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Sample records for legal sentences including

  1. Discourse Markers s Sentence Openers in Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onorina Botezat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discourse markers can be defined as linguistic expressions of different length which carry pragmatic and propositional meaning, they are used to combine clauses or to connect sentence elements andthey appear in both speech and writing, and facilitate the discourse. Each discourse marker indicates a particular meaning relationship between two or more clauses. English is predominantly the language ofinternational legal practice and its importance to lawyers cannot be over-emphasized. The way in which one uses legal English can therefore be crucial to professional success. This paper stresses the importance of good usage of discourse markers in legal English.

  2. Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Background, Legal Analysis, and Policy Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M; Smith, Alison M

    2007-01-01

    In United States v. Booker, an unusual two-part opinion transformed federal criminal sentencing by restoring to judges much of the discretion that Congress took away when it put mandatory sentencing guidelines in place...

  3. A Case Study of Inter-sentence Conjunctions in Chinese_English Legal Parallel Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a contrastive study of inter-sentence conjunctions in Chinese/English legal parallel texts. Conjunction is one of the five cohesive devices put forward by Halliday and Hasan (1976. Many scholars have applied their model of cohesion to the study of English and Chinese languages. As for the use of conjunction in Chinese and English, most scholars believe that there are more cases of conjunction in the English legal texts than in the Chinese ones because it is generally considered that Chinese is predominantly paratactic and English mainly hypotactic. Besides, up to now little detailed contrastive study has been done on conjunctions in Chinese/English non-literary texts. Legal language is a specialized language whose distinctive feature is the pursuit of precision. As a result of the importance attached to the letter of law and the pursuit of precision in legal texts, most studies on legal language are devoted to the characteristic features of legal language at the word and sentence level, to the exclusion of textual and pragmatic considerations. The present study will mainly look at the features of legal texts from the perspective of conjunction at the textual level and find out whether Chinese uses fewer cases of conjunction than English in legal texts. The Chinese and English legal parallel texts about arbitration rules will be used for this contrastive analysis. It is hoped that the findings of this research will test the explanatory force of hypotaxis and parataxis in the use of conjunction in legal texts and give a clearer picture of conjunction at the textual level in Chinese and English legal parallel texts, and therefore reconstruct the discourse on the Chinese language.

  4. [Law and epilepsy. Legal sentences in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1952 and 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Lohne, M; Bauer, J

    2001-10-01

    We searched the internet-based "Juris" database for legal sentences related to epilepsy that were passed in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) between 1952 and 2000. We identified 143 sentences (annual range 0-10, mean 2.9 per annum). Six different types of court were involved (social, civil, administrative, criminal, family, and employment trials). The most judgements were made by social courts (52), and family and employment courts involved the fewest (five). We discuss three important areas of legal dispute in more detail (driving licences, employment law, criminal law). Changes in driving regulations over the years are explored on the basis of eight sentences. Only 30 years ago, patients with epilepsy were not allowed to drive motor vehicles. Now, the judgement on a patient's ability to drive is based on a process which takes account of specific types of epilepsy. Sentences relating to employment law demonstrate that employees will not necessarily be dismissed if they fail to inform their employer of the epilepsy diagnosis. In general, however, employers have the right to enquire about health issues such as epilepsy, and employees are obliged to answer such questions truthfully. An analysis of 13 criminal cases shows that expert witnesses are always called on to comment on a patient's credibility or degree of responsibility.

  5. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal management...

  6. Arbitral sentence and its legal nature Sentença arbitral e a sua natureza jurídica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozane da Rosa Cachapuz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The arbitration is instrument of solution of conflicts of interests that involve available patrimonial rights, having for bedding the will of parts and the State authorization, here it is that instituted for the Law nº 9,307 of 23 of September of 1996. The study it deals with its more excellent act, carrying through a more refined analysisof the aspects of special award in its legal nature. Objective to demystify the legal nature of the award when analyzing the theory of the judicial sentence and apply it in the institute of the arbitration, everything objectifying to establish the contours of the legal nature of the award, in order to locate it in the legal system and to facilitate its understanding. It concludes demonstrating the intensity of identification between the award and judicial, on the basis of the study made on its identification and differentiated, extracted elements of the analysed thematic sources.A arbitragem é instrumento de solução de conflitos de interesses que envolvam direitos patrimoniais disponíveis, tendo por fundamento a vontade das partes e a autorização estatal, eis que instituído pela Lei nº 9.307 de 23 de setembro de 1996. O estudo trata de seu ato mais relevante, realizando uma análise mais apurada dos aspectos da sentença arbitral em especial sua natureza jurídica. Objetiva desmistificar a natureza da sentença arbitral ao analisar a teoria da sentença judicial e aplicá-la ao instituto da arbitragem, verificando sua adequação e pertinência teórica; tudo objetivando estabelecer os contornos da natureza jurídica da sentença arbitral, de modo a localizá-la no ordenamento jurídico e facilitar sua compreensão. Conclui demonstrando a intensidade de identificação entre a sentença arbitral e judicial, com base no estudo feito sobre seus elementos identificadores e diferenciados, extraídos das vertentes temáticas analisadas.

  7. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  8. Exploring Methods to Investigate Sentencing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrall, Elizabeth L. C.; Dhami, Mandeep K.; Bird, Sheila M.

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of sentencing are of much interest in criminal justice and legal research. Understanding the determinants of sentencing decisions is important for ensuring transparent, consistent, and justifiable sentencing practice that adheres to the goals of sentencing, such as the punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation of…

  9. Necessity of including medico-legal autopsy data in epidemiological surveys of individuals with major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher, A; Wingren, C J; Ottosson, A; Andersson, L; Wangefjord, S; Acosta, S

    2015-08-01

    It is rare that epidemiological surveys of patients with major trauma include both those admitted to the emergency department and those sent for medico-legal autopsy. The main aim of the present population-based study of major trauma was to examine the importance of medico-legal autopsy data. A new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was used as criteria for major trauma and to identify patients at the emergency, anaesthesiology and forensic departments and/or being within the jurisdiction of the Malmö police authority and subjected to a medico-legal autopsy between 2011 and 2013. According to Swedish legislation all trauma related deaths should be reported to the police who refer these cases for medico-legal autopsy. Among the 174 individuals included, 92 (53%) died and 81 (47%) underwent medico-legal autopsy. One hundred twenty-six patients were primarily admitted to hospital and 48 died before admission to hospital and were sent directly for medico-legal autopsy. Forty-four in-hospital deaths occurred, of whom 33 (75%) were sent to medico-legal autopsy. In those sent directly to the department of forensic medicine the proportion of accidents was lower (pautopsies among trauma-related deaths at hospital were high age (pautopsy according to legislation, but did not. The high proportion of positive toxicological findings among fatalities examined at medico-legal autopsy implies that toxicology screening should be routine in major trauma patients, in order to improve treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  11. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.

    1994-01-01

    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training ...

  12. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  13. Sentencing Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminal justice stakeholders are strongly concerned with disparities in penalty outcomes. Disparities are problematic when they represent unfounded differences in sentences, an abuse of discretion, and/or potential discrimination based on sociodemographic characteristics. The Article presents an original empirical study that explores disparities in sentences at two levels: the individual case level and the regional level. More specifically, the study investigates upward departures in the United States’ federal sentencing system, which constitutes a guidelines-based structure. Upward departures carry unique consequences to individuals and their effects on the system as they lead to lengthier sentences, symbolically represent a dispute with the guidelines advice, and contribute to mass incarceration. Upward departures are discretionary to district courts and thus may lead to disparities in sentencing in which otherwise seemingly like offenders receive dissimilar sentences, in part because of the tendency of their assigned judges to depart upward (or not.

  14. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Julian V.

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  15. Improving Sentence Writing Ability through Sentence-Combining Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Bruce; Preschern, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Creating well constructed sentences is challenging for most writers. For less skilled writers, including writers with learning disabilities (LD), it can be even more difficult. These writers generally produce less syntactically complex sentences that contain more grammatical errors. They may also produce sentences that are shorter; have higher…

  16. Apology and Spanish Criminal Law at the Post-Sentencing Level: the Gap Between Legal Provisions and Victims and Offenders’ Experiences in Cases of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Varona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Spanish provisions in criminal law requesting apology by offenders in organized crime, including terrorism. In order to grant parole, apology is required, among other possible means provided by law, to accredit the abandonment of the ends and means of the terrorist activity. Those legal provisions will be contrasted with the experience and narratives of victims and offenders in cases of terrorism. Final conclusions will be derived in relation to the possibility of restorative apologies in these contexts.Este artículo aborda las provisiones españolas en materia de derecho penal que solicitan la petición de perdón de los delincuentes del crimen organizado, incluyendo el terrorismo. Entre otras medidas posibles que plantea la ley, para obtener la libertad condicional se requiere una disculpa, para acreditar el abandono de los fines y los medios de la actividad terrorista. Estas provisiones legales se contrastarán con la experiencia y las narraciones de víctimas y delincuentes en casos de terrorismo. Se ofrecen conclusiones finales en relación con la posibilidad de disculpas restaurativas en estos contextos.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3002481

  17. Numbers and prior knowledge in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether the comprehension of sentences that contained numerical information could benefit from presenting numbers in Arabic format and from using prior knowledge. Participants read sentences including numbers (Arabic digits or number words while the comprehension accuracy was evaluated. In addition, the sentences were biased or unbiased by people's prior knowledge about quantities. The results showed better comprehension for sentences that contained Arabic digits as compared to number words. Moreover, biased sentences were understood more accurately than unbiased sentences. These results indicate that information about magnitude in sentence context is comprehended better when quantities are presented in Arabic format and when they are associated with participants' world knowledge.

  18. Education in the family as a factor of pedagogical correction of legal consciousness in juvenile probation and parole, including registered in criminal-executive inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gud M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "legal consciousness of minors", the peculiarities of its formation in adolescence, and a pedagogical process of correction of legal consciousness adolescents in conditions of serving criminal sentences, when registration with the penal inspection. Analyzes one of the factors of correction of legal consciousness – raising in the family of convicted minors consisting on the account in the criminal-Executive inspection. The specifics of family upbringing and their impact on the efficiency of re-socialization of minors consisting on the account in criminally-executive inspection, as well as reducing recidivism. Examples of departmental statistics on the role of the family in preventing delinquency and crime among convicted adolescents. The basic directions of improvement of family education in the framework of the activities of employees of criminally-executive inspections.

  19. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan S Terblanche

    2013-04-01

    courts’ sentences. It notes that appeal by the child offender is made somewhat easier, as some child offenders need not obtain leave to appeal. These include children under the age of 16, or older children sentenced to imprisonment. Again, the meaning of “imprisonment” is at least somewhat ambiguous. The provisions on automatic review have attracted considerable judicial attention already. The majority of these judgments confirmed the apparently clear wording of the Act, in terms of which the cases of all child offenders under the age of 16 should be reviewed regardless of whether they were legally represented or of the sentence imposed. In the case of child offenders aged 16 or 17, only custodial sentences are reviewable. The judgments which found this to be an incorrect interpretation are dealt with in some detail, with the conclusion that they were incorrectly decided.

  20. Priming sentence planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopka, A.E.; Meyer, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Sentence production requires mapping preverbal messages onto linguistic structures. Because sentences are normally built incrementally, the information encoded in a sentence-initial increment is critical for explaining how the mapping process starts and for predicting its timecourse. Two experiments

  1. Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; Thompson, Katie A; Lowe, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research governance and participation and hinders research that seeks to include people with impaired capacity. In this paper, we present key ethical principles, provide a comprehensive review of applicable legal rules in Australian states and territories, and highlight significant differences and ambiguities. Our analysis includes recommendations for reform to improve clarity and consistency in the law and reduce barriers that may exclude persons with dementia from participating in ethically approved research. Our recommendations seek to advance the national decision-making principles recommended by the Australian Law Reform Commission, which emphasize the rights of all adults to make their own decisions and for those with impaired capacity to have access to appropriate supports to help them make decisions that affect their lives.

  2. Empirical Descriptions of Criminal Sentencing Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus H. Wandall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the widespread use of statistical causal modelling to describe criminal sentencing decision-making empirically in Scandinavia. The article describes the characteristics of this model, and on this basis discusses three aspects of sentencing decision-making that the model does not capture: 1 the role of law and legal structures in sentencing, 2 the processes of constructing law and facts as they occur in the processes of handling criminal cases, and 3 reflecting newer organisational changes to sentencing decision-making. The article argues for a stronger empirically based design of sentencing models and for a more balanced use of different social scientific methodologies and models of sentencing decision-making.

  3. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K

    Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in individuals with agrammatic aphasia are largely influenced by

  4. The mandatory sentence and Section 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, S

    1986-01-01

    Sentencing in homicide depends on how psychiatrists view the issues of Section 2. In most killings that do not involve clear-cut mental disorder, strong emotions and stress play a part. Both can be cited in aid of diminished responsibility. If doctors cite them, however tentatively, it becomes feasible for the court to review any mitigating factors and to choose an appropriate penalty. Otherwise, the mandatory penalty is imposed. Thus doctors, by opining not on the medical but on the legal and moral aspects of Section 2, decide who shall automatically get a life sentence and who shall not. Anomaly and injustice are the results. They would be remedied by the abolition of the mandatory sentence for murder. PMID:3959037

  5. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  6. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...... and severity of crime into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using data from Statistics Denmark's national crime statistics, we have compared time-trends of SPT with time-trends of suspended and custodial sentences stratified by type of crime. RESULTS: We found that the rise in SPT is primarily attributable...... to more confrontations and changes in practices, e.g., for reporting violence against staff. However, if a civil person is the victim of a violent offence, the probability of the perpetrator being a psychiatric patient is small and has remained virtually unchanged since 1990. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug-30...

  7. Sentence Level Information Patterns for Novelty Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    .... Given a user's information need, some information patterns in sentences such as combinations of query words, sentence lengths, named entities and phrases, and other sentence patterns, may contain...

  8. A sentence to remember: instructed language switching in sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-04-01

    In the current study, we set out to investigate the influence of a sentence context on language switching. The task required German-English bilinguals to produce responses based on an alternating language sequence (L1-L1-L2-L2- …) and concepts in a specific sequential order. The concept sequence was either a sentence which was syntactically correct in both languages (language-unspecific sentence), a sentence which was correct in just one language (language-specific sentence) or a sentence which was syntactically incorrect in both languages (scrambled sentence). No switch costs were observed in language-unspecific sentences. Consequently, switch costs were smaller in those sentences than in the language-specific or scrambled sentences. The language-specific and scrambled sentence did not differ with respect to switch costs. These results demonstrate an important role of sentence context for language switch costs and were interpreted in terms of language interference and preparation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović-Stefanović Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity of a juvenile offender, the time needed for his/her educational and vocational training, and all relevant circumstances envisaged in Article 54 of the Criminal Code. The previous statement reveals the focal points of examination and structural organization in this article, whose purpose is twofold: first, to explain the effect of the subject-specific legal provisions (aggravating and mitigating circumstances envisaged in the Act on Juvenile Criminal Offenders and Protection of Juveniles in Criminal Law and, second, to establish how the general provisions from the Criminal Code are applied in this case, with special emphasis on their specific manifestations.

  10. Geometric Dimensioning Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuistion, Patrick J.

    1991-01-01

    Explanations of geometric dimensioning symbols are provided to assist in the comprehension of the implied basic sentence structure of modern geometric dimensioning and tolerance. The proper identification and interpretation of the substantive language within several exemplary engineering drawings, otherwise called feature control frames, is…

  11. From Utterance to Example Sentence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard

    This poster will address some of the problems on excerption of example sentences for the online dictionary of Danish Sign Language (DTS) from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues. In the Danish Sign Language Dictionary every meaning is illustrated by one or more sentences showing the sign...... lexicographers. The sentences were excerpted by hand from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues – given to us by our group of consultants. The poster describes the process from utterance in a corpus in a larger context to an example sentence in a dictionary, where the purpose of having examples sentences...... is to help the dictionary user to gain additional knowledge of a meaning of a sign, as well as to provide sentence constructions that can be adopted by the L2 learner. The process from the moment when a sentence has been excerpted from the corpus to the point when an example sentence is finally accepted...

  12. Relation of affect control theory to the sentencing of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoudis, O

    2000-08-01

    Past researchers (A. Blumstein, J. Cohen, S. E. Martin, & M. H. Tonry, 1983; A. Von Hirsch & H. Gross, 1981) have explored legal variables and demonstrated the significance of various criteria (e.g., criminal's prior record, seriousness of offense, influence of victim) on the sentencing of criminals. Affect control theory (D. R. Heise, 1979) focuses on inferences about the identity of the criminal. In the present study, the author examined the influence of the foregoing legal variables and affect control theory in sentencing decisions by using U.S. undergraduates' reactions to statements of criminals and of victims. Results of a 2 (criminal's emotion: sad vs. unconcerned) x 2 (victim's emotion: sad vs. unconcerned) x 2 (prior record: none vs. auto theft) factorial design supported affect control theory and demonstrated the significance of the victim's perceived identity in sentencing decisions, even when information about the prior record was provided.

  13. Structuring Judicial Discretion in China: Exploring the 2014 Sentencing Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Julian V.; Pei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, a range of western jurisdictions has introduced reforms designed to restrict and guide judicial discretion at sentencing. The reforms enacted include mandatory sentencing laws and guiding statutes prescribing sentencing purposes and principles as well as important aggravating and mitigating factors. However, formal guidelines are the most promising and well-studied innovation. We may now add China to the growing list of countries that have recognized the utility o...

  14. Foregrounding awareness of sentence construction-types in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foregrounding awareness of sentence construction-types in the interpretive analysis of legal writing: a case study of the statute of the University of Zululand ... and lexical structure of English to give circumstantial information, these circumstances are essential in enhancing the effectiveness and communicative potential of ...

  15. Delayed Justice - Macedonian Experience With Guilty Plea And Sentence Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misoski Boban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bearing on mind the idea of the proverb “Justice Delayed is Justice Denied” Macedonian Legislator within the new Code of Criminal Procedure (CPC has introduced several legal mechanisms for accelerating the criminal procedure. The most important instruments among them, by all means, are the Guilty Plea and Sentence Bargaining.

  16. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  17. Single Word and Sentence Intelligibility in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaileh, Fadwa A.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the intelligibility of speech produced by 17 children (aged 4-11 years) with cochlear implants. Stimulus items included sentences from the Beginners' Intelligibility Test (BIT) and words from the Children Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM). Naive listeners responded by writing sentences heard or with two types of responses…

  18. Publisiteitsbevele as Vonnisopsie Vir Regspersone (Publicity Orders as Sentencing Option for Juristic Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the issue of adverse publicity orders as a possible supplementary sentencing option for corporate offenders. In South Africa fines are the primary sentencing option available to courts when imposing sentences on juristic persons. Fines, however, do not adequately serve the purposes of corporate sentencing. Publicity orders require the publication of an offender’s conviction, sentence and the details of the offence to individuals or a group of persons (such as shareholders. An adverse publication damages the corporate offender’s reputation – a valuable asset to a corporate entity. It therefore serves the purpose of corporate deterrence. In this contribution criticism is levelled against the fine as primary sentencing option for juristic persons; the notion of corporate reputation is considered from a social and legal perspective; a functional comparative study of adverse publication orders is presented and recommendations are made regarding the content of effective publication orders.

  19. On the role of sentence stress in sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Foss, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Words bearing high stress appear to be easier to process during sentence comprehension. Since sentence stress typically falls on content words this suggests that comprehension is organized according to a form class bias: process stressed items as content words. The present study measured

  20. Neural correlates of processing sentences and compound words in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Bulut

    Full Text Available Sentence reading involves multiple linguistic operations including processing of lexical and compositional semantics, and determining structural and grammatical relationships among words. Previous studies on Indo-European languages have associated left anterior temporal lobe (aTL and left interior frontal gyrus (IFG with reading sentences compared to reading unstructured word lists. To examine whether these brain regions are also involved in reading a typologically distinct language with limited morphosyntax and lack of agreement between sentential arguments, an FMRI study was conducted to compare passive reading of Chinese sentences, unstructured word lists and disconnected character lists that are created by only changing the order of an identical set of characters. Similar to previous findings from other languages, stronger activation was found in mainly left-lateralized anterior temporal regions (including aTL for reading sentences compared to unstructured word and character lists. On the other hand, stronger activation was identified in left posterior temporal sulcus for reading unstructured words compared to unstructured characters. Furthermore, reading unstructured word lists compared to sentences evoked stronger activation in left IFG and left inferior parietal lobule. Consistent with the literature on Indo-European languages, the present results suggest that left anterior temporal regions subserve sentence-level integration, while left IFG supports restoration of sentence structure. In addition, left posterior temporal sulcus is associated with morphological compounding. Taken together, reading Chinese sentences engages a common network as reading other languages, with particular reliance on integration of semantic constituents.

  1. Neural correlates of processing sentences and compound words in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Talat; Hung, Yi-Hui; Tzeng, Ovid; Wu, Denise H

    2017-01-01

    Sentence reading involves multiple linguistic operations including processing of lexical and compositional semantics, and determining structural and grammatical relationships among words. Previous studies on Indo-European languages have associated left anterior temporal lobe (aTL) and left interior frontal gyrus (IFG) with reading sentences compared to reading unstructured word lists. To examine whether these brain regions are also involved in reading a typologically distinct language with limited morphosyntax and lack of agreement between sentential arguments, an FMRI study was conducted to compare passive reading of Chinese sentences, unstructured word lists and disconnected character lists that are created by only changing the order of an identical set of characters. Similar to previous findings from other languages, stronger activation was found in mainly left-lateralized anterior temporal regions (including aTL) for reading sentences compared to unstructured word and character lists. On the other hand, stronger activation was identified in left posterior temporal sulcus for reading unstructured words compared to unstructured characters. Furthermore, reading unstructured word lists compared to sentences evoked stronger activation in left IFG and left inferior parietal lobule. Consistent with the literature on Indo-European languages, the present results suggest that left anterior temporal regions subserve sentence-level integration, while left IFG supports restoration of sentence structure. In addition, left posterior temporal sulcus is associated with morphological compounding. Taken together, reading Chinese sentences engages a common network as reading other languages, with particular reliance on integration of semantic constituents.

  2. Defendant remorse, need for affect, and juror sentencing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Emily P; Cramer, Robert J; Griffin, Desiree A; Brodsky, Stanley L

    2012-01-01

    Defendant remorse is generally accepted as a mitigating factor in capital murder sentencing in the legal system. The current study addressed whether verbal and nonverbal expressions of defendant remorse are perceived as remorseful by mock jurors. Moreover, this study investigated the associations of defendant behaviors and mock juror need for affect on sentencing decisions. Participants watched a video of a defendant depicting either high or low levels of verbal and nonverbal remorseful behavior. Results indicated that nonverbal behaviors were more important than verbal cues for perception of remorse. Incongruent verbal and nonverbal behavior, as well as mock juror willingness to approach emotional situations (i.e., high need for affect (NFA)) resulted in more lenient sentences for defendants. Implications for the remorse construct, for witness preparation, and for jury selection are discussed.

  3. THE FUNCTION OF ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH SENTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. A multiple sentence contains one or more clauses as its immediate constituents. Multiple sentences are either compound or complex. In a compound sentence the immediate constituents are two or more coordinate clause. In a complex sentence one or more of its elements, such as direct object or adverbial, are realized by a subordinate.[1] Simple sentence may be divided into four major syntactic classes, whose use correlates with different...

  4. [Health state assessment in people sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świderski, Paweł; Żaba, Czesław; Macioszek, Natalia

    2016-12-22

    Assessment of the health state of people sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty makes up a significant percentage of cases annually elaborated in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences. The analysis of such cases was accomplished to point out the difficulties that expert physicians could encounter in formulating their opinions. The analysis involved 1051 medico-legal opinions issued in the years 2004-2013, considering the health state of people performing the duty of free, controlled social labor. The authors collected data on age, sex, type of diseases and the ability to control social work of convicted subjects. Among those sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty the men aged 51-60 were in the majority. Individuals able to work only in specified conditions were the most numerous group (56.3%). People able to work in all conditions were the smallest set (9.5%). Light work was the type of work most frequently recommended to the persons able to work only in specific conditions (58.4%). The largest group of diseases comprised spondylopathies and osteoarthropathies (51.4%). It was followed by the group of cardiac diseases and angiopathies, including hypertension (38.7%). The number of cases concerning the ability of the sentenced persons to serve the penalty of restriction of liberty annually elaborated in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences and the number of sentences imposed on the national scale indicate that medical experts may be obliged to provide opinions of this kind. Assessment of the health state of people sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty in some cases can be a difficult task for the expert physicians because of frequent lack of information about a specific type of work performed by the sentenced persons having only the data about their diseases. Med Pr 2016;67(6):765-775. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY

  5. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy and the 40-Year Prison Sentence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Jose Santos Guardado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase “abortion is murder” can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related “crimes.” Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged with the crime of abortion were convicted of “aggravated homicide” and sentenced to up to 40 years in prison. Court documents suggest that many of these women had not undergone abortions, but had suffered naturally occurring stillbirths late in their pregnancies. Through analysis of newspaper articles and court cases, this article documents how El Salvador came to prosecute obstetrical emergencies as “murder,” and concludes that activism on behalf of abortion rights is central to protecting poor pregnant women from prosecution for reproduction-related “crimes.” PMID:28630543

  7. Passive sentences and structural parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional language parsing is mainly based on generative grammar in English. As English and Chinese belong to two different families of language, a grammar is not sufficient for Chinese parsing although it is still important. In passive sentences in English and Chinese, there exists some

  8. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  9. Judge rules HIV may be grounds for reduction in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-08

    A Federal judge in Ohio set precedent in August of 1995 when she ruled that a criminal defendant with symptomatic HIV disease is eligible for a reduced sentence because AIDS is considered an extraordinary physical impairment. The ruling does not apply to symptom-free HIV-positive defendants. The defendant, [name removed], remained in Federal prison because he had no other access to medical care. The judge used Section 5H1.4 of the sentencing guidelines to take advanced HIV disease into account for reducing his sentence. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund officials, encouraged by the judge's ruling, suggest that defense lawyers rely not solely on an AIDS diagnosis, but also on medical testimony, to reduce a client's sentence.

