputes in court would be more suitable than arbitration or any other, the so-called alternative, dispute resolution method (ADR. Despite the basically undisputed importance of and the need for special consumer protection (whether provided by special laws, typically in Europe, or on the basis of general legal principles and the application of general contract law, like in the

  12. The Role of Economics and Democracy in Institutional Change for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Söderbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutional change for sustainable development does not happen by itself. Individuals and organizations function as actors to influence development processes. Reference is made to a “political economic person” (PEP guided by her/his “ideological orientation” and “political economic organization” (PEO, guided by its “mission”. Leaving present unsustainable trends behind is a matter of politics and ideology and even power positions, where democracy plays a crucial role. The perspectives of influential (and other actors are essential in facilitating (or hindering change. I will discuss ideas of the role of science in society, mainstream neoclassical economics in relation to institutional economics in the spirit of K. William Kapp and Gunnar Myrdal as well as neo-liberalism as ideology (where neoclassical economics has contributed to strengthen the legitimacy of neo-liberalism. Various aspects of inertia and flexibility in institutional change processes, such as path dependence, are discussed. Emphasis is on the role of economics and how a strengthened democracy can open the door for a degree of pluralism.

  13. Responses of agricultural bioenergy sectors in Brandenburg (Germany) to climate, economic and legal changes: An application of Holling's adaptive cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Philipp; Ehlers, Melf-Hinrich; Uckert, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural bioenergy production is subject to dynamics such as yield fluctuations, volatile prices, resource competition, new regulation and policy, innovation and climate change. This raises questions, to what extent bioenergy production is able to adapt to changes and overcome critical events. These dynamics have important implications for effective policy development. Using a case study method, which draws on various data sources, we investigate in detail how agricultural bioenergy sectors in the German State of Brandenburg adapted to diverse past events. The case analysis rests on the adaptive-cycle concept and the system properties potential, connectedness and resilience as defined by . Our case study concludes that Brandenburg's biogas sector has a low potential and connectedness within the system, and a low resilience against crop failures. The biofuels sector displays similar properties in the short term. In the medium term the potential could increase in both sectors. The properties imply risks and opportunities for biogas production and the possibility to develop towards a stage with a higher potential and a higher connectedness. But adaptive capacity is limited and there are certain barriers for the agricultural bioenergy sectors to overcome potentially critical states. Policy needs to be tailored accordingly. - Highlights: ► Bioenergy sectors respond to climatic, economic and legal changes in different ways. ► Responses to changes expose critical features and bottlenecks of bioenergy sectors. ► Resilience, potential and connectedness are critical features for bioenergy sectors. ► Stages of development of the biogas and biofuel production sectors are identified. ► Effective policy design needs to match the sectors' features and development stages.

  14. Education for sustainability – a prerequisite for post-crisis economic competitiveness with possible inference for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirața CARAIANI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to integrate sustainability among the skills of specialists in economics and its accreditation for the university curricula was recognized in academic literature for over twenty years. Using the literature review and documentation, the present paper identifies the key factors in the assessment of the current state of the scientific research and the practice of European universities. The prime responsibility is for economic universities to adjust curricula to meet these demands. In this sense, the paper constructs a debate on the organisation and the projection of a strategy in developing the economic education towards sustainability in higher economic education in Romania.

  15. Influence of cable losses on the economic analysis of efficient and sustainable electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobão, J.A.; Devezas, T.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy needs are accompanied by environmental responsibilities, since nowadays electricity companies operate in a competitive and sustainable energy framework. In this context, any proposal for action on energy efficiency becomes important for consumers to minimize operational costs. In electrical installations, electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables, associated with the overall efficiency of the equipment, allowing a better use of the installed power. The losses must be analysed in conjunction with all loads that contribute to the currents in the sections of an electrical installation. When replacing equipment in output distribution boxes with more efficient ones, the current in those sections is reduced in association with the decrease in power losses. This decrease, often forgotten, is taken into account in this work for the economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment. This paper presents a new software application that compares and chooses the best investment in the acquisition of electrical equipment. Simulation results obtained with the new software application are provided and are then validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation. - Highlights: • Any proposal for action on energy efficiency is important for consumers. • Electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables. • A new software application that compares and chooses the best investment is provided. • The economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment is carried out. • Simulation results are validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation

  16. German enterprises and the changes in energy economics due to increased concerns regarding environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a first year doctoral research regarding the current state of knowledge in environmental sustainability, energy economics and their impact on European enterprises. As the current changes and modifications of the German energy economics system are observed by people all around the globe, the current paper analyzes what has been said until now in the scientific literature on character of the new strategy for energy consumption and production in Germany and its impact on environmental and social sustainability. With the help of two questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 through the German DIHK1, German enterprises were surveyed in order to: identify potential differences and similarities between the two periods, identify the effects of the energy transition on companies’ profitability, and analyze these effects and compare the results in terms of potential trend developments. The research findings confirmed that changes in the energy system affect not only the environmental sustainability only, but also the economy, in some cases even independent of the stage in which the changing system of the economy presently is.

  17. Agro-energy supply chain planning: a procedure to evaluate economic, energy and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ginaldi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for energy and expected shortage in the medium term, solicit innovative energy strategies to fulfill the increasing gap between demand-supply. For this purpose it is important to evaluate the potential supply of the energy crops and finding the areas of EU where it is most convenient. This paper proposes an agro-energy supply chain approach to planning the biofuel supply chain at a regional level. The proposed methodology is the result of an interdisciplinary team work and is aimed to evaluate the potential supply of land for the energy production and the efficiency of the processing plants considering simultaneously economic, energy and environmental targets. The crop simulation, on the basis of this approach, takes into account environmental and agricultural variables (soil, climate, crop, agronomic technique that affect yields, energy and economic costs of the agricultural phase. The use of the Dijkstra’s algorithm allows minimizing the biomass transport path from farm to collecting points and the processing plant, to reduce both the transport cost and the energy consumption. Finally, a global sustainability index (ACSI, Agro-energy Chain Sustainability Index is computed combining economic, energy and environmental aspects to evaluate the sustainability of the Agroenergy supply chain (AESC on the territory. The empirical part consists in a pilot study applied to the whole plain of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG a region situated in the North-Eastern part of Italy covering about 161,300 ha. The simulation has been applied to the maize cultivation using three different technologies (different levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization: low, medium and high input. The higher input technologies allow to achieve higher crop yields, but affect negatively both the economic and energy balances. Low input levels provides, on the average, the most favourable energy and economic balances. ACSI indicates that low inputs levels

  18. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Kolios, Athanasios J.; Read, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the la...

  19. Economic analysis of the energy and carbon tax for the sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.K.; Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The concept of 'Sustainable Development' has been playing a very important role since seventies. Countries all over the world, whether developed or developing, strive to achieve their economic development in a sustainable way. U.N Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 at Rio was instrumental in the movement of the sustainable development. Korea is not an exception in this movement as Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD) was established in September 2000. The Climate Change occupies the heart of the sustainable development. In response to the urgent need to protect global climate, the U.N. Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997) were adopted. An analysis is required to respond effectively and sustainedly to the issue of climate change. Energy sector is the main contributor to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, this study aims to analyse the implication of the energy{center_dot}carbon tax for the benefit of present and future generation, its impact on economy, industry, and energy. It also studies new elements related to the differential impact of energy carbon tax on income classes. We developed 'Overlapping Generation Equilibrium model' which consists of eleven industry, three income classes, time span of 100 years. Scenario analysis was performed for the case of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent in 2010 and afterward in comparison with its 'Business As Usual' path. Three major analysis preformed are as follows: 1. Numerical computation was done on the differential impact of the carbon tax on three income classes. 2. The impact on various generation was calculated. 3. Most importantly, the hypothesis of 'Double Dividend' was tested. This study cautiously concludes that carbon tax recycling by the reduction of the corporate income tax may increase GDP despite the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxides. The results of this

  20. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  1. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Integrating Economic and Ecological Benchmarking for a Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower reservoirs play an increasingly important role for the global electricity supply. Reservoirs are anthropogenically-dominated ecosystems because hydropower operations induce artificial water level fluctuations (WLF that exceed natural fluctuations in frequency and amplitude. These WLF have detrimental ecological effects, which can be quantified as losses to ecosystem primary production due to lake bottoms that fall dry. To allow for a sustainable development of hydropower, these “ecological costs” of WLF need to be weighed against the “economic benefits” of hydropower that can balance and store intermittent renewable energy. We designed an economic hydropower operation model to derive WLF in large and small reservoirs for three different future energy market scenarios and quantified the according losses in ecosystem primary production in semi-natural outdoor experiments. Our results show that variations in market conditions affect WLF differently in small and large hydropower reservoirs and that increasing price volatility magnified WLF and reduced primary production. Our model allows an assessment of the trade-off between the objectives of preserving environmental resources and economic development, which lies at the core of emerging sustainability issues.

  3. Hydro-economic modeling with aquifer-river interactions to guide sustainable basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahil, Mohamed Taher; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-08-01

    Policymakers in arid and semiarid basins face hard choices on water policies needed for adaptation to climate change. Hydro-economic modeling is a state-of-the art approach that can be used to guide the design and implementation of these policies in basins. A major gap in developments of hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of physically-based representations of water sources and uses such as the interaction between ground and surface water resources, to inform complex basin scale policy choices. This paper presents an integrated hydro-economic modeling framework to address this gap with application to an important and complex river basin in Spain, the Jucar basin, for the assessment of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices. Results indicate that in absence of adequate policies protecting water resources and natural ecosystems, water users will strategically deplete reservoirs, aquifers and river flows for short-term adaptation to climate change, disregarding the impacts on the environment and future human activities. These impacts can be addressed by implementing sustainable management policies. However, these policies could have disproportionate costs for some stakeholders groups, and their opposition may undermine attempts at sustainable policy. These tradeoffs among water policy choices are important guides to the design of policies aimed at basin-wide adaptation to climate change.

  4. THE ROLE OF INNOVATION POLICIES IN ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the key-elements providing increased competitiveness to countries which is defining in building effective economies. In modern conditions, great attention is paid to economic sustainability which besides effectiveness takes into account the impact of human activities over the environment. Europe has always been one of leading forces of innovation in the world. However, its importance has constantly decreased due to rise of the US, Japan and newly of China. The European Union has oriented much effort towards fostering innovation through various policies and instruments in order to keep up with the growing pace of economic and technologic development in the modern world. By these policies, the EU aims at creating favourable conditions for countries to promote innovation taking into account the national peculiarities as to allow improved flexibility and adaptability. The main goal of the present paper is to assess the impact of the EU innovation policies upon sustainable development of the member countries. There are to be analysed the main paradigms,concepts, initiatives and strategies frame-working innovation in the EU and, consequently, their impact upon economic development and the consistence in facing new challenges. In the end,on the base on identified correlations, concrete actions and measures to foster performance of innovation policies in general are identified.

  5. Coping with the emergence of new sovereignties over sustainability: Dilemmas and decision-making of the Indonesian state in a plural legal order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Schouten, A.M.; Deike, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how the Indonesian state copes with the emergence of global networks of business and civil society as new sovereigns over sustainability of an economically very important activity on its territory: the production of palm oil. Indonesia is the largest producer and exporter of

  6. The economic dimension of the sustainable development - point for a debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhl Nannetti, Ernesto

    2002-01-01

    The article begins explaining the relations between economy and environment and exploring the limitations of the classic economic theory for the sustainable management of environmental goods and services. It stresses the insufficiency and inadequacy of the market mechanisms for this purpose, and the need of the intervention of the state to insure the correct distribution of environmental goods and services considering public interest and sustainability. Then it refers to the conception of natural resources and environment in the 1991 constitution and to the role that it assignees to the state in their management and administrator. It enters then to the subject of valuation of environmental goods and services and in the identification of the tools that the state has in order to administer them in accordance with the basic constitutional principles, in the search of a sustainable society. It ends by stating the need of changing of the dominant paradigm in order to introduce the concept of sustainability, changing the short-term market economy vision

  7. Reconciling Pesticide Reduction with Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Arable Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management. PMID:24887494

  8. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lechenet

    Full Text Available Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.. We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management.

  9. Crisis as a Factor of the Sustainability Violation in the Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhereliuk Iuliia O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates that crisis is a factor of violation of the enterprise’s sustainability as economic system, crisis can occur at all stages of the life cycle of enterprise, act as a brake against the further development of enterprise and its movement to the next stage of development. On the basis of theoretical generalization, the author’s own approach to the definition of concept of «crisis» is presented. Causes of occurrence of crisis were generalized depending on certain stage of the life cycle of enterprise. It has been specified that crisis poses a threat to the sustainability of enterprise, but, despite this, it is the regularity and necessity of development, which in all its manifestations and consequences will be overcome by anti-crisis. The theoretical approaches by different scientists as to interpretation of the concept of «anti-crisis sustainability» were considered that allowed to substantiate the author’s own approach to the interpretation of this concept. Prospects for further research in this directions will be systematization of the factors to ensure the anti-crisis sustainability of enterprise in a competitive environment.