  10. A Deficit in Movement-Derived Sentences in German-Speaking Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ruigendijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment (HI show disorders in syntax and morphology. The question is whether and how these disorders are connected to problems in the auditory domain. The aim of this paper is to examine whether moderate to severe hearing loss at a young age affects the ability of German-speaking orally trained children to understand and produce sentences. We focused on sentence structures that are derived by syntactic movement, which have been identified as a sensitive marker for syntactic impairment in other languages and in other populations with syntactic impairment. Therefore, our study tested subject and object relatives, subject and object Wh-questions, passive sentences, and topicalized sentences, as well as sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. We tested 19 HI children aged 9;5–13;6 and compared their performance with hearing children using comprehension tasks of sentence-picture matching and sentence repetition tasks. For the comprehension tasks, we included HI children who passed an auditory discrimination task; for the sentence repetition tasks, we selected children who passed a screening task of simple sentence repetition without lip-reading; this made sure that they could perceive the words in the tests, so that we could test their grammatical abilities. The results clearly showed that most of the participants with HI had considerable difficulties in the comprehension and repetition of sentences with syntactic movement: they had significant difficulties understanding object relatives, Wh-questions, and topicalized sentences, and in the repetition of object who and which questions and subject relatives, as well as in sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. Repetition of passives was only problematic for some children. Object relatives were still difficult at this age for both HI and hearing children. An additional important outcome of the study is that not all sentence structures

  11. Risk Reduction in Terrorism Cases: Sentencing and the Post-Conviction Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Berkell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores existing underpinnings in the United States criminal justice system for post-conviction risk reduction measures in terrorism cases. The purpose of these measures is to reduce the risk of future criminality by those already convicted of violent extremist offenses, thereby protecting public safety while also benefiting individuals and communities. Specifically, integrating specialized risk and needs assessments into terrorism cases at sentencing and during the corrections process constitutes one possible risk reduction measure. When administered to individuals convicted of providing material support or other terrorism-related offenses, rigorous evaluations can supply courts with information significant for sentencing and, when appropriate, structuring individualized rehabilitation approaches. In addition to assessment tools, rehabilitation and reintegration programs constitute potential risk reduction measures. Risk reduction programs would supplement and enhance, not replace, existing correctional methods including incarceration and supervised release. The District of Minnesota federal court is pioneering a program of disengagement and deradicalization for terrorism defendants, and other courts likely will develop similar approaches. However, appropriate judicial bodies have yet to adopt proactive roles in developing national policy guidance in this area. This article aims to further the discussion of reducing recidivism risk in terrorism cases by clarifying the legal and technical issues that would require resolution as prerequisites for the consideration and potential development of post-conviction programming.

  12. Responses to more severe punishment in the courtroom: evidence from truth-in-sentencing laws

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto, Fusako; Dušek, L.

    -, č. 403 (2009), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : criminal procedure * criminal law * truth-in-sentencing laws Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp403.pdf

  13. Responses to more severe punishment in the courtroom: evidence from truth-in-sentencing laws

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto, F.; Dušek, Libor

    -, č. 403 (2009), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : criminal procedure * criminal law * truth-in-sentencing laws Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp403.pdf

  14. Unscrambling jumbled sentences: An authentic task for English language assessment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Lanteigne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely used as a lingua franca. Thus it is seen that jumbled sentence test items can reflect real-world language use. To evaluate scrambled sentence test items, eight test item types developed from one jumbled sentence instance (“Want taxi Dubai you?” were analyzed in terms of interactivity and authenticity. Items ranged from being completely decontextualized, non-interactive, and inauthentic to being fully contextualized, interactive, and authentic. To determine appropriate assessment standards for English tests in schools in this region, the English language standards for schools and English language requirements for university admission in the UAE were analyzed. Schools in Dubai/Sharjah use Inner Circle English varieties of English (e.g., British or American English as the standard for evaluation, as well as non-native-English-speaker varieties (e.g., Indian English(es. Also, students applying to English-medium universities in the UAE must meet the required scores on standardized English tests including the IELTS and TOEFL. Standards for evaluation of communication in English involving tasks of jumbled sentences in classroom tests must reflect the language learning goals of the school and community. Thus standards for classroom assessment of English in Dubai/Sharjah are determined by local schools’ and universities’ policies.

  15. INFLUENCE OF LENGTH OF SENTENCES ON THE FREQUENCY OF SPEECH DISFLUENCIES IN CHILDREN WHO STUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Begić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the length of sentences has influence on the frequency of speech disfluencies for children who stutter. The participants included 30 children who stutter 19 male participants and 13 female participants, whose age ranged between 4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months (56 to 83 months of age. Research was conducted in kindergartens and primary schools in Tuzla Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina2 . The test consisted of 36 sentences. In relation to the length, sentences were divided into three groups: in the first group there were 9 sentences which included 3 to 5 words, in the second group, there were 14 sentences which included 6 to 8 words and in the third group there were 13 sentences which included 9 to 11 words. Testing was conducted so that the examiner was pronouncing one sentence after which the participant repeated the same sentence. Each participant was requested to repeat exactly what he/she had heard. Speech and language pathologist has recorded all speech disfluencies in all sentences. The results showed that the sentences containing 9 to 11 words had most effects on the overall dynamics of speech disfluencies in children who stutter. The results suggest that during the process of assessment and diagnosis of children who stutter, it should be required to assess the child's ability to use complex linguistic statements and to assess the frequency of disfluencies in relation to the complexity of the sentences. Precision diagnostics would provide guidelines for the treatment of stuttering in terms of implementation of approaches and strategies which include language treatment and gradually increasing the length and complexity of statements of children who stutter during speech.

  16. Automatic sentence extraction for the detection of scientific paper relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaroni, Y.; Prasetiyowati, S. S.; Miftachudin, M.

    2018-03-01

    The relations between scientific papers are very useful for researchers to see the interconnection between scientific papers quickly. By observing the inter-article relationships, researchers can identify, among others, the weaknesses of existing research, performance improvements achieved to date, and tools or data typically used in research in specific fields. So far, methods that have been developed to detect paper relations include machine learning and rule-based methods. However, a problem still arises in the process of sentence extraction from scientific paper documents, which is still done manually. This manual process causes the detection of scientific paper relations longer and inefficient. To overcome this problem, this study performs an automatic sentences extraction while the paper relations are identified based on the citation sentence. The performance of the built system is then compared with that of the manual extraction system. The analysis results suggested that the automatic sentence extraction indicates a very high level of performance in the detection of paper relations, which is close to that of manual sentence extraction.

  17. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  18. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  19. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  20. Nonnative accent discrimination with words and sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Background Accent detection studies have shown native listeners to be highly sensitive to the presence of nonnative accents. This study examined the robustness of this sensitivity. Methods We evaluated listeners’ accent discrimination performance when presented with a stimulus set consisting of multiple nonnative accents, as well as words and sentences that were unique in each trial. Listeners heard pairs of talkers reading the same word or sentence and indicated whether the talkers’ native languages were the same or different. Talkers included two native talkers and six nonnative talkers from three native language backgrounds. Results Listeners were highly sensitive to the difference between native and nonnative accents, confirming earlier findings, but were much less sensitive to the difference between two nonnative accents. Furthermore, while stimulus length affected listeners’ sensitivity to the difference between native and nonnative accents, this factor had a minimal effect on their sensitivity to the difference between two nonnative accents. Conclusion The findings suggest that task and stimulus characteristics have a significant effect on the degree of sensitivity to nonnative accents. PMID:28268232

  1. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  2. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  3. The ICSI+ Multilingual Sentence Segmentation System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, M; Hakkani-Tuer, D; Fung, J; Mirghafori, N; Gottlieb, L; Shriberg, E; Liu, Y

    2006-01-01

    The ICSI+ multilingual sentence segmentation with results for English and Mandarin broadcast news automatic speech recognizer transcriptions represents a joint effort involving ICSI, SRI, and UT Dallas...

  4. Grammatical Planning, Execution, and Control in Written Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottbusch, Guido

    2010-01-01

    In this study participants were asked to describe pictured events in one type-written sentence, containing one of two different syntactic structures (subordinated vs. coordinated subject noun phrases). According to the hypothesis, the larger subordinated structure (one noun phrase including a second, subordinated, one) should be cognitively more…

  5. Discourse, Paragraph, and Sentence Structure in Selected Philippine Languages. Final Report. Volume II, Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Robert E.

    Volume II of "Discourse, Paragraph, and Sentence Structure in Selected Philippine Languages" begins with an explanation of certain assumptions and postulates regarding sentence structure. A detailed treatment of systems of sentence structure and the parameters of such systems follows. Data in the various indigenous languages are…

  6. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Madden-Lombardi

    Full Text Available Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.. To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant. Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend

  7. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Lombardi, Carol; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle) should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle) should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.). To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant). Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use) and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand) or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend previous research

  8. Judging Grammaticality: Experiments in Sentence Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joachim; Foster, Jennifer; van Genabith, Josef

    2009-01-01

    A classifier which is capable of distinguishing a syntactically well formed sentence from a syntactically ill formed one has the potential to be useful in an L2 language-learning context. In this article, we describe a classifier which classifies English sentences as either well formed or ill formed using information gleaned from three different…

  9. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... research visits, and the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law,. Freiburg, Germany ... Whether or not a pre-sentence report should be obtained before a child offender is sentenced has ...... the Criminal Procedure Act. It is important to read the quoted part of section 85(1) as a single ...

  10. Example Sentences in Bilingual School Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in dictionary articles, different types of example sentences as well as the criteria for example sen- tences in bilingual school dictionaries in order to ensure that the final product is natural, typical, informative, intelligible and of use to the user. Keywords: SCHOOL DICTIONARY, USER, USER NEEDS, EXAMPLE SENTENCE, ...

  11. Sentencing of homicide offenders in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.; Wingerden, S. van; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical investigations of criminal sentencing represent a vast research enterprise in criminology. However, this research has been restricted almost exclusively to U.S. contexts, and often it suffers from key data limitations. As such, an examination of more detailed international sentencing data

  12. Creating Hope for Life-Sentenced Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Rick; Broom, Ian; Young, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Offenders sentenced to terms of life imprisonment pose special challenges for correctional systems. The Correctional Service of Canada collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to develop programmatic interventions to better prepare this population to survive their prison sentences and transition to the community. This study describes the…

  13. Neural circuits in the brain that are activated when mitigating criminal sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Camerer, Colin F; Fujie, Saori; Kato, Motoichiro; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Takano, Harumasa; Ito, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2012-03-27

    In sentencing guilty defendants, jurors and judges weigh 'mitigating circumstances', which create sympathy for a defendant. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity in ordinary citizens who are potential jurors, as they decide on mitigation of punishment for murder. We found that sympathy activated regions associated with mentalising and moral conflict (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and temporo-parietal junction). Sentencing also activated precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that mitigation is based on negative affective responses to murder, sympathy for mitigating circumstances and cognitive control to choose numerical punishments. Individual differences on the inclination to mitigate, the sentence reduction per unit of judged sympathy, correlated with activity in the right middle insula, an area known to represent interoception of visceral states. These results could help the legal system understand how potential jurors actually decide, and contribute to growing knowledge about whether emotion and cognition are integrated sensibly in difficult judgments.

  14. Does the punishment fit the crime? Judicial sentencing in adolescent and adult sexual assault cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F

    2008-06-01

    This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).

  15. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  16. Dopamine supports sentence comprehension in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M; Glosser, G; Kalmanson, J; Morris, J; Stern, M B; Hurtig, H I

    2001-03-01

    To determine the role of dopamine in the executive resource component of sentence comprehension. We studied sentence-picture matching in 20 right-handed, non-demented, native English speakers with mild Parkinson's disease (PD) when 'on' and 'off' their levodopa, taking into account disease duration to control for endogenous dopamine metabolism. We also administered a verbal working memory measure that does not involve specific grammatical manipulations. PD patients 'off' levodopa demonstrated a significant discrepancy in their comprehension of grammatically complex sentences compared to grammatically simpler sentences that was not evident when PD patients were 'on' levodopa. An error analysis demonstrated that impaired comprehension of grammatically complex sentences when 'off' levodopa was associated with poorer performance on foils requiring working memory resources. Performance on an independent measure of verbal working memory correlated only with comprehension of grammatically complex sentences during levodopa supplementation, but working memory according to this measure did not differ during 'on' and 'off' states. Dopamine supports the executive resources contributing to sentence comprehension in PD.

  17. Classification of Clinically Useful Sentences in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morid, Mohammad Amin; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Fiszman, Marcelo; Raja, Kalpana; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated a sentence classification model that uses semantic features to extract clinically useful sentences from UpToDate, a synthesized clinical evidence resource. In the present study, we assess the generalizability of the sentence classifier to Medline abstracts. We applied the classification model to an independent gold standard of high quality clinical studies from Medline. Then, the classifier trained on UpToDate sentences was optimized by re-retraining the classifier with Medline abstracts and adding a sentence location feature. The previous classifier yielded an F-measure of 58% on Medline versus 67% on UpToDate. Re-training the classifier on Medline improved F-measure to 68%; and to 76% (p<0.01) after adding the sentence location feature. The classifier's model and input features generalized to Medline abstracts, but the classifier needed to be retrained on Medline to achieve equivalent performance. Sentence location provided additional contribution to the overall classification performance.

  18. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  19. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  20. Inherited proclivity: When should neurogenetics mitigate moral culpability for purposes of sentencing?

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, J Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Certain genes and neurobiology (?neurogenetics?) may predispose some people to violent behavior. Increasingly, defendants introduce neurogenetic evidence as a mitigating factor during criminal sentencing. Identifying the cause of a criminal act, biological or otherwise, does not necessarily preclude moral or legal liability. However, valid scientific evidence of an inherited proclivity sometimes should be considered when evaluating whether a defendant is less morally culpable for a crime and ...

  1. Video2Sentence and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    which outperforms a low-level audiovisual representation. Our novelty is to demonstrate the capabilities of semantic representations for translating ...demonstrate the translations using arbi- trary web videos and sentences related to everyday events. What is more, we will provide an automatically generated...explanation, in terms of concept detectors, on why a partic- ular video or sentence has been retrieved as the most likely translation . Categories and

  2. The role of remorse in sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    It has become an established feature of the South African sentencing practice to consider the level of remorse displayed by the accused (S v M (Centre for Child Law as Amicus Curiae) 2007 (2) SACR 539 (CC) par [115]). Genuine contrition or remorse is generally regarded as a mitigating factor whilst the absence thereof is considered to be an aggravating factor. Our courts link the presence of remorse with the prospect of the rehabilitation of the offender(Terblanche "Sentencing" 2010 Annual Su...

  3. Syntactic Priming during Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The…

  4. 28 CFR 2.10 - Date service of sentence commences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... imposed. (b) The imposition of a sentence of imprisonment for civil contempt shall interrupt the running of any sentence of imprisonment being served at the time the sentence of civil contempt is imposed... civil contempt is lifted. (c) Service of the sentence of a committed youth offender or person committed...

  5. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  6. On the Complexity of Chinese Sentences in Singapore Primary Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Saye Wee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the sentences from the Singapore primary school Chinese textbooks as the research material, using sentence as a unit; analyses sentence composition and sentence patterns, from quantity, distribution, characteristic and semantic type aspects to examine the progression of sentence complexity in Chinese language. The paper describes how the sentence develops in a systemic and complexity aspect in textbooks of various levels. The paper suggests 7 types of sentence pattern grading in term of complexity progression, and proposes a formula to examine and calculate the complexity index of a sentence. The findings derive a set of valuable data to expound the complexity of a sentence and discuss the variable factors influencing the complexity of sentences used in primary school Chinese textbooks.

  7. An iterative approach for the global estimation of sentence similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kajiwara

    Full Text Available Measuring the similarity between two sentences is often difficult due to their small lexical overlap. Instead of focusing on the sets of features in two given sentences between which we must measure similarity, we propose a sentence similarity method that considers two types of constraints that must be satisfied by all pairs of sentences in a given corpus. Namely, (a if two sentences share many features in common, then it is likely that the remaining features in each sentence are also related, and (b if two sentences contain many related features, then those two sentences are themselves similar. The two constraints are utilized in an iterative bootstrapping procedure that simultaneously updates both word and sentence similarity scores. Experimental results on SemEval 2015 Task 2 dataset show that the proposed iterative approach for measuring sentence semantic similarity is significantly better than the non-iterative counterparts.

  8. Sentence Repetition Test for Measurement of Grammatical Development in Farsi Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: valid identification, prevention, and treatment of language disorders are a high priority for the speech and language professionals. One method for studying language development is sentence repetition that is faster to implement and analysis than other procedures. The aim of this project was constructing sentence repetition test as a quick measure of grammatical potency in 2.5 to 4 year old children.Methods: Sentences appropriate for 2.5 to 4 year old children were selected during several stages by speech and language pathologist and linguists. The validity of sentences was assessed by professional masters in this theme. Subsequently, 41 sentences including those with 80% high validity were selected as the test sentences. Appropriate pictures were also provided with sentences. The test was administrated to 72 children in 3 groups (2.5-3, 3-3.5, and 3.5-4 year olds, gender matched. The reliability was administered with a test-retest design across a 2 weeks interval.Results: Content validity Index for this test was 80%. "Test-retest reliability” was used for reliability of this test. The Interclass correlation coefficient for this test was 0.95 and standard error measurement was 7.45. The average of scores for sentence repetition, between groups was significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p= 0.014.Conclusion: This sentence repetition test has the appropriate validity and reliability as well as the capability of proper and quick assessment (screening of grammatical development in 2.5 to 4 year old Persian speaking children.

  9. Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

    2004-01-01

    Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

  10. The Relationship between Prisoners' Educational Motives and Previous Incarceration, Sentence Length, and Sentence Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Beate Buanes; Manger, Terje

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Norwegian prisoners' educational motives, and how previous incarceration, sentence length, and sentence served influence such motives. Three motive categories emerged: future planning (Factor 1), social reasons and escapism (Factor 2), and competence building (Factor 3). Among prisoners who participated in…

  11. The effect of a sentence comprehension treatment on discourse comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Des Roches, Carrie; Villard, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2015-11-01

    improvements on the SPM/OM treatment (even when the task targeted in treatment was controlled for) and changes in performance on the TSEDC. Also, there was no significant improvement in TSEDC accuracy after treatment, even when various aspects of the narrative passages, including passage complexity (simple/complex), the nature of sentence type (semantically constrained/semantically reversible) and the nature of questions asked (explicit or implicit) were accounted for. Inherent differences between the sentence comprehension treatment and the TSEDC may have precluded generalization.

  12. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  13. A grammar-based semantic similarity algorithm for natural language sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Che; Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to "artificial language", such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  14. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  15. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Che Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  16. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  17. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  18. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  19. Effects of speech clarity on recognition memory for spoken sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research shows that inter-talker variability (i.e., changing the talker) affects recognition memory for speech signals. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of intra-talker variability (i.e. changes in speaking style within a talker) on the encoding of speech signals in memory. It is well established that speakers can modulate the characteristics of their own speech and produce a listener-oriented, intelligibility-enhancing speaking style in response to communication demands (e.g., when speaking to listeners with hearing impairment or non-native speakers of the language). Here we conducted two experiments to examine the role of speaking style variation in spoken language processing. First, we examined the extent to which clear speech provided benefits in challenging listening environments (i.e. speech-in-noise). Second, we compared recognition memory for sentences produced in conversational and clear speaking styles. In both experiments, semantically normal and anomalous sentences were included to investigate the role of higher-level linguistic information in the processing of speaking style variability. The results show that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech lead to improved speech recognition in challenging listening conditions and, crucially, to a substantial enhancement in recognition memory for sentences.

  20. Classification of clinically useful sentences in clinical evidence resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morid, Mohammad Amin; Fiszman, Marcelo; Raja, Kalpana; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Most patient care questions raised by clinicians can be answered by online clinical knowledge resources. However, important barriers still challenge the use of these resources at the point of care. To design and assess a method for extracting clinically useful sentences from synthesized online clinical resources that represent the most clinically useful information for directly answering clinicians' information needs. We developed a Kernel-based Bayesian Network classification model based on different domain-specific feature types extracted from sentences in a gold standard composed of 18 UpToDate documents. These features included UMLS concepts and their semantic groups, semantic predications extracted by SemRep, patient population identified by a pattern-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm, and cue words extracted by a feature selection technique. Algorithm performance was measured in terms of precision, recall, and F-measure. The feature-rich approach yielded an F-measure of 74% versus 37% for a feature co-occurrence method (pUpToDate sentences (p=0.62). The feature-rich approach significantly outperformed general baseline methods. This approach significantly outperformed classifiers based on a single type of feature. Different types of semantic features provided a unique contribution to overall classification performance. The classifier's model and features used for UpToDate generalized well to Medline abstracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Engaging the Public in the Development of Sentencing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Indermaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the lack of confidence in the courts provides an opportunity for us to consider the question of how sentencing policy is formulated and whether there is room for improvement in the process. It is argued in this paper that the legitimacy of the courts and public satisfaction with sentencing can both be enhanced if we were to carefully provide for the inclusion of an informed and deliberating public into policy formulation. Such a strategy would not only quell the loose and ill-defined ‘public opinion’ that characterises the tabloids; it would also enhance the transparency and the public acceptance of policy. The paper considers the continuum of possibilities for including the public from the gratuitous exploitation of the public voice by populists and media entrepreneurs using top-of-the-head opinion polls through to informed public opinion, public consultation process and ultimately the democratisation of sentencing policy. It is argued that this continuum can be seen as reflecting both the amount of true power given to the public voice as well as the amount of respect given to public input. Much of the fear of public inclusion in elite circles concerns public opinion as depicted in the media which is largely ‘public emotion’. It is argued that, when properly integrated, the inclusion of the public voice in the policy formulation process will have the same salutary effect that the jury has on the criminal trial.

  2. Syntactical Connections in Old English (Composite Sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Shalifova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the evolution of the composite sentence in English. Special attention is given to Old English and different ways of syntactical connection of the clauses within a composite sentence. It is specially stressed that the syntactical structure of Old English was determined by the nature of its morphology on the one hand, and by the relation between the spoken and the written forms of the language, on the other. The authors come to the conclusion that the whole Old English syntax was paratactic and that subordination in it was not developed enough.

  3. Sentencing Hearings in English Crown Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Enescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the expressive side of the sentencing hearing in three trials dealing respectively with a charge of battery, of indecent assault and of manslaughter. The communication phases of the sentence have been associated with underlying functions of the judge’s speech and with moments of moralization. The specificity of the case appears in the distancing from the defendant and in the moralizing style of the judges. We discuss the implication of this procedure for the administration of justice and for the defendant.

  4. Automatic selection of informative sentences: The sentences that can generate multiple choice questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional education cannot meet the expectation and requirement of a Smart City; it require more advance forms like active learning, ICT education etc. Multiple choice questions (MCQs play an important role in educational assessment and active learning which has a key role in Smart City education. MCQs are effective to assess the understanding of well-defined concepts. A fraction of all the sentences of a text contain well-defined concepts or information that can be asked as a MCQ. These informative sentences are required to be identified first for preparing multiple choice questions manually or automatically. In this paper we propose a technique for automatic identification of such informative sentences that can act as the basis of MCQ. The technique is based on parse structure similarity. A reference set of parse structures is compiled with the help of existing MCQs. The parse structure of a new sentence is compared with the reference structures and if similarity is found then the sentence is considered as a potential candidate. Next a rule-based post-processing module works on these potential candidates to select the final set of informative sentences. The proposed approach is tested in sports domain, where many MCQs are easily available for preparing the reference set of structures. The quality of the system selected sentences is evaluated manually. The experimental result shows that the proposed technique is quite promising.

  5. Sentence plausibility influences the link between action words and the perception of biological human movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette; Almecija, Yves; Badets, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the role of sentence plausibility in the functional link between action words and visual judgments of point-light human actions. Following the oral presentation of action verbs included in a plausible or implausible sentence, participants were asked to detect the presence of congruent or incongruent biological movements. Sentence plausibility was manipulated by inverting the positions of the subject and the complement (e.g., the neighbor is running in the garden vs the garden is running in the neighbor). The results showed that for both plausible and implausible sentences, the detection of human movements is greater following presentation of congruent action verbs. These results suggest that the presentation of action verbs affects the subsequent perception of point-light human movements, regardless of the associated semantic context. However, the link between action verbs and judgment of biological movements is strengthened when plausible sentences are presented, as illustrated by the increase in visual detection capacity in plausible congruent conditions. Concerning the analysis of the detection speed, the performance is only affected in plausible sentences with slower response times associated with the presentation of an incongruent action verb. These findings are discussed in light of an embodied mechanism and the domain of biological movement perception.

  6. Do verb bias effects on sentence production reflect sensitivity to comprehension or production factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Victor S.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Speakers should be motivated to produce easy-to-understand sentences, but they must successfully say harder-to-produce sentences. Four experiments assessed how verb bias influences the mention of the optional “that” in sentence-complement structures. Without the “that,” such sentences can be incorrectly interpreted as including direct objects (garden paths), and especially so after direct-object biased verbs (compared to embedded clause biased verbs). But direct-object biased verbs are rarely produced as sentence-complement structures and so they might be harder to produce as such. Experiments 1 and 2 show that speakers mention the “that” more after direct-object biased verbs than after embedded clause biased verbs. Experiment 3a shows that sentences with verbs biased toward neither direct objects nor embedded subjects were often produced with the “that,” and Experiment 3b shows that post-verbal noun phrases after neither-biased verbs are interpreted as direct objects less than direct-object biased verbs and so should cause a milder garden path. Thus, frequent “that” mention is not sensitive to the tendency of a verb to be followed by a direct object, but by how rarely the verb has been produced in the formulated structure. PMID:23286581

  7. A Comparison of Alzheimer\\'s Patients and Healthy Elders in Relationship between Components of Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh A'lemi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between working memory and sentence comprehension. Patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer´s type (DAT and matched older volunteers were tested on a battery of working memory tests, as well as on test of sentence comprehension. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Statistical population included all patients with Alzheimer disease who were registered in the center of Alzheimer (Imam Ali in Tehran.10 patients randomly were selected among them, according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. For data collection, epidemiological information questionnaire, Mental Mini State Examination (MMSE, working memory tests and sentence comprehension were applied. Data were analyzed by Independent T-test and correlation analyses. Results: Patients had impaired central executive processes in working memory (P=0.006, but showed normal effects of phonological and articulatory variables on span (P=0.480. On the sentence comprehension tasks (simple and complicated sentences, DAT patients showed significant differences with their peers (simple s. P=0.001, complicated s. P=0.004. Impairment in the central executive processes of working memory in DAT patients was correlated with the complicated sentences on the sentence comprehension tasks. Conclusion: The results suggest that patients with DAT have working memory impairments that are related to their ability to map the meaning on sentences on to depictions of events in the world.

  8. Archival Sources for Legal Biography at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...

  9. Reduction of Dutch Sentences for Automatic Subtitling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.; Daelemans, W.; Höthker, A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare machine learning approaches for sentence length reduction for automatic generation of subtitles for deaf and hearing-impaired people with a method which relies on hand-crafted deletion rules. We describe building the necessary resources for this task: a parallel corpus of examples of news

  10. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    However, in view of the peremptory wording20 it is submitted that it would generally be advisable for the child justice court to comply with section 71(1) and to request a pre-sentence report from a probation officer. Such an approach would not prevent these other experts from also providing the court with a report on ...

  11. A systematic analysis of sentence update detection for temporal summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gârbacea, C.; Kanoulas, E.; Jose, J.M.; Hauff, C.; Altıngovde, I.S.; Song, D.; Albakour, D.; Watt, S.; Tait, J.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal summarization algorithms filter large volumes of streaming documents and emit sentences that constitute salient event updates. Systems developed typically combine in an ad-hoc fashion traditional retrieval and document summarization algorithms to filter sentences inside documents. Retrieval

  12. Enhancing Possible Sentence through Cooperative Learning (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sharon J.; Duffelmeyer, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes using Think-Pair-Share (a three-step cooperative learning activity) to complement the sentence-generation phase of the Possible Sentences Activity, a highly recommended prereading vocabulary strategy. (SR)

  13. Specificational Copular Sentences in Russian and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian sentence (1, from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979, and English (2 are examples of specificational copular sentences: NP2 provides the ‘specification’, or ‘value’ of the description given by NP1. (1Vladelec ètogo osobnjaka – juvelir Fužere. owner-NOM this-GENmansion-GENjeweler-NOM Fuzhere ‘The owner of this mansion is the jeweler Fuzhere.’ (2The biggest problem is the recent budget cuts. Williams (1983 and Partee (1986 argued that specificational sentences like (2 result from “inversion around the copula”: that NP1 is a predicate (type and NP2 is the subject, a referential expression of type e. Partee (1999 argued that such an analysis is right for Russian, citing arguments from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979 that NP2 is the subject of sentence (1. But in that paper I argued that differences between Russian and English suggest that in English there is no such inversion, contra Williams (1983 and Partee (1986: the subject of (2 is NP1, and both NPs are of type e, but with NP1 less referential than NP2, perhaps “attributive”. Now, based on classic work by Roger Higgins on English and by Paducheva and Uspensky on Russian, and on a wealth of recent work by Mikkelsen, Geist, Romero, Schlenker, and others, a reexamination the semantics and structure of specificational copular sentences in Russian and English in a typological perspective supports a partly different set of conclusions: (i NP1 is of type and NP2 is of type e in both English and Russian; (ii but NP1 is subject in English, while NP2 is subject in Russian; and (iii NP1 in specificational sentences is universally topical (discourse-old, but only in some languages (like English is that accomplished by putting NP1 into canonical subject position. In other words, both English (2 and Russian (1 move the -type NP1 into some sentence-initial position for information-structure reasons, but in English NP1 ends up as syntactic subject

  14. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  15. Unscrambling Jumbled Sentences: An Authentic Task for English Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely…

  16. Thomas Mofolo's sentence design in Chaka approached in translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofolo's sentence design in Chakais a challenge to the translator, not only because of the significant length of the sentences, but ... Sentence design in this paper will be approached as a narrative facility novelists ex- plore for creative .... pris grand soin de cacher son aventure avec Nandi, mais bientôt tout de monde en eut.

  17. The Child Justice Act : Procedural Sentencing Issues | Terblanche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a ...

  18. 75 FR 13680 - Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Sentence: Technical Change AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) regulations on sentence commutation to.... Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau...

  19. Sentence Patterns in Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter | Chukwukaelo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to isolate, describe and evaluate sentence patterns in Ba's So Long a Letter with a view to determining their stylistic significance. Such stylistic devices as foregrounding, sentence fragmentation pattern repetition and category rule violation. The emphasis is on determining how the author's sentences ...

  20. A grammar of newspaper editorial language: The complex sentence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have limited ourselves to the complex sentence, and specifically, to the dependent clause as it occurs in these editorials. At the end of the analysis, we identified the following patterns: (a) only declarative sentences were used, (b) there was overwhelming reliance on complex sentences and (c) most of the complex ...

  1. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  2. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  3. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  4. Factors Affecting Sentence-in-Noise Recognition for Normal Hearing Listeners and Listeners with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Sun; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Jae Hee

    2017-07-01

    Despite amplified speech, listeners with hearing loss often report more difficulties understanding speech in background noise compared to normalhearing listeners. Various factors such as deteriorated hearing sensitivity, age, suprathreshold temporal resolution, and reduced capacity of working memory and attention can attribute to their sentence-in-noise problems. The present study aims to determine a primary explanatory factor for sentence-in-noise recognition difficulties in adults with or without hearing loss. Forty normal-hearing (NH) listeners (23-73 years) and thirty-four hearing-impaired (HI) listeners (24-80 years) participated for experimental testing. For both NH and HI group, the younger, middle-aged, older listeners were included. The sentence recognition score in noise was measured at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The ability of temporal resolution was evaluated by gap detection performance using the Gaps-In-Noise test. Listeners' short-term auditory working memory span was measured by forward and backward digit spans. Overall, the HI listeners' sentence-in-noise recognition, temporal resolution abilities, and digit forward and backward spans were poorer compared to the NH listeners. Both NH and HI listeners had a substantial variability in performance. For NH listeners, only the digit backward span explained a small proportion of the variance in their sentence-in-noise performance. For the HI listeners, all the performance was influenced by age, and their sentence-in-noise difficulties were associated with various factors such as high-frequency hearing sensitivity, suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities, and working memory span. For the HI listeners, the critical predictors of the sentence-in-noise performance were composite measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity and suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities. The primary explanatory factors for the sentence-in-noise recognition performance differ between NH and HI listeners. Factors

  5. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Italian Decree D.lgs 231/2001--"Regulations regarding administrative responsibilities of corporate bodies of Companies and Associations including those not legally recognized"--an organizational model for the healthcare area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Giovanni; Fiore, Rosalia; Franco, Claudia; Pimpinella, Giovanni; Piscioneri, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare organizations must implement organizational and management models of regulation and control systems for effectively preventing possible administrative torts by personnel. We define an organizational management and control model for healthcare organizations, based on the legal dispositions of Decree n.231/2001. The model identifies critical points in the administrative and healthcare services delivery processes that are at high-risk of violations to the code. Its primary aim is to prevent torts by the personnel and safeguard the organization at the same time.

  7. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  8. When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, Jason W.; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.

    2013-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing. PMID:23750141

  9. When language switching has no apparent cost: Lexical access in sentence context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Gullifer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002 in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language nonselective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing.

  10. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  11. GENERATIVE WORDS OF ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH SENTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    This studies or the aim of the research is to deals the generative “morphems, words or “simple or compound[1]” sentence. The full congrast of Albanian and English language in this phenomena of generative is in morphology and in syntactic structure. This accepts of studies will comparted, contrasted and generated between two languages. This studies deals with noun (noun phrase), verb (verb phrase) of syntactic structure between Albanian and English language. In both of languages, most linguis...

  12. Neural networks mediating sentence reading in the deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Hirshorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the neural bases of sentence reading in deaf populations. To better understand the relative role of deafness and English knowledge in shaping the neural networks that mediate sentence reading, three populations with different degrees of English knowledge and depth of hearing loss were included – deaf signers, oral deaf and hearing individuals. The three groups were matched for reading comprehension and scanned while reading sentences. A similar neural network of left perisylvian areas was observed, supporting the view of a shared network of areas for reading despite differences in hearing and English knowledge. However, differences were observed, in particular in the auditory cortex, with deaf signers and oral deaf showing greatest bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG recruitment as compared to hearing individuals. Importantly, within deaf individuals, the same STG area in the left hemisphere showed greater recruitment as hearing loss increased. To further understand the functional role of such auditory cortex re-organization after deafness, connectivity analyses were performed from the STG regions identified above. Connectivity from the left STG toward areas typically associated with semantic processing (BA45 and thalami was greater in deaf signers and in oral deaf as compared to hearing. In contrast, connectivity from left STG toward areas identified with speech-based processing was greater in hearing and in oral deaf as compared to deaf signers. These results support the growing literature indicating recruitment of auditory areas after congenital deafness for visually-mediated language functions, and establish that both auditory deprivation and language experience shape its functional reorganization. Implications for differential reliance on semantic vs. phonological pathways during reading in the three groups is discussed.

  13. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility.

  14. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on processing demands during sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea eWendt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure or complex (object-first sentence structure and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity. The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher working memory capacity showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower working memory capacity. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility.

  15. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level. PMID:24954951

  16. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level.

  17. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  18. Relative Weighting of Semantic and Syntactic Cues in Native and Non-Native Listeners' Recognition of English Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Koenig, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Non-native listeners do not recognize English sentences as effectively as native listeners, especially in noise. It is not entirely clear to what extent such group differences arise from differences in relative weight of semantic versus syntactic cues. This study quantified the use and weighting of these contextual cues via Boothroyd and Nittrouer's j and k factors. The j represents the probability of recognizing sentences with or without context, whereas the k represents the degree to which context improves recognition performance. Four groups of 13 normal-hearing young adult listeners participated. One group consisted of native English monolingual (EMN) listeners, whereas the other three consisted of non-native listeners contrasting in their language dominance and first language: English-dominant Russian-English, Russian-dominant Russian-English, and Spanish-dominant Spanish-English bilinguals. All listeners were presented three sets of four-word sentences: high-predictability sentences included both semantic and syntactic cues, low-predictability sentences included syntactic cues only, and zero-predictability sentences included neither semantic nor syntactic cues. Sentences were presented at 65 dB SPL binaurally in the presence of speech-spectrum noise at +3 dB SNR. Listeners orally repeated each sentence and recognition was calculated for individual words as well as the sentence as a whole. Comparable j values across groups for high-predictability, low-predictability, and zero-predictability sentences suggested that all listeners, native and non-native, utilized contextual cues to recognize English sentences. Analysis of the k factor indicated that non-native listeners took advantage of syntax as effectively as EMN listeners. However, only English-dominant bilinguals utilized semantics to the same extent as EMN listeners; semantics did not provide a significant benefit for the two non-English-dominant groups. When combined, semantics and syntax benefitted EMN

  19. The Role of Working Memory in Planning and Generating Written Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald T. Kellogg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning a sentence with concrete concepts whose referents can be mentally imaged has been shown in past work to require the limited resources of visual working memory. By contrast, grammatically encoding such concepts as lexical items in a syntactic structure requires verbal working memory. We report an experiment designed to demonstrate a double dissociation of these two stores of working memory by manipulating the difficulty of (1 planning by comparing related concepts to unrelated concepts and (2 grammatical encoding of an English sentence in active voice versus the more complex structure of the passive voice. College students (N = 46 composed sentences that were to include two noun prompts (related versus unrelated while concurrently performing either a visual or a verbal distracting task. Instructions to produce either active or passive sentences were manipulated between groups. The results surprisingly indicated that the supposedly easier planning with related concepts made a large demand on verbal working memory, rather than unrelated concepts demanding more visual working memory. The temporal dynamics of the sentence production process appear to best account for the unexpected findings.

  20. Sentence comprehension in Slovak-speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Jana; Horváthová, Ľubica; Králová, Mária; Cséfalvay, Zsolt

    2017-07-01

    According to some studies, sentence comprehension is diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but they differ on what underlies the sentence comprehension impairment. Sentence comprehension in AD patients has been studied mainly in the English language. It is less clear how patients with AD speaking a morphologically rich language with grammatical morphemes indicating case and through it even thematic roles process reversible sentences. To compare the comprehension of various syntactic constructions in Slovak-speaking AD patients and cognitively intact elderly people. We were concerned with the influence of the following aspects on sentence comprehension: its length, the order of thematic roles and the presence of a morphological cue placed on the first noun (or at the beginning of a sentence). We used our own Slovak test of sentence comprehension based on matching pictures to spoken sentences. These sentences contain transitive verbs and two nouns (person/animal), one functioning as a subject and the other as an object, which both can perform the action expressed by the verb. We assessed 62 healthy elderly people and two groups of AD patients. The first group consisted of 34 participants with a mild degree of AD and the other group of 43 participants with a moderate degree of AD. Statistical comparisons showed that the elderly controls were significantly better in the comprehension of simple active OVS (object-verb-subject word order) sentences and complex EO sentences (a centre-embedded relative clause with a relative pronoun substituting for an object) than patients with a mild degree of AD. In patients with a moderate degree of AD, comprehension of all tested sentence types was worse than in healthy elderly people. The results also indicated that even mild AD patients have more serious problems with processing sentences with non-canonical order of thematic roles regardless of a morphological cue at the beginning of a sentence. The results point to

  1. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  2. How Fuzzy-Trace Theory Predicts True and False Memories for Words, Sentences, and Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Weldon, Rebecca B; Brainerd, Charles J

    2016-03-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory posits independent verbatim and gist memory processes, a distinction that has implications for such applied topics as eyewitness testimony. This distinction between precise, literal verbatim memory and meaning-based, intuitive gist accounts for memory paradoxes including dissociations between true and false memory, false memories outlasting true memories, and developmental increases in false memory. We provide an overview of fuzzy-trace theory, and, using mathematical modeling, also present results demonstrating verbatim and gist memory in true and false recognition of narrative sentences and inferences. Results supported fuzzy-trace theory's dual-process view of memory: verbatim memory was relied on to reject meaning-consistent, but unpresented, sentences (via recollection rejection). However, verbatim memory was often not retrieved, and gist memory supported acceptance of these sentences (via similarity judgment and phantom recollection). Thus, mathematical models of words can be extended to explain memory for complex stimuli, such as narratives, the kind of memory interrogated in law.

  3. Pregnancy and the 40-Year Prison Sentence

    OpenAIRE

    Viterna, Jocelyn; Bautista, Jose Santos Guardado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase ?abortion is murder? can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related ?crimes.? Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged ...

  4. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  5. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  6. Sentence processing: linking language to motor chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Thill, Serge; Ziemke, Tom; Borghi, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence in cognitive science and neuroscience points towards the existence of a deep interconnection between cognition, perception and action. According to this embodied perspective language is grounded in the sensorimotor system and language understanding is based on a mental simulation process (Jeannerod, 2007; Gallese, 2008; Barsalou, 2009). This means that during action words and sentence comprehension the same perception, action, and emotion mechanisms implied during interaction with objects are recruited. Among the neural underpinnings of this simulation process an important role is played by a sensorimotor matching system known as the mirror neuron system (Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004). Despite a growing number of studies, the precise dynamics underlying the relation between language and action are not yet well understood. In fact, experimental studies are not always coherent as some report that language processing interferes with action execution while others find facilitation. In this work we present a detailed neural network model capable of reproducing experimentally observed influences of the processing of action-related sentences on the execution of motor sequences. The proposed model is based on three main points. The first is that the processing of action-related sentences causes the resonance of motor and mirror neurons encoding the corresponding actions. The second is that there exists a varying degree of crosstalk between neuronal populations depending on whether they encode the same motor act, the same effector or the same action-goal. The third is the fact that neuronal populations' internal dynamics, which results from the combination of multiple processes taking place at different time scales, can facilitate or interfere with successive activations of the same or of partially overlapping pools.

  7. Sentence Processing: Linking Language to Motor Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Thill, Serge; Ziemke, Tom; Borghi, Anna M.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence in cognitive science and neuroscience points towards the existence of a deep interconnection between cognition, perception and action. According to this embodied perspective language is grounded in the sensorimotor system and language understanding is based on a mental simulation process (Jeannerod, 2007; Gallese, 2008; Barsalou, 2009). This means that during action words and sentence comprehension the same perception, action, and emotion mechanisms implied during interaction with objects are recruited. Among the neural underpinnings of this simulation process an important role is played by a sensorimotor matching system known as the mirror neuron system (Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004). Despite a growing number of studies, the precise dynamics underlying the relation between language and action are not yet well understood. In fact, experimental studies are not always coherent as some report that language processing interferes with action execution while others find facilitation. In this work we present a detailed neural network model capable of reproducing experimentally observed influences of the processing of action-related sentences on the execution of motor sequences. The proposed model is based on three main points. The first is that the processing of action-related sentences causes the resonance of motor and mirror neurons encoding the corresponding actions. The second is that there exists a varying degree of crosstalk between neuronal populations depending on whether they encode the same motor act, the same effector or the same action-goal. The third is the fact that neuronal populations’ internal dynamics, which results from the combination of multiple processes taking place at different time scales, can facilitate or interfere with successive activations of the same or of partially overlapping pools. PMID:20725506

  8. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal responsibility is established, including legal custody and/or guardianship, as appropriate, in accordance with...

  9. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  10. Calculation of Sentence Semantic Similarity Based on Syntactic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the problem of single direction of the solution of the existing sentence similarity algorithms, an algorithm for sentence semantic similarity based on syntactic structure was proposed. Firstly, analyze the sentence constituent, then through analysis convert sentence similarity into words similarity on the basis of syntactic structure, then convert words similarity into concept similarity through words disambiguation, and, finally, realize the semantic similarity comparison. It also gives the comparison rules in more detail for the modifier words in the sentence which also have certain contributions to the sentence. Under the same test condition, the experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more intuitive understanding of people and has higher accuracy.

  11. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrophysiological signatures of phonological and semantic maintenance in sentence repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Kielar, Aneta; Panamsky, Lilia; Links, Kira A; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C

    2017-08-01

    Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay. After MEG, participants completed a cued recall task testing how much they remembered of each sentence. Greater semantic engagement relative to phonological rehearsal was hypothesized for 1) sentences vs. word lists, 2) concrete vs. abstract sentences, and 3) well recalled vs. poorly recalled sentences. During auditory perception and the memory delay period, we found highly left-lateralized activation in the form of 8-30 Hz event-related desynchronization. Compared to abstract sentences, concrete sentences recruited posterior temporal cortex bilaterally, demonstrating a neural signature for the engagement of visual imagery in sentence maintenance. Maintenance of arbitrary word lists recruited right hemisphere dorsal regions, reflecting increased demands on phonological rehearsal. Sentences that were ultimately poorly recalled in the post-test also elicited extra right hemisphere activation when they were held in short-term memory, suggesting increased demands on phonological resources. Frontal midline theta oscillations also reflected phonological rather than semantic demand, being increased for word lists and poorly recalled sentences. These findings highlight distinct neural resources for phonological and semantic maintenance, with phonological maintenance associated with stronger oscillatory modulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THE FUNCTION OF SIMPLE SENTENCE BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have same kind of sentences (simple, compound or complex sentence). The major of elements or constituents that can be found in clauses are subject, predicate, object, complement etc. For Albanian and English most linguists agree on the needs to recognize at least the following word classes: noun, verb, adjective, preposition, adverb, determinative and conjunction. Each of these words classes is illustrated in the sentence below. The noun or noun phrase can be subjec...

  14. [Analysis of judicial sentences issued against traumatologists between 1995 and 2011 as regards medical negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Cita, Z; Perea-Pérez, B; Albarrán-Juan, M E; Labajo-González, M E; López-Durán, L; Marco-Martínez, F; Santiago-Saéz, A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery is one of the specialities with most complaints due to its scope and complexity. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of the complaints made against medical specialists in Traumatology, taking into account those variables that might have an influence both on the presenting of the complaint as well as on the resolving of the process. An analysis was performed on 303 legal judgments (1995-2011) collected in the health legal judgements archive of the Madrid School of Medicine, which is linked to the Westlaw Aranzadi data base. Civil jurisdiction was the most used. The specific processes with most complaints were bone-joint disorders followed by vascular-nerve problems and infections. The injury claimed against most was in the lower limb, particularly the knee. The most frequent general cause of complaint was surgical treatment error, followed by diagnostic error. There was lack of information in 14.9%. There was sentencing in 49.8% of the cases, with compensation mainly being less than 50,000 euros. Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery is a speciality prone to complaints due to malpractice. The number of sentences against traumatologists is high, but compensations are usually less than 50,000 euros. The main reason for sentencing is surgical treatment error; thus being the basic surgical procedure and where precautions should be maximised. The judgements due to lack of information are high, with adequate doctor-patient communication being essential as well as the correct completion of the informed consent. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to

  16. Civil Legal Services and Medical-Legal Partnerships Needed by the Homeless Population: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.

  17. Sentence production in rehabilitation of agrammatism: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Hirata, Fernanda Naito; de Mendonça, Lúcia Iracema Zanotto

    2014-01-01

    Agrammatism is characterized by morphosyntactic deficits in production of sentences. Studies dealing with the treatment of these deficits are scarce and their results controversial. The present study describes the rehabilitation of a case diagnosed as chronic Broca's aphasia, with agrammatism, using a method directed to sentence structural deficits. The method aims to expand the grammatical repertoire by training production of sentences with support from contexts that stimulate actions and dialogues. The patient showed positive results on all types of sentences trained and generalized the gains to spontaneous speech. However, these benefits were not sustained in the long term. PMID:29213917

  18. Interference between sentence processing and probabilistic implicit sequence learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso Nemeth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During sentence processing we decode the sequential combination of words, phrases or sentences according to previously learned rules. The computational mechanisms and neural correlates of these rules are still much debated. Other key issue is whether sentence processing solely relies on language-specific mechanisms or is it also governed by domain-general principles.In the present study, we investigated the relationship between sentence processing and implicit sequence learning in a dual-task paradigm in which the primary task was a non-linguistic task (Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task for measuring probabilistic implicit sequence learning, while the secondary task were a sentence comprehension task relying on syntactic processing. We used two control conditions: a non-linguistic one (math condition and a linguistic task (word processing task. Here we show that the sentence processing interfered with the probabilistic implicit sequence learning task, while the other two tasks did not produce a similar effect.Our findings suggest that operations during sentence processing utilize resources underlying non-domain-specific probabilistic procedural learning. Furthermore, it provides a bridge between two competitive frameworks of language processing. It appears that procedural and statistical models of language are not mutually exclusive, particularly for sentence processing. These results show that the implicit procedural system is engaged in sentence processing, but on a mechanism level, language might still be based on statistical computations.

  19. Interference between sentence processing and probabilistic implicit sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Csifcsak, Gabor; Szvoboda, Gabor; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2011-03-08

    During sentence processing we decode the sequential combination of words, phrases or sentences according to previously learned rules. The computational mechanisms and neural correlates of these rules are still much debated. Other key issue is whether sentence processing solely relies on language-specific mechanisms or is it also governed by domain-general principles. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between sentence processing and implicit sequence learning in a dual-task paradigm in which the primary task was a non-linguistic task (Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task for measuring probabilistic implicit sequence learning), while the secondary task were a sentence comprehension task relying on syntactic processing. We used two control conditions: a non-linguistic one (math condition) and a linguistic task (word processing task). Here we show that the sentence processing interfered with the probabilistic implicit sequence learning task, while the other two tasks did not produce a similar effect. Our findings suggest that operations during sentence processing utilize resources underlying non-domain-specific probabilistic procedural learning. Furthermore, it provides a bridge between two competitive frameworks of language processing. It appears that procedural and statistical models of language are not mutually exclusive, particularly for sentence processing. These results show that the implicit procedural system is engaged in sentence processing, but on a mechanism level, language might still be based on statistical computations.

  20. Sentence Comprehension as Mental Simulation: An Information-Theoretic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Vigliocco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the mental representation resulting from sentence comprehension is not (just an abstract symbolic structure but a “mental simulation” of the state-of-affairs described by the sentence. We present a particular formalization of this theory and show how it gives rise to quantifications of the amount of syntactic and semantic information conveyed by each word in a sentence. These information measures predict simulated word-processing times in a dynamic connectionist model of sentence comprehension as mental simulation. A quantitatively similar relation between information content and reading time is known to be present in human reading-time data.

  1. Legal Treatment of the Victim-Offender Relationship in Crimes of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Leonore M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether the victim-offender relationship plays a role in determining the original charge, crime conviction, and sentence length of inmates in prison for violent crimes. Results indicate the victim-offender relationship is related to the legal processing in paradoxical ways. Thus, although nonstranger offenders are charged with and…

  2. Can a Patriarchal World Be Corrected by a Criminal Law? Feminist Struggles, Penal Justice and Legal Reform in France (1970–1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bérard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes (1 the relationship between the demands made by feminist movements of the 1970s in cases of sexual violence and criticism of the criminal justice system by these movements and other groups, including the prisoners’ movement; and (2 the relationship between this debate and the legal process of reforming the definition and punishment of rape. Two periods are analyzed. In the early 1970s, the common cause of very different movements targeting the law was the priority given to the defense against forms of repression and disciplinary institutions. After 1975, the demands of feminist and prisoner movements diverged and even conflicted. One camp called for an offensive approach to changing the legal punishment of rape whereas the other camp fought against penal reforms imposed by the government and, more specifically, against long sentences.

  3. The use of digit and sentence repetition in the identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a great need for an instrument that can accurately identify children with language problems early, regardless of the language(s) they speak. Certain tasks have been identified as potential markers of language impairment, including sentence repetition and digit repetition (Ziethe, Eysholdt and Doellinger 2013: 1).

  4. Assessing Measurement Invariance for Spanish Sentence Repetition and Morphology Elicitation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gray, Shelley; Restrepo, M. Adelaida

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate evidence supporting the construct validity of two grammatical tasks (sentence repetition, morphology elicitation) included in the Spanish Screener for Language Impairment in Children (Restrepo, Gorin, & Gray, 2013). We evaluated if the tasks measured the targeted grammatical skills in the same…

  5. Sentence alignment using feed forward neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Mohamed Abdel; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    2006-12-01

    Parallel corpora have become an essential resource for work in multi lingual natural language processing. However, sentence aligned parallel corpora are more efficient than non-aligned parallel corpora for cross language information retrieval and machine translation applications. In this paper, we present a new approach to align sentences in bilingual parallel corpora based on feed forward neural network classifier. A feature parameter vector is extracted from the text pair under consideration. This vector contains text features such as length, punctuate score, and cognate score values. A set of manually prepared training data has been assigned to train the feed forward neural network. Another set of data was used for testing. Using this new approach, we could achieve an error reduction of 60% over length based approach when applied on English-Arabic parallel documents. Moreover this new approach is valid for any language pair and it is quite flexible approach since the feature parameter vector may contain more/less or different features than that we used in our system such as lexical match feature.

  6. Sentence processing: linking language to motor chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Chersi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence in cognitive science and neuroscience is pointing towards the existence of a deep interconnection between cognition, perception and action. According to this embodied perspective language understanding is based on a mental simulation process involving a sensory-motor matching system known as the mirror neuron system. However, the precise dynamics underling the relation between language and action are not yet well understood. In fact, experimental studies are not always coherent as some report that language processing interferes with action execution while others find facilitation. In this work we present a detailed neural network model capable of reproducing experimentally observed influences of the processing of action-related sentences on the execution of motor sequences. The proposed model is based on three main points. The first is that the processing of action-related sentences causes the resonance of motor and mirror neurons encoding the corresponding actions. The second is that there exists a varying degree of crosstalk between neuronal populations depending on whether they encode the same motor act, the same effector or the same action-goal. The third is the fact that neuronal populations’ internal dynamics, which results from the combination of multiple processes taking place at different time scales, can facilitate or interfere with successive activations of the same or of partially overlapping pools.

  7. Child writers' construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-02-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development.

  8. Child writers’ construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development. PMID:21383865

  9. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  10. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  11. [SENTREP test: two lists of sentences of equal length to check the attention and the presence of linguistic maturity problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedó, M A

    Comparing the syntactic complexity of the sentences, in addition to its length, may help detect the linguistic weaknesses of Spanish-speaking subjects. The test consists of two lists of sentences of similar length: a list of sentences of well-controlled length, based on the repetition of bisyllabic words (such as the ones suggested by Kagan & Klein) and adding length to the sentences in two syllables steps; and a parallel list where a series of linguistic complexities are included (negatives, persons, numbers, tenses, composite or multiple verbs, relatives, etc) where length increases one syllable at a time. We administered this test to 41, 44, 62 and 18 student aged 6, 9, 12 and 15 at a upper-class school in Bogotá; and to parallel groups of 20 gifted students (in a school for gifted children near Bogotá) and 40 disabled Hispanic non-readers attending an independent special program. Below a certain developmental level (the age of 9) student must face complexity as one more difficulty that diminishes the length of the repeated sentence. On the contrary: after this age, their mastery of the structure of language acts as a leading thread that allows the repetition of longer and longer sentences, much longer than their simple attention span. This diagnostic approach adds an unexpected approach to the very quick observation and detection of both attentional and linguistic problems.