  10. Economic Efficiency of Implementation of the Concept of Sustainable Development of the Urbanized Territories in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia Lapshina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of transition to sustainable development of the urban territories is proved. The concept of the natural-socio-technical model of urban territories is offered. Green building as one of the aspects of unity in urbanized areas and the natural environment is presented. The basic principles of the paradigm of safe and comfortable urban environment that is compatible with the biosphere are formulated. The structure of the humanitarian balance and the methodology for quantifying them are described. The model of sustainable development of the environment through the comparison of human capacities and parameters of the environment is simulated. The criteria for the compatibility of urbanized territories with the biosphere were formulated as a measure of the sustainability of their development. The example of calculation of an indicator of biospheric compatibility of urbanized areas in relation to transport construction and road infrastructure of the city is given. It shows the economic efficiency of realization of the concept of sustainable development and the creation biospherically of the urban environment on the example of road infrastructure of the city.

  11. Quantifying economic sustainability. Implications for free-enterprise theory, policy and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, Sally J. [Integral Science Institute, 374 Wesley Ct, Chapel Hill, NC 27516 (United States); Lietaer, Bernard [Center for Sustainable Resources, 101 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3100 (United States); Ulanowicz, Robert E. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, MD 20688-0038 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In a previous paper (Ulanowicz, Goerner, Lietaer, and Gomez, 2009), we combined thermodynamic, network, and information theoretic measures with research on real-life ecosystems to create a generalized, quantitative measure of sustainability for any complex, matter/energy flow system. The current paper explores how this metric and its related concepts can be used to provide a new narrative for long-term economic health and sustainability. Based on a system's ability to maintain a crucial balance between two equally essential, but complementary factors, resilience and efficiency, this generic explanation of the network structure needed to maintain long-term robustness provides the missing theoretical explanation for what constitutes healthy development and the mathematical means to differentiate it quantitatively from mere growth. Matching long-standing observations of sustainable vitality in natural ecosystems and living organisms, the result is a much clearer, more accurate understanding of the conditions needed for free-enterprise networks to produce the kind of sustainable vitality everyone desires, one which enhances and reliably maintains the health and well-being of all levels of global civilization as well as the planet. (author)

  12. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management.

  13. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  14. Hydro-economic modeling of conjunctive ground and surface water use to guide sustainable basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Kahil, Mohamed; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-04-01

    Water demands for irrigation, urban and environmental uses in arid and semiarid regions continue to grow, while freshwater supplies from surface and groundwater resources are becoming scarce and are expected to decline with climate change. Policymakers in these regions face hard choices on water management and policies. Hydro-economic modeling is the state-of-the art tool that could be used to guide the design and implementation of sustainable water management policies in basins. The strength of hydro-economic modeling lies in its capacity to integrate key biophysical and socio-economic components within a unified framework. A major gap in developments on hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of surface and groundwater flows, based on the theoretically correct Darcy equations used by the hydrogeological community. The modeling approach taken here is integrated, avoiding the single-tank aquifer assumption, avoiding simplified assumptions on aquifer-river linkages, and bypassing iterations among separate hydrological and economic models. The groundwater flow formulation used in this paper harnesses the standard finite difference expressions for groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water exchange developed in the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model. The methodological contribution to previous modeling efforts is the explicit specification of aquifer-river interactions, important when aquifer systems make a sizable contribution to basin resources. The modeling framework is solved completely, and information among the economic and hydrological components over all periods and locations are jointly and simultaneously determined. This novel framework is applied to the Jucar basin (Spain), which is a good experimental region for an integrated basin scale analysis. The framework is used for assessing the impacts of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices, especially the hydrologic, land use, and economic outcomes. The modeling framework

  15. Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Complexity of power plant evaluation is steadily rising, as more criteria are involved in the overall assessment while evaluation data change rapidly. Apart from evaluating several aspects of power plants separately, a multicriteria analysis based on hierarchically structured criteria is necessary, so as to address the overall assessment of power plants according to the technological, economic and sustainability aspects. For this reason, in this paper, ten types of power plant are evaluated using nine end node criteria properly structured under the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Moreover, pairwise comparisons allow for accurate subjective criteria weighting. According to the scenario based on the subjective criteria weighting, emphasis is laid on sustainability driving renewable energy power plants at the top of the overall ranking, while nuclear and fossil fuel power plants rank in the last five positions. End node criteria contribution to each power plant and power plant performance per end node criterion is presented for all types of power plant and end node criteria. (author)

  16. Energy demand, economic growth, and energy efficiency - the Bakun dam-induced sustainable energy policy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keong, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In embarking on a dynamic course of economic development and industrial modernism, Malaysia sees the need to increase its electricity generation capacity through the development of a mega-dam project - the Bakun dam. Although hydroelectricity generation offers one of the benign options in accommodating the increasing energy consumption per capita in Malaysia, it is argued that the construction of Bakun's dam which involves a complete and irreversible destruction of 69,640 ha of old forest ecosystem remains a difficult and uncertain endeavour. It is further argued that apart from mega-dam technology, there are also other means to orchestrate a sustainable energy system in Malaysia. These include the implementation of demand and supply initiatives, such as the deployment of energy saving technology or influencing behavioral change towards a sustainable energy consumption pattern

  17. Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    Complexity of power plant evaluation is steadily rising, as more criteria are involved in the overall assessment while evaluation data change rapidly. Apart from evaluating several aspects of power plants separately, a multicriteria analysis based on hierarchically structured criteria is necessary, so as to address the overall assessment of power plants according to the technological, economic and sustainability aspects. For this reason, in this paper, ten types of power plant are evaluated using nine end node criteria properly structured under the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Moreover, pairwise comparisons allow for accurate subjective criteria weighting. According to the scenario based on the subjective criteria weighting, emphasis is laid on sustainability driving renewable energy power plants at the top of the overall ranking, while nuclear and fossil fuel power plants rank in the last five positions. End node criteria contribution to each power plant and power plant performance per end node criterion is presented for all types of power plant and end node criteria. (author)

  18. Skilled and controlled immigration – a solution to keep sustainable economic growth in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dvořáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s population decline compared with the demographic explosion in Africa and Asia is a potential threat to sustainable economic growth and global competitiveness in Europe. Europe is currently facing two major problems-lack of population growth and migration pressures. The solution could provide a targeted management of migrations flows. Prerequisite for sustainability of the system is not only a skilled migration, but some form of integration and acceptance of Western values as well. In connection with the deepening of integration of the common EU immigration policy, Czech immigration strategies have to be complementary with the EU strategies. Czech Republic had to already undertaken many reforms of Aliens Act and also tries to launch its own strategies favourising the skilled immigration, to reinforce the main trends in the European immigration policy.

  19. How to change economic paradigms: Impacts of corporate communications on sustainable leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremser, M.

    1997-12-31

    For many companies it is difficult to reflect sufficiently on {open_quotes}sustainable development{close_quotes}. This topic often proves to be an innovative context, out of established paradigms. Due to the Kirton-Adaptor-Innovator theory there`s a widespread tendency to focus on adaptive styles of corporate problem solving. It means that companies tend to solve problems within a given and economically accepted neoclassic context. The challenge is to integrate a more innovative style of problem solving, as this allows the integration and transformation of new context systems. To provoke new paradigm thinking is one task of corporate communications, the other one is to balance it with an adaptive style in order to establish a sustainable {open_quotes}win-win{close_quotes}-context.

  20. NEW METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN TECHNO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMISATION OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stevović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among its other objectives and principles, sustainable development concept includes finding the optimal technical solutions that will enable exploitation of the resources of energy with minimal environmental damage. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate methodological approach by using several operational research methods for selecting the optimal solution for complex, multipurpose power-plants construction concept problem with taking the sustainable development aspects into account. These methods are: ELECTRE I-IV, PROMETHEE I-IV, method of analytic hierarchy process (AHP and linear programming. The aim of this research was to find out highly efficient, but relatively simple methods of defining environmental-friendly and socio-politically acceptable technical solution. The new methodology is developed and tested by case studies of determining the optimal choice for the construction of thermal and hydropower plants in the areas extremely exposed to conflict of economic, environmental and socio-political interest.

  1. Formation of sustainable development reporting social component as economic security management element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonik V.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the various scientific approaches to accounting which helped establish the absence of the single classification mechanism for social activity objects that are identified as accounting objects, which cause the formation of false, incomparable, incomplete and confusing information for interested users to make their relevant decisions. It suggests the list of accounting objects of enterprise’s social activity, which the authors single out at the request of reporting on sustainable development. The process of documenting the social activities is analyzed; the paper determines the areas where it is necessary to improve the existing primary documents. The analytical sections on the accounts of social operations of the company are showed. The article proposes the accounting display of economic operations of social activity as the basic information support of the sustainable development reporting social component formation. The authors introduce the form for the internal report, which aims to summarize the social activity aspects of entities

  2. CONDITION OF DECENTRALIZATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEGAL FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL EXPERIENCE

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    Nadiia Kulchytska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern condition of decentralization and organizational legal forms of sustainable development of regions of Ukraine in the context of the global experience are analyzed, possible ways to overcome regional disparities are proved. A special place in scientific research article takes a significant number of modern researchers analyzed the theoretical and methodological foundations of a system of financial support of local authorities in the transition to decentralization of public administration. In this regard, particular relevance is the problem of defining the role of decentralization principles in forming the financial support of local government. The importance of decentralization in the process of local government reform is proved. The ways implementing decentralization in modern Ukraine are shown. The scientific approaches to determining the meaning and role of decentralization in a market economy are analyzed and summarized. Key words: decentralization, deconcentration of power, the territorial organization of government, local communities, dotatsiynist, sustainable development. JEL: H 70, R 58

  3. Linking sustainable use policies to novel economic incentives to stimulate antibiotic research and development

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    Ursula Theuretzbacher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong

  4. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  5. Economic development and foreign direct investment: How to create sustainable development an analysis of the potential for sustainable development on the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homlong Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing critically on the effects of the conditions for foreign direct investment on sustainable growth in the recipient country, this paper analyzes the potential for investments in environmental innovations in India. The definition of sustainability applied in this paper incorporates economic development and investment which promotes environmentally and socially friendly production and innovation. As the Indian economy experienced strong growth in GDP in recent years, but is still lagging behind in providing the basic needs of clean water, clean air and proper waste management for households and companies, the necessity for sustainable development exists. From a methodological point of view this paper uses macroeconomic data to evaluate quantitatively the potentials and needs of Indian states. This results in a state ranking showing the potential for sustainable development in selected Indian states, based on economic and environmental indicators.

  6. The American science pipeline: sustaining innovation in a time of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Gillian; Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Lynn, David G; Eisen, Arri

    2010-01-01

    Significant limitations have emerged in America's science training pipeline, including inaccessibility, inflexibility, financial limitations, and lack of diversity. We present three effective programs that collectively address these challenges. The programs are grounded in rigorous science and integrate through diverse disciplines across undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students, and resonate with the broader community. We discuss these models in the context of current economic constraints on higher education and the urgent need for our institutions to recruit and retain diverse student populations and sustain the successful American record in scientific education and innovation.

  7. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the framework needed to gradually develop an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop cis-lunar and surface capabilities for mutual benefit while sharing cost and risk in the development phase and then allowing for transfer of operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, energy storage devices, communication relay satellites, local communication towers, and surface mobility operations.

  8. Sustainable Economic Development in the Transition Countries, With a Retrospect of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolovski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development represents a civilization challenge that should meet the needs of today’s generations without jeopardizing the ability of the Earth to meet the needs of the future generations. This challenge, as an evolutionary process in which the social and economic development and the environment protection are independent, but mutual complementary components demands the solving of several issues The vision of sustainable economic development is based on the historical, cultural and political development of the countries. There is no unique way of sustainable development for different countries and therefore they cannot be made in the same way. The transition toward sustainable development represents a social choice that connects the global vision of the local needs and goals. The citizens must participate in the process of sustainable development. They must recognize the role they have in creating problems and finding solutions. In order to gain a general frame for the assessment of sustainable economic development  it is necessary to integrate several methodologies  and approaches toward the possible future generations for a quality and healthy life. One of the ways of assessing the results from the policies and the activities is the use of the principles and indicators according to which it is determined how much the countries work on sustainable development. Part of the indicators are generally accepted, and part are in a modeling phase. A systematic approach is necessary to see whether all indicators are necessary, and which of them are necessary for the assessment of sustainability. The economists do not have problems in executing the objective and quantitative indicators. The sociologists are facing many problems in the execution of indicators because of the immateriality of the life quality. However, the environment experts see problems when they are limited in the execution of indicators

  9. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  10. Ethics, sustainability and logistics in agricultural and agri-food economics research

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    Pietro Pulina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.