  12. Exploring the function of relative sentences in New Testament Greek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-14

    Aug 14, 2015 ... smart phone or mobile device to read online. Introduction. The relative construction, which commonly consists of an antecedent and a relative sentence, ... light of the above. The function of relative sentences in some modern languages. In many modern languages, the notion of 'restriction' has played an ...

  13. Sentence comprehension and word repetition : A positron emission tomography investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Paans, A.M.J.; Wijers, A.A.; Zwarts, F.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography, visual presentation of sentences was shown to cause increased regional cerebral blood flow relative to word Lists in the left lateral anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, attributable to cognitive processes that occur during sentence comprehension in

  14. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  15. 76 FR 41332 - Sentencing Guidelines for the United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(o), and specifies in what circumstances and by what amount sentences of... amendment to a policy statement and commentary made pursuant to its authority under 28 U.S.C. 994(a) and (u... as a Result of Amended Guideline Range) clarifying when, and to what extent, a sentencing reduction...

  16. Ambiguity resolution in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for sentence structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; de Kamps, Marc; Besold, Tarek R.; Kühnberger, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We simulate two examples of ambiguity resolution found in human language processing in a neural blackboard architecture for sentence representation and processing. The architecture also accounts for a related garden path effect. The architecture represents and processes sentences in terms of

  17. Semantic Similarity, Predictability, and Models of Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Douglas; Yun, Hongoak; Koenig, Jean-Pierre; Mauner, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The effects of word predictability and shared semantic similarity between a target word and other words that could have taken its place in a sentence on language comprehension are investigated using data from a reading time study, a sentence completion study, and linear mixed-effects regression modeling. We find that processing is facilitated if…

  18. Paradoxical effects of compulsive perseveration : Sentence repetition causes semantic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, Catharina L.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Dek, Eliane C P

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) perform perseverative checking behavior to reduce uncertainty, but studies have shown that this ironically increases uncertainty. Some patients also tend to perseveratively repeat sentences. The aim of this study was to examine whether sentence

  19. Transformations. I. The Effect of DAF on Sentence Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, David

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis based on the psycholinguistic derivation of sentences was tested. The task required that sentences temporarily stored in memory be transformed and spoken with delayed auditory feedback. Available from Plenum Publishing Corp., 227 W. 17th St., New York, NY 10011. (Author/RM)

  20. Community Sentencing of Petty Offenders: An Exploration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With such favourable attitudes, it is recommended that community sentencing be considered as an alternative to custodial sentencing of petty offenders. Thus, there is the urgent call for a reexamination of Ghana's criminal justice system towards embracing some forms of restorative justice such as community service.

  1. A comparison of two pedagogical systems of sentence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes, compares, and analyzes the slashes-and-vertical-lines model of sentence analysis and the SPOAC model, both of which were designed with pedagogical purposes in mind.......This paper describes, compares, and analyzes the slashes-and-vertical-lines model of sentence analysis and the SPOAC model, both of which were designed with pedagogical purposes in mind....

  2. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  3. The Timing of Verb Selection in Japanese Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Shota; Slevc, L. Robert; Phillips, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Many influential models of sentence production (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994; Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987; Levelt, 1989) emphasize the central role of verbs in structural encoding, and thus predict that verbs should be selected early in sentence formulation, possibly even before the phonological encoding of the first constituent (Ferreira, 2000).…

  4. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    that reading-time methods can be used to obtain relevant data since difficulties with comprehending ungrammatical sentences presumably translate into prolonged reading-times. In Chapter 4, the phenomenon of non-WH extraction in Danish is presented. Such extraction is restricted, and linguistic theories...... processing, and I illustrate how the model can implement incremental processing. I then suggest which processing predictions can be derived for the linguistic theories of extraction constraints presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 6 presents two sets of acceptability-judgment and reading-time experiments...... on constraints on extraction out of adverbial clauses. The first set of experiments shows that difficulties with extraction out of adverbial clauses appear around the clause boundary. The second set of experiments investigated whether difficulties with extraction out of adverbial clauses are ameliorated when...

  5. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samothrakis, Spyridon; Fasli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman's model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear.

  6. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Samothrakis

    Full Text Available Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman's model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear.

  7. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samothrakis, Spyridon; Fasli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman’s model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear. PMID:26524352

  8. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  9. The Impact of the Indeterminate Sentence on an Inmate Social System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Clifford

    1983-01-01

    Describes how indeterminate sentencing creates unique adaptations on the part of inmates, creating different kinds of difficulties for the staff. Questions whether this type of sentencing facilitates rehabilitation any more than traditional mandatory sentencing. (JAC)

  10. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain "sentence optotypes" with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189±26wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r=0.85, P<0.0001). The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The Legality and Propriety of the Trials of Abu Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arnell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abu Hamza is serving a life sentence in an American prison, having been convicted of terrorist offences in 2014. He was previously imprisoned in the United Kingdom. Two central questions arise from his case; whether the UK and US acted lawfully under international law in applying their criminal law against Hamza, and whether that application of law was appropriate. The answers to these questions are that Hamza’s subjection to legal process was of dubious legality and not completely proper. The links between the UK and the US and Hamza, be they territory, nationality or otherwise, were in some instances insufficient per se and lacking relative to third states. His case is a story of justice imperfectly done.  Keywords: Legality; Proper Law; Extraterritorial Jurisdiction; Extradition; Abu Hamza

  12. Language mapping with verbs and sentences in awake surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, Adrià; Miceli, Gabriele

    2014-06-01

    Intraoperative language mapping in awake surgery is typically conducted by asking the patient to produce automatic speech and to name objects. These tasks might not map language with sufficient accuracy, as some linguistic processes can only be triggered by tasks that use verbs and sentences. Verb and sentence processing tasks are currently used during surgery, albeit sparsely. Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science records were searched to retrieve studies focused on language mapping with verbs/sentences in awake surgery. We review the tasks reported in the published literature, spell out the language processes assessed by each task, list the cortical and subcortical regions whose stimulation inhibited language processing, and consider the types of errors elicited by stimulation in each region. We argue that using verb tasks allows a more thorough evaluation of language functions. We also argue that verb tasks are preferable to object naming tasks in the case of frontal lesions, as lesion and neuroimaging data demonstrate that these regions play a critical role in verb and sentence processing. We discuss the clinical value of these tasks and the current limitations of the procedure, and provide some guidelines for their development. Future research should aim toward a differentiated approach to language mapping - one that includes the administration of standardized and customizable tests and the use of longitudinal neurocognitive follow-up studies. Further work will allow researchers and clinicians to understand brain and language correlates and to improve the current surgical practice.

  13. Combinations of Simple Mechanisms Explain Diverse Strategies in the Freehand Writing of Memorized Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peter C-H; van Genuchten, Erlijn

    2018-03-23

    Individual differences in the strategies that control sequential behavior were investigated in an experiment in which participants memorized sentences and then wrote them by hand, in a non-cursive style. Thirty-two participants each wrote eight sentences, which had hierarchical structures with five levels. The dataset included over 31,000 letters. Despite the deliberately constrained nature of the task and stimuli, 23 patterns of behavior were identified from the durations of pauses that occurred before the inscription of letters at four chunk levels, spanning letters, words, phrases, and sentences. A critical path task analytic model, Graphical Production of Memorized Sentences (GPoMS), shows that the control of writing relies on cues that continuously switch between motor actions and chunk retrievals in a just-in-time fashion at the level of letter information. GPoMS explains the individual differences in terms of variants of a motor production mechanism and variants of a chunk retrieval mechanism, which involve varying degrees of parallelism between cognitive actions and motor actions. A graphical technique for constructing GPoMS models was developed that enabled the estimation of ongoing working memory demands during production. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  15. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  16. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  17. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  18. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.

  19. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  20. Detection of sentence boundaries and abbreviations in clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Western languages the period character is highly ambiguous, due to its double role as sentence delimiter and abbreviation marker. This is particularly relevant in clinical free-texts characterized by numerous anomalies in spelling, punctuation, vocabulary and with a high frequency of short forms. The problem is addressed by two binary classifiers for abbreviation and sentence detection. A support vector machine exploiting a linear kernel is trained on different combinations of feature sets for each classification task. Feature relevance ranking is applied to investigate which features are important for the particular task. The methods are applied to German language texts from a medical record system, authored by specialized physicians. Two collections of 3,024 text snippets were annotated regarding the role of period characters for training and testing. Cohen's kappa resulted in 0.98. For abbreviation and sentence boundary detection we can report an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure using a 10-fold cross validation of 0.97 for the training set. For test set based evaluation we obtained an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure of 0.95 for abbreviation detection and 0.94 for sentence delineation. Language-dependent resources and rules were found to have less impact on abbreviation detection than on sentence delineation. Sentence detection is an important task, which should be performed at the beginning of a text processing pipeline. For the text genre under scrutiny we showed that support vector machines exploiting a linear kernel produce state of the art results for sentence boundary detection. The results are comparable with other sentence boundary detection methods applied to English clinical texts. We identified abbreviation detection as a supportive task for sentence delineation.

  1. An adaptive Australian Sentence Test in Noise (AuSTIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Pam W; Hersbach, Adam A; Swanson, Brett A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this research is to describe the development of an adaptive Australian Sentence Test in Noise and to validate the test in terms of test-retest reliability and efficiency using data obtained from its clinical application. The relative intelligibility of 1264 Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB)-like sentences in the presence of competing four-talker babble was assessed with cochlear implant recipients. Intensity adjustments to the babble segments were made to reduce intersentence variability. Computer software was developed to administer an adaptive speech reception threshold (SRT) test using these adjusted sentence/babble pairs and test-retest SRT data from a separate group of 23 cochlear implant recipients was analyzed, comparing different SRT calculation and test stopping rules. The adjusted sentence/babble pairs were used in clinical studies to obtain an SRT by presenting 32 sentences. Analysis of test-retest pairs of SRT data from 23 recipients indicated that a psychometric fit SRT calculation rule provided better reliability than did the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) calculation rule, or rules based on mean turns. This rule, using the morpheme correct scores for each sentence, gave a standard deviation for a single SRT of 0.76 dB. Further analyses revealed that the test could be shortened to 20 sentences with an increase of 0.19 dB in variability, while reducing the median test time by approximately 2 min. This article reports validation data for a new Australian Sentence Test In Noise. When 20 BKB-like sentences are used with a psychometric fit calculation rule, a standard deviation of approximately 1 dB is obtained in approximately 3 min 36 sec.

  2. Sentence retrieval for abstracts of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Grace Y

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM requires clinicians to integrate their expertise with the latest scientific research. But this is becoming increasingly difficult with the growing numbers of published articles. There is a clear need for better tools to improve clinician's ability to search the primary literature. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs are the most reliable source of evidence documenting the efficacy of treatment options. This paper describes the retrieval of key sentences from abstracts of RCTs as a step towards helping users find relevant facts about the experimental design of clinical studies. Method Using Conditional Random Fields (CRFs, a popular and successful method for natural language processing problems, sentences referring to Intervention, Participants and Outcome Measures are automatically categorized. This is done by extending a previous approach for labeling sentences in an abstract for general categories associated with scientific argumentation or rhetorical roles: Aim, Method, Results and Conclusion. Methods are tested on several corpora of RCT abstracts. First structured abstracts with headings specifically indicating Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures are used. Also a manually annotated corpus of structured and unstructured abstracts is prepared for testing a classifier that identifies sentences belonging to each category. Results Using CRFs, sentences can be labeled for the four rhetorical roles with F-scores from 0.93–0.98. This outperforms the use of Support Vector Machines. Furthermore, sentences can be automatically labeled for Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures, in unstructured and structured abstracts where the section headings do not specifically indicate these three topics. F-scores of up to 0.83 and 0.84 are obtained for Intervention and Outcome Measure sentences. Conclusion Results indicate that some of the methodological elements of RCTs are

  3. Extra-linguistic influences on sentence comprehension in Italian-speaking children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenati, P; Benassi, E; Deevy, P; Leonard, L B; Caselli, M C

    2015-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) in sentence comprehension. These deficits are usually attributed to limitations in the children's understanding of syntax or the lexical items contained in the sentences. This study examines the role that extra-linguistic factors can play in these children's sentence comprehension. Extra-linguistic demands on sentence comprehension are manipulated directly by varying the nature of the materials used. Forty-five Italian-speaking children participated: 15 with SLI (mean age = 4;5), 15 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A, mean age = 4;5), and 15 younger typically developing children matched according to language comprehension test scores (TD-Y, mean age = 3;9). The children responded to sentence comprehension items that varied in their length and/or the number and type of foils that competed with the target picture. The TD-A children were more accurate than the TD-Y children and the children with SLI, but, for all groups, accuracy declined when task demands increased. In particular, sentences containing superfluous adjectives (e.g., Il topo bello copre l'uccello allegro, 'The nice mouse covers the happy bird' where all depicted mice were nice and all birds were happy) yielded higher scores than similar sentences in which each adjective had to be associated with the proper character (e.g., Il cane giallo lava il maiale bianco, 'The yellow dog washes the white pig', where foils included a yellow dog washing a pink pig, and a brown dog washing a white pig). Many errors reflected recency effects, probably influenced by the fact that adjectives modifying the object appear at the end of the sentence in Italian. Differences between conditions were observed even when lexical content, syntactic structure and sentence length were controlled. This finding suggests the need for great care when assessing children's comprehension of sentences. The same syntactic structure and lexical content can vary in

  4. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  5. Legal Dictation and Transcription, Business Education: 7707.42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Judy

    This is an intensive course in taking dictation and transcribing materials related to the legal profession with a high degree of speed and accuracy. The course includes spelling, pronouncing, and defining the most-used legal terms, and a discussion of the ethics of the legal secretary and procedures unique to an attorney's office. Included are the…

  6. Different Legal Classification of Crimes Regarding Sexual Life vs. Uniform Interpretation and Implementation. Comparative Aspects of the New Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail-Silviu Pocora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual freedom, being one of the individual freedom, is protected by law whenever is violated and no matter what way take place, but controversy and lack of unanimous interpretation occur once the legal status of infrinfed rule and therefore the individual sentence. In this sense, we tried to highlight some aspects regards to the legal boundaries classification, and the new elements brought by the new Criminal code.

  7. Inherited proclivity: When should neurogenetics mitigate moral culpability for purposes of sentencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, J Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Certain genes and neurobiology ('neurogenetics') may predispose some people to violent behavior. Increasingly, defendants introduce neurogenetic evidence as a mitigating factor during criminal sentencing. Identifying the cause of a criminal act, biological or otherwise, does not necessarily preclude moral or legal liability. However, valid scientific evidence of an inherited proclivity sometimes should be considered when evaluating whether a defendant is less morally culpable for a crime and perhaps less deserving of punishment. This Note proposes a two-pronged test to understand whether and when neurogenetic evidence should be considered to potentially mitigate an individual's culpability for criminal behavior. The first prong normatively assesses whether a defendant meets a threshold of having meaningfully managed his risk of harming others based on what he knew, or should have known, about his own proclivities to violence. The second prong considers the admissibility of the evidence based on whether the specific neurogenetic proclivity claimed by the defendant is relevant and adequately supported by science so as to be reliable. This proposed two-pronged test, beginning with an ethical threshold and followed by a scientific hurdle, can help judges and juries establish when to accept arguments for neurogenetic mitigation at sentencing, and when to reject them.

  8. The role of LIFG-based executive control in recovery from garden-paths during sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan C. Vuong

    2014-04-01

    Control: While the man/ coached,/ the woman/ attended/ the party by herself. The three patients, and a group of eight healthy controls, were tested on two self-paced sentence processing tasks, using sentence regions as above, involving meaning interpretation (Experiment 1 and grammaticality judgments (Experiment 2. Results In contrast to healthy controls and the non-LIFG patient, one of the LIFG patients showed a deficit in meaning interpretation that was worse with biased verbs, across garden-path as well as syntactically unambiguous sentences (mean verb bias effect = 32.5%, which was 7 standard deviations above the control mean of -3%, SD = 4.6. She showed spared performance on grammaticality judgments. The other LIFG patient presented with a more severe executive control deficit, and showed spared performance only for grammaticality judgments in the easiest condition, namely the condition involving syntactically unambiguous sentences with neutral verbs (but not in the remaining conditions, including the corresponding condition with biased verbs. Conclusion The results add to prior studies in arguing for a role of executive control across diverse sentence processing situations, including overcoming verb bias preferences.

  9. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level...... and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful...

  10. Enhancement and suppression effects resulting from information structuring in sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Alison J S; Price, Jessica; Sanford, Anthony J

    2009-09-01

    Information structuring through the use of cleft sentences increases the processing efficiency of references to elements within the scope of focus. Furthermore, there is evidence that putting certain types of emphasis on individual words not only enhances their subsequent processing, but also protects these words from becoming suppressed in the wake of subsequent information, suggesting mechanisms of enhancement and suppression. In Experiment 1, we showed that clefted constructions facilitate the integration of subsequent sentences that make reference to elements within the scope of focus, and that they decrease the efficiency with reference to elements outside of the scope of focus. In Experiment 2, using an auditory text-change-detection paradigm, we showed that focus has similar effects on the strength of memory representations. These results add to the evidence for enhancement and suppression as mechanisms of sentence processing and clarify that the effects occur within sentences having a marked focus structure.

  11. Sentencing dangerous offenders: policy and practice in the Crown Court

    OpenAIRE

    Henham, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Crown Courts' use of protective sentencing powers under s.80(2)(b), s.85, and s.109 of 2000 Act and whether preference for s.85 reflects fundamental flaw in leaving determination of "dangerousness" to judiciary.

  12. Research on sentencing: disparity, punishment and vocabularies of motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raupp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present an overview of inter- national and national empirical studies on senten- cing. We aim to show this field’s trajectory, its main discussions and findings as well as its “blind spots”. The main goal of this article is to draw attention to how this field of research allows us to think about the problem of the disparity on sentencing as a criminal justice operation pattern. This problem has been identified by many studies, but also by the social re- presentation of the criminal justice. From a literature review on sentencing and an analysis of the main stu- dies identified, this article proposes a new direction to understand the problem of disparity on sentencing in criminal justice and indicates a new subject to be explored as well as new empirical research possibili- ties on sentencing.

  13. 76 FR 58564 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... pornography offenses and report to Congress as a result of such review. It is anticipated that any such report... guideline sentence; (B) a compilation of studies on, and analysis of, recidivism by child pornography...

  14. 75 FR 41927 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... legislation enacted during the 111th Congress. (6) Continuation of its review of child pornography offenses... guideline sentence; (B) a compilation of studies on, and analysis of, recidivism by child pornography...

  15. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  16. Establishing Sentencing Guidelines for Military Courts-Martial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    sentences imposed for similar criminal offenses committed by similar offenders ”1. The act also created the United States Sentencing Commission and...of the offender and the offense, leading to a moral judgment imposed by judges with skill, experience, and wisdom [instead of] judges mechanically...fighting with her 17-year-old “troubled teen ” boyfriend. Wollard grabbed a gun and shot a warning shot through a wall to scare off the aggressor; these

  17. Assessing Syntactic Deficits in Chinese Broca's aphasia using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences-Chinese (NAVS-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background English-speaking patients with Broca's aphasia and agrammatism evince difficulty with complex grammatical structures, including verbs and sentences. A few studies have found similar patterns among Chinese-speaking patients with broca's aphasia, despite structural differences between these two languages. However, no studies have explicitly examined verb properties, including the number and optionality of arguments (participant roles) selected by the verb, and only a few studies have examined sentence deficits among Chinese patients. In addition, there are no test batteries presently available to assess syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences in Chinese patients. Aims This study used a Chinese version of the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), originally developed for English speakers with aphasia, to examine the verb and sentence deficit patterns among Chinese speakers with aphasia. As in the original NAVS, the Chinese version (NAVS-C) assessed verbs by the number and optionality of arguments as well as sentence canonicity, in the both production and comprehension. Methods and Procedures Fifteen Chinese patients with Broca's aphasia and fifteen age-matched healthy normal controls participated in this study. All NAVS-C tests were administered, in which participants were asked either to produce or identify verbs and sentences coinciding with action pictures. Outcomes & results Despite grammatical differences between Chinese and English, the impairment caused by structural complexity of verbs and sentences was replicated in Chinese-speaking patients using the NAVS-C. Verbs with more arguments were significantly more impaired than those with fewer arguments and verbs with optional arguments were significantly more impaired than those with obligatory arguments. One deviation from English-speaking patients, however, is that the Chinese-speaking patients exhibited greater difficulty with subject relative

  18. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  19. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Bockhorst

    Full Text Available Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  20. STUDENTS’ ABILITY FOR USING ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTION IN SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ramasari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grammar is a fundamental thing in a language. The researcher assumes based on her observation that the hardest part of making and writing sentence is to arrange the words in a good sentence. Students are still confused when they are going to arrange the words in right grammar. In mastering grammar, students need time, opportunity, exercise and good teaching of grammar. Unfortunately, grammar skill is still lack attention in teaching and learning process. This research is intended to investigate and describe students’ ability for using elliptical construction in sentences. In this research, the researcher used descriptive method. The data was evaluated and analyzed to find out students’ ability for using elliptical construction in sentences by using percentage formula. There were 34 of 73 students who were in very low category with percentage 46.5%. The result of this research showed that students’ ability for using elliptical construction in sentences to the fourth semester students of English Study Program at Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu was very low. It meant that the fourth semester English students still had lack knowledge and understanding about grammar: elliptical construction.Keywords: Students’ Ability, Elliptical Construction,and Sentences.

  1. Chinese Sentence Classification Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengwei; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Chuang

    2017-10-01

    Sentence classification is one of the significant issues in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Feature extraction is often regarded as the key point for natural language processing. Traditional ways based on machine learning can not take high level features into consideration, such as Naive Bayesian Model. The neural network for sentence classification can make use of contextual information to achieve greater results in sentence classification tasks. In this paper, we focus on classifying Chinese sentences. And the most important is that we post a novel architecture of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to apply on Chinese sentence classification. In particular, most of the previous methods often use softmax classifier for prediction, we embed a linear support vector machine to substitute softmax in the deep neural network model, minimizing a margin-based loss to get a better result. And we use tanh as an activation function, instead of ReLU. The CNN model improve the result of Chinese sentence classification tasks. Experimental results on the Chinese news title database validate the effectiveness of our model.

  2. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  3. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Fengler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults’ complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension.

  4. Ecological protection of agriculture through Serbia's legal regulations and judicial practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the codification of Criminal law of Republic of Serbia, which was conducted in 2005, legal protection of agriculture was introduced into ecological delicti which were then emphasised by having them unified in the sole Head of the Criminal code as well as by partially aggravating penal policy. Certain criminal offences, which prior to the codification were a part of a different field of legal protection, are now listed in the ecological delicti catalogue, and that positions them, according to the number of listed deliciti, on a very high place in comparison to the other groups of criminal offences. Within the ecological delicti, there is a total of 18 (eighteen offences, which are divided into 4 (four groups depending on the object of legal protection. In this paper, besides the introductory conceptual defining the object of research, we described the normative arrangement of all the ecological delicti, within the agricultural protection, by researching their essential elements which include the capital and the qualified form of execution, perpetrators features, type of responsibility and penalty. Empirical research covers the four year period, more precisely the years 2009-2012, according to the parameters related to the number of adult persons accused for criminal offenses against the environment which are endangering agriculture, or the number of accused and convicted persons, shown globally and individually according to the structure criminal offenses. Furthermore the research includes the penal policy which refers to the already stated penalties, that is- jail sentences and their duration, and that also is depicted individually and globaly according to the criminal offences structure.

  5. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    's own conduct embodied either in the commission of a criminal offence or in the omission to act. Therefore, contemporary criminal laws have determined special types of criminal sanctions, such as: punishment, security measures, conditional (suspended sentence and confiscation of material gain obtained by comitting the criminal offence, as well as the instruments, proceedings and conditions under which they may be imposed. Within the framework of the forthcoming reform of the entire penal legislation in the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian legislator may use the legal solutions envisaged in the analyzed documents and criminal legislations as a solid model for implementing the international standards in the field of criminal liability of legal entities. Hence, this paper discusses the particularities governing the application of criminal sanctions for legal entities in the Republic of Serbia, particularly as an instrument of crime control.

  6. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C.; Oppenheim, C.; Rizzi, L.; Dehaene, S.

    2009-01-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  7. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [INSERM, Gif sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C. [Univ. Paris 11, Orsay (France); Oppenheim, C. [Univ Paris 05, Ctr Hosp St Anne, Paris (France); Rizzi, L. [Univ Siena, CISCL, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Dehaene, S. [Coll France, F-75231 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  8. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language (ESL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.

  9. Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In May 2006, Colombia’s Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman’s health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court’s ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision’s implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa’s strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a “pedagogical effect” insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa’s choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge. PMID:28630545

  10. Pregnancy and the 40-Year Prison Sentence: How "Abortion Is Murder" Became Institutionalized in the Salvadoran Judicial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Jocelyn; Bautista, Jose Santos Guardado

    2017-06-01

    Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase "abortion is murder" can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related "crimes." Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged with the crime of abortion were convicted of "aggravated homicide" and sentenced to up to 40 years in prison. Court documents suggest that many of these women had not undergone abortions, but had suffered naturally occurring stillbirths late in their pregnancies. Through analysis of newspaper articles and court cases, this article documents how El Salvador came to prosecute obstetrical emergencies as "murder," and concludes that activism on behalf of abortion rights is central to protecting poor pregnant women from prosecution for reproduction-related "crimes."

  11. A legal version of the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.

  12. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  13. Toward defining good writing: A rhetorical analysis of the words, sentences, and paragraphs in 16 industrial scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisinger, R. R.; Petersen, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    The assumption that teachers of technical writing agree on a definition of good writing was found to be without basis. Resolution of disagreements arising from close reading and textual analysis is described. Writing samples from corporate sources including IBM, ALCOA, Exxon, Weyerhaeuser, Bell Labs, Underwriters Laboratories, Dow Chemical, and US Steel were requested. A mixture of informative and persuasive examples, and examples directed at lay and specialist audiences were received. Analyses of 16 writing samples are reported. Analysis of word level, sentence level, and paragraph level, was completed. Syllabism, verb selection, nominalizations, vocabulary choices, t-units, subordination, sentence and clause length, syntactic order, patterns, development, topic sentences, propositional order, and transitions were analyzed.

  14. Sentence comprehension in aphasia: A noisy channel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Walsh Dickey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic accounts of language understanding assume that comprehension involves determining the probability of an intended message (m given an input utterance (u (P(m|u; e.g. Gibson et al, 2013a; Levy et al, 2009. One challenge is that communication occurs within a noisy channel; i.e. the comprehender’s representation of u may have been distorted, e.g., by a typo or by impairment associated with aphasia. Bayes’ rule provides a model of how comprehenders can combine the prior probability of m (P(m with the probability that m would have been distorted to u (P(mu to calculate the probability of m given u (P(m|u  P(mP(mu. This formalism can capture the observation that people with aphasia (PWA rely more on semantics than syntax during comprehension (e.g., Caramazza & Zurif, 1976: given the high probability that their representation of the input is unreliable, they weigh message likelihood more heavily. Gibson et al. (2013a showed that unimpaired adults are sensitive to P(m and P(mu: they more often chose interpretations that increased message plausibility or involved distortions requiring fewer changes, and/or deletions instead of insertions (see Figure 1a for examples. Gibson et al. (2013b found PWA were also sensitive to both P(m and P(mu in an act-out task, but relied more heavily than unimpaired controls on P(m. This shows group-level optimization towards the less noisy (semantic channel in PWA. The current experiment (8 PWA; 7 age-matched controls investigated noisy channel optimization at the level of individual PWA. It also included active/passive items with a weaker plausibility manipulation to test whether P(m is higher for implausible than impossible strings. The task was forced-choice sentence-picture matching (Figure 1b. Experimental sentences crossed active versus passive (A-P structures with plausibility (Set 1 or impossibility (Set 2, and prepositional-object versus double-object structures (PO-DO: Set 3 with

  15. Relemed: sentence-level search engine with relevance score for the MEDLINE database of biomedical articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadaty, Mir S; Shu, Jianfen; Knaus, William A

    2007-01-01

    Background Receiving extraneous articles in response to a query submitted to MEDLINE/PubMed is common. When submitting a multi-word query (which is the majority of queries submitted), the presence of all query words within each article may be a necessary condition for retrieving relevant articles, but not sufficient. Ideally a relationship between the query words in the article is also required. We propose that if two words occur within an article, the probability that a relation between them is explained is higher when the words occur within adjacent sentences versus remote sentences. Therefore, sentence-level concurrence can be used as a surrogate for existence of the relationship between the words. In order to avoid the irrelevant articles, one solution would be to increase the search specificity. Another solution is to estimate a relevance score to sort the retrieved articles. However among the >30 retrieval services available for MEDLINE, only a few estimate a relevance score, and none detects and incorporates the relation between the query words as part of the relevance score. Results We have developed "Relemed", a search engine for MEDLINE. Relemed increases specificity and precision of retrieval by searching for query words within sentences rather than the whole article. It uses sentence-level concurrence as a statistical surrogate for the existence of relationship between the words. It also estimates a relevance score and sorts the results on this basis, thus shifting irrelevant articles lower down the list. In two case studies, we demonstrate that the most relevant articles appear at the top of the Relemed results, while this is not necessarily the case with a PubMed search. We have also shown that a Relemed search includes not only all the articles retrieved by PubMed, but potentially additional relevant articles, due to the extended 'automatic term mapping' and text-word searching features implemented in Relemed. Conclusion By using sentence

  16. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Syllable and Sentence Productions in Normal Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cedric; Yang, Jin; Crawley, Brianna; Krishna, Priya; Murry, Thomas

    2018-01-08

    Aerodynamic measures of subglottic air pressure (Ps) and airflow rate (AFR) are used to select behavioral voice therapy versus surgical treatment for voice disorders. However, these measures are usually taken during a series of syllables, which differs from conversational speech. Repeated syllables do not share the variation found in even simple sentences, and patients may use their best rather than typical voice unless specifically instructed otherwise. This study examined the potential differences in estimated Ps and AFR in syllable and sentence production and their effects on a measure of vocal efficiency in normal speakers. Prospective study. Measures of estimated Ps, AFR, and aerodynamic vocal efficiency (AVE) were obtained from 19 female and four male speakers ages 22-44 years with no history of voice disorders. Subjects repeated a series of /pa/ syllables and a sentence at comfortable effort level into a face mask with a pressure-sensing tube between the lips. AVE varies as a function of the speech material in normal subjects. Ps measures were significantly higher for the sentence-production samples than for the syllable-production samples. AFR was higher during sentence production than syllable production, but the difference was not statistically significant. AVE values were significantly higher for syllable versus sentence productions. The results suggest that subjects increase Ps and AFR in sentence compared with syllable production. Speaking task is a critical factor when considering measures of AVE, and this preliminary study provides a basis for further aerodynamic studies of patient populations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Just Sentences: Human rights to enable participation and equity for prisoners and all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosalie

    2018-02-01

    Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights holds up the right to opinion and expression for all. Just Sentences was a prison-based language-literacy pilot project for men, delivered by a speech-language pathologist at Risdon Prison in Tasmania, Australia. The pilot provided input into the various interpretative permutations of "just sentences". It enabled skills of opinion and expression. This commentary takes language and social reciprocity to be privileged drivers of personal agency and pro-social personal freedom. It notes the role of hope as an agent of positive change, including in desistance from crime. It describes the project and shares the reflections of the speech-language pathologist who delivered it.

  18. The P-chain: relating sentence production and its disorders to comprehension and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Gary S; Chang, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the P-chain, an emerging framework for theory in psycholinguistics that unifies research on comprehension, production and acquisition. The framework proposes that language processing involves incremental prediction, which is carried out by the production system. Prediction necessarily leads to prediction error, which drives learning, including both adaptive adjustment to the mature language processing system as well as language acquisition. To illustrate the P-chain, we review the Dual-path model of sentence production, a connectionist model that explains structural priming in production and a number of facts about language acquisition. The potential of this and related models for explaining acquired and developmental disorders of sentence production is discussed.

  19. Aspectos legales relacionados con las úlceras por presión Legal aspects related to pressure ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Soldevilla Agreda

    2006-12-01

    and procedures which may be applicable to this process, including some specific considerations, such as PU as a biomarker for elder abuse and neglect, the protocol for the prevention and treatment of PU as the center's responsibility, liability for the lack of adequate material for the prevention and treatment of PU, informed consent previous to applying a technique, medical history and specific PU records including photographs, PU as cause of hospital admission, and discharge of patients with PU. The current issue of nurse prescribing in the field of PU care and other chronic wounds is considered as a 'deeply-rooted, allowed and applauded practice for years' in Spain. Finally, details and discussions on judicial pronouncements of cases related to such wounds in the last few years allow us to conclude that, despite the increase in the number of sentences related to PU, the number that represents the sentences which were categorically pronounced as cause of PU due to care deficiency, negligence or malpractice is only symbolic, and the small sentences and indemnity payments are particularly striking. Perhaps the same old spirit of devaluation of these wounds, which is present in the professional environment and society in general, has moved into the judiciary, particularly into experts and/or forensic surgeons, unable to estimate the real dimension of the problem (loss of health and quality of life and the fatal consequences of PU (including death, also forgetting that they are predictable in almost every situation.

  20. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  1. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  2. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  3. Medical legal aspects of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Terry J.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed

  4. Structural priming and frequency effects interact in Chinese sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eWei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming.

  5. Combining language and space: sentence bisection in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The development of an automated sentence generator for the assessment of reading speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legge Gordon E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reading speed is an important outcome measure for many studies in neuroscience and psychology. Conventional reading speed tests have a limited corpus of sentences and usually require observers to read sentences aloud. Here we describe an automated sentence generator which can create over 100,000 unique sentences, scored using a true/false response. We propose that an estimate of the minimum exposure time required for observers to categorise the truth of such sentences is a good alternative to reading speed measures that guarantees comprehension of the printed material. Removing one word from the sentence reduces performance to chance, indicating minimal redundancy. Reading speed assessed using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP of these sentences is not statistically different from using MNREAD sentences. The automated sentence generator would be useful for measuring reading speed with button-press response (such as within MRI scanners and for studies requiring many repeated measures of reading speed.

  7. Thai Language Sentence Similarity Computation Based on Syntactic Structure and Semantic Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.

  8. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  9. Mini-Mental State Examination sentence writing among community-dwelling elderly adults in Brazil: text fluency and grammar complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Ongaratto, Lia Lopes; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2012-11-01

    In normal aging, the decrease in the syntactic complexity of written production is usually associated with cognitive deficits. This study was aimed to analyze the quality of older adults' textual production indicated by verbal fluency (number of words) and grammatical complexity (number of ideas) in relation to gender, age, schooling, and cognitive status. From a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and above (n = 900), 577 were selected on basis of their responses to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) sentence writing, which were submitted to content analysis; 323 were excluded as they left the item blank or performed illegible or not meaningful responses. Education adjusted cut-off scores for the MMSE were used to classify the participants as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Total and subdomain MMSE scores were computed. 40.56% of participants whose answers to the MMSE sentence were excluded from the analyses had cognitive impairment compared to 13.86% among those whose answers were included. The excluded participants were older and less educated. Women and those older than 80 years had the lowest scores in the MMSE. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender, age, schooling, and textual performance. There was a modest but significant correlation between number of words written and the scores in the Language subdomain. Results suggest the strong influence of schooling and age over MMSE sentence performance. Failing to write a sentence may suggest cognitive impairment, yet, instructions for the MMSE sentence, i.e. to produce a simple sentence, may limit its clinical interpretation.

  10. Legal nature of affatomia

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    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  11. Abortion foe convicted and sentenced for murders of women's health clinic workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-22

    On March 18, after deliberating for approximately nine hours over two days, a Dedham, Massachusetts, jury found John Salvi guilty of two counts of first-degree murder for the December 1994 shooting deaths of Shannon Lowney and Lee Ann Nichols, receptionists at two Brookline, Massachusetts, women's health care clinics. Salvi was also convicted of five counts of assault with intent to murder (see RFN IV/1). Almost immediately, Norfolk Superior Court Judge Barbara Dortch-Okara ordered Salvi to serve the maximum sentence--two consecutive life terms in prison without parole--for the murders and an additional 90-100 years for the five assaults. Under Massachusetts law, the first-degree murder convictions will be automatically appealed. In reaching their verdict, the jury of six men and six women rejected Salvi's plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. The five-week trial included testimony from more than 100 witnesses. In the past two years, two other men have been convicted for the first-degree murders of abortion providers: Michael Griffin, who was convicted of murdering Dr. David Gunn in March 1994, is now serving a life sentence; and Paul Hill, who was convicted of murdering Dr. John Britton and James Barrett in November 1995, is on Florida's death row while his sentence is pending mandatory appeal (see RFN III/19, 22). full text

  12. ESTIMATING MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN A SAMPLE OF ALTERNATIVE FORMULAS OF PRISON SENTENCED BENEFICIARIES FROM WEST VENEZUELA

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    CARLOS ENRIQUE ZERPA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of moral development in a sampled of convicts from West Venezuela is presented. The studywas carried out by means of Defining Issues Test (DIT evaluation. The sample includes 50 persons between19 and 55 years old (M = 34,33 y DT = 8,76, out of them 39 were males (average age 33,74,DT=8,24 an 11 were females (average age 35,91, DT=10,67. All of them were beneficiaries of alternativesformulas of their respective sentences such as social work, parole or conditional suspension ofsentences and following the corresponding process or rehabilitation out of prisons. This sample registereda moral principles index of 19,67 and a non-relevant answers index of 12,07 as well as fourthmoral developmental stage of 41,3 which are unusually high. The results suggest that there is not astatistically significant difference in the pattern of moral development depending on sex, age, or institutionfor sentenced fulfillment. However, the unusual high pattern of answers and the inverse correspondence between the duration of sentences and the resulting level of moral principles suggest that thesample behaves in a way, which is different from what is expected in no-out-law samples. Findings andimplications are discused.

  13. An Italian matrix sentence test for the evaluation of speech intelligibility in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppina Emma; Warzybok, Anna; Hochmuth, Sabine; Visentin, Chiara; Astolfi, Arianna; Prodi, Nicola; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Development of an Italian matrix sentence test for the assessment of speech intelligibility in noise. The development of the test included the selection, recording, optimization with level adjustment, and evaluation of speech material. The training effect was assessed adaptively during the evaluation measurements with six lists of 20 sentences, using open- and closed-set response formats. Reference data were established for normal-hearing listeners with adaptive measurements. Equivalence of the test lists was investigated using the open-set response format at three signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A total of 55 normal-hearing Italian mother-tongue listeners. The evaluation measurements at fixed SNRs resulted in a mean speech reception threshold (SRT) of -7.3 ± 0.2 dB SNR and slope of 13.3 ± 1.2 %/dB. The major training effect of 1.5 dB was observed for the first two consecutive measurements. Mean SRTs of -6.7 ± 0.7 dB SNR and -7.4 ± 0.7 dB SNR were found from the third to the sixth adaptive measurement for open- and closed-set test response formats, respectively. A good agreement has been found between the SRTs and slope and those of other matrix tests. Since sentences are difficult to memorize, the Italian matrix test is suitable for repeated measurements.

  14. How Fuzzy-Trace Theory Predicts True and False Memories for Words, Sentences, and Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Corbin, Jonathan C.; Weldon, Rebecca B.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory posits independent verbatim and gist memory processes, a distinction that has implications for such applied topics as eyewitness testimony. This distinction between precise, literal verbatim memory and meaning-based, intuitive gist accounts for memory paradoxes including dissociations between true and false memory, false memories outlasting true memories, and developmental increases in false memory. We provide an overview of fuzzy-trace theory, and, using mathematical modeling, also present results demonstrating verbatim and gist memory in true and false recognition of narrative sentences and inferences. Results supported fuzzy-trace theory's dual-process view of memory: verbatim memory was relied on to reject meaning-consistent, but unpresented, sentences (via recollection rejection). However, verbatim memory was often not retrieved, and gist memory supported acceptance of these sentences (via similarity judgment and phantom recollection). Thus, mathematical models of words can be extended to explain memory for complex stimuli, such as narratives, the kind of memory interrogated in law. PMID:27042402

  15. Neurolinguistically constrained simulation of sentence comprehension: integrating artificial intelligence and brain theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigley, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    An artificial intelligence approach to the simulation of neurolinguistically constrained processes in sentence comprehension is developed using control strategies for simulation of cooperative computation in associative networks. The desirability of this control strategy in contrast to ATN and production system strategies is explained. A first pass implementation of HOPE, an artificial intelligence simulation model of sentence comprehension, constrained by studies of aphasic performance, psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, and linguistic theory is described. Claims that the model could serve as a basis for sentence production simulation and for a model of language acquisition as associative learning are discussed. HOPE is a model that performs in a normal state and includes a lesion simulation facility. HOPE is also a research tool. Its modifiability and use as a tool to investigate hypothesized causes of degradation in comprehension performance by aphasic patients are described. Issues of using behavioral constraints in modelling and obtaining appropriate data for simulated process modelling are discussed. Finally, problems of validation of the simulation results are raised; and issues of how to interpret clinical results to define the evolution of the model are discussed. Conclusions with respect to the feasibility of artificial intelligence simulation process modelling are discussed based on the current state of research.

  16. Plea bargaining recommendations by criminal defense attorneys: evidence strength, potential sentence, and defendant preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Greg M; Wolbransky, Melinda; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    Although most criminal cases are disposed of through the process of plea bargaining, little research has focused on this process, and that research has focused on two variables: probability of conviction and potential sentence. This study examined the plea bargaining process from the perspective of the criminal defense attorney and expands prior research by including a third variable: defendant preference regarding plea. Attorney participants (N = 186) responded to a survey containing a vignette presented in a 2 x 2 x 2 between-subjects design, in which there was systematic manipulation of the following three variables in the context of criminal litigation: likelihood of conviction based on the strength of evidence, defendant preference regarding plea, and potential sentence if convicted. All of these variables were considered important to criminal defense attorneys, and how these variables significantly interacted with each other is explained. We discuss these findings in light of past research and theory that suggested attorneys make plea recommendations according only to probability of conviction and potential sentence, and we discuss implications and directions for future research. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  17. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  18. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eHofmeister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color. Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases --- here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white --- does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects.

  19. Probabilistic modeling of discourse-aware sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Amit; Keller, Frank; Sturt, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This restriction is unrealistic in light of experimental results suggesting interactions between syntax and other forms of linguistic information in human sentence processing. To address this limitation, this article introduces two sentence processing models that augment a syntactic component with information about discourse co-reference. The novel combination of probabilistic syntactic components with co-reference classifiers permits them to more closely mimic human behavior than existing models. The first model uses a deep model of linguistics, based in part on probabilistic logic, allowing it to make qualitative predictions on experimental data; the second model uses shallow processing to make quantitative predictions on a broad-coverage reading-time corpus. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. NOTE TAKING PAIRS TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ SENTENCE BASED WRITING ACHIEVEMENT

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    Testiana Deni Wijayatiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Students had skill to actualize their imagination and interpret their knowledge through writing which could be combined with good writing structure. Moreover, their writing skill still had low motivation and had not reached the standard writing structure. Based on the background above, this research has purpose to know the influence Note Taking Pairs in improving students‘sentence based writing achievement. The subject of this research was the second semester of English Department in Muhammadiyah University of Semarang. It also used statistic non parametric method to analyze the students‘ writing achievement. The result of this research showed that Note Taking Pairs strategy could improve students‘sentence based writing achievement. Hopefully this research is recommended into learning process to improve students‘writing skill especially in sentence-based writing subject.

  1. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension.

  2. Reproducing American Sign Language Sentences: Cognitive Scaffolding in Working Memory

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    Ted eSupalla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects’ recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies in the absence of linguistic knowledge. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are

  3. Penitentiary crime as an object of legal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Khokhrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on statistical data and generalized empirical material to study the structure and dynamic properties of the penitentiary crime which are necessary to elaborate measures to prevent crimes involving the penitentiary system. Methods comparativelegal logicaljuridical analysis of documents survey results statistics and litigation. Results basing on the analysis of more than 1400 convictions for committing crimes by convicts while being imprisoned as well as statistical indicators of crime in penitentiary institutions since 2005 it is proposed to divide all the recorded facts of crime into categories. This will allow to define some categories of crimes committed in penitentiary institutions. Comparing the results of the analysis of judicial practice the survey of the staff and the statistical reports suggests that convicts with two or three convictions are most likely to commit crimes in the penitentiary institution. In our view an effective incentive to forgo crimes and resocialize may be a legal norm regulating sentencing for offences committed during the period of serving the sentence Article 68 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation quotSentencing for the offence during the period of serving the sentence quot. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the need to extinguish the risk groups by committing crimes in penitentiary institutions. The proposals are formulated to supplement the criminal law. Practical significance the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity for the development of draft laws on amendments and additions to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in scientific work in the preparation of the dissertation research monographs textbooks and articles teaching the courses quotCriminal lawquot and quotCriminologyquot as well as courses for qualificationnbsp promotion. nbsp

  4. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sentence is the most complete syntactic unit of a language. The construction of a sentence is the most comprehensive, controversial and fascinating syntactic issue in the language grammar. The message or intention is usually conveyed through a sentence. In fact, the communicative function of a language is carried out via a sentence. A sentence can be classified in to different categories from different perspectives: semantically, constructively or performatively either with a verb or without a verb and also with regard to the construction. With regard to the construction, a sentence is either simple or compound. A simple sentence is the one with a complete meaning which only has one verb. It must be born in mind that a sentence is a complete unit whit meaning and there can be a hesitation after that. There for units of speech that have a verb without a complete meaning and there can be no silence or hesitation after them cannot be regarded as a sentence. Since they are dependent upon another sentence to be completed. They are called phrases. Such phrases can be incorporated in compound sentences make main and subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are widely discussed whit in grammatical constructions, but their types and that how have been built their various constructions are less adequately discussed. With regard to the manner of construction of compound sentences, the widest linguistic amenities can be observed in the sentences. There is not such complexity or disagreement over simple sentences but compound sentences have been less adequately investigated and there is room for more discussion and debate. Because, in some grammars, without considering the construction criteria, all sentences that are connected to one another, whit connectives are called compound sentences. This paper has precisely investigated compound sentences and has elaborated on the construction criteria of compound sentences. The study has also pointed to

  5. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sentence is the most complete syntactic unit of a language. The construction of a sentence is the most comprehensive, controversial and fascinating syntactic issue in the language grammar. The message or intention is usually conveyed through a sentence. In fact, the communicative function of a language is carried out via a sentence. A sentence can be classified in to different categories from different perspectives: semantically, constructively or performatively either with a verb or without a verb and also with regard to the construction. With regard to the construction, a sentence is either simple or compound. A simple sentence is the one with a complete meaning which only has one verb. It must be born in mind that a sentence is a complete unit whit meaning and there can be a hesitation after that. There for units of speech that have a verb without a complete meaning and there can be no silence or hesitation after them cannot be regarded as a sentence. Since they are dependent upon another sentence to be completed. They are called phrases. Such phrases can be incorporated in compound sentences make main and subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are widely discussed whit in grammatical constructions, but their types and that how have been built their various constructions are less adequately discussed. With regard to the manner of construction of compound sentences, the widest linguistic amenities can be observed in the sentences. There is not such complexity or disagreement over simple sentences but compound sentences have been less adequately investigated and there is room for more discussion and debate. Because, in some grammars, without considering the construction criteria, all sentences that are connected to one another, whit connectives are called compound sentences. This paper has precisely investigated compound sentences and has elaborated on the construction criteria of compound sentences. The study has also pointed to

  6. Tools students need to be skillful writers building better sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Hostmeyer, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Build stronger writers one sentence at a time.Imagine a classroom full of enthusiastic student writers, capable of reviewing their own work with a critical eye, then crafting a polished, convincing piece. This is possible, if you take writing instruction down to its basic building block-a solid sentence-and advance from there. Phyllis Hostmeyer can show you how with Tools Students Need to Be Skillful Writers, your blueprint for effective writing instruction and unit development. Packed with lessons across grades 3-12, this indispensable

  7. 75 FR 49528 - Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations Cleveland Office Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Office had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name... Philippines and India. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,370 is hereby issued as follows: ``All workers...

  8. 75 FR 47632 - Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Office had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name... Philippines and India. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,370 is hereby issued as follows: All workers...

  9. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  10. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  11. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  12. Prosody and Children's Parsing of Sentences. Technical Report No. 123.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Glenn M.; And Others

    Parsing sentences into meaningful phrases and clauses is an essential step in language comprehension, and parsing difficulty is a common reading problem. Prosody (intonation, stress, and rhythm) provides information about phrase and clause boundaries in spoken language that is not available in written language. In an experiment to test whether…

  13. Exploring the function of relative sentences in New Testament Greek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional view of the function of relative sentences in the Greek New Testament differed markedly from that in many modern languages. This view was challenged in the mid-1980s and a number of striking correspondences with a variety of modern (and some classical) languages were pointed out, despite some ...

  14. Effects of Subvocal Suppression of Learning Disabled Readers' Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    1983-01-01

    The role of subvocalization in 12 learning disabled (LD) adolescent readers' comprehension difficulties was studied. Nondisabled and LD readers were compared on silent reading and listening comprehension of noun lexical, verb lexical, semantic, and inferential sentences under conditions of suppressed and nonsuppressed subvocalization. (Author/SW)

  15. Effects of reading speed on second-language sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith; Ballantyne, Jocelyn C.; Wijnen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To test the effects of reading speed on second-language (L2) sentence processing and the potential influence of conflicting native language word order, we compared advanced L2 learners of English with native English speakers on a self-paced reading task. L2 learners read faster overall than native

  16. Addressing Injustice: The role of Indigenous sentencing courts in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    ELISE WEDROWICZ

    2018-01-01

    This thesis argues that Indigenous sentencing courts have played a vital role in Australia’s criminal justice system, as they allow for greater Indigenous participation in the delivery of justice to Indigenous communities and seek to establish a more productive relationship between the criminal justice system and Indigenous peoples.

  17. Communicating with sentences: A multi-word naming game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Hu, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an object by a single word, in which a population of communicating agents can reach global consensus asymptotically through iteratively pair-wise conversations. We propose an extension of the single-word model to a multi-word naming game (MWNG), simulating the case of describing a complex object by a sentence (multiple words). Words are defined in categories, and then organized as sentences by combining them from different categories. We refer to a formatted combination of several words as a pattern. In such an MWNG, through a pair-wise conversation, it requires the hearer to achieve consensus with the speaker with respect to both every single word in the sentence as well as the sentence pattern, so as to guarantee the correct meaning of the saying; otherwise, they fail reaching consensus in the interaction. We validate the model in three typical topologies as the underlying communication network, and employ both conventional and man-designed patterns in performing the MWNG.

  18. Elephant: Sequence Labeling for Word and Sentence Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evang, Kilian; Basile, Valerio; Chrupala, Grzegorz; Bos, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Tokenization is widely regarded as a solved problem due to the high accuracy that rule-based tokenizers achieve. But rule-based tokenizers are hard to maintain and their rules language specific. We show that high-accuracy word and sentence segmentation can be achieved by using supervised sequence

  19. Self-organizing word representations for fast sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; French, R.M.; Thomas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic models represent words as vectors in a high-dimensional state space, such that distances between vectors encode the strengths of paradigmatic relations between the represented words. This chapter argues that such an organization develops because it facilitates fast sentence

  20. The exclamative sentences in Nafsat al-Masdur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Khazanehdarloo

    2016-09-01

    Of course, Nasavi, in some parts of the book, used exclamative sentences, especially reproach and scolding without demand, to criticize some rulers of Kharazm Shahian dynasty. These libelous parts which mainly reflect the conflicts, hostility and debate of writer against royal members and his rivals, can show the dark and unknown side of Nasavi's personality.

  1. Number Attraction Effects in Near-Native Spanish Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegerski, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical agreement phenomena such as verbal number have long been of fundamental interest in the study of second language (L2) acquisition. Previous research from the perspective of sentence processing has documented nativelike behavior among nonnative participants but has also relied almost exclusively on grammar violation paradigms. The…

  2. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  3. Concessions on custodial sentences: Learning from the New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in countries such as New Zealand, courts have handed down custodial sentences in cases of serious offences while giving due regard to RJ at the same time. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the strategies that New Zealand courts have invoked to ensure that a balance is struck between retributive ...

  4. Training verb and sentence production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, Petra; Hurkmans, Joost; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many aphasic speakers have problems producing verbs at both the word and the sentence level. A treatment programme called ACTION (Bastiaanse, Bunge, Perk, 2004; Bastiaanse, Jonkers, Quak, Varela Put, 1997) has been developed to train verb production of both fluent and non-fluent aphasic

  5. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples

  6. [The hospital at Ilebu prison. From sentences 1945-50].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogstad, A C; Løvold, T V

    1999-06-30

    Ilebu Prison held the majority of men sentenced for treason in Norway after the Second World War. About one third of all prisoners convicted of treason served their sentence at Ilebu, which was one of the few prisons or camps which had a well organised hospital with a patient registration protocol. The protocols were recently (1995) brought to light; complete case records are stored in the National Archive. We have gone through a number of the case records and compared them with the protocols. The typical patient at Ilebu in 1945 was below 39 years of age, whereas in 1949 those over 40 were in majority. Average age and length of stay increased over the years as the oldest convicts also got the longest sentences. High age and long sentences contributed to increased morbidity, mental and psychosomatic disease as well as functional illness. The most common reason for admission was infectious disease. Ilebu Prison escaped serious epidemics, most likely because of good facilities for isolation as well as vaccination. However, the large number of prisoners suffering from tuberculosis was a cause for concern.