  11. The Traditional Peoples and the Myth of Economic Growth in Harmony with Sustainable Development : A Critique of Light Doctrine protectionist Environment

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    Carla Vladiane Alves Leite

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the impact of economic development on the natural environment intensified geometric way in a world of problematic context of resource depletion and devastation of the environment to acquire raw material, endangering the ecosystems that sustain all the dynamics of humanity, especially the indigenous peoples that inhabit these places. This reality is not new, having been the subject of discussion since the beginning of the last century. As a result, the complexity and urgency of environmental issues have led the global community to work together to establish a new perspective and new ways for the environmental sustainable development, which could do live in harmony the need to develop economically and socially But with the right to a healthy and environmentally protected life, since it is a fundamental right to human dignity, recognized worldwide. For this, new public policies are being implemented and many of the old are being re- vised. Given the importance of the issue that raises debate, this paper intends to make a study of the doctrinal considerations involved theme in the light of diffuse rights and the protection of traditional peoples. Therefore, it will be observed the evolution of the concept, his balls and doctrinal and legal perspectives front of an international protective legislation Environmental Law and traditional peoples.

  12. The Bidirectional Causality between Country-Level Governance, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development: A Cross-Country Data Analysis

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    Cristina Boţa-Avram

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of contemporary society, characterized by the information users’ growing and differentiated needs, the way country-level governance and social responsibility contribute to the ensuring of sustainable economic development is a concern for all the actors of the economic sphere. The aim of this paper is to test the causal linkages between the quality of country-level governance, economic growth and a well-known indicator of economic sustainable development, for a large panel of world-wide countries for a period of 10 years (2006–2015. While there are some prior studies that have argued the bidirectional causality between good public governance and economic development, this study intends to provide a new focus on the relationship between country-level governance and economic growth, on one hand, and between country-level governance and adjusted net savings, as a selected indicator of economic sustainable development, on the other hand. Four hypotheses on the causal relationship between good governance, economic growth and sustainable development were tested by using Granger non-causality tests. Our findings resulting from Granger non-causality tests provide reasonable evidence of Granger causality from country-level governance to economic growth, but from economic growth to country-level governance, the causality is not confirmed. In what regards the relationship between country-level governance and adjusted net savings, the bidirectional Granger causality is not confirmed. The main implication of our study is that improving economic growth and sustainable development is a very challenging issue, and the impact of macro-level factors such as country-level governance should not be neglected.

  13. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  14. Wayanad widows: A study of sustainable rural economic development using renewable energy technology for micro enterprise in Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Maire Claire

    This thesis examines the situation of the farmer widows of Wayanad, Kerala through exploration of the underlying agricultural and economic issues leading to farmers' suicides, the current state of the environment in the Wayanad District of Kerala, India, and an economic model of micro-entrepreneurship to address economic and social issues of the surviving widows. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were performed through the assessment and document analysis of archive, newspaper, and published reports to gain a macro perspective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index was used as a tool to evaluate and organize findings of the current environmental conditions in the region. This thesis supports the sustainability concept of considering the economic, ecological, and social impacts when identifying economic development pathways. The goal was to explore the appropriateness of small household solar systems as vehicle in the micro-enterprise model to be a sustainable alternative economic pathway to agriculture for the farmer widows of Wayanad.

  15. Rural credit: sustainability and the paradox of the Social and economic development of the field

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    ARTHUR AS PRUDENTE CAMPOS SOUZA VERAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that rural credit has an important role in the modernization and operation of the field by the promotion of agricultural activities, enabling the countryside social and economic development, the objective by this article, is to demonstrate that the institute in frank evolution of an earlier priority for the operation and modernization of farming techniques and pastoral seeking a higher yield, has gone up over time to have a priority for the sustainability of the field by the creation of aid programs for family agriculture and its foundations.So even if the means are temporally disjointed, it is understood that the objectives of sustainability and social economic development of the field would possess the common goal of benefiting the farmers, however, certainly there would be a paradox between them, since the rural credit is taken as the principal by agricultural expansion in 70s, as well by the fact that Brazil is now a world power in agribusiness, which also encompass the environment degradation that has occurred since then.

  16. ICT for Collaborative Lifelong Learning to Sustainable Economic Development of EU

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    Alina-Mihaela Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant attention paid in European Union to increasing the quality of life and the quality of services provided to citizens, to human development, sustainable development and economic growth. This paper highlights the importance of applying information and communication technology in education as one of the main pillars of a strong society, as it is responsible for staff training and hence for the increase of quality of services in all areas. Technological progress is reflected in education through the diversification of educational services and through the high quality of their provision to all actors implied in the educational process, either instructors or students. Everyone benefits from a permanently optimized environment with a constantly growing flexibility. The analysis conducted in the article aims to research the impact of information and communication technology on society through data series and meaningful graphical representations. Educational field represents one of the most important elements in the transformation of Europe into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world, which promotes a sustainable economic development, as the representatives of European Higher Education Area member countries publicly announced their intentions since 2003 in the Berlin Communique in Germany.

  17. Toward a Sustainable Low-Carbon China: A Review of the Special Issue of “Energy Economics and Management”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe environmental quality deterioration, along with predatory exploitation of energy resources, are generally associated with economic growth, especially in China. Against this background, the 6th Annual Conference of Energy Economics and Management provides a platform for examining outperforming governance factors and mechanisms of energy economics and policy. Thanks to Sustainability for providing this special issue. This editorial highlights the contents and methodologies of the special issue for this conference, presenting diverse issues in energy economics and management. We also suggest guidelines for future study in energy economics and management.

  18. Implications of Reverse Innovation for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Case Study of Philips China

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    Juan Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of reverse innovation, local innovation happening in emerging markets for the global market, has gained much academic and managerial attention in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand how reverse innovation has successfully diffused into the product and market development strategies at Philips Inc., a prominent multinational company (MNC of the modern era. Furthermore, the study presents the success achieved by these innovations at both the domestic and global levels, along with their implications regarding socio-economic sustainability in emerging markets. In order to investigate the research questions, a case study of Philips China was conducted involving three product innovations that were found to be suitable examples of reverse innovation. After the study of extant literature on the topic, drawing from research databases, newspaper articles, and company press releases, five semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with key managers and a market practitioner to gain sufficient understanding for this exploratory study. Subsequent case analysis concludes that these innovations are examples of reverse innovation representing a new paradigm change in innovation flow. This flow of innovation from emerging markets to developed markets as confirmed by Corsi’s framework could potentially disrupt developed markets as well as contribute to ensure healthy living conditions for the population living in developing countries. If so, this represents a sustainable socio-economic change in-line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal (SDG of “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.” This is relevant as Philips aspires to be a prominent private sector player in achieving the above-stated goal by defeating non-communicable disease and strengthening local healthcare systems.

  19. Legal and regulation stability of the pipeline gas distribution market as strong tools for the sustainable development; A estabilidade juridica e regulatoria no mercado de distribuicao de gas canalizado como poderosas ferramentas de alcance de desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Katia Valverde [Companhia Distribuidora de Gas (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This study examines, in general, the transformation of the role of the Brazilian state to intervener in supervisory of the services, through the delegation of responsibility for the exploitation of public services to private enterprise, and the creation of regulatory agencies. The study pointing to the necessity of a legal and regulatory stable scenario in the regulation of these services, as enables of private investment mechanisms and, as a consequence of sustainable economic development. The success of the neo liberal state model is examined, specifically in relation to the market of pipeline gas distribution, showing the environmental, economic and social benefits that brought in this sector, the private investment and stability so far reasonably observed in this segment. The work also indicating, in general, the risks and issues most relevant, from the investor and markets point of view, to attract and maintain investment and to reduce the cost of private capital, concluding, in an objective, that to respect investors rights is in fact, to preserve the public interest, which means that the success of the investor does not mean the failure of regulator/judge.

  20. Kyoto Protocol implementation in Serbia as precognition of sustainable energetic and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golusin, Mirjana; Munitlak Ivanovic, Olja

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives reasons for low energy efficiency typical of the Serbian economy, which is based on outdated and dirty technologies. The comparison of selected economic indicators and indicators of energy efficiency in both Serbia and the European Union points out the benefits of the Kyoto Protocol implementation due to the growth of competitiveness in the global market. Serbia has no obligation to reduce GHG emissions, the authors point to the proposals whose implementation along with the mechanisms of the Protocol can enable Serbia the access to markets that trade GHG emissions and the access to dedicated funds, self-financing or attracting foreign investments to raise energy efficiency, which will be accompanied by adequate economic benefits. A similar principle can be applied in all countries that are not obliged to reduce GHG emissions. The application of different mechanisms aiming to increase energy efficiency in Serbia, could contribute to the increase of GDP annual growth rate from 5% to 7%, which cannot be achieved by any other economic instrument. Energy efficiency, which is actually a question of competitiveness of each economy, can finance itself through the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol by selling excess emissions resulting from improved energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → Serbia is a country with the outdated technology and low energy efficiency values. → Sustainable economic and energetic growth can be stirred by inserting Kyoto Protocol. → By investing in modern technology Serbia could lessen emission into the atmosphere. → Cut of emission in the atmosphere could help reaching certain carbon credit values. → By selling the carbon credit Serbia could do economic growth of 5-7% on a year level.

  1. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  2. Economic Sustainability of Organic Aloe Vera Farming in Greece under Risk and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, an encouraging environment for the restructuring and modernization of the agricultural sector has formed in Greece. The diversification into higher-value crops can be a promising option for small and average-sized farms, particularly during the current economic crisis. One of the most promising alternative crops that have been recently established in Greece is the organic Aloe vera crop. The main advantage of this crop is that it can utilize poor farmlands and, therefore, can facilitate rural development in marginal areas. This study explores the economic sustainability of the Aloe vera crop, considering the embedded risk and uncertainty. The results indicate that organic aloe farming is a promising alternative to “traditional” crops in Greece, particularly for family farms in rural areas. In contrast, this activity is not advisable to the most entrepreneurial type of farmers, unless their crop size allows economies of scales. Finally, the Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF analysis associates farmers’ risk attitude with their willingness to be involved in organic Aloe vera farming. SERF analysis highlights the crucial role of farmers’ risk aversion and concludes that, above a certain level of risk aversion, farmers have no incentive to adopt this economic activity.

  3. Modeling of Diversification of Market as a Basis for Sustainable Economic Growth

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    Derunova Elena Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of dependence of key macroeconomic indicators on the energy supply price dynamics, especially oil price, relevant to the modern Russian economy. In order to overcome the negative trends related to oil price dynamics, the authors propose to consider the measures on the gradual diversification of the Russian economy as an effective tool of state regulation. To test the hypothesis that diversification contributes to the increase in sustainability of the national economic system, the authors review the simultaneous equations model, the endogenous variables of which include structural values which reflect the structure of national production system. The share of gross value added (hereinafter, GVA generated in the i-th sector in the total GVA and the base GVA index generated in the i-th sector similar to the industry output index sequentially serve as endogenous variables in this study. The test of the hypothesis was carried out in two stages: at the first stage, according to the results of econometric modeling, the indicator of the real effective ruble exchange rate to foreign currencies was chosen as the main exogenous variable; at the second stage, the basic system of equations was evaluated. Econometric calculations have been made for the following types of economic activity (according to the classification of the\tRussian National Classifier of Economic Activities: agriculture, hunting and forestry; mineral extraction; manufacturing; wholesale and retail trade; repairs of motor vehicles, motorcycles, household goods and personal appliances. During the econometric modeling, co-integrated equations for the pairs of indicators under study have been obtained; it has also been concluded that there are significant disparities in the selected economic sectors. The analysis of the obtained data has helped develop a set of measures of state regulation aimed at overcoming the existing disparities

  4. Patriotisme économique et développement durable Economic patriotism and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Poirot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Le patriotisme économique est généralement perçu comme une invitation faite aux acteurs économiques tels que l’État, les consommateurs ou les entreprises, à favoriser les activités nationales. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que le patriotisme économique n’est pas seulement un instrument au service de la puissance industrielle et commerciale d’un État ou un vecteur de sa puissance financière, mais qu’il est aussi parfaitement compatible avec les dimensions sociale et environnementale du développement durable. Le concept de patriotisme économique, à cet égard, a été examiné dans ses logiques traditionnelles d’inspiration mercantiliste, listienne et keynésienne et revisité dans l’optique de la théorie du don, initiée par Marcel Mauss et dans celle de Durkheim.Economic patriotism is generally perceived as an invitation given to economic actors such as the State, consumers or companies, to facilitate national activities. The objective of this article is to show that economic patriotism is not only an instrument in the service of the industrial and commercial power of a State or a vector of its financial power, but that it is also perfectly compatible with the social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The concept of economic patriotism, in this respect, was examined in its traditional logics (Mercantilism, List and Keynes and revisited in the optics of the theory of gift, introduced by Marcel Mauss and in the optics of Durkheim.

  5. Managing sustainability in management education

    OpenAIRE

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues are increasingly becoming a key business concern at local, national, international and global levels. Consequently, environmental issues and sustainability have found their way into management education in terms of business ethics, corporate social or sustainability responsibilities (CSR), etc.. Dominant conceptions of CSR identify a series of different types of corporate responsibilities, fx. economic, legal, social, environmental, etc. (e.g. Crane & Matten, 2010). A...

  6. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  7. Natural Disasters, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in China―An Empirical Study Using Provincial Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a newly developed integrated indicator system with entropy weighting, we analyzed the panel data of 577 recorded disasters in 30 provinces of China from 1985–2011 to identify their links with the subsequent economic growth. Meteorological disasters promote economic growth through human capital instead of physical capital. Geological disasters did not trigger local economic growth from 1999–2011. Generally, natural disasters overall had no significant impact on economic growth from 1985–1998. Thus, human capital reinvestment should be the aim in managing recoveries, and it should be used to regenerate the local economy based on long-term sustainable development.

  8. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    , and hot tap water demand, balancing fluctuating wind power and both solar power and solar thermal supply utilizing advanced heat pump and both electro-chemical electricity storage, and hot and cold thermal storages. Our research is basically concerned with the question of how to design 100 % renewable......The continuous increasing negative effects of fossil fuel consumption on society and the environment, opens a major interest into environmentally friendly alternatives to sustain the increasing demand for energy services. Despite the obvious advantages of renewable energy, it presents important...... technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...

  9. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). The multi-product biorefinery presented a more robust and risk-aware upgrading strategy considering the uncertainties that are typical for a long-term investment horizon.......In this study, several strategies to upgrade lignocellulosic biorefineries for production of value-added chemicals are systematically generated and evaluated with respect to economic and sustainability objectives. A superstructure-based process synthesis approach under uncertainty integrated...

  10. Organizational Change and Corporate Sustainability in an Economic Crisis: Evidence from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rasković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the link between perceived levels of organizational process changes, vis-à-vis selected organization-to-employee relationship dimensions based on the Hackman and Oldham (1975 Job diagnostic survey and marketing performance measures. We follow Pettigrew, Woodman and Cameron (2001 in their call for a deeper understanding of the link between the various elements of the organizational change process itself, and organizational performance outcomes. Our analysis is based on data from over 220 organizations, and over 22,800 of their employees in Slovenia between 2008 and 2010. Our analysis shows that the perceived levels of organizational change (OC are the highest for marketing and HRM processes, relative to other organizational processes. Furthermore, we establish that a higher organization-to-employee relationship quality is in myriad ways linked to higher perceived levels of OC in HRM processes. However, this is true only for the initial phase of the current economic crisis (2008 and 2009, but not also for its subsequent widening (2010. On the other hand, the correlation comparison between selected marketing performance measures and perceived level of OC in marketing processes is also significantly linked also to customer loyalty. Lastly, by analyzing the correlations between perceived levels OC and corporate sustainability (as added value per employee we can see that perceived levels of OC in marketing and production processes display high correlations in the beginning of the economic crisis (2008, but not afterward (2009 or 2010. In addition, perceived levels of OC related to HRM do not correlate with added value per employee in any of the three compared years. This shows a different nature of the relationship between specific areas of perceived OC and corporate sustainability, as measured by added value per employee.

  11. Sustainability and Indicators Overview from Ecological Economics and Environmental Economics Perspective; Panoramica General de la Sostenibilidad y sus Indicadores desde la Perspectiva de la Economia Ecologica y Economia Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, M.

    2012-04-11

    From the emergence of the concept of sustainable development (1987) social sciences have trying to resolve the difficult balance between economy, environment and society and how to measure it with indicators. There are several approaches to sustainability of the economic doctrine which provide different points of view on this issue. The purpose of this article is multiple, firstly we analyze the historical evolution of the relationship between the economic thought and the natural environment. Second, we study the two main economic approaches which study sustainability concerns: the environmental economics and ecological economics. Finally, we examine some of the main economic and environmental indicators. (Author) 40 refs.

  12. Convergent innovation for sustainable economic growth and affordable universal health care: innovating the way we innovate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Jha, Srivardhini; Faber, Aida; Struben, Jeroen; London, Ted; Mohapatra, Archisman; Drager, Nick; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; McDermott, John

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation. © 2014 The New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability.

  14. Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

    2013-01-15

    the Corporation are all worse off when treatment levels are pushed beyond what is economic and sustainable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  16. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  17. Divergent Developmental Trajectories and Strategic Coupling in the Pearl River Delta: Where Is a Sustainable Way of Regional Economic Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper interprets regional economic sustainability in the context of the globalization of late-coming regions. Drawing upon the concept of strategic coupling from economic geography, this paper proposes two types of strategic coupling, captive and proactive coupling, for better understanding regional sustainability and resilience through the experiences of the Pearl River Delta in China. It finds that sub-regional economies under captive coupling become highly dependent on exogenous growth and are vulnerable to external shocks. This trajectory looks less sustainable according to the general understanding, but it interestingly shows better resilience during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. In contrast, the ones under proactive coupling are less volatile, but growing much slower and are less resilient. By reporting these regional economic dynamics, this paper argues that sustainability in late-coming regions cannot be explained by either intra-regional forces or the means of global integration alone. In contrast, it has to be explained by the combination of both; the alleged strategic coupling in which economic growth and learning happens. This paper thus calls for greater attention to strategic coupling, the trade-off of globalization and resilience for understanding regional sustainability, rather than purely focusing on resource utilization and ecological balance.

  18. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzina, Tatyana; Egorova, Natalia; Zaruba, Natalia; Kosinskij, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism) providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  19. The contribution to sustainable development : taxation as an economic instrument for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Basso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled exploration of the environment has threatened the assimilative and regenerative capacity of nature. Against this problem, there is a need to take actions aiming at environmental protection, in order to prevent an irreversible trepidation of the balance of the natural environment, which consequences are grievous. Given that situation, it´s important to note that there has to be harmony between economic growth and the environment so that we can achieve sustainable development. The objective of this study is to outline an approach to environmental taxation, presenting its importance to matching economic measures with the protection of natural environment. This leads to the conclusion that for the achievement of environmental protection, environmental taxation can guide to a desirable behavior. That is, it can act in two paths; one positive, through the application of more costly taxation to the activities damaging to the envi- ronment and the other negative, providing a smoother taxation charge for those whom attending political and environmental conservation measures which will result in sustai- nable development.

  20. Urban Land Use Planning Trend and Sustainable Challenges in Socio-Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yousif Mangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use planning is a technical approach for developing and managing the land into various public interests to endorse sustainable socio-economic development. This paper focuses on socio-economic problems by improper allocations of urban land uses particularly in vertical development (High rise buildings. Taluka Qasimabad Town was selected as a case study to observe the existing urban land use trends. Spatial and Quantitative data were collected through detailed land use survey and formal interviews. The ArcGIS and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science online software were used to analyze spatial and quantitative data. LRM (Linear Regression Model was used for predicting urban land use change particularly in vertical development by the year 2050. In this context, yearly code and land use change variables were applied in LRM to predict land use change since 2007. The results were found that rapid change in land uses occurred in the study area, by which inhabitants are facing problems like privacy, insecurity, property devaluation, and orientation nearby their accommodations. This research can lead to suggest several ways to improve and enhance urban land use planning approaches for betterment of urban communities.

  1. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liang BM

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China’s 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure, health services utilization (process, and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity.

  2. The Impact of Socio-Economic Indicators on Sustainable Consumption of Domestic Electricity in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Vojtovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania is one of the EU Member States, where the rate of energy consumption is comparatively low but consumption of electricity has been gradually increasing over the last few years. Despite this trend, households in only three EU Member States consume less electricity than Lithuanian households. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of socio-economic factors on the domestic electricity consumption in Lithuania, i.e., to establish whether electricity consumption is determined by socio-economic conditions or population’s awareness to save energy. Cointegration analysis, causality test and error-correction model were used for the analysis. The results reveal that there is a long run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity consumption per capita and GDP at current prices as well as the ratio of the registered unemployed to the working-age population. In consequence, the results of the research propose that improvement of living standards for Lithuanian community calls for the necessity to pay particular attention to the promotion of sustainable electricity consumption by providing consumers with appropriate information and feedback in order to seek new energy-related consumption practices.

  3. “Green growth”: From a growing eco-industry to economic sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jänicke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    There are many questionable assumptions in the discussion of economic growth. One of them is the idea that governments are able to achieve sustained high growth. Another one is the believe that the solution to pressing financial and social problems centers on higher growth. It is also questionalble, however, to say that giving up on economic growth as a paradigm is the necessary condition to tackle the environmental crisis. In actuality, solving such problems is about radical growth in environmental and resource-saving technologies. It is also about radical “de-growth” in products and processes that undermine long-term living and production conditions. This paper describes some best practice cases of “green growth” and the conceptual generalisations given by the OECD and other established institutions in Europe and Asia. It traces the transformation of the concept of “green growth” and evaluates the strategy that accompanies it. - Highlights: ► “Green growth”—from a sectoral to an integrated view of the economy.► Green investment can increase the GDP. ► “Green growth” is both, rapid growth of green sectors and “de-growth” of others. ► “Zero growth” is no solution of the environmental problem. ► Rich countries can achieve high speed of eco-innovation even with low growth rates.

  4. Aqueous two-phase extraction as a platform in the biomanufacturing industry: economical and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, P A J; Azevedo, A M; Sommerfeld, S; Bäcker, W; Aires-Barros, M R

    2011-01-01

    The biotech industry is, nowadays, facing unparalleled challenges due to the enhanced demand for biotechnology-based human therapeutic products, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This has led companies to improve substantially their upstream processes, with the yield of monoclonals increasing to titers never seen before. The downstream processes have, however, been overlooked, leading to a production bottleneck. Although chromatography remains the workhorse of most purification processes, several limitations, such as low capacity, scale-related packing problems, low chemical and proteolytic stability and resins' high cost, have arisen. Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) has been successfully revisited as a valuable alternative for the capture of antibodies. One of the important remaining questions for this technology to be adopted by the biotech industries is, now, how it compares to the currently established platforms in terms of costs and environmental impact. In this report, the economical and environmental sustainability of the aqueous two-phase extraction process is evaluated and compared to the currently established protein A affinity chromatography. Accordingly, the ATPE process was shown to be considerably advantageous in terms of process economics, especially when processing high titer cell culture supernatants. This alternative process is able to purify continuously the same amount of mAbs reducing the annual operating costs from 14.4 to 8.5 million (US$/kg) when cell culture supernatants with mAb titers higher than 2.5 g/L are processed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmaceutical care as a historical, normative-legal and social-economic category in the system of the population health and pharmaceutical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Panfilova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Terminological vagueness of the term «pharmaceutical care» in domestic legislative framework and scientific environment makes it impossible to introduce new forms and methods of providing pharmaceutical population in Ukraine effectively. In order to form the unified methodological approach to identify and order the use of the mentioned term, the results of organizational-economic studies in pharmacy and the existing legal framework have been analyzed. Methods and results. Using dialectical, historical, logical-semantic and other methods the basic stages in the development of pharmaceutical care have been established and definitions tree of the concept have been constructed. Conclusion. The results of these studies indicate the need for recognition and regulatory mapping integration (organizational and economic of the definition «pharmaceutical care» in domestic legislation and public health practice.

  6. Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Saroj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the key producers of food grain, oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increases in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in various fields are being explored by researchers across the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven making processes, power generation, biogas production, animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants, increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer. In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total crop residue across the states and its economic value though data available from various government sources and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the successful case studies of India and global level of use of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516 Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India among which cereals were the largest producer of crop residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955 megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it was 226,200megawatt.

  7. A basis for Sraffian ecological economics. A comment on Martins' "Ecosystems, strong sustainability and the classical circular economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Yoann

    2016-01-01

    Martins (2016) recently emphasized the role that classical economics can play in building sustainability economics. In this respect, he uses Sraffa's theory of value and Sen and Nussbaum's capability theory to support his argument. My comment focuses on the part of his article concerning Sraffa's theory, and aims to refine some of Martins claims in order to avoid misunderstandings about the possibilities offered by Sraffa's theory.