  7. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  8. 78 FR 51821 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... inserting ``However, the Supreme Court has held that the ex post facto clause applies to sentencing.... Ct. 2072, 2078 (2013) (holding that 'there is an ex post facto violation when a defendant is... ex post facto clause, in which case the court shall apply the Guidelines Manual in effect on the date...

  9. Sentence Complexity and Working Memory Effects in Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments using a paraphrase decision task paradigm were performed to investigate how sentence complexity contributed to the relative clause (RC) attachment preferences of speakers of different working memory capacities (WMCs). Experiment 1 (English) showed working memory effects on relative clause processing in both…

  10. Phonological Planning During Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana T Schnur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture-word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like He opens the gate. I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production.

  11. Using a Parallel Transcript/Subtitle Corpus for Sentence Compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeghinste, V.; Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the collection of a parallel corpus (in Dutch) and its use in a sentence compression tool with the intention to automatically generate subtitles for the deaf from transcripts of a television program. First, the collection of the corpus is described, together with the

  12. 77 FR 31070 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...; (3) to disseminate to defense attorneys, and to other professionals in the defense community... practitioners through appointment under the Criminal Justice Act of 1964, within the federal criminal justice... criminal sentences; and (3) is in good standing of the highest court of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions...

  13. 75 FR 54705 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...; (3) to disseminate to defense attorneys, and to other professionals in the defense community... practitioners through appointment under the Criminal Justice Act of 1964, within the federal criminal justice... criminal sentences; and (3) is in good standing of the highest court of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions...

  14. Learning vector representations for sentences: The recursive deep learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lê, Phong

    2016-01-01

    According to the principle of compositionality, the meaning of a sentence is computed from the meaning of its parts and the way they are syntactically combined. Unfortunately, unlike formal semantics, distributional semantics has no elegant compositional mechanisms like function application of

  15. Examining the Use of Community Service Orders as Alternatives to Short Prison Sentences in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kate; Rogan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s highly discretionary sentencing system provides a rare opportunity to study the behaviour of judges when relatively free of externally imposed constraints. While this is so, few studies have investigated sentencing trends.

  16. Ferret: a sentence-based literature scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Bouten, Roxane; Chang, Caren

    2015-06-20

    The rapid pace of bioscience research makes it very challenging to track relevant articles in one's area of interest. MEDLINE, a primary source for biomedical literature, offers access to more than 20 million citations with three-quarters of a million new ones added each year. Thus it is not surprising to see active research in building new document retrieval and sentence retrieval systems. We present Ferret, a prototype retrieval system, designed to retrieve and rank sentences (and their documents) conveying gene-centric relationships of interest to a scientist. The prototype has several features. For example, it is designed to handle gene name ambiguity and perform query expansion. Inputs can be a list of genes with an optional list of keywords. Sentences are retrieved across species but the species discussed in the records are identified. Results are presented in the form of a heat map and sentences corresponding to specific cells of the heat map may be selected for display. Ferret is designed to assist bio scientists at different stages of research from early idea exploration to advanced analysis of results from bench experiments. Three live case studies in the field of plant biology are presented related to Arabidopsis thaliana. The first is to discover genes that may relate to the phenotype of open immature flower in Arabidopsis. The second case is about finding associations reported between ethylene signaling and a set of 300+ Arabidopsis genes. The third case is on searching for potential gene targets of an Arabidopsis transcription factor hypothesized to be involved in plant stress responses. Ferret was successful in finding valuable information in all three cases. In the first case the bZIP family of genes was identified. In the second case sentences indicating relevant associations were found in other species such as potato and jasmine. In the third sentences led to new research questions about the plant hormone salicylic acid. Ferret successfully

  17. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  18. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  19. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  20. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  1. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  3. Integrating a novel concept of sentence optotypes into the RADNER Reading Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Wolfgang; Radner, Stephan; Diendorfer, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    To add a new set of 24 sentence optotypes to the German version of the RADNER reading charts and to investigate whether sentences constructed based upon an optimised concept of sentence optotypes can be used together with the original 38 sentences. Twenty-eight optimised sentence optotypes were constructed based upon the concept of sentence optotypes as established for the RADNER Reading Charts, with words having the same number of characters and syllables being placed in the same positions. The best comparable sentences were statistically selected in 30 volunteers. Reading speed and the number of errors were determined. Validity was analysed in comparison to a 111-word long standardised paragraph and 7 of the 38 original sentence optotypes. The mean reading speed obtained with the 28 sentences was 192.30±26.69 words per minute (wpm), as compared with 192.47±25.32 wpm for the 7 original sentence optotypes and 165.28±20.82 wpm for the long paragraph; 24 of the 28 optimised sentences met our selection criteria for reading speed/time (mean reading speed: 192.41±26.58). The mean number of reading errors was 0.10±0.30. The correlation between the 24 optimised sentence optotypes and the long paragraph was r=0.90. Reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.992. The 24 new sentence optotypes can be integrated into the existing set of 38 original sentences. Since all the statistical results obtained were similar to those of the original sentences, the best possible reliability had apparently already been achieved with the original sentence optotypes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Using Discourse Strategies to Improve Sentence Alignment in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Oblau, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The training process of the translation model in statistical machine translation requires a sentence-aligned parallel corpus of source and target language. Most available parallel corpora are at best document-aligned, so sentence alignment is performed on the document-aligned parallel corpus as a pre-processing step to word alignment and building the phrase translation table. In the process of sentence alignment, some data is discarded for "quality reasons", usually because of N:1 sentence al...

  5. How should inmates be released from prison? An assessment of parole versus fixed-sentence regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyana Kuziemko

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, many states have abolished parole boards, which traditionally have had the discretion to release inmates before the expiration of their full sentence, in favor of fixed-sentence regimes in which the original sentence is binding. However, if prison time lowers recidivism risk and if parole boards can accurately estimate inmates' recidivism risk, then relative to a fixed-sentence regime, parole can provide allocative-efficiency benefits (costly prison space is allocated ...

  6. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  7. Comparing Evaluation Metrics for Sentence Boundary Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper compares alternative evaluation metrics including the NIST error rate, classification error rate per word boundary, precision and recall, ROC curves, DET curves, precision-recall curves...

  8. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  9. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

  10. S v SN unreported, case no. 141114/14 (WCC) : Sentencing child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case note reflects on the approach that should be adopted by sentencing courts when imposing sentences on child offenders who turn 18 during proceedings. The Western Cape High Court recently considered the application of the sentencing principles in the Child Justice Act and section 28 of the Constitution to child ...

  11. Comparison of reading performance tests concerning difficulty of sentences and paragraphs and their reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, T.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Klerkx, E.M.F.J.; Knol, D.L.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    In research and practice, sentences or paragraphs of reading tests may be randomly chosen to assess reading performance. This means that in addition to test reliability, all sentences or paragraphs should be reliable and equally difficult to read. The sentences and paragraphs of five (un-)

  12. The impact of lexical frequency on sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve; Jacob, Laura; Maillart, Christelle

    2014-02-01

    Children with SLI generally exhibit poor sentence comprehension skills. We examined the specific impact of grammatical complexity and lexical frequency on comprehension performance, yielding contrasting results. The present study sheds new light on sentence comprehension in children with SLI by investigating a linguistic factor which has attracted little research interest: the impact of the lexical frequency of known words on sentence comprehension. We also examined the impact of grammatical complexity and sentence length by independently varying these two factors. Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age- and IQ-matched controls, and 15 controls matched on lexical and grammatical skills, performed sentence comprehension tasks in which three linguistic factors were manipulated: lexical frequency (sentences containing words of either low or high lexical frequency), grammatical complexity (sentence containing either a subject relative clause or an object relative clause) and sentence length (either short or long sentences). Results indicated that children with SLI performed more poorly overall compared to age- and IQ-matched children and to lexical and morphosyntactic age-matched children. However, their performance was not more affected by either sentence length or clause type than that of control children. Only lexical frequency affected sentence comprehension to a greater extent in children with SLI relative to the control groups, revealing that SLI children's sentence comprehension abilities are particularly affected by the presence of low-frequency but familiar words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sentence Production after Listener and Echoic Training by Prelingual Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfeto, Raquel M.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    2015-01-01

    Three children with neurosensory deafness who used cochlear implants were taught to match video clips to dictated sentences. We used matrix training with overlapping components and tested for recombinative generalization. Two 3?×?3 matrices generated 18 sentences. For each matrix, we taught 6 sentences and evaluated generalization with the…

  14. Localizing components of a complex task : sentence processing and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Broere, C.A.J.; Paans, A.MJ; Wijers, A.A.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.; Zwarts, Frans

    1998-01-01

    THREE areas of the left hemisphere play different roles in sentence comprehension. An area of posterior middle and superior temporal gyrus shows activation correlated with the structural complexity of a sentence, suggesting that this area supports processing of sentence structure. The lateral

  15. Interdistrict Disparity in Sentencing in Three U.S. District Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jawjeong; Spohn, Cassia

    2010-01-01

    Research examining disparities in sentencing outcomes under federal sentencing guidelines has focused almost exclusively on aggregate national data. Although these studies contribute considerably to the criminological literature on sentencing disparity, their findings may have masked contextual variation in relation to case processing across…

  16. Neural plasticity and treatment-induced recovery of sentence processing in agrammatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Ouden, Dirk-Bart den; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Garibaldi, Kyla; Parrish, Todd B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined patterns of neural activation associated with treatment-induced improvement of complex sentence production (and comprehension) in six individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, taking into account possible alterations in blood flow often associated with stroke, including delayed time-to-peak of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and hypoperfused tissue. Aphasic participants performed an auditory verification fMRI task, processing object cleft, subject cleft, and simple active sentences, prior to and following a course of Treatment of Underlying Forms (TUF; Thompson et al., 2003), a linguistically based approach for treating aphasic sentence deficits, which targeted object relative clause constructions. The patients also were scanned in a long-trials task to examine HRFs, to account for any local deviations resulting from stroke, and perfusion images were obtained to evaluate regions of hypoperfused tissue. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were conducted (bilaterally), modeling participant-specific local HRFs in left hemisphere areas activated by 12 healthy age-matched volunteers performing the same task, including the middle and inferior frontal gyri, precentral gyrus, middle and superior temporal gyri, and insula, and additional regions associated with complex syntactic processing, including the posterior perisylvian and superior parietal cortices. Results showed that, despite individual variation in activation differences from pre- to post-treatment scans in the aphasic participants, main-effects analyses revealed a general shift from left superior temporal activation to more posterior temporoparietal areas, bilaterally. Time-to-peak of these responses correlated negatively with blood flow, as measured with perfusion imaging. PMID:20603138

  17. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  18. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  19. Social disadvantage, mental illness and predictors of legal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, C T; Aubry, T D; Arboleda-Florez, J; Wasylenki, D; Goering, P N

    2006-01-01

    The following study evaluates the complex association between legal involvement and mental illness. It describes a population of consumers of community mental health programs, comparing those with legal involvement to those without legal involvement, on a number of demographic, clinical and social indicators. It is a secondary analysis of data collected in studies making up the Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative (CMHEI) in the province of Ontario, Canada. Legal involvement was a significant issue among community mental health program consumers; about one in five consumers had at least some contact with the legal system in the preceding nine months. Legally involved consumers were more likely to be in receipt of social assistance and be unstably housed than those legally uninvolved. However, there were no significant differences between legally involved and uninvolved consumers with respect to severity of symptomatology, current medication use or number of hospitalization days in the past 9 months. A predictive model compared the differential impact of clinical and social determinants upon legal involvement. Analyses failed to uncover a significant relationship between severity of psychiatric symptomatology and legal involvement. Significant predictors of legal involvement included gender, race, drug use as well as housing instability, and receipt of social assistance. Legal involvement was attributable to factors other than the severity of mental illness; these results challenge assumptions that the most symptomatically severe consumers are most at risk of legal involvement. Accordingly, the rate of legal involvement in a sample of community mental health program users must be considered in a broad context, with particular emphasis on social disadvantage.

  20. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [The clinical predictors of heteroaggressive behaviour of the women serving sentence in penitentiary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklein, K N; Bardenshtein, L M; Demcheva, N K

    To identify clinical predictors of heteroaggressive behavior. Three hundreds and three women serving sentence in a penal colony were examined using clinical, neurologic and statistical methods. The main group consisted of 225 women with heteroaggressive behavior, the control group included 78 women without aggressive behavior. Differences between the main and control groups in the structure of mental disorders and key syndromes were revealed. The authors conclude that the states with elements of dysphoria, dysthymia, decompensation of personality disorders, which are defined in the various forms of mental pathology, are the most significant predictors of heteroaggressive behavior in women in the penal colony.

  2. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  3. Risk assessments and recidivism among a population-based group of Swedish offenders sentenced to life in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturup, Joakim; Karlberg, Daniel; Fredriksson, Björn; Lihoff, Tobias; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    In Sweden, the number of people serving life sentences has steadily increased. To date, few studies have examined the recidivism rate or the predictive validity of different risk assessment instruments in this group. Our aim was to test the predictive validity among inmates serving life sentences of two different instruments used for assessing risk--the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management-20 (HCR-20), most widely used in clinical populations, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), commonly applied in both penal and clinical settings. Ninety-eight life-sentenced prisoners were included, 26 of whom were released during the study period. Data on risk assessments and dates for release were collected from administrative records, while recidivism data were retrieved from a national database on criminal convictions. Sex offenders obtained the highest scores and inmates charged with domestic violent offences obtained the lowest scores on both instruments. The released prisoners were followed for a mean period of 33 months. During this time five prisoners (19%) reoffended, four of them violently, with an average time to recidivism of 10 months. Only PCL-R Facet 4, which reflects antisocial features, was significantly associated with recidivism. This small, but population-based, study demonstrates that antisocial behaviour shows incremental predictive validity for reoffending among life-sentenced offenders, but other measures have little to add for this specific task. The fact that those life sentenced prisoners who reoffended did so so soon after release should prompt allocation of earlier interventions towards preventing this. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  5. Legal nature of affatomia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...

  6. Comment: Some thoughts on the organization of legal Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now time to think in terms of organizing law firms in Ethiopia, and the Committee entrusted with a duty to revamp the Commercial Code of Ethiopia must see to it that the section on Business Organizations included the LLP to accommodate professional business associations including the legal practice. Keywords: Legal ...

  7. Categorising Example Sentences in Dictionaries for Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other forms of support include artwork, synonyms and antonyms, usage notes, etymology, cross references, and labels. These can be used in conjunction with word fre- quency data and a defining vocabulary to find out which words do need more support. Words that are frequent and in the defining vocabulary may not need.

  8. Searches, Sex Discrimination, Sentences, and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Joseph L.; Walz, Monte R.

    1983-01-01

    Recent Supreme Court decisions are discussed. Included are cases dealing with the powers of police to make arrests and conduct searches without first obtaining warrants, criminal law and procedure, equal rights for women, prison conditions, nuclear power plans, and the tax-exempt status of private schools. (RM)

  9. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jarillo, M; Caravaca-Sánchez, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, C; Luna, A

    2016-10-01

    This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  10. Fight Against Terrorism: Legal Traditions of International Organizations Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Sh. Matchanova

    2016-01-01

    In article process of forming of legal traditions of the international organizations in the field of fight against terrorism is considered. Including a subject of forming and development of legal traditions of the international organizations by the perspective scientific direction, the author notes that forming of legal traditions of anti-terrorist activities at the level of the regional international organizations happens more actively, than at the universal international level. In article i...

  11. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...

  12. [Disorders in memorizing sentences and texts in local brain lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikadze, Iu V

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances of memory for sentences and texts in patients with local brain damages are investigated. The peculiarities of reproducing the superficial (lexic) and deep (sense) structures of the sentences and texts are analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of errors in the reproduction of the "scheme" of the texts the peculiarities of the memory defects specific for the various localization of the brain damage were revealed. It is shown that in damages of the temporal and parietal divisions of the left hemisphere it is the superficial structure, while in damages of the frontal divisions of the same hemisphere it is the deep structure the reproduction of which is affected to the greatest degree. A comparison with the reproduction of both structures in patients with damages of the temporal and parietal divisions of the right hemisphere is presented. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of multi-channel coding of information being stored.

  13. Matrix sentence intelligibility prediction using an automatic speech recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Hochmuth, Sabine; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of predicting the outcome of the German matrix sentence test for different types of stationary background noise using an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system was studied. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) of 50% intelligibility were predicted in seven noise conditions. The ASR system used Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as a front-end and employed whole-word Hidden Markov models on the back-end side. The ASR system was trained and tested with noisy matrix sentences on a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios. The ASR-based predictions were compared to data from the literature ( Hochmuth et al, 2015 ) obtained with 10 native German listeners with normal hearing and predictions of the speech intelligibility index (SII). The ASR-based predictions showed a high and significant correlation (R² = 0.95, p speech and noise signals. Minimum assumptions were made about human speech processing already incorporated in a reference-free ordinary ASR system.

  14. A hybrid approach to sentiment sentence classification in suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Torii, Manabu; Li, Dingcheng; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Wu, Stephen; Liu, Hongfang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the sentiment classification system developed by the Mayo Clinic team for the 2011 I2B2/VA/Cincinnati Natural Language Processing (NLP) Challenge. The sentiment classification task is to assign any pertinent emotion to each sentence in suicide notes. We have implemented three systems that have been trained on suicide notes provided by the I2B2 challenge organizer-a machine learning system, a rule-based system, and a system consisting of a combination of both. Our machine learning system was trained on re-annotated data in which apparently inconsistent emotion assignment was adjusted. Then, the machine learning methods by RIPPER and multinomial Naïve Bayes classifiers, manual pattern matching rules, and the combination of the two systems were tested to determine the emotions within sentences. The combination of the machine learning and rule-based system performed best and produced a micro-average F-score of 0.5640.

  15. Making syntax of sense: number agreement in sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Kathleen M; Cutting, J Cooper; Bock, Kathryn

    2005-07-01

    Grammatical agreement flags the parts of sentences that belong together regardless of whether the parts appear together. In English, the major agreement controller is the sentence subject, the major agreement targets are verbs and pronouns, and the major agreement category is number. The authors expand an account of number agreement whose tenets are that pronouns acquire number lexically, whereas verbs acquire it syntactically but with similar contributions from number meaning and from the number morphology of agreement controllers. These tenets were instantiated in a model using existing verb agreement data. The model was then fit to a new, more extensive set of verb data and tested with a parallel set of pronoun data. The theory was supported by the model's outcomes. The results have implications for the integration of words and structures, for the workings of agreement categories, and for the nature of the transition from thought to language.

  16. Psychiatric disorder in women serving a prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, T; Swinton, M; Gunn, J

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a case-note and interview study of a cross-sectional sample comprising 25% of all women serving a prison sentence in England and Wales. A 5% sample of the male sentenced prison population was used for comparison. Diagnoses were assigned on clinical grounds and an assessment was made of the treatment needs of all 'cases'. The prevalence of psychosis, around 2%, was similar in the two groups but women had higher rates of mental handicap (6% v. 2%), personality disorder (18% v. 10%), neurosis (18% v. 10%) and substance abuse (26% v. 12%). There is a need for closer links between the NHS and prison health services. Women's prisons lack a therapeutic community of the Grendon type, which may be of benefit to a substantial minority of inmates.

  17. Cultural considerations in the criminal law: the sentencing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, James K; Schaefer, Michele N; Bloom, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    In forensic psychiatry, there is increasing recognition of the importance of culture and ethnicity in the criminal justice process as the population becomes more culturally diverse. However, there has been little consideration of the role of cultural factors in the trial process for criminal defendants, particularly in the sentencing phase of trial. Using a capital murder case study, this article explores the role of cultural forensic psychiatric consultation, focusing on the sentencing phase of trial as the place where the full scope and power of a cultural evaluation can be brought most effectively to the attention of the court. Cultural psychiatric perspectives can enrich a core forensic evaluation and be maximally helpful to the court, by exploring family dynamics and psychological health influenced by cultural history, immigrant and refugee experiences, and sociocultural environment. Specific recommendations and cautions for effective cultural consultation in forensic psychiatry are discussed.

  18. Child molester gets new sentence after State breaks plea deal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-20

    In August of 1992, a child molester, [name removed], agreed to a plea bargain rather than be tried on three counts of sexual assault. At the sentencing, hearing prosecutors requested that [name removed] undergo HIV testing, with the results to be disclosed to the boy's parents. The circuit court judge imposed a five-year jail sentence with credit for time served and an HIV test. [Name removed]'s public defender appealed to Hawaii's Intermediate Court of Appeals. The appeals court ruled that once the terms of the plea agreement had been reached between prosecutors and [name removed], they could not be altered. The appeals court also stated that the circuit judge had no power under Hawaii law to compel the defendant to undergo HIV testing.

  19. Appeals panel vacates sentence of HIV-positive sex offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-20

    The Ohio Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments for a lighter sentence, but remanded the case for resentencing on other grounds. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to one count of corrupting a minor, a plea bargain with prosecutors in which they dropped rape and kidnapping charges. The case involved oral sex with a 13-year-old boy in which [name removed] did not disclose his HIV-positive status. The lower court erred in neglecting to explain its reason for giving [name removed] the maximum allowable sentence, and should not have raised Megan's Law concerns, as the crime took place before that statute was enacted. This was [name removed]'s first offense for a sex crime.

  20. Sentencing, community penalties and the role of the probation service

    OpenAIRE

    Canton, Robert; Mair, G.

    2007-01-01

    Willan has become a major publisher in criminology and criminal justice and this Handbook joins an impressive and influential series. Many leading academics in the field have contributed to this volume and Canton’s chapter, co-written with Professor George Mair (Liverpool John Moore’s), is an important part of the collection. Canton’s contribution is to apply the insights of ‘compliance’ to specific challenges of implementing community sentences.

  1. Automatic lymphoma classification with sentence subgraph mining from pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Sohani, Aliyah R; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Szolovits, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pathology reports are rich in narrative statements that encode a complex web of relations among medical concepts. These relations are routinely used by doctors to reason on diagnoses, but often require hand-crafted rules or supervised learning to extract into prespecified forms for computational disease modeling. We aim to automatically capture relations from narrative text without supervision. We design a novel framework that translates sentences into graph representations, automatically mines sentence subgraphs, reduces redundancy in mined subgraphs, and automatically generates subgraph features for subsequent classification tasks. To ensure meaningful interpretations over the sentence graphs, we use the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus to map token subsequences to concepts, and in turn sentence graph nodes. We test our system with multiple lymphoma classification tasks that together mimic the differential diagnosis by a pathologist. To this end, we prevent our classifiers from looking at explicit mentions or synonyms of lymphomas in the text. We compare our system with three baseline classifiers using standard n-grams, full MetaMap concepts, and filtered MetaMap concepts. Our system achieves high F-measures on multiple binary classifications of lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma, 0.8; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 0.909; follicular lymphoma, 0.84; Hodgkin lymphoma, 0.912). Significance tests show that our system outperforms all three baselines. Moreover, feature analysis identifies subgraph features that contribute to improved performance; these features agree with the state-of-the-art knowledge about lymphoma classification. We also highlight how these unsupervised relation features may provide meaningful insights into lymphoma classification. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Rational Suicides: Evidence from Changes in Inmates' Expected Sentence Length

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Campaniello; Theodoros Diasakos; Giovanni Mastrobuoni

    2012-01-01

    Are suicides rational? At least since the 70's economists have been trying to shed light on this question by studying whether suicide rates are related to contemporaneous economic conditions. This paper goes one step further: we test whether suicides are linked to forward-looking behavior. In Italy, collective sentence reductions (pardons) often lead to massive releases of prisoners. More importantly, they are usually preceded by prolonged parliamentary activity (legislative proposals, discus...

  3. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish...... in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York...

  4. Aristotle on Sentence Types and Forms of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bolonyai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Hermeneutics, Ch. 4, the analysis of non-assertoric sentences such as wishes, commands, etc. belongs to rhetoric or poetics. They are, however, examined neither in the Rhetoric nor in the Poetics, where (Ch. 20 their treatment. is explicitly excluded from the art of poetry and referred to that of delivery or performance. The paper gives an explanation for this discrepancy, based on an interpretation of Aristotle's rejection of Protagoras' criticism of Homer. The sophist found fault with the first line of the Iliad where Homer invokes the Muse by the imperative Menin aeide, thea thus uttering a command while believing that he is expressing a prayer. Aristotle's grounds for rejecting this criticism remain implicit, but it appears very likely that he thought that, if uttered or performed in the right manner, the sentence could he taken as a prayer. From this observation, which is certainly valid in this particular case, he drew the conclusion that performative or vocal features in themselves, i.e. rhythm, intonation and volume of sound, are always sufficient to identify particular „figures of speech“, as he calls non-assertoric sentence types in the Poetics. This conclusion is, however, not entirely justified. Performative features are not always enough to differentiate between two `figures of speech'; the possible range of verbal moods and sentence types is likewise determined by morphological marks (e.g. mood signs, syntactical features (word-order, and lexical items (certain adverbs or particles. Aristotle’s decision to dismiss figures of speech altogether from the field of lexis may also have contributed to the later development of keeping linguistics and theory of style apart as two separate branches of inquiry.

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder: diminished responsibility and mitigation of sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russ

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it.

  6. Relatedness of content and sentence formation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bekeš

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Leech (1983: 63-70 distinguishes two kinds of pragmatics, interpersonal prag­ matics and textual pragmatics.  Our article is concerned with textual pragmatics,  spe­ cifically with the textual motivations behind a format such as a sentence in Japanese. Studying spontaneous spoken discourse, Chafe (1980 proposed two units of spoken discourse on the basis of phonetical and intonational criteria, i.e. the "idea unit" and the "intonation sentence". He finds justification for both units in cognitive processes as follows. Idea units, most often verbalized as clauses, are the linguistic expression of cognitive units that Chafe calls "foci of consciousness". A focus of consciousness is a chunk of information small enough to be processed and verbalized in one step. Next, an intonation sentence, consisting usually of several idea units (or sometimes just one is the verbal expression of a larger cognitive unit, the "center of interest", a chunk of information too large to be verbalized in one step. Concerning the center of interest, Chafe puts forward the following hypothesis.

  7. iSentenizer-μ: multilingual sentence boundary detection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S; Zeng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Sentence boundary detection (SBD) system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ) for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i (+)Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets.

  8. iSentenizer-μ: Multilingual Sentence Boundary Detection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek F. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentence boundary detection (SBD system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i+Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets.