  8. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbembe, Binda

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct

  9. Legal implications for failure to comply with advance directives: an examination of the incompetent individual's right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sherynn J

    2002-01-01

    Life-sustaining medical technology in the past century has created a growing body of case law and legislation recognizing the incompetent individual's right to make his or her own end-of-life decisions. This article focuses on California's leadership in the area of these specific end-of-life issues: specifically, exploring the right of an incompetent individual to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The article examines advance directives along with various judicial decision-making standards for incompetent individuals and explores the sociobehavioral and legal rationale for compliance with incompetent individual's rights to make end-of-life decisions. Finally this article concludes (i) that advance directives allow competent individuals to state the medical treatment they would prefer in the event they should later become incompetent and (ii) that when advance directives are properly executed in a detailed manner, under laws currently in effect in some jurisdictions, the preferences stated in the directive bind health care providers. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Legal Framework and Mechanism of Marine Fisheries Subsidies in the Aspects of International Trade and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adijaya Yusuf; Melda Kamil Ariadno; Arie Afriansyah

    2015-01-01

    Issues in fisheries have been regulated in various International conventions. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (UNCLOS 1982) has builta regime in the field of conservation and management of fishery resources based upon maritime zones or fish species that exist and available in this zone. However, UNCLOS 1982 only focuses on the issue of fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the high seas, thus it was not sufficient to overcome the problems of high frequen...

  11. The Economic Nature of Factoring and its Legal Manifestation in the Bulgarian Legislation and the Convention on International Factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia P. DIMITROVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The factoring is a sophisticated financial technique and management service designed to facilitate the use of trade credit. This article illustrates the basic factoring services and namely: financing, credit protection, accounting (ledgering and collection of receivables. It is emphasized, that factoring as a legal phenomenon includes two contracts: a contract for sale of goods or for supply of services between the supplier and its customers (debtors, on the one hand, and a factoring contract between the supplier and the factor, on the other hand.

  12. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  13. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving

  14. Еxpenses in construction: identification of economic substance, legal regulation of accounting and reflection in reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Pavelko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for an effective system of expenses accounting in construction is a result of a demand of owners, investors, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, the State Fiscal Service of Ukraine to provide objective information that appears in the form of reporting (financial, statistical, tax. Discrepancies between the provisions of various legal documents, which govern accounting expenses in construction, create difficulties for practicing accountants and academics in terms of understanding the nature of expenses, differences of the term «costs», classifications of expenses, identify the nature of construction and building services . In order to achieve this goal among general and special methods of knowledge in the study the methods of induction, deduction, analogy, comparison, analysis, synthesis, and the method of systematic approach and method of grouping data are used. The graphical method is used for visual presentation of the results of the study. The essence of the concepts of «expenses», «costs» is developed; the importance of the expenses during the formation of accounting information is investigated. The issues concerning the use of these concepts in various legal documents are analyzed, the possible solutions are discussed. The necessity of coordination of the documents studied at the article that define the construction expenses accounting and statistical reporting forms of construction companies is proved.

  15. ECONOMIC AND TOURISM INDICATORS AS A MEANS OF MONITORING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: THE CASE OF INLAND ISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Vojnovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses indicators to study the sustainability of tourism in inland Istria, which comprises 24 municipalities and towns belonging to Istria County. Taking into account the criteria of availability, reliability, predictability, clarity and feasibility, the following quantitative indicators were used: the Indicator of Tourist Operation (ITO, the Modified Importance Index of major tourism centres (Im, the Specific Overnights Threshold (SOT, tourism-related taxes in the budgets of municipalities and towns, company investments into tourism and hospitality, and the number of employees in tourism and hospitality. According to the ITO indicator, Predominant Tourism Activity was recorded only in Oprtalj Municipality. Being a measure of the spatial distribution of a specific economic activity, the Modified Importance Index established that in all municipalities and towns of inland Istria tourism is either poorly developed or in its incipient stage. The SOT indicator suggests that tourism has no negative effects on local economies and that tourism-related taxes make a minor contribution to the revenue side of municipal and town budgets. Company investment in tourism and hospitality and the number of employees in these industries are indicators that reveal that inland Istria is only beginning to develop into a tourism region. The quantitative indicators were confirmed by the results of qualitative indicators obtained through problem-focused interviews with the representatives of municipalities, towns and local tourist boards. The singular conclusion derived from the interviews was that tourism is a desirable activity, is in its initial stage of development, and is not a threat to local economies. The results of the study confirm the hypothesis that inland Istria is a region of sustainable tourism currently in the involvement stage of the destination lifecycle.

  16. Business Sustainability : Its Definitions, Reporting Constructs, Integration into Corporate Strategy and Economics Consequences - A Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Stephen Joo Wei; Hamdi, Aishath Asna

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in sustainability reporting worldwide over the last decade. ASEAN countries have also been increasingly involved in sustainability reporting with Malaysia leading the way. Bursa Malaysia has been advocating business sustainability and this can be seen by its introduction of a CSR framework in 2006 and its further repositioning to a business sustainability framework in 2010. While firms are realising the importance of operating in a sustainable way, relativel...

  17. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efpraxia Maria [Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Theocharis Tsoutsos [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece)

    2004-03-01

    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts. (author)

  18. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, Efpraxia; Tsoutsos, Theocharis E-mail: tsoutsos@mred.tuc.gr

    2004-03-01

    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts.

  19. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Efpraxia; Tsoutsos, Theocharis

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

  20. Crisis of the urban development process and the ecological, economic and social sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Estrada, Raul Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse theoretical efforts have been made in order to understand the urban problematic related to sustainability. Among them is an analysis that highlight an inadequacy about the sustainability concept which is only limited to an ecological matter and it not considers that the most important issue is political and social. This has explained the failure of several international meetings about the matter, when the contradiction has not been considered in the capitalist system where the economic interest and interest in sustainability contrasts. Then, in the political and social field is where many efforts should be channeled as urban regional research priorities for the next decade. In this regard, most of the academic analysis have been focused on two main aspects: on the one hand, those who consider that the solution to the sustainability problem lies in the change of the relations of production, without clearly specifying what this means; and on the other hand, the analyses that estimate the relevance of making changes inside of the capitalist system where the State would play an important role. In both cases a mental change is required to dealing with the problem of sustainability and new forms of population participation to perform it. Muchos esfuerzos teóricos se han realizado para comprender la problemática urbana vinculada con la sustentabilidad. Entre ellos hay análisis que destacan la insuficiencia de la definición del concepto sustentabilidad cuando éste es reducido únicamente al aspecto de la ecología sin considerar que el problema más importante es político y social. Esto ha explicado el fracaso de muchas reuniones internacionales sobre el tema, cuando no se ha considerado la contradicción en el sistema capitalista donde se contrapone el interés económico y el interés por la sustentabilidad. Es entonces en el terreno político y social donde muchos esfuerzos deben canalizarse como prioridades de investigación urbano

  1. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Archer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  2. Synthetic spider silk sustainability verification by techno-economic and life cycle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Alan

    Major ampullate spider silk represents a promising biomaterial with diverse commercial potential ranging from textiles to medical devices due to the excellent physical and thermal properties from the protein structure. Recent advancements in synthetic biology have facilitated the development of recombinant spider silk proteins from Escherichia coli (E. coli), alfalfa, and goats. This study specifically investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of synthetic spider silk manufacturing. Pilot scale data was used to validate an engineering process model that includes all of the required sub-processing steps for synthetic fiber manufacture: production, harvesting, purification, drying, and spinning. Modeling was constructed modularly to support assessment of alternative protein production methods (alfalfa and goats) as well as alternative down-stream processing technologies. The techno-economic analysis indicates a minimum sale price from pioneer and optimized E. coli plants at 761 kg-1 and 23 kg-1 with greenhouse gas emissions of 572 kg CO2-eq. kg-1 and 55 kg CO2-eq. kg-1, respectively. Spider silk sale price estimates from goat pioneer and optimized results are 730 kg-1 and 54 kg-1, respectively, with pioneer and optimized alfalfa plants are 207 kg-1 and 9.22 kg-1 respectively. Elevated costs and emissions from the pioneer plant can be directly tied to the high material consumption and low protein yield. Decreased production costs associated with the optimized plants include improved protein yield, process optimization, and an Nth plant assumption. Discussion focuses on the commercial potential of spider silk, the production performance requirements for commercialization, and impact of alternative technologies on the sustainability of the system.

  3. State and business co-operation in settling socio-economic issues: forward to sustainable development of ecologically unfavorable regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirova, N. N.; Lessovaia, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of socio-economic issues of mono-cities located in the ecologically unfavorable regions of Eurasia was disclosed. The economically strategic role of city-forming mining enterprises and their impact on ecological situation was revealed. The general conception of settling the socio-economic problems of mono-cities located in ecologically unfavorable regions was worked out. Various approached to the concentration of financial resources for economic and ecological sustainable development of the regions located on the north of Eurasia holding nature protection actions were submitted. Based on performed critical analysis of the positive international experience of ecological taxation some approaches to reforming current Russian system of ecological taxation were suggested. It was revealed that increasing the social responsibilities of business in the field of waste recycling, environmental protection and monitoring of ecological conditions of territories and state and business co-operation are the most efficient opportunities in settling socio-economic issues of ecologically unfavorable regions.

  4. The Devil Is in the Details! On Regulating Cannabis Use in Canada Based on Public Health Criteria; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This commentary to the editorial of Hajizadeh argues that the economic, social and health consequences of legalizing cannabis in Canada will depend in large part on the exact stipulations (mainly from the federal government and on the implementation, regulation and practice of the legalization act (on provincial and municipal levels. A strict regulatory framework is necessary to minimize the health burden attributable to cannabis use. This includes prominently control of production and sale of the legal cannabis including control of price and content with ban of marketing and advertisement. Regulation of medical marijuana should be part of such a framework as well

  5. Dynamically linking economic models to ecological condition for coastal zone management: Application to sustainable tourism planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarskas, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    While the development of the tourism industry can bring economic benefits to an area, it is important to consider the long-run impact of the industry on a given location. Particularly when the tourism industry relies upon a certain ecological state, those weighing different development options need to consider the long-run impacts of increased tourist numbers upon measures of ecological condition. This paper presents one approach for linking a model of recreational visitor behavior with an ecological model that estimates the impact of the increased visitors upon the environment. Two simulations were run for the model using initial parameters available from survey data and water quality data for beach locations in Croatia. Results suggest that the resilience of a given tourist location to the changes brought by increasing tourism numbers is important in determining its long-run sustainability. Further work should investigate additional model components, including the tourism industry, refinement of the relationships assumed by the model, and application of the proposed model in additional areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How developing nations can protect children from hazardous chemical exposures while sustaining economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Massey, Rachel I; DiGangi, Joseph; Geiser, Kenneth; Olanipekun, Abiola Ifueko; Gallagher, Louise

    2011-12-01

    Increasing worldwide use of chemicals, including heavy metals used in industry and pesticides used in agriculture, may produce increases in chronic diseases in children unless steps are taken to manage the production, use, trade, and disposal of chemicals. In 2020 the developing world will account for 33 percent of global chemical demand and 31 percent of production, compared with 23 percent and 21 percent, respectively, in 1995. We describe present and potential costs of environmental exposures and discuss policy options to protect future generations of children in a sustainable development context. Specifically, we describe the principles of sound chemicals management, as follows: precaution, or the use of cost-effective measures to prevent potentially hazardous exposures before scientific understanding is complete; the right to know, or informing the public--especially vulnerable groups--in a timely fashion about the safe use of chemicals and any releases of chemicals into the environment; pollution prevention, or preventing the use of hazardous chemicals and the production of pollutants, rather than focusing on managing wastes; internalization of environmental and health costs, or ensuring that the consequences of exposures are reflected in the price of chemicals through such approaches as "polluter pays"; and use of best available scientific information in making decisions such as what chemicals to allow into the market. We recommend that industrializing nations in particular employ these principles to prevent disease among their populations while at the same time minimizing the risk to their own economic development.

  7. An Economic Simulation of the Path to Sustainable Energy: A Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mason

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing economics literature neglects the important role of capacity in the production of renewable energy. To fill this gap, we construct a model in which renewable energy production is tied to renewable energy capacity, which then becomes a form of capital. This capacity capital can be increased through investment, which we interpret as arising from the allocation of energy, and which therefore comes at the cost of reduced general production. Requiring societal well-being to never decline—the notion of sustainability favored by economists—we describe how society could optimally elect to split energy in this fashion, the use of non-renewable energy resources, the use of renewable energy resources, and the implied time path of societal well-being. Our model delivers an empirically satisfactory explanation for simultaneous use of non-renewable and renewable energy. We also discuss the optimality of ceasing use of non-renewable energy before the non-renewable resource stock is fully exhausted.

  8. THE INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL, AN INTRISIC FACTOR OF THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA TEODORA BALACEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The educational system will need to direct its actions and programs towards the identification of the current and future values of the labour market, starting from the existing and potential labour resources, anticipating first and foremost the adjusting of the economy to fast-developing fields and domains, put forward by the State via the Fast-developing Field Strategies or even via the Fast-developing National Strategy. It will accordingly generate a binder between the demands of the labour market as a response to the developing necessities of the economy, and the training/specialization of the labour force as offered by the national syllabus. By these means the educational system would create a labour force compatible with the labour market, which is both a premiss for the increasing level of employment and for the sustainable economic growth. Our task is therefore to provide a concept of education related to technological progress, based on the model of Nelson and Phelps, and a suggestion for investments and education policies.

  9. Stochastic interest rates in the analysis of energy investments: Implications on economic performance and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolis, Athanasios; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias; Doukelis, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    A systematic impact assessment of stochastic interest and inflation rates on the analysis of energy investments is presented. A real-options algorithm has been created for this task. Constant interest rates incorporating high risk premium have been extensively used for economic calculations, within the framework of traditional direct cash flow methods, thus favouring immediate, irreversible investments in the expense of, sometimes, insubstantially low anticipated yields. In this article, not only incomes and expenses but also interest and inflation rates are considered stochastically evolving according to specific probabilistic models. The numerical experiments indicated that the stochastic interest rate forecasts fluctuate in such low levels that may signal delayed investment entry in favour of higher expected yields. The implementation of stochastically evolving interest rates in energy investment analysis may have a controversial effect on sustainability. Displacements of inefficient plants may be significantly delayed, thus prolonging high CO 2 emission rates. Under the current CO 2 allowance prices or their medium-term forecasts, this situation may not be improved and flexible policy interventions may be necessitated. (author)

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ECONOMY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - AN ECONOMIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of modern economy and environmental protection there are no significant changes: the old problems are not solved, and the existing ones are deepening. Humanity is still struggling with three existential problems: lack of food, lack of drinking water and insufficiently energized energy. They are also associated with the dangers of further degradation of the environment, the general fear and fear of terrorism and wars, the emergence of diseases for which modern medicine simply has no solution and which threatens to overcome the challenge of pandemic. Energy is still a mood of economic development, with at the same time a disastrous effect on the environment, when traditional sources of fossil resources are used as sources of energy. The paper explores the phenomenon of the impact of energy on the sustainable development of the economy, with a key focus on environmental protection, as well as the possibilities for adaptation to mitigate the consequences of this global phenomenon. In this regard, special attention has been devoted to researching the role and significance of energy from renewable sources as a possible response to current or expected climate stimuli or their consequences in natural and humanism systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the principle of adaptation, which includes mitigation of damages or the exploitation of effective opportunities; understanding how climate can change, what can be impacts, and capacity building and action on these impacts

  11. Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukjati, N; Zupančič, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V

    2012-09-15

    An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  13. How to Generate Economic and Sustainability Reports from Big Data? Qualifications of Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Hämäläinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Big Data may introduce new opportunities, and for this reason it has become a mantra among most industries. This paper focuses on examining how to develop cost and sustainable reporting by utilizing Big Data that covers economic values, production volumes, and emission information. We assume strongly that this use supports cleaner production, while at the same time offers more information for revenue and profitability development. We argue that Big Data brings company-wide business benefits if data queries and interfaces are built to be interactive, intuitive, and user-friendly. The amount of information related to operations, costs, emissions, and the supply chain would increase enormously if Big Data was used in various manufacturing industries. It is essential to expose the relevant correlations between different attributes and data fields. Proper algorithm design and programming are key to making the most of Big Data. This paper introduces ideas on how to refine raw data into valuable information, which can serve many types of end users, decision makers, and even external auditors. Concrete examples are given through an industrial paper mill case, which covers environmental aspects, cost-efficiency management, and process design.

  14. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing.

  15. Sustainability performance for Brazilian electricity power industry: An assessment integrating social, economic and environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, S.; Witjes, S.; Campos, L.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The increased pressure on companies to address sustainability issues has resulted in the development of several voluntary corporate sustainability integration approaches. The array of existing approaches is large and overwhelming, resulting in companies not understanding what corporate

  16. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  17. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  18. Education for sustainability – a prerequisite for post-crisis economic competitiveness with possible inference for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Iuliana LUNGU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to integrate sustainability among the skills of specialists in economics and its accreditation for the university curricula was recognized in academic literature for over twenty years. Based on literature review the study outlines the idea that although there is significant interest in the concept of sustainability for economic education, particularly for the accounting domain, as demonstrated by the wide range of topics dealt with in a number of high quality journals, the dispersion is extremely high, the subjects are not treated consistently and the research impact is not reflected in practice. The paper presents then a documentary based research on the deepening the subjects included in the curricula of master's programs in a number of European universities, central or collateral dealing with aspects of sustainability. In the last part of the article a study is depicted in order to present a picture of the possible involvement of Romanian students, graduated of economic studies, regarding the aspects of sustainability (environment, society and corporate responsibility, impacting the future evolution of the Romanian economy.

  19. Economic system analysis of coal preconversion technology: Phase I. Volume V. Survey of socioeconomics, financial statistics, and legal aspects. Interim report for the period August 1973--July 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    The future of large-scale surface coal mining in the United States will be affected by socio-economic factors, corporate finances, and legal constraints. This report presents a survey of these considerations and how they affect mining. Socio-economic factors are defined as the effects of a mining project on the surrounding communities. This volume presents the changes some consider beneficial, others detrimental, which occur when a new mine is opened in a virgin area. A new mine would cause an increase in employment, population and the community's tax base, but also would generate population profile changes, urbanize a previously rural community, and increase demands on community services. Corporate finances are an important consideration when assessing industry's ability to meet the required expansion in coal mining. As discussed in this report, the coal industry is dominated by companies whose revenues are generated mainly from non-coal operations. The production of coal is dispersed among many companies; however, the trend is toward more concentration of production among fewer firms through mergers. Internal sources of capital within the industry are limited and may curtail the opening of large-scale surface mines in the future. Federal, state, and local laws are becoming more constrictive and demanding of the coal industry. Federal involvement alone, throughout the life cycle of a mine, includes regulations on environmental protection, health, safety and public land control. A list of twenty Federal laws and a directory of eight major Federal agencies outlining the legal aspects that have an impact on surface coal mining are presented. (auth)

  20. Sustainable clinical research, health economic aspects and medical marketing: drivers of product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Klassen-Wigger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Marketing-driven innovation in the field of pediatric nutrition, in particular in the infant formula segment is not sustainable. New benefits of products must be scientifically proven and safety and efficacy of new formulae established in clinical trials. The scientific innovation process of three infant formulae is described. Improvement in protein quality allowed to reduce the protein concentration in whey-based infant formula. Weight gain and BMI of infants fed those formulae corresponds to breastfed infants and is lower than in infants fed traditional formulae with higher protein concentration. A meta-analysis indicates associations between rapid weight gain in infancy and obesity later in life. If infants cannot be exclusively breastfed until 4-6 months of age, feeding low-protein formulae may contribute to positive long-term health outcome with potentially important health economic effects. A partially hydrolyzed whey based formula for prevention of allergic symptoms in children with hereditary risk for allergic diseases was developed more than 25 years ago. The most recent meta-analysis which included 15 randomized clinical trials indicates that the risk of all allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis/eczema is significantly reduced in infants at risk when the partially hydrolyzed formula is fed. The partially hydrolyzed formula had the same protective effect as casein-based high-degree extensively hydrolyzed formula. Because of substantial price differences between the two formulae, feeding the partially hydrolyzed whey formula is cost saving. Hypoallergenic claims can be made in many countries, and international nutrition committees have positively commented the preventive effect of those formulae. Acidified formulae have been widely used during the last decade in replacement feeding programs for infants whose mothers are HIV positive. The formula was innovated by improving whey protein quality and lowering protein concentration. The bacteriostatic

  1. Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies

  2. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  3. Do consumers substitute opium for hashish? An economic analysis of simultaneous cannabinoid and opiate consumption in a legal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Chandra, Madhur

    2015-11-01

    To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907-1918 is analyzed (n=252) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (βˆ3) of 0.14 (p0.10). Opium consumption (βˆ1=0.47 to 0.49, popium is slightly responsive (inelastic) to changes in its own price (βˆ2=-0.34 to -0.35, pOpium and hashish, a form of cannabis, are substitutes. In addition, opium consumption displays properties of habit persistence and slight price and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do Consumers Substitute Opium for Hashish? An Economic Analysis of Simultaneous Cannabinoid and Opiate Consumption in a Legal Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Madhur

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Method Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907–1918 is analyzed (n=272) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Results Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (β3) of 0.14 (p 0.10). Opium consumption (β1 = 0.47 to 0.49, p opium is slightly responsive (inelastic) to changes in its own price (β2 = −0.34 to −0.35, p Opium and hashish, a form of cannabis, are substitutes. In addition, opium consumption displays properties of habit persistence and slight price and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. PMID:26455552

  5. Khat (Catha edulis: The herb with officio-legal, socio-cultural and economic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru Lamina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Khat (Catha edulis is a plant of uncertain and highly controversial status grown in the countries around the Red Sea and on the eastern coast of Africa. The chewing of khat leaves has a deep-rooted religious and socio-cultural tradition. Khat is considered a cash crop and its cultivation is a source of economic value to the societies and nations involved. There have, however, been reports of negative economic effects on the individuals engaging in the habit of khat chewing.

    The increasing use of khat worldwide, along with the negative international attention that this has garnered, has led to the present status of uncertainty of the once indigenous practice of khat chewing. Scientists, mostly western Europeans, have tended to focus on problems related to khat with little attention to the positive role of khat chewing in society and the world at large. In addition, no report has directly associated khat with any organised crime, violence or antisocial activity, particularly in countries where khat is legalised.

    This paper reviewed the various areas of uncertainty and controversy relating to khat. Based on the findings of the review, further qualitative and quantitative research is required and a positive international approach to khat use at economic, religious and socio-cultural levels is advocated.

  6. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Rong-Gang, E-mail: rc@envs.au.dk; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1 ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96 € before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO{sub 3}-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N{sub 2}O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. - Highlights: • We explore potentials of grass protein from GBR to substitute cereals in pig feed. • Life-cycle analysis is combined with cost-benefit analysis to analyze the effects. • Using grass protein can be economically feasible

  7. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1 ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96 € before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO 3 -N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N 2 O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. - Highlights: • We explore potentials of grass protein from GBR to substitute cereals in pig feed. • Life-cycle analysis is combined with cost-benefit analysis to analyze the effects. • Using grass protein can be economically feasible for both

  8. Socio-economic importance of environmentally sustainable nature tourism in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.

    2005-01-01

    The research paper deals with the nature tourism which is defined as unremunerated visits by local and foreign mountaineers, trekkers and rock climbers to the mountainous areas in Gilgit, Skardu and Chitral. Pakistan is gifted with one of the richest and unique collection of high mountains with three spectacular mountain ranges of the world Karakoram, Hindukush and Himalayas located in the Northern Areas. These ranges have more than 700 peaks above 6000 meters, with as many as 160 peaks rising above 7000 meters. Five out of the total fourteen peaks rising above eight thousand meters, namely K-2, Nanga Parbat, the Hidden Peak Gasherbrum-I, the Broad peak and the Gasherbrum-ll, situated within 20 Kms radius around famous glacial junction-Concordia in Karakoram. Nature Tourism besides being of importance to Federal Government as a source of foreign exchange earnings through royalty and trekking fees, tt is of particular importance for the local economy in the Northern Areas where nature tourists generate considerable economic activities. The Research Paper intends to study and analyze prospects and scope of Nature Tourism in Pakistan with a view to highlight dangers of environmental degradation and suggest balanced set of measures for promoting nature tourism with minimal negative environmental impact. The Research study is primarily based on secondary data collected by Ministry of Tourism during debriefing of mountaineers and trekkers, supplemented with primary data collected through self completion questionnaire and structured interview of Adventure and participants of International Conference on sustainable Tourism -New Vision and the Moving Force for Poverty Alleviation, held in Lahore on April 12 -13, 2005 Tour Operators. The analysis shows that owing to relatively small size of nature tourism environmental condition in Pakistan is not as bad as it might be in other comparable countries. Nevertheless with the growing volume of nature tourism there is a need to

  9. The Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT): Online Financial Planning to Facilitate Biobank Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Hana; Miranda, Lisa; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jim; Greenman, Howard; McLean, Jeffrey; Reed, Daniel; Memon, Sarfraz; Fombonne, Benjamin; Guan, Ping; Moore, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Biospecimens are essential resources for advancing basic and translational research. However, there are little data available regarding the costs associated with operating a biobank, and few resources to enable their long-term sustainability. To support the research community in this effort, the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute's Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch has developed the Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT). The tool is accessible at http://biospecimens.cancer.gov/resources/bemt.asp. To obtain market-based cost information and to inform the development of the tool, a survey was designed and sent to 423 biobank managers and directors across the world. The survey contained questions regarding infrastructure investments, salary costs, funding options, types of biospecimen resources and services offered, as well as biospecimen pricing and service-related costs. A total of 106 responses were received. The data were anonymized, aggregated, and used to create a comprehensive database of cost and pricing information that was integrated into the web-based tool, the BEMT. The BEMT was built to allow the user to input cost and pricing data through a seven-step process to build a cost profile for their biobank, define direct and indirect costs, determine cost recovery fees, perform financial forecasting, and query the anonymized survey data from comparable biobanks. A survey was conducted to obtain a greater understanding of the costs involved in operating a biobank. The anonymized survey data was then used to develop the BEMT, a cost modeling tool for biobanks. Users of the tool will be able to create a cost profile for their biobanks' specimens, products and services, establish pricing, and allocate costs for biospecimens based on percent cost recovered, and perform project-specific cost analyses and financial forecasting.