  9. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  10. The importance of the first and last letter in words during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Eisler, Morgan E

    2012-11-01

    Previous research suggests that the first and last letters of words are more important than the interior letters during reading. A question that has yet to be fully studied is why this is so. The current study reports four experiments in which participants read sentences containing words with transposed letters occurring at the beginning of the word, near the middle of the word, or at the end of the word. Experiments 1 and 2 also included some sentences where the spaces were removed and replaced with hash marks (#) to equate all letters on their degree of lateral interference from adjacent letter positions. In Experiment 3, equating was done by adding an additional space between all of the letters, so that no letter position received lateral interference from any letter. In Experiment 4, readers read sentences from right to left so that word-initial letters were presented furthest into the parafovea. The results indicate that although the first letter of a word has a privileged role over interior letters regardless of the degree of lateral interference it receives or its location in the parafovea (suggesting that it is intrinsically related to how we process, store, or access lexical information), the last letter of a word is more important than interior letters only when it receives less lateral interference or when its parafoveal location was close to the fovea (suggesting that it is privileged only due to low-level visual factors). These findings have important implications for current theories and computational models regarding the roles of various letter positions in reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Right of the Accused in Saudi in Criminal Procedure during Investigation Process and Arbitrary Dentation and Prohibits Torture and Protects the Rights of Suspects to Obtain Legal Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmed Alqahtani Faten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has recent in years pass several important legislations to ensure a fair and balanced justice system, including: 1 The Law of Procedure Before Sharia Courts of September 2001, which grants defendants the right to legal representation and outlines the process by which please, evidence and experts are heard by the courts. 2 The Code of Law Practice of January 2001, which outlines requirements necessary to become an attorney and defines the duties and right of lawyers, including the right of attorney-client privilege. 3 The Law of Criminal Procedure of May 2001, which protects a defendant right with the regard to interrogation, investigation, and incarceration; outlines a series of regulations that justice and law enforcement authorities must follow during all stages of legal process, from arrest and interrogation to trial and sentencing; prohibits torture and protects the right of suspects to obtain legal counsel; and limits the period of arbitrary detention. The main objective of this study is to examine the operation of the criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia in light of the international human rights standards pertaining to the administration of justice. It involves the international human rights treaties and focuses mainly on the instruments in which the right to a fair trail in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  13. Modern Tendencies and Characteristics of Legal Writing in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Përgjegji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article with the title ‘’Modern tendencies and characteristics of Legal Writing in English for Specific Purposes’’ deals with the study of legal writing and its teaching in professional linguistic contexts, where writing is considered as a means of communication between two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article describes some key features of legal writing as part of Writing for Specific Purposes. The historical background gives a hint on how the legal writing was considered at its beginnings, how it evolved and how it was taught through years. It also discusses the controversial issue whether writing should be taught together with the legal reasoning or not, taking into consideration the fact that the process of writing itself for most students is considered to be of a more complicated nature than the process of the legal reasoning. The characteristics of legal writing describe the specificities and the intricacies that the legal jargon implies, the archaic words, wordiness and the awkward sentence structure. Modern tendencies place emphasizes on another aspect of legal writing nowadays; that of writing in Plain English which implies a breaking of the cycle of the complicated writing toward a simplified way of writing, through a tiring and long process of writing where the reader is at the center of it. This means that every writing has been produced having the reader in mind implying that the general public that does not have a legal background should be able to understand it.

  14. Audiovisual sentence repetition as a clinical criterion for auditory development in Persian-language children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryadi-Zanjani, Mohammad Majid; Vahab, Maryam; Rahimi, Zahra; Mayahi, Anis

    2017-02-01

    It is important for clinician such as speech-language pathologists and audiologists to develop more efficient procedures to assess the development of auditory, speech and language skills in children using hearing aid and/or cochlear implant compared to their peers with normal hearing. So, the aim of study was the comparison of the performance of 5-to-7-year-old Persian-language children with and without hearing loss in visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual presentation of sentence repetition task. The research was administered as a cross-sectional study. The sample size was 92 Persian 5-7 year old children including: 60 with normal hearing and 32 with hearing loss. The children with hearing loss were recruited from Soroush rehabilitation center for Persian-language children with hearing loss in Shiraz, Iran, through consecutive sampling method. All the children had unilateral cochlear implant or bilateral hearing aid. The assessment tool was the Sentence Repetition Test. The study included three computer-based experiments including visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual. The scores were compared within and among the three groups through statistical tests in α = 0.05. The score of sentence repetition task between V-only, A-only, and AV presentation was significantly different in the three groups; in other words, the highest to lowest scores belonged respectively to audiovisual, auditory-only, and visual-only format in the children with normal hearing (P hearing aid (P children (r = 0.179, n = 92, P = 0.088), but audiovisual sentence repetition scores were found to be strongly correlated with auditory-only scores in all the 5-to-7-year-old children (r = 0.943, n = 92, P = 0.000). According to the study's findings, audiovisual integration occurs in the 5-to-7-year-old Persian children using hearing aid or cochlear implant during sentence repetition similar to their peers with normal hearing. Therefore, it is recommended that audiovisual

  15. Assessing Syntactic Deficits in Chinese Broca's aphasia using theNorthwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences-Chinese (NAVS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Thompson, Cynthia K

    English-speaking patients with Broca's aphasia and agrammatism evince difficulty with complex grammatical structures, including verbs and sentences. A few studies have found similar patterns among Chinese-speaking patients with broca's aphasia, despite structural differences between these two languages. However, no studies have explicitly examined verb properties, including the number and optionality of arguments (participant roles) selected by the verb, and only a few studies have examined sentence deficits among Chinese patients. In addition, there are no test batteries presently available to assess syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences in Chinese patients. This study used a Chinese version of the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), originally developed for English speakers with aphasia, to examine the verb and sentence deficit patterns among Chinese speakers with aphasia. As in the original NAVS, the Chinese version (NAVS-C) assessed verbs by the number and optionality of arguments as well as sentence canonicity, in the both production and comprehension. Fifteen Chinese patients with Broca's aphasia and fifteen age-matched healthy normal controls participated in this study. All NAVS-C tests were administered, in which participants were asked either to produce or identify verbs and sentences coinciding with action pictures. Despite grammatical differences between Chinese and English, the impairment caused by structural complexity of verbs and sentences was replicated in Chinese-speaking patients using the NAVS-C. Verbs with more arguments were significantly more impaired than those with fewer arguments and verbs with optional arguments were significantly more impaired than those with obligatory arguments. One deviation from English-speaking patients, however, is that the Chinese-speaking patients exhibited greater difficulty with subject relative clauses than with object relative clauses because the former

  16. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  17. Protective force legal issues: the security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much discussion and some controversy on the legal issues faced by the Department of Energy's (DOE) protective forces in the performance of their security duties. These include the observance of legal proprieties in the arrest of non-violent demonstrators, the use of lethal weapons, and the extent of protective forces' authority to carry weapons and protect DOE's security interests offsite. In brief, the need to protect DOE's security interests may be in nominal conflict with other requirements. When faced with a potential conflict in requirements, we in the DOE security community must place first attention to the security mission -- to deter and prevent hostile acts

  18. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development.

  19. Legal procedures regarding state budget expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government spending and the procedures for making them can be examined on the basis of many of public regulations, which are the legal grounds for these expenditure. The procedures of government spending can be studied in the field of personal expenditure of the state budget (including salaries, pensions and social benefits. Appropriate procedures are related to expenditure for purchases of goods and services and for making of public investments (e.g. public roads and buildings. An extensive area of expenditure is in the form of grants. There are special legal ways for transferring the budget grants to different legal organizations and entities. The state expenditure are fixed in the Budget Act. The implementation of the budgetary expenditure needs to take up, by state authorities and agencies, thousands of individual and concrete actions (e.g. the contracts, administrative decisions, other activities. That is, in the Budget Act fixed expenditure have, in principle, normative act features.

  20. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  1. Legal issues in bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses some of the more common legal issues involved in bone marrow transplantation. These include malpractice claims, testing prospective donors for AIDS, sale of bone marrow, informed consent for both donor and recipient, and questions that arise when the donor is a child.

  2. Citing Legal Material in APA Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to authors on the correct citation format for legal references, including statutes and regulations, court decisions, and law review articles. Standards are based on those published by the Harvard Law Review Association and the American Psychological Association. (DB)

  3. Legal research using digitised historic newspapers.

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2010-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the Australian Newspapers service. It contains over 20 million digitised historic newspapers. The service is now being integrated with Trove. Librarians on the panel describe how they have used the information to solve legal cases. Most of these involve family names and history including ownership of property.

  4. Rules and heuristics during sentence comprehension: evidence from a dual-task brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Schacht, Annekathrin; Casado, Pilar; Hohlfeld, Annette; Abdel Rahman, Rasha; Sommer, Werner

    2009-07-01

    Whether syntactic and semantic processes during sentence comprehension follow strict sets of rules or succumb to context-dependent heuristics was studied by recording event-related potentials in a dual-task design. In one condition, sentence-extraneous acoustic material was either semantically congruent or incongruent relative to an adjective in the visually presented sentence, the latter being either semantically correct or incorrect within the sentence context. Homologous syntactic (gender) manipulations were performed in another condition. Syntactic processing within the sentence appeared to be blind to the syntactic content of the second task. In contrast, semantically incongruous material of the second task induced fluctuations typically associated with the detection of within-sentence semantic anomalies (N400) even in semantically correct sentences. Subtle but extant differences in topography between this N400 and that obtained with within-sentence semantic violations add to recent proposals of separate semantic subsystems differing in their specificity for sentence structure and computational procedures. Semantically incongruous material of the second task also influenced later stages of the processing of semantically incorrect adjectives (P600 component), which are traditionally assumed to pertain to the syntactic domain. This result is discussed in the light of current proposals of a third combinatorial stream in sentence comprehension.

  5. A new sentence generator providing material for maximum reading speed measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Luc; Paillé, Damien; Baccino, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    A new method is proposed to generate text material for assessing maximum reading speed of adult readers. The described procedure allows one to generate a vast number of equivalent short sentences. These sentences can be displayed for different durations in order to determine the reader's maximum speed using a psychophysical threshold algorithm. Each sentence is built so that it is either true or false according to common knowledge. The actual reading is verified by asking the reader to determine the truth value of each sentence. We based our design on the generator described by Crossland et al. and upgraded it. The new generator handles concepts distributed in an ontology, which allows an easy determination of the sentences' truth value and control of lexical and psycholinguistic parameters. In this way many equivalent sentence can be generated and displayed to perform the measurement. Maximum reading speed scores obtained with pseudo-randomly chosen sentences from the generator were strongly correlated with maximum reading speed scores obtained with traditional MNREAD sentences (r = .836). Furthermore, the large number of sentences that can be generated makes it possible to perform repeated measurements, since the possibility of a reader learning individual sentences is eliminated. Researchers interested in within-reader performance variability could use the proposed method for this purpose.

  6. Oscillatory brain dynamics during sentence reading: A Fixation-related spectral perturbation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo eVignali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated oscillatory brain dynamics during self-paced sentence-level processing. Participants read fully correct sentences, sentences containing a semantic violation and sentences in which the order of the words was randomized. At the target word level, fixations on semantically unrelated words elicited a lower-beta band (13-18 Hz desynchronization. At the sentence level, gamma power (31-55 Hz increased linearly for syntactically correct sentences, but not when the order of the words was randomized. In the 300 to 900 ms time window after sentence onsets, theta power (4-7 Hz was greater for syntactically correct sentences as compared to sentences where no syntactic structure was preserved (random words condition. We interpret our results as conforming with a recently formulated predictive-coding framework for oscillatory neural dynamics during sentence-level language comprehension. Additionally, we discuss how our results relate to previous findings with serial visual presentation versus self-paced reading.

  7. Automatically extracting sentences from Medline citations to support clinicians' information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Medlin, Richard; Weir, Charlene; Fiszman, Marcelo; Mostafa, Javed; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Online health knowledge resources contain answers to most of the information needs raised by clinicians in the course of care. However, significant barriers limit the use of these resources for decision-making, especially clinicians' lack of time. In this study we assessed the feasibility of automatically generating knowledge summaries for a particular clinical topic composed of relevant sentences extracted from Medline citations. The proposed approach combines information retrieval and semantic information extraction techniques to identify relevant sentences from Medline abstracts. We assessed this approach in two case studies on the treatment alternatives for depression and Alzheimer's disease. A total of 515 of 564 (91.3%) sentences retrieved in the two case studies were relevant to the topic of interest. About one-third of the relevant sentences described factual knowledge or a study conclusion that can be used for supporting information needs at the point of care. The high rate of relevant sentences is desirable, given that clinicians' lack of time is one of the main barriers to using knowledge resources at the point of care. Sentence rank was not significantly associated with relevancy, possibly due to most sentences being highly relevant. Sentences located closer to the end of the abstract and sentences with treatment and comparative predications were likely to be conclusive sentences. Our proposed technical approach to helping clinicians meet their information needs is promising. The approach can be extended for other knowledge resources and information need types.

  8. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  10. Affirmative Action in Medical Education: A Legal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes history of legal theory behind affirmative action, with examples from case law and Department of Education regulations, identifying legal pitfalls in admissions and financial aid, including categorization of students by race, racially disproportionate financial aid awards after accounting for need, racially disproportionate scholarship…

  11. Legal Abortion: Are American Black Women Healthier Because of It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Willard, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)

  12. Legal Education for Sustainability: A Report on US Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernbach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is an overview of sustainability efforts in US law schools. It describes two sets of drivers for these efforts--inside and outside the legal profession. Drivers from within the legal profession include the American Bar Association as well as several state and local bar associations; law firms and other law organisations; and current…

  13. Towards the Legal Recognition and Governance of Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating. KEYWORDS: Ecosystem services, Mozambique, legal ...

  14. Indigenous legal tradition as a supplement to African transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article interrogates the role of indigenous legal tradition (ILT) in contemporary African transitional justice initiatives. It departs from the assumption that most African cultures put emphasis on communality and the interdependence of the members of a community. Indigenous legal traditions, which include mechanisms for ...

  15. Legal issues in cash balance pension plan conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, J B

    2001-01-01

    Replacing a traditional pension with a cash balance plan raises a number of complicated and unsettled legal issues, including the protection of accrued benefits, the rate of benefit accrual, age discrimination and notice requirements. This article discusses those issues and concludes that routine conversions to cash balance plans appear to be legal both currently and into the foreseeable future.

  16. International legal positivism in a post-modern world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammerhofer, J.; d' Aspremont, J.

    2014-01-01

    International Legal Positivism in a Post-Modern World provides fresh perspectives on one of the most important and most controversial families of theoretical approaches to the study and practice of international law. The contributors include leading experts on international legal theory who analyse

  17. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  18. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  19. Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension: An Adapted Version of Lobrot's Lecture 3 Test for Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Vilhena, Douglas; Sucena, Ana; Castro, São Luís; Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural-linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back-translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structural variables, such as frequency of occurrence of the distractors, gender neutrality and position of the target words. The instrument can be used for a collective screening or individual clinical administration purposes to evaluate the reading ability of second-to-fifth-grade and 7-to-11-year-old students. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  1. Neurophysiological dynamics of phrase-structure building during sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew J; El Karoui, Imen; Giber, Kristof; Yang, Xiaofang; Cohen, Laurent; Koopman, Hilda; Cash, Sydney S; Naccache, Lionel; Hale, John T; Pallier, Christophe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-05-02

    Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase. Regression analyses showed that each additional word or multiword phrase contributed a similar amount of additional brain activity, providing evidence for a merge operation that applies equally to linguistic objects of arbitrary complexity. More superficial models of language, based solely on sequential transition probability over lexical and syntactic categories, only captured activity in the posterior middle temporal gyrus. Formal model comparison indicated that the model of multiword phrase construction provided a better fit than probability-based models at most sites in superior temporal and inferior frontal cortices. Activity in those regions was consistent with a neural implementation of a bottom-up or left-corner parser of the incoming language stream. Our results provide initial intracranial evidence for the neurophysiological reality of the merge operation postulated by linguists and suggest that the brain compresses syntactically well-formed sequences of words into a hierarchy of nested phrases.

  2. INTERCONNECTION AND INTERACTION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sklyarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false RU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This paper presents the results of research devoted to one of significant aspects of interrogative sentences. The precise definitions of interconnection and interaction and the application of these terms to the language units helped to distinguish between interconnection and interaction of interrogative sentences in English. The existence of two different kinds of relations in the language, namely paradigmatic and syntagmatic, provided the basis for singling out two corresponding forms of interaction of English interrogative sentences. Contextual and distributional analyses of the material from authentic sources enabled to characterize the range and degree of their paradigmatic and syntagmatic interaction. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Sentence Comprehension and Its Association with Executive Functions in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien S. F. Colman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistent impairments in executive functions and language comprehension in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD have been repeatedly observed. In this study, the aim was to provide insights into the interaction between linguistic representation and processing and executive functioning. Therefore, sentence comprehension and executive functions were assessed in 28 Dutch-speaking PD patients and 28 healthy control subjects. Three aspects of the sentence materials were varied: (1 phrase structure complexity, (2 sentence length, and (3 picture congruence. PD patients with mild-to-moderate disease severity showed decreased sentence comprehension compared to healthy control subjects. The difficulties encountered by PD patients were not limited to one aspect of the sentence materials. The same pattern of results was present in healthy control subjects. Deficits in set-switching were specifically associated with the comprehension of passive sentences. Generally, our study confirms that there does not appear to be a language faculty encapsulated from the influence of executive functions.

  4. [TEFREP: repeating sentences Test in France and Quebec. Development, validation and standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, Josiane; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Forest, Martin; Monetta, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Sentence repetition is part of the assessment tasks used to better characterise aphasic patients' oral production. Moreover, impaired sentence and phrase repetition is a core feature of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia. The aim of this study is to present the TEFREP (TEst Français de RÉpétition de Phrases), a French sentence repetition task that manipulates psycholinguistic variables known to affect the performance of aphasic patients. The final version of the TEFREP consists of 24 sentences in which length, semantic reversibility and type of sentence have been manipulated. The task shows good psychometric properties (validity and reliability). Norms according to age and education level have been developed from a sample of 80 healthy adults and older adults. In conclusion, the TEFREP fulfills the current need for a reliable assessment tool of sentence repetition in Canadian French-speaking populations and contributes to the differential diagnosis of language impairment.

  5. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  6. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  7. Mapping Between Semantic Graphs and Sentences in Grammar Induction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Kovacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed transformation module performs mapping be-
    tween two di®erent knowledge representation forms used in grammar induction systems. The kernel knowledge representation form is a special predicate centered conceptual graph called ECG. The ECG provides a semantic-based, language independent description of the environment. The other base representation form is some kind of language. The sentences of the language should meet the corresponding grammatical rules. The pilot project demonstrates the functionality of a translator module using this transformation engine between the ECG graph and the Hungarian language.

  8. The use of religion in death penalty sentencing trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Monica K; Bornstein, Brian H

    2006-12-01

    Both prosecutors and defense attorneys have presented religious appeals and testimony about a defendant's religious activities in order to influence capital jurors' sentencing. Courts that have objected to this use of religion fear that religion will improperly influence jurors' decisions and interfere with their ability to weigh aggravators and mitigators. This study investigated the effects of both prosecution and defense appeals. Prosecution appeals did not affect verdict decisions; however, use of religion by the defense affected both verdicts and the weighing of aggravators and mitigators. These results could be due to differences in perceived sincerity and remorse that are conveyed in the various appeals.

  9. Temporal anaphora across and inside sentences: The function of participles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corien Bary

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a formal account of the discourse behaviour of participles, which to some extent behave like main clauses in having semantically undetermined relations to their matrix clause, but which should nevertheless be integrated into the compositional semantics of complex sentences. The theory is developed on the basis of Ancient Greek participles and offers an account of their syntax, semantics and discourse behaviour (focusing on the temporal dimension of discourse, integrating Lexical-Functional Grammar, Compositional DRT and Segmented DRT using Glue semantics. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.4.8 BibTeX info

  10. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  11. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  12. Reliability of Visual-World Eyetracking for Lexical and Sentence Comprehension Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Mack

    2014-04-01

    The results indicate that eyetracking is a reliable measure of the latency of lexical access and sentence comprehension, even with a limited number of trials. Therefore, this method may prove useful for investigating lexical access and sentence comprehension changes as a result of treatment for aphasia. Figure 1. Proportion of fixations to the target picture across sessions in (a lexical access and (b sentence comprehension trials. Vertical lines indicate windows for statistical analyses.

  13. Neural basis of first and second language processing of sentence-level linguistic prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, Jackson; Tong, Yunxia; Talavage, Thomas; Wong, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Xu, Yisheng; Li, Xiaojian; Lowe, Mark

    2007-02-01

    A fundamental question in multilingualism is whether the neural substrates are shared or segregated for the two or more languages spoken by polyglots. This study employs functional MRI to investigate the neural substrates underlying the perception of two sentence-level prosodic phenomena that occur in both Mandarin Chinese (L1) and English (L2): sentence focus (sentence-initial vs. -final position of contrastive stress) and sentence type (declarative vs. interrogative modality). Late-onset, medium proficiency Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to selectively attend to either sentence focus or sentence type in paired three-word sentences in both L1 and L2 and make speeded-response discrimination judgments. L1 and L2 elicited highly overlapping activations in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Furthermore, region of interest analyses revealed that for both languages the sentence focus task elicited a leftward asymmetry in the supramarginal gyrus; both tasks elicited a rightward asymmetry in the mid-portion of the middle frontal gyrus. A direct comparison between L1 and L2 did not show any difference in brain activation in the sentence type task. In the sentence focus task, however, greater activation for L2 than L1 occurred in the bilateral anterior insula and superior frontal sulcus. The sentence focus task also elicited a leftward asymmetry in the posterior middle temporal gyrus for L1 only. Differential activation patterns are attributed primarily to disparities between L1 and L2 in the phonetic manifestation of sentence focus. Such phonetic divergences lead to increased computational demands for processing L2. These findings support the view that L1 and L2 are mediated by a unitary neural system despite late age of acquisition, although additional neural resources may be required in task-specific circumstances for unequal bilinguals.

  14. Verb Transitivity Bias Affects On-line Sentence Reading in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of sentence comprehension in non-disordered populations have convincingly demonstrated that probabilistic cues influence on-line syntactic processing. One well-studied cue is verb argument structure bias, which refers to the probability that a verb will occur in a particular syntactic frame. According to the Lexical Bias Hypothesis, people with aphasia have difficulty understanding sentences in which the verb’s argument structure bias conflicts with the sentence structure (e.g., a transitively biased verb in an intransitive sentence). This hypothesis may provide an account of why people with aphasia have difficulty understanding both simple and complex sentences. Aims The purpose of this study was to test the Lexical Bias Hypothesis using an on-line measure of written sentence comprehension, self-paced reading. Methods & Procedures The participants were ten people with aphasia and ten non-brain-damaged controls. The stimuli were syntactically simple transitive and intransitive sentences that contained transitively- or intransitively-biased verbs. For example, the transitively-biased verb “called” appeared in sentences such as “The agent called (the writer) from overseas to make an offer.” The intransitively-biased verb “danced” appeared in sentences such as “The couple danced (the tango) every Friday night last summer.” Outcomes & Results Both groups’ reading times for critical segments were longer when the verb’s transitivity bias did not match the sentence structure, particularly in intransitive sentences. Conclusions The results were generally consistent with the Lexical Bias Hypothesis, and demonstrated that lexical biases affect on-line processing of syntactically simple sentences in people with aphasia and controls. PMID:23554543

  15. The legal system of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1983-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents solutions to some of the legal problems encountered in the interpretation of the various laws and regulations governing nuclear waste disposal, and reveals the legal system supporting the variety of individual regulations. Proposals are made relating to modifications of problematic or not well defined provisions, in order to contribute to improved juridical security, or inambiguity in terms of law. The author also discusses the question of the constitutionality of the laws for nuclear waste disposal. Apart from the responsibility of private enterprise to contribute to safe treatment or recycling, within the framework of the integrated waste management concept, and apart from the Government's responsibility for interim or final storage of radioactive waste, there is a third possibility included in the legal system for waste management, namely voluntary measures taken by private enterprise for radioactive waste disposal. The licence to be applied for in accordance with section 3, sub-section (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance is interpreted to pertain to all measures of radioactive waste disposal, thus including final storage of radioactive waste by private companies. Although the terminology and systematic concept of nuclear waste disposal are difficult to understand, there is a functionable system of legal provisions contained therein. This system fits into the overall concept of laws governing technical safety and safety engineering. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. The comprehension of sentences with unaccusative verbs in aphasia: a test of the intervener hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Natalie; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have difficulty comprehending some sentences with filler-gap dependencies. While investigations of these difficulties have been conducted with several different sentence types (e.g., object relatives, Wh -questions), we explore sentences containing unaccusative verbs, which arguably have a single noun phrase (NP) that is base-generated in object position but then is displaced to surface subject position. Unaccusative verbs provide an ideal test case for a particular hypothesis about the comprehension disorder-the Intervener Hypothesis-that posits that the difficulty individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have comprehending sentences containing filler-gap dependencies results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between the two elements of a syntactic chain. To assess a particular account of the comprehension deficit in agrammatic Broca's aphasia-the Intervener Hypothesis. We used a sentence-picture matching task to determine if listeners with agrammatic Broca's aphasia (LWBA) and age-matched neurologically unimpaired controls (AMC) have difficulty comprehending unaccusative verbs when placed in subject relative and complement phrase (CP) constructions. We found above-chance comprehension of both sentence constructions with the AMC participants. In contrast, we found above-chance comprehension of CP sentences containing unaccusative verbs but poor comprehension of subject relative sentences containing unaccusative verbs for the LWBA. These results provide support for the Intervener Hypothesis, wherein the presence of an intervening NP between two elements of a filler-gap dependency adversely affects sentence comprehension.

  17. Sentence-position effects on children's perception and production of English third person singular -s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Demuth, Katherine; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-02-01

    Two-year-olds produce third person singular -s more accurately on verbs in sentence-final position as compared with verbs in sentence-medial position. This study was designed to determine whether these sentence-position effects can be explained by perceptual factors. For this purpose, the authors compared 22- and 27-month-olds' perception and elicited production of third person singular -s in sentence-medial versus-final position. The authors assessed perception by measuring looking/listening times to a 1-screen display of a cartoon paired with a grammatical versus an ungrammatical sentence (e.g., She eats now vs. She eat now). Children at both ages demonstrated sensitivity to the presence/absence of this inflectional morpheme in sentence-final, but not sentence-medial, position. Children were also more accurate at producing third person singular -s sentence finally, and production accuracy was predicted by vocabulary measures as well as by performance on the perception task. These results indicate that children's more accurate production of third person singular -s in sentence-final position cannot be explained by articulatory factors alone but that perceptual factors play an important role in accounting for early patterns of production. The findings also indicate that perception and production of inflectional morphemes may be more closely related than previously thought.

  18. Constructive processes in skilled and less skilled comprehenders' memory for sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakhill, J

    1982-02-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate seven-eight-year-old children's memory for aurally presented sentences. A recognition-memory task was used to probe constructive memory processes in two groups differentiated by their ability at comprehending printed text. The recognition errors of both groups indicated that they constructed meanings implied by the original input sentences, whilst demonstrating poor memory for the syntactic form of the sentences. The tendency to construct meanings implied by the original input sentences was greater in children who scored higher on tests of reading comprehension of test. These results indicate that constructive memory processes are related to comprehension ability in young readers.