  10. Ecosystem's Modeling of Bhoj Wetland - A Base For Economic Valuation and Sustainable Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Bakshi, N.; Nair, R.

    The Bhoj wetland located in the heart of the Bhopal city, India originated as manmade lake primarily to supply drinking water to the citySs population and over the years it attained features of wetland and started providing multiple functions like commer- cial fishing, waste assimilation, microclimate regulation and recreation etc. to multiple users. It has so happened that multiple benefits have been extracted but little attention has been paid on the maintenance of this wetlands. In this context it becomes imper- ative to generate quantitative information on the economic benefits from the wetland, which could serve as a powerful tool to influence decision-making. Bhoj wetland is a Lacustrine wetland which is the highly diminished remains of the vast lake created in the 11th century by the then ruler of princely state of Bhopal The wetland has wa- ter spread area of 32 square kilometers and catchment area of 370 square kilometers. It is an important source of drinking water for the 40% of citySs total population of 1.5 millions. Multiple stakeholders use it for multiple uses. 17 municipal wards (ad- ministrative division of the city) around the lake directly drain into it. Over the years because of indiscriminate and unsustainable use of lake, its water quality has degraded from SAS quality to SCS quality along with prolific growth of weeds on account of ´ ´ which benefits from the lake have reduced and all the stakeholders are paying heavy direct and indirect costs including the government agencies which are engaged in its restoration and management activities The goal of the management is essentially to balance the use of lake with conserva- tion measures to sustain ecosystem services overtime. The paper tries to analyze the factors causing Bhoj Wetland degradation; nature and extent of injury to the wetland; how does this degradation impact on the uses those citizens of Bhopal extract out of it? What cost is borne by the users on account of degradation in

  11. Fiscal Deficit, National Saving and Sustainability of Economic Growth in Emerging Economies: A Dynamic GMM Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscemi Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical growth models argued that the movement to steady states; technology, exogenous rate of savings, population growth and technical progress stimulate higher growth levels (Solow 1956. Contrary to the neoclassical argument, endogenous growth model argues that, in the theory of endogenous growth, government play a significant role in promoting accumulation of knowledge, research and development, public investment, human capital development, law and order can generate growth both in the short and long run. Moreover, they assumed technical progress as endogenous variable for growth (Barro 1995. This study analyze the effects of fiscal deficit on sustainability of economic growth and provided new empirical evidence on the effects of fiscal deficit on saving and sustainability of economic growth based on the assumption of endogenous growth model. We estimated using the reduced form of GMM method for dynamic panels covers 1990-2009 for three emerging countries that includes China, India and South Africa.

  12. Comparative analysis of countries in the peer-group based on economic potential and components of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii VOITKO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors study levels of sustainable development potential and determine the positions of Ukraine and other countries in the peer-groups [4], based on individual macroeconomic indicators. The research includes a comparative analysis of absolute and relative terms of GDP, industrial production and the index of competitiveness for the countries included to the peer-groups. The authors analyse the position of countries based on the GDP per capita and components of sustainable development (Quality of Life Index and Security of Life Index. In the article, the authors suggest the methodical approach of performing the comparative analysis of peer-group countries based on their indicators values. This approach gives the possibility to investigate the country’s potential in the limits of the chosen peer-group and propose the recommendations for increase of economic potential in purpose of sustainable development achievement.

  13. APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA TO STELLA, MISSOURI-ECONOMIC PLANNING-PRELIMINARY SITE INFORMATION AND ELEMENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN-16NOV2006 (1130)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic systems constraints and performance requirements that are essential to providing goods and services, jobs, and a functioning economic system form a list of criteria for planning a sustainable economy. This presentation places these economic criteria in the context of Ste...

  14. Economical and ambient sustainability: an ideal of the international society Sustentabilidade econômica e ambiental: um ideal da sociedade internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Kempfer Bassoli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the environmental issue by international offices and regional blocks in the last decades, has demonstrated a growing preoccupation with the road to sustainable socio-economic development. The contemporary development process, consolidated by the capitalist production model, has exercised great influence on society in general. This globalized economic model gave rise to a new network of relations which have affected the political structures of the States. Thus, among the many concerns involving these changes is the incorporation of environmental values to reach sustainable development, to promote economic development taking into account environment protection and social justice. In face of the transnacionality issue and the importance of the objective at hand, it is fundamental to raise people’s awareness of the legal harmonization issue.A incorporação do tema ambiental por organismos internacionais e blocos regionais, ao longo das últimas décadas do século XX, demonstra uma lenta preocupação com o caminho do desenvolvimento sócio-econômico sustentável. O processo de desenvolvimento, que se consolidou a partir do modo de produção capitalista, exerceu influência sobre a sociedade de um modo geral. Um modelo econômico de efeito globalizante, trouxe à tona uma nova rede de relações, com reflexos, inclusive, nas estruturas políticas dos Estados. Assim, entre as necessárias preocupações, diante das mudanças, está a incorporação de valores relacionados ao meio ambiente para alcançar o desenvolvimento sustentável, ou seja, desenvolvimento econômico com preservação do meio ambiente e justiça social. Diante da transnacionalidade da questão ambiental e para alcançar tal objetivo, é fundamental despertar para a consciência do caminho da harmonização legislativa.

  15. Energy efficiency clauses in charter party agreements legal and economic perspectives and their application to ocean grain transport

    CERN Document Server

    Psarros, George Adamantios

    2017-01-01

    This book provides practical solutions for addressing energy efficiency as a clause term within a charter party contract. For this, upon a reflection of the regulatory craft, it analyzes key concepts of case law, and discusses them together with commercial and economic principles. In this way, the book aims at offering a comprehensive, interdisciplinary view of the chartering process, together with a new approach for safeguarding energy efficiency investments. A special emphasis is given to the maritime industry. Here, the newly developed framework, based on game theory, has been successfully applied to demonstrate the importance of including a clause term in contract negotiation to achieve protection against both an uncertain market and an even more challenging shipping environment. The book not only fills a gap in the literature, covering a topic that has been largely neglected to date, yet it offers researchers and practitioners extensive information to change the chartering process radically.

  16. Legal basis for risk analysis methodology while ensuring food safety in the Eurasian Economic union and the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fedorenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health risk analysis methodology is an internationally recognized tool for ensuring food safety. Three main elements of risk analysis are risk assessment, risk management and risk communication to inform the interested parties on the risk, are legislated and implemented in the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. There is a corresponding organizational and functional framework for the application of risk analysis methodology as in the justification of production safety indicators and the implementation of public health surveillance. Common methodological approaches and criteria for evaluating public health risk are determined, which are used in the development and application of food safety requirements. Risk assessment can be used in justifying the indicators of safety (contaminants, food additives, and evaluating the effectiveness of programs on enrichment of food with micronutrients.

  17. Development of an integrated methodology for the sustainable environmental and socio-economic management of river ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundouri, P; Ker Rault, P; Pergamalis, V; Skianis, V; Souliotis, I

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Water Framework Directive aimed to establish an integrated framework of water management at European level. This framework revolves around inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground waters. In the process of achieving the environment and ecological objectives set from the Directive, the role of economics is put in the core of the water management. An important feature of the Directive is the recovery of total economic cost of water services by all users. The total cost of water services can be disaggregated into environmental, financial and resource costs. Another important aspect of the directive is the identification of major drivers and pressures in each River Basin District. We describe a methodology that is aiming to achieve sustainable and environmental and socioeconomic management of freshwater ecosystem services. The Ecosystem Services Approach is in the core of the suggested methodology for the implementation of a more sustainable and efficient water management. This approach consists of the following three steps: (i) socio-economic characterization of the River Basin area, (ii) assessment of the current recovery of water use cost, and (iii) identification and suggestion of appropriate programs of measures for sustainable water management over space and time. This methodology is consistent with a) the economic principles adopted explicitly by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), b) the three-step WFD implementation approach adopted in the WATECO document, c) the Ecosystem Services Approach to valuing freshwater goods and services to humans. Furthermore, we analyze how the effects of multiple stressors and socio-economic development can be quantified in the context of freshwater resources management. We also attempt to estimate the value of four ecosystem services using the benefit transfer approach for the Anglian River Basin, which showed the significance of such services. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  18. Migration patterns in Central America seen in the context of economic integration and the need for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E

    1993-08-01

    This exploratory discussion of migration policy in Central America focuses on actual procedures in a multisectoral framework that assumes economic integration and sustainable development. The article follows the following format: the author's perspective and general approach to the problems of migration policy and integrated development, an analysis and review of the inadequacies of concepts and methodologies and the need for strengthening Central America's policies, arguments for changing present development strategies, and suggestions for regional economic integration. New policies must be equitable, sustainable, and suitable for agricultural frontier areas at the present level of economic integration. The further development of practical and concrete solutions in the region is based on the current groundwork. New policies should emphasize community participation, a grassroots approach rather than a top-down one, and an alternative model. An alternative system which promotes and facilitates the vertical development of small and medium farmers needs both a Rural Communal Financing System and a System for Communal Marketing to eliminate all speculative economic practices which impede small farmers from making a profit. Buffer zones in the frontier agricultural areas are required. Small farms need to gradually improve farming practices rather than to transfer miraculous technologies. A number of forest products could be collected and commercialized for various purposes, if the knowledgeable indigenous population is informed and involved in participatory research on the technical and ethnological culture and action programs. Many sectors are involved, problems are complex, and the speed of change is very rapid in the region. An approach that seeks to relate sustainable development, economic integration, and migration policy must incorporate the perspective of integrated development and a structural analysis of poverty. The approach suggested in this article would

  19. The influence of end-user perception on the economic feasibility of sustainable building skin renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, B.A.; Van den Berg, D.; Zijlstra, S.; De Jong, P.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the small addition in the housing supply of newly built dwellings, meeting sustainable goals in the Netherlands will have to come from the existing housing supply. TU Delft’s Solar Decathlon 2014 design focuses on achieving a zero energy renovation that is both sustainable as well as

  20. Legal, ethical, and economic implications of breaking down once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations into their single components for cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Miguel A; Llibre, Josep M

    2014-11-01

    The availability of generic lamivudine in the context of the current economic crisis has raised a new issue in some European countries: breaking up the once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations (FDAC) of efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine, tenofovir/emtricitabine, or abacavir/lamivudine, in order to administer their components separately, thereby allowing the use of generic lamivudine instead of branded emtricitabine or lamivudine. The legal, ethical, and economic implications of this potential strategy are reviewed, particularly in those patients receiving a once-daily single-tablet regimen. An unfamiliar change in antiretroviral treatment from a successful patient-friendly FDAC into a more complex regimen including separately the components to allow the substitution of one (or some) of them for generic surrogates (in the absence of a generic bioequivalent FDAC) could be discriminatory because it does not guarantee access to equal excellence in healthcare to all citizens. Furthermore, it could violate the principle of non-maleficence by potentially causing harm both at the individual level (hindering adherence and favouring treatment failure and resistance), and at the community level (hampering control of disease transmission and transmission of HIV-1 resistance). Replacing a FDAC with the individual components of that combination should only be permitted when the substituting medication has the same qualitative and quantitative composition of active ingredients, pharmaceutical form, method of administration, dosage and presentation as the medication being replaced, and a randomized study has demonstrated its non-inferiority. Finally, a strict pharma-economic study supporting this change, comparing the effectiveness and the cost of a specific intervention with the best available alternative, should be undertaken before its potential implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiolog

  1. Banking or Bankrupting: Strategies for Sustaining the Economic Future of Public Cord Blood Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalon, Jeremy; Maiers, Martin; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Navarrete, Cristina; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brown, Colin; Schramm, Catherine; Larghero, Jérome; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Picard, Christophe; Platz, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Katz, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts). 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A) to the most selective (scenario D). We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit. When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted) along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million). We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million) that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long term. We also found that

  2. Banking or Bankrupting: Strategies for Sustaining the Economic Future of Public Cord Blood Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalon, Jeremy; Maiers, Martin; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Navarrete, Cristina; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brown, Colin; Schramm, Catherine; Larghero, Jérome; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Picard, Christophe; Platz, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Katz, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Background Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. Methods Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts). 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A) to the most selective (scenario D). We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit. Results When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted) along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million). We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million) that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long

  3. Sustainability Assessment in Wine-Grape Growing in the New World: Economic, Environmental, and Social Indicators for Agricultural Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Santiago-Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators have been used in many sustainability assessment methods, however, disagreements over a common definition and scope for the sustainability concept have led to many distinct assessment methods, which are not often directly comparable. Before developing a sustainability assessment, it is essential to: define sustainability and specify the viewpoint of the assessor, the purpose of the assessment, and the context and time frame of the assessment. This article presents a short list of indicators and a method that can be readily adopted by any agricultural business or region to assess sustainability, making any organization, region or crop qualitatively comparable. These indicators were proposed by 83 top-level executives in 14 group interviews conducted using our adapted nominal group technique (ANGT. Executives were sourced from wine-grape growing organisations from New World wine-producing countries that also owned vineyards, and they considered everyday management practices of farms. These indicators, grouped within three categories (economic, environmental, and social were ranked by their importance. The method defines qualitative indicators that, in the context of distinct wine regions or crops should be quantified to maintain their relevance and usefulness.

  4. Technical, electric, economic and legal requirements for stand-by power plants; Technische, elektrische, wirtschaftliche und gesetzliche Anforderungskriterien an Ersatzstromanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneeloch, E.W.

    1994-12-31

    The demand for electrical energy kept rising until about ten year ago. Since then, increases is stagnating with only slight tendencies of rising. This does not apply to the demands for power supply quality. Any even short power cut could have severe economic and ecological consequences. Users, industry and legisators are therefore constantly attempting to raise the level of safety precautions i.e. stand-by-power stations (see. DIN-VDE 0100, 0107, 1018). Utility companies too pay heed to these demands by improving their technical facilities. Improvement of single components enables parallel grid operation of different stand-by facilities. (orig./KO) [Deutsch] Der Bedarf an elektrischer Energie ist bis vor ca. 10 Jahren stark angestiegen. Seither stagniert der Zuwachs bei nur leicht steigender Tendenz. Nicht so jedoch die Ansprueche an die Qualitaet der Stromversorgung. Ein Ausfall der Stromversorgung - auch nur fuer kurze Zeit - kann oekonomisch und oekologisch schlimme Folgen haben. Es ist daher nur verstaendlich, dass Nutzer, Industrie und Gesetzgeber sich bemuehlen, den Standard von Sicherheitsstromversorgungsanlagen stetig zu verbessern (s. hierzu DIN-VDE 0100, 0107, 0108). Auch die Energieversorgungsunternehmen tragen dem Rechnung durch angepasste technische Anschlussbedingungen (TAB). Durch Verbesserung von technischen Einzelkomponenten ist heute ein Netz-Parallelbetrieb verschiedener Sicherheitsstromversorgungsanlagen technisch leicht moeglich. (orig./KO)

  5. Case C-454/06, Pressetext Nachrichtenagentur v Austria – legal and economic aspects. Solutions for public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Jurčík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall question of when amendments to an existing agreement are to be regarded as constituting a new award of a public contract has not come before the ECJ. The Pressetext case and decision’s practice in the Czech Republic has solved this question: In order to ensure transparency of procedures and equal treatment of tenderers, amendments to provisions of a public contract during the currency of the contract constitute a new award of a contract when they are materially different in character from the original contract and, therefore, are such as to demonstrate the intention of the parties to renegotiate the essential terms of that contract. We can say that for this purpose an amendment to a public contract may be regarded as ‘material’ when: it introduces conditions which, had they been part of the initial award procedure, would have allowed for the admission of tenderers other than those initially admitted, or would have allowed for the acceptance of a tender other than the one initially accepted, it extends the scope of the contract considerably to encompass services not initially covered and it changes the economic balance of the contract in favour of the contractor in a manner which was not provided for in the terms of the initial contract.

  6. Economical, legal and political issues relating to the program for decommissioning the German Wismut uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, D.

    1995-01-01

    One of the world's largest uranium mining districts is located in the German states of Saxony and Thuringia. In 45 years of intense mining efforts, 220,000 metric tonnes of uranium were produced. This corresponds to approximately 13% of the world's post-war production. The legacy of this huge strategic mining operation is widespread damage to the environment and to humans. Financed by the federal budget and administered by the German Ministry of Economics (BMWi), the national WISMUT Corporation is now carrying out an internationally unique decommissioning and rehabilitation program. The aim is to reduce the threat to the environment to a minimum, to implement an ecologically difficult shutdown of underground and surface mining facilities, and to decontaminate former mining sites for suitable reuse. The results of nearly five years of rehabilitation work show that substantial progress has been achieved. Nevertheless, the project is subject to permanent crossfire in the political arena, mainly due to the wide public interest in issues focusing on the danger of radiation to the environment

  7. Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy

    2016-01-01

    Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...

  8. International Migrant Remittances in the Context of Economic and Social Sustainable Development. A Comparative Study of Romania-Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela Haller

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic stability is the main goal of every country’s administration, contributing to the decrease of uncertainty, creating an attractive business environment, attracting foreign direct investment and contributing to economic growth, which increases the standard of living, reduces income inequalities, represents a sustainable development for the country and puts an end to the migration process. Migration flows lower the demographic resources of the states going through this process and consequently they compromise the possibility for future generations to support a sustainable economic growth. Migration is a process with an aggressive and alarming manifestation in Romania and Bulgaria, raising the problem of the future capacity of these countries to ensure long-term economic and social sustainability and requiring an analysis framework from a scientific perspective. The current study proposes a comparative study to identify the important determinants of international migration in the EU28 and analyses the impact of remittances on economic growth/stability and income inequality in Romania and Bulgaria—Central and Eastern Europe countries—for the period between 1990 and 2015. The main contribution of the present study consists in emphasising the common determinants of the two countries regarding the migration process and at the same time providing solutions to improve government policies to contribute to the economic and social sustainability. The authors employed a multiple regression model and the correlation analysis, and tested 8 hypotheses for Romania and Bulgaria. The results indicated that the main determinants of the migration process in Romania and Bulgaria are the inflation rate, the income inequality and household consumption expenditure. Furthermore, the results indicated that there is not a direct relationship between the remittances received/capita and GDP/capita growth rate in Romania and Bulgaria. In addition, there is a

  9. ANALYSIS OF LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL GROUNDS FOR RISK-ORIENTED SURVEILLANCE OVER CONSUMER PRODUCTS: TASKS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on basic legal and sub-legislative documents issued in the EU, the USA, Canada, by the WTO and Codex Alimentarius Commission which provide control of consumer products safety on the basis of assessing risks for consumers' life and health. Risk-oriented surveillance is shown as a system which makes for lower loads on business but still provides systemic control over most hazardous products. The EU legislation fixes the right to perform supranational control over state control systems existing in the EU member states in terms of their relevance and legitimacy. This supranational control is supported by organizational structures and regulatory and methodological documents. National control systems are systematically reviewed and analyzed in order to secure their conformity to supranational regulatory acts, to detect any cases of non-compliance, and to spread the best practices. Risk analysis reviews and results are open and discussable. As a result of products hazards assessment their turnover can be limited, or they can be withdrawn from the market, or additional information on hazards or risks they may cause is to be provided for consumers. Public and constantly operating systems of informing about hazardous goods are well-developed. International experience and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented surveillance over consumer products can be and should be applied in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU countries. The Eurasian Economic Union countries fix orientation at observing consumer goods safety principles in their legislation. There are also legal grounds for and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented approach to products manufactures. But it is necessary to further develop a products classification system as per consumer health risk parameters. And this task requires working out unified approaches to classification of both eatable and non-eatable products. It seems relevant to develop a public analytical database of risk

  10. Eco-nomics: Are the Planet-Unfriendly Features of Capitalism Barriers to Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill Singer

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that there are essential features of capitalist modes of production, consumption, and waste dispersal in interaction with the environment and its built-in systemic features that contradict long-term sustainable development. These features include: (a) contradictions in the origin and meaning of sustainability; (b) the central role of the productivity ethic in capitalism and its reproduction in emergent green capitalism; (c) the commodification of nature and the continued pro...

  11. Crisis of the urban development process and the ecological, economic and social sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Estrada, Raul Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Diverse theoretical efforts have been made in order to understand the urban problematic related to sustainability. Among them is an analysis that highlight an inadequacy about the sustainability concept which is only limited to an ecological matter and it not considers that the most important issue is political and social. This has explained the failure of several international meetings about the matter, when the contradiction has not been considered in the capitalist system where the econ...

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SME SECTOR – FUNDAMENT AND NECESSITY FOR SUSTAINABLE RELAUCHING OF THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of economic and financial welfare, the creation of new jobs, the assimilation of technological progress, economic, the increase of competitiveness internationally or reducing social inequities are a few aspects that highlight the necessity to stimulate the SME sector Small business sector dynamism is increasingly considered a factor which determine reviving and strengthening economic development. The development of private business medium in Romania has been adversely affected by extreme volatility and low capacity of predictability. To these were also added effects of the economic crisis, resulting in a severe reduction in the number of SMEs and a worsening of performance indicators. In the paper are presented a series of data, providing an overview of the SME sector in Romania and its contribution to the achievement of the economic growth process in the medium term. The research realised at the level of this important component of the economic environment has revealed that in Romania there are manifested a number of issues regarding the level of productivity, the profitability, contribution to gross value added and competitiveness on external plan. An analysis of economic and financial performance indicators (turnover, gross investments, gross value added, gross result of the exercise at the level of SMEs reflects the recording of negative values after 2008, which demonstrates once again the fragility of the economy in the face of major events but also the impact of the measures promoted by the government, the effects being very often contrary to those expected. The conclusions drawn from the study highlights the need to support the SME sector to ensure a sustainable economic growth and the stimulus measures differences by categories, activity sectors and growth rhythm.

  13. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  14. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    to investigate the economic potential of such systems in Egypt’s desert agriculture sector. Using optimization software, we assess the economics of hybrid power systems versus the present diesel generation technology in a remote agricultural development area. We also consider the emission reduction advantages...

  15. The economic crisis as a game changer? Exploring the role of social construction in sustainability transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk); F. Avelino (Flor); Haxeltine, A. (Alex); J.M. Wittmayer (Julia); O'Riordan, T. (Tim); Weaver, P. (Paul); R. Kemp (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractContinuing economic turbulence has fuelled debates about social and political reform as much as it has stimulated actions and initiatives aimed at a more fundamental transition of dominant economic systems. This paper takes a transition perspective to explore, from a Western European

  16. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze Eze Nnaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated with increased CO2 emissions while a positive relationship exists between electricity supply and CO2 emissions revealing the poor nature of electricity supply in Nigeria. Further, the Granger causality test results indicate that electricity supply has not impacted significantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The results also strongly imply that policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions in Nigeria will not impede economic growth. The paper therefore concludes that a holistic energy planning and investment in energy infrastructure is needed to drive economic growth. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country, ensure sustainable development and at the same time reduce CO2 emissions by developing alternatives to fossil fuel consumption, the main source of CO2 emissions.

  17. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kolios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project.

  18. Economic, Legal, and Social Hardships Associated with HIV Risk among Black Men who have Sex with Men in Six US Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Moineddin, Rahim; Zhang, Nanhua; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Sa, Ting; Harawa, Nina; Regan, Rotrease; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Watson, Christopher C; Koblin, Beryl; Del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-02-01

    We assessed whether economic, legal, and social hardships were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among a sample of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether associations were moderated by city of residence. The study analyzed baseline and follow-up data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1553). Binary logistic regression assessed associations between hardships and HIV risk indicators. Multivariate regressions were used to test if city of residence had a moderating effect for hardships and HIV risks. Adjusted analyses showed that Black MSM with recent job loss were more likely to engage in condomless insertive anal intercourse (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and that those with recent financial crisis were more likely to have had two or more male sexual partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Black MSM with recent convictions were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 6 months (AOR = 3.97; 95% CI 1.58-9.94), while those who were unstably housed were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 12 months (AOR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.02 = 2.86). There were no city of residence and hardship interaction effects on HIV risks. Hardships are important factors that influence HIV risk for Black MSM. Integrating strategies that address structural factors that influence HIV risk may enhance HIV prevention interventions implementation efforts.

  19. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  20. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. ECONOMIC AND MORAL PRINCIPLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA PAICU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic communication is more than a decade a point of interest due to the communication supports development and the diversity of information, on one hand, and due to the need for documentation and knowledge, both at the individual level and at the level of society, on the other hand. Thus the freedom into thinking and expression led to the development of communication activities and collecting them in a new vision. The process of communication has become, in a relatively short time, one of the engines of the economy, but also an integral part of what is meant to be today, the psycho-sociology of modern human societies. In this context, we propose an analysis of the communicative process that takes place in the economic environment, since the information and communication technology is, at present, a real factor in sustainable development. We start the analysis from the tight interdependence between the economic communication and the development of human culture as a basic factor for efficient management and for sustainable development overall.