  19. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  20. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  1. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  2. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  3. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  4. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  5. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  6. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  7. Measuring vulnerability to depression: The Serbian scrambled sentences test - SSST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish whether the SSST, a Serbian language scrambled sentences instrument, is a reliable measure of depressive cognitive bias, and whether it captures the suppression tendency as participants exert the additional cognitive effort of memorizing a six-digit number while completing the task. The sample consisted of 1071 students, randomly assigned into two groups. They completed the SSST divided into two blocks of 28 sentences, together with additional cognitive task during either the first or second block, and after that a number of instruments to establish validity of the SSST. The test was shown to be a reliable instrument of depressive cognitive bias. As a measure of suppression the SSST performed partly as expected, only when load was applied in the second half of the test, and fatigue and cognitive effort enhanced suppression. The advantages of the test versus self-description measures were discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179006: Hereditary, environmental, and psychological factors of mental health

  8. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions. Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years, young-old (60–69 years, and old-old (70–80 years. Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1, with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication.

  9. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  10. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  11. THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON CERTAIN TYPES OF LEGAL LIABILITY IN CRYPTOCURRENCY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Drozd

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the theoretical, methodological, and legal possibilities of application of certain types of legal responsibility to the relations, which are connected with cryptocurrency (bitcoin. Some types of liability in the field of cryptocurrency relations make the subject of the study. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of legal regulation of the sphere of cryptocurrency in Ukraine and in foreign countries. Advantages and disadvantages of different modes of cryptocurrency turnover are determined: from direct prohibition to granting the status of the official payment system. It is made on the basis of the analysis of peculiarities of the circulation of virtual money in Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, China, the Russian Federation, Bolivia, Ecuador, Thailand, Vietnam, the USA, Japan, Spain, and some other countries. On the basis of the comparative legal study of certain provisions of the civil, administrative, tort, and criminal legislation of Ukraine, the possibilities and limits of the application of certain types of legal responsibility to violations in the field of cryptocurrency are determined. The results of the comparative legal study have shown that, unlike most foreign countries, in Ukraine, there is no legislative consolidation of the legal status of the virtual currency. In this regard, today in the national legislation, there are no direct rules that would predict the occurrence of administrative, criminal or civil liability for the offenses in the field of cryptocurrency relations. Practical impact. Since guarantees of compulsory restoration or protection of violated law play an important role in the legal regulation of any social relations, the proper legislative regulation of public relations in the sphere of crypto currency circulation is an urgent problem today, including with the help of establishing liability for the offenses in this field

  12. Legal protection of land from pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.

  13. Legality of Tawarruq in Islamic Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yuhanis Bt Ismon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Islamic finance has been established as an alternative to the conventional banking system which is made up component not permitted under Shariah. Tawarruq is one of the Islamic finance products which commonly used in Islamic banks. This research assesses two important areas which include the principle of Tawarruq in Fiqh perspective and the practical aspect of such principle in Islamic banks in Malaysia.Method – The method used for this research is comparative analysis.Result – This research begins to explore the different views of the proponent and opponents toward the legality of Tawarruq in Fiqh . Instead of considering the basic condition of the valid sale, the other aspect has to be pondered by the contemporary scholars to render Tawarruq is valid sale according to Shariah. The legality of Tawarruq has been debate by some scholars. Due to that, there are different resolution and rulings from Islamic countries on legality of of Tawarruq . In the practical aspect, Tawarruq has been used in Malaysia by Bursa Malaysia Suq Al Sila' as a trading platform and it uses Crude Palm Oil (CPO as the commodity in Tawarruq transaction. While, in the Middle East, it uses London Metal Exchange (LME in dealing with commodity transaction through Tawarruq principle.Conclusion – Based on the legal argument on the permissibility of Tawarruq , it can be summarized that Tawarruq is permissible but subject to certain condition. Provided that genuine Tawarruq is permissible than organized Tawarruq in Tawarruq transaction.Keywords: Tawarruq, Murabahah

  14. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  15. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  16. A shared neural substrate for mentalizing and the affective component of sentence comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Hervé

    Full Text Available Using event-related fMRI in a sample of 42 healthy participants, we compared the cerebral activity maps obtained when classifying spoken sentences based on the mental content of the main character (belief, deception or empathy or on the emotional tonality of the sentence (happiness, anger or sadness. To control for the effects of different syntactic constructions (such as embedded clauses in belief sentences, we subtracted from each map the BOLD activations obtained during plausibility judgments on structurally matching sentences, devoid of emotions or ToM. The obtained theory of mind (ToM and emotional speech comprehension networks overlapped in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior temporal lobe, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the left inferior frontal sulcus. These regions form a ToM network, which contributes to the emotional component of spoken sentence comprehension. Compared with the ToM task, in which the sentences were enounced on a neutral tone, the emotional sentence classification task, in which the sentences were play-acted, was associated with a greater activity in the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, in line with the presence of emotional prosody. Besides, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was more active during emotional than ToM sentence processing. This region may link mental state representations with verbal and prosodic emotional cues. Compared with emotional sentence classification, ToM was associated with greater activity in the caudate nucleus, paracingulate cortex, and superior frontal and parietal regions, in line with behavioral data showing that ToM sentence comprehension was a more demanding task.

  17. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  18. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  19. Ethics and legality in the Romanian political marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poţincu, C. R.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system, the legal framework is a guarantee of the favourable development of several activities, including those regarding the implementation of the promotional techniques used in the political marketing.

  20. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2011. The LPR population includes persons...

  1. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  3. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  4. The Influence of Semantic Constraints on Bilingual Word Recognition during Sentence Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter; Welvaert, Marijke; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how semantic constraint of a sentence context modulates language-non-selective activation in bilingual visual word recognition. We recorded Dutch-English bilinguals' eye movements while they read cognates and controls in low and high semantically constraining sentences in their second language. Early and late…

  5. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...

  6. EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, L.A.; Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta (≈3–7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either semantically correct or

  7. The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game: A Competitive In-Class Experience of Business-Level Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Maureen; Wheeler, Jane V.

    2005-01-01

    The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game is a high-energy in-class exercise designed to help students gain hands-on experience with setting, implementing, evaluating, and revising business-level strategy. Students compete in teams to create and market sentences using Magnetic Poetry (a product of Magnetic Poetry, Inc.). Revenues earned are highly…

  8. Production of Non-Canonical Sentences in Agrammatic Aphasia: Limits in Representation or Rule Application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchert, Frank; Meissner, Nadine; De Bleser, Ria

    2008-01-01

    The study reported here compares two linguistically informed hypotheses on agrammatic sentence production, the TPH [Friedmann, N., & Grodzinsky, Y. (1997). "Tense and agreement in agrammatic production: Pruning the syntactic tree." "Brain and Language," 56, 397-425.] and the DOP [Bastiaanse, R., & van Zonneveld, R. (2005). "Sentence production…

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Language Production in Parkinson's Disease Using a Cued Sentence Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; De Letter, Miet; Corthals, Paul; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined language production skills in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A unique cued sentence generation task was created in order to reduce demands on memory and attention. Differences in sentence production abilities according to disease severity and cognitive impairments were assessed. Language samples were obtained from 20…

  10. EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, L.A.; Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta (approximate to 3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either

  11. Savry risk assessment in violent Dutch adolescents - Relation to sentencing and recidivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijks, H.P.B.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; de Ruiter, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) by examining relationships between SAVRY scores and violent reoffending during a 3-year period after sentencing. Two types of sentences were studied: a mandatory treatment order (N = 77) and a

  12. Automatic Generation and Evaluation of Sentence Graphs out of Word Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Priss, U.; Corbett, D.; Angelova, G.

    This paper reports on the development of a system that automatically constructs representations of the meaning of sentences using rules of grammar and a dictionary of word meanings. The meanings of words and sentences are expressed using an extension of knowledge graphs, a semantic network

  13. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  14. The On-Line Study of Sentence Comprehension: An Examination of Dual Task Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet; Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Hald, Lea

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents three studies which examine the susceptibility of sentence comprehension to intrusion by extra-sentential probe words in two on-line dual-task techniques commonly used to study sentence processing: the cross-modal lexical priming paradigm and the unimodal all-visual lexical priming paradigm. It provides both a general review…

  15. "If a Lion Could Speak ...": Online Sensitivity to Propositional Truth-Value of Unrealistic Counterfactual Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S.

    2013-01-01

    People can establish whether a sentence is hypothetically true even if what it describes can never be literally true given the laws of the natural world. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments examined electrophysiological responses to sentences about unrealistic counterfactual worlds that require people to construct novel conceptual…

  16. Processing the noun phrase versus sentence coordination ambiguity : Thematic information does not completely eliminate processing difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, John C. J.; Hendriks, Petra; Vonk, Wietske; Brown, Colin M.; Hagoort, Peter

    When faced with the noun phrase (NP) versus sentence (S) coordination ambiguity as in, for example, The thief shot the jeweller and the cop..., readers prefer the reading with NP-coordination (e.g., "The thief shot the jeweller and the cop yesterday") over one with two conjoined sentences (e.g.,

  17. 28 CFR 523.30 - What is educational good time sentence credit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is educational good time sentence credit? 523.30 Section 523.30 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE District of Columbia Educational Good Time...

  18. 76 FR 24533 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Short Term Sentences Acquisition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Sentences Acquisition Procurement AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. ACTION... contract to secure additional inmate bed space for the BOP's growing inmate population. As part of this action, known as the Short Term Sentences Acquisition procurement, the BOP has identified a specific...

  19. Corrections on Grammar, Sentence Variety and Developing Detail to Qualify Academic Essay of Indonesian Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Imroatus

    2017-01-01

    This experimental research examines: (1) significant differences of corrections on grammar, sentence variety and developing details on the quality of the essay by Indonesian learners; and (2) different effect of corrections on grammar, sentence variety, and developing details on the quality of the essay. Treatments for each were served as follows:…

  20. Sentence Repetition in Deaf Children with Specific Language Impairment in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…

  1. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  2. Comprehending Sentences with the Body: Action Compatibility in British Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David; Perniss, Pamela; Fox, Neil; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that reading sentences about actions leads to specific motor activity associated with actually performing those actions. We investigate how sign language input may modulate motor activation, using British Sign Language (BSL) sentences, some of which explicitly encode direction of motion, versus written English, where motion…

  3. Generative re-ranking model for dependency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a general framework for dependency parsing of Italian sentences based on a combination of discriminative and generative models. We use a state-of-the-art discriminative model to obtain a k-best list of candidate structures for the test sentences, and use the generative model to compute

  4. Sentencing in the Netherlands : taking risk-related offender characteristics into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden, Sigrid Geralda Clara van

    2014-01-01

    The sentencing decision of the judge might be the most important decision in the criminal proceedings, not only because of the impact the punishment has on the offender, but also because the sentencing decision is a cornerstone of the legitimacy of the entire criminal justice system. Nonetheless,

  5. 75 FR 62342 - Paroling, Recommitting, and Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... minimum term required by his sentence or by operation of law. After the Commission makes a discretionary... supervision until the expiration of his sentence or his supervision is terminated early. Parole may be revoked... 25, 2002, that: ``Cocaine, in any form, produces the same effects once it reaches the brain. It...

  6. An Analysis of Errors in Written English Sentences: A Case Study of Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimit, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the language errors in a writing of English major students in a Thai university and to explore the sources of the errors. This study focused mainly on sentences because the researcher found that errors in Thai EFL students' sentence construction may lead to miscommunication. 104 pieces of writing…

  7. Saying What's on Your Mind: Working Memory Effects on Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in sentence comprehension has received considerable interest, but little work has investigated how sentence production relies on memory mechanisms. Three experiments investigated speakers' tendency to produce syntactic structures that allow for early production of material that is accessible in memory. In Experiment…

  8. Courtroom Workgroups and Sentencing: The Effects of Similarity, Proximity, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins; Ruback, Barry; Cusick, Gretchen Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing decisions are the product of a group of courtroom actors, primarily judges and district attorneys. Although the structure of the courtroom workgroup and the interdependencies among members are assumed to be important determinants of sentencing decisions, the degree of this importance and the specific mechanisms through which workgroups…

  9. Criminal Sentencing Alternatives. A Report of a Wingspread Conference (Racine, WI, March 21-22, 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Rod

    This publication contains the proceedings of a Wingspread conference held in Racine, Wisconsin in March 1977, dealing with the topic of criminal sentencing alternatives. The conference grew out of a controversy within the Wisconsin Council on Criminal Justice over "determinant" versus "indeterminant" sentencing. Under a…

  10. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  11. Sentence Repetition as a Measure of Morphosyntax in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeili, Mariam; Marshall, Chloe R.

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual children are frequently misdiagnosed as having Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Misdiagnosis may be minimized by tests with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. The current study used a new test, the School-Age Sentence Imitation Test-English 32 (SASIT-E32), to investigate sentence repetition in monolingual and bilingual…

  12. 75 FR 81457 - Paroling, Recommitting, and Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the United States and District of Columbia...) organized crime offender; (3) national or unusual interest in the prisoner; and (4) long-term sentence. The prisoner could appeal a parole denial to the three national Board members in Washington, DC and some...

  13. Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

    2013-01-01

    We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

  14. Structure mapping and semantic integration in a construction-based neurolinguistic model of sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey, Peter Ford; Hoen, Michel

    2006-05-01

    The current research provides a theoretical, computational and neurophysiological framework in which particular aspects of sentence comprehension and non-linguistic sequence transformation processing are implemented by a common neural mechanism for structure mapping. The theoretical context is derived from construction grammar theory in which language is considered in terms of a structured inventory of form to meaning mappings. Computationally, the construction grammar concept is implemented in a hybrid neural network model that is derived from functional neuroanatomical studies. In particular, based on data from Hoen et al. (2006, this issue), the generalized structure mapping capability is attributed to a local cortical network that includes Brodmann's area (BA) 44, while the integration of semantic structure into this transformation mechanism relies on BA 45.

  15. Shedding light on words and sentences: near-infrared spectroscopy in language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sonja; Telkemeyer, Silke; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2012-05-01

    Investigating the neuronal network underlying language processing may contribute to a better understanding of how the brain masters this complex cognitive function with surprising ease and how language is acquired at a fast pace in infancy. Modern neuroimaging methods permit to visualize the evolvement and the function of the language network. The present paper focuses on a specific methodology, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), providing an overview over studies on auditory language processing and acquisition. The methodology detects oxygenation changes elicited by functional activation of the cerebral cortex. The main advantages for research on auditory language processing and its development during infancy are an undemanding application, the lack of instrumental noise, and its potential to simultaneously register electrophysiological responses. Also it constitutes an innovative approach for studying developmental issues in infants and children. The review will focus on studies on word and sentence processing including research in infants and adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Example sentences in bilingual specialised dictionaries assisting communication in a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Practitioners, researchers and translators are persons who often have to communicate about domain-specific issues in a foreign language and may consult bilingual specialised dictionaries for help. However, many specialised dictionaries focus on terms even though studies of the foreign language text...... production process reveal that this also includes grammar, language conventions, genre conventions and style. Specialists can be expected to know conventions and style in their own source language culture but cannot be expected to know how these are realised in a foreign language. Bilingual specialised...... dictionaries can help users if they contain domain-specific example sentences illustrating how source language convention and style can be transposed to a foreign language. This means that bilingual specialised dictionaries should not merely help users translate terms but be lexicographical tools designed...

  17. European stem cell research in legal shackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Myrthe G; de Vries, Sybe A; Geijsen, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brüstle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent was challenged and put before the European Court of Justice, which ruled that inventions involving the prior destruction of human embryos cannot be patented. The legal maneuvering around this case demonstrates that the future of stem cell-based patents in Europe remains unsettled. Furthermore, owing to the European Court's broad definition of hESC as 'any cell that is capable of commencing development into a human being,' novel technologies that could eliminate the need for hESCs, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are at risk of being included under the same ruling. Advances in the in vitro development of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may one day provide a direct developmental path from iPSC to oocyte and sperm, and, according to the European Court's reasoning, legally equate iPSCs with human embryos. In this review, we will briefly discuss the Brüstle v Greenpeace case and the implications of the European Court of Justice's ruling. We will identify potential risks for stem cell research and future therapeutics resulting from the broad legal definition of the human embryo. Finally, we will broach the current legal landscape, as this broad definition has also created great uncertainty about the status of human iPSCs.

  18. Sentence Writing and Perception of Written Sentences in Hearing-Impaired and Normal-Hearing Primary School Students in Hamadan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Yaghobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning language is acquired in early childhood and gradually developed by new words and new structures. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for learning this skill. Hearing disorders are barriers for natural language learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among thirty hearing-impaired students with hearing loss of 70-90 dB and thirty normal hearing students. They were selected from 3rd grade primary school students in Hamadan, a large city in Western Iran. The language skills and non language information was assessed by questionnaire, Action Picture Test, and Sentence Perception Test.Results: Results showed that there was a significant relation between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing impaired students (p<0.001, (r=0.8. This significant relation was seen in normal-hearing students as well (p<0.001, (r=0.7.Conclusion: Disability of hearing-impaired students in verbal communication is not only related to articulation and voice disorders but also is related to their disability to explore and use of language rules. They suffer lack of perception of written sentences, and they are not skilled to convey their feelings and thoughts in order to presenting themselves by using language structures.

  19. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  20. IASPEI PRESS RELEASE ON THE L’AQUILA SENTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Article Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mw 6.3 earthquake, that occurred in L'Aquila, Central Italy on April 6, 2009, killed 309 people, 1500 citizens were injured, and 30000 people lost their homes. On October 22, 2012, an Italian court in L'Aquila convicted seven scientists for failing to adequately warn residents before the earthquake struck Central Italy. All are members of the National Great Risks Commission, and several are prominent Italian seismologists and disaster experts. They were accused of involuntary manslaughter, negligence and errors in the assessment of the earthquake precursors and sentenced to six years in prison and payment of monetary compensations to relatives of those killed and injured.

  1. A Contrastive Analysis of Interrogative Sentences in English and Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashlihatul Umami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the forms of questions in English and Indonesian in order to identify the similarities and differences between them. CA may look at linguistic structures in a twofold way: predictability power and wash back effect (Cheng, Watanabe & Curtis, 2004. The former deals with foreseeing the areas of problems the English learners may commit and the latter refers to the effect of diagnostic value of CA on improvement of teaching processes. In this case, the researcher emphasizes her study in analyzing CA based on the first perspective; this study focuses on interrogative sentences which are in the form of questions which play an important role in learning English among junior English students. This study has found the differences and similarities between Indonesian and English. Recognizing this will contribute to the accuracy of English questions made by the students.

  2. The Imperative Sentence Pattern “Vp+tsau” in the Mengjin Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lanyu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Mengjin dialect, the imperative sentence “Vp+ʦau (‘go’” is a common sentence pattern, which has six major structural forms. The basic structure is “tɕhy412(‘go’+(Np+Vp+ʦau (‘go’”, and “ʦau” in this form is a marginalized directional verb. Containing the stronger power factor, the imperative sentence “Vp+ʦau” is often used in the relationship between the superior and the subordinate, which has a high degree of colloquialism. Nevertheless, the power factor can be ignored on condition that the relationship between the two parties of the communication is very close. Due to the division of the ancient Chinese political jurisdictions and the influence of population migration, the imperative “Vp+ʦau” is widely distributed. Two different imperative sentences being merged and weakened, this sentence pattern comes into being.

  3. How the conceptions of Chinese rhetorical expressions are derived from the corresponding generic sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhui

    2018-04-01

    Generic sentences are simple and intuitive recognition and objective description to the external world in terms of "class". In the long evolutionary process of human being's language, the concepts represented by generic sentences has been internalized to be the defaulted knowledge in people's minds. In Chinese, some rhetorical expressions supported by corresponding generic sentences can be accepted by people. The derivation of these rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences is an important way for language to evolution, which reflects human's creative cognitive competence. From the perspective of conceptual blend theory and the theory of categorization of the cognitive linguistics, the goal of this paper is to analysis the process of the derivation of the rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences, which can facilitate the Chinese metaphorical information processing and the corpus construction of Chinese emotion metaphors.

  4. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Jarillo

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. Material and methods: A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Results: Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. Conclusions: The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  5. The Influence of Topic Status on Written and Spoken Sentence Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, H Wind; Ferreira, Victor S

    2011-12-01

    Four experiments investigate the influence of topic status and givenness on how speakers and writers structure sentences. The results of these experiments show that when a referent is previously given, it is more likely to be produced early in both sentences and word lists, confirming prior work showing that givenness increases the accessibility of given referents. When a referent is previously given and assigned topic status, it is even more likely to be produced early in a sentence, but not in a word list. Thus, there appears to be an early mention advantage for topics that is present in both written and spoken modalities, but is specific to sentence production. These results suggest that information-structure constructs like topic exert an influence that is not based only on increased accessibility, but also reflects mapping to syntactic structure during sentence production.

  6. Listening to factually incorrect sentences activates classical language areas and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Lang, Simone; Birbaumer, Niels; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2011-12-07

    Neurophysiological underpinnings of the integration of information during sentence comprehension have been studied since 1980. However, little is known about integrative processes in sentences containing a word that is semantically congruent, but factually incompatible with the context. In this study, we aimed at investigating the differences between the brain regions involved in responses to factually correct and incorrect sentences. Eighteen healthy volunteers underwent functional MRI while listening passively to 40 correct and 40 incorrect sentences. The contrast between factually correct and incorrect sentence endings revealed large activation areas in the left inferior frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, and smaller activations of these areas' homologs in the right hemisphere, in the thalamus, and Brodmann area 6.

  7. Motion verb sentences activate left posterior middle temporal cortex despite static context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, M; Ellegaard Lund, Torben; Østergaard, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The left posterior middle temporal region, anterior to V5/MT, has been shown to be responsive both to images with implied motion, to simulated motion, and to motion verbs. In this study, we investigated whether sentence context alters the response of the left posterior middle temporal region....... 'Fictive motion' sentences are sentences in which an inanimate subject noun, semantically incapable of self movement, is coupled with a motion verb, yielding an apparent semantic contradiction (e.g. 'The path comes into the garden.'). However, this context yields no less activation in the left posterior...... middle temporal region than sentences in which the motion can be applied to the subject noun. We speculate that the left posterior middle temporal region activity in fictive motion sentences reflects the fact that the hearer applies motion to the depicted scenario by scanning it egocentrically...

  8. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts

  9. A legal text with a single “Dapat”: Looking for deontic modality in the Filipino translation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Ruel T. Cabazares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Filipino version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, only a single deontic modal marker is found, a curious absence given that such a category conveys the performative function crucial to the language used in laws. Regardless of the current attitude against seeking equivalence in translation analysis, questioning the semantics of the target text (TT is a necessary endeavour for the translation of legal texts, whether or not the relevant linguistic features of the TT language contribute to or facilitate the expression of any of the properties of deontic modality (DM. To this end, the paper analyzes the Filipino translation of the UDHR to look for this type of semantic category. The analysis of the TT focuses on three important points: [1] use of the prospective aspect does not contribute to the expression of the necessary features of DM, notwithstanding their shared notion of futurity; [2] volition, an essential part of DM, is implied by the transitivity triggered by the TT verb voice, but the source and perspective of the volition is different; and [3] use of the modal marker dapat (i.e., necessary carries the primary features of DM. The paper suggests that the consistent use of this modal marker can assign a performative function to the TT, a trait that helps define the source text (ST as a legal text. The study can offer helpful points to translators of legal documents and other forms of technical translation. The methods used can help future translation analyses by providing conceptual tools for the semantic comparison of the linguistic traits of an ST and TT, particularly the semantic representation of Filipino sentences including the transitivity of the verb and modality. Ultimately, the study hopes to contribute to quality translations of text as part of promoting the intellectualization of Filipino and other Philippine languages.

  10. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  11. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  12. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  13. On-line processing and comprehension of direct object pronoun sentences in Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau, Dolors

    2017-01-01

    Eleven native Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) (8;3-10;11) and 11 typically developing children (8;7-10;8) received a comprehensive psycholinguistic evaluation. Participants listened to either Direct Object (DO) pronoun sentences or filler sentences without any pronoun, and they decided whether a picture on the screen (depicting the antecedent, another noun in the sentence, or an unrelated object) was 'alive'. They answered comprehension questions about pronoun sentences. Children with SLI showed significantly poorer comprehension of DO pronoun sentences when answering comprehension questions than children with Typical Language Development (TLD). This poor pronoun sentence understanding correlated significantly with poor auditory sentence completion, non-word repetition task and expressive vocabulary skills. Children with SLI were significantly slower in the animacy decisions than children with TLD across all pronoun and filler sentence conditions. Both groups exhibited high accuracy in the animacy decisions for any conditions. Clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  15. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  16. Education for foreign inmates in Norwegian prisons: A legal and humanitarian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Gröning

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the right to education for foreign inmates in Norwegian prisons, with a particular focus on the group of inmates who lack a residence permit in Norway and could be expelled once their sentence is served. The viewpoint of the Norwegian criminal justice policy is that all inmates should have the same right to education as other citizens and residents in Norway. For the group without residence permit, however, it seems not fully clear what that right to education should entail. National law only provides access to the education system for those with a residence permit. In addition, International law is not fully clear on the content of the right to education for inmates. On this background, the article clarifies the right to education for foreign inmates, as it follows from national and international law. It pays specific attention to the prison as a specific context for the provision of education, and explains how the right to education relates to the law of the execution of sentences. Drawing from the ethical considerations of the penal system, and from legal principles of non-discrimination, the article eventually concludes that all foreign inmates who serve sentences of certain duration must be ensured access to education on an equal basis with other prisoners.

  17. The principle of optimisation: reasons for success and legal criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Regalado, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has adopted new recommendations in 2007. In broad outlines they fundamentally continue the recommendations already approved in 1990 and later on. The principle of optimisation of protection, together with the principles of justification and dose limits, remains playing a key role of the ICRP recommendations, and it has so been for the last few years. This principle, somehow reinforced in the 2007 ICRP recommendations, has been incorporated into norms and legislation which have peacefully been in force in many countries all over the world. There are three main reasons to explain the success in the application of the principle of optimisation in radiological protection: First, the subjectivity of the sentence that embraces the principle of optimisation, 'As low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA), that allows different valid interpretations under different circumstances. Second, the pragmatism and adaptability of ALARA to all exposure situations. And third, the scientific humbleness which is behind the principle of optimisation, which makes a clear contrast with the old fashioned scientific positivism that enshrined scientist opinions. Nevertheless, from a legal point of view, there is some criticism cast over the principle of optimisation in radiological protection, where it has been transformed in compulsory norm. This criticism is based on two arguments: The lack of democratic participation in the process of elaboration of the norm, and the legal uncertainty associated to its application. Both arguments are somehow known by the ICRP which, on the one hand, has broadened the participation of experts, associations and the professional radiological protection community, increasing the transparency on how decisions on recommendations have been taken, and on the other hand, the ICRP has warned about the need for authorities to specify general criteria to develop the principle of optimisation in national

  18. Parole: Legal and penological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly points out to historical and comparative state of parole in American and European law, which is an introduction into analysis of transformation in its regulation in criminal substantial, procedural and enforcement law in Serbia. Today there are two models (obligatory and discretionary of parole, which is allowed after 2/3 of the served sentence of imprisonment. At the same time special Code on prevention of sexual victimization of juveniles - contrary to the Criminal Code- abolishes a possibility of earlier release of all offenders of sexual crimes against juveniles. The author argues in favor of abolishment of parole prohibition for any category of offenders; restoration of the rule that half of the served sentence of imprisonment is a condition for consideration of request to be released on parole (only exceptionally for recidivists and those whose criminal habit has been proven conditional release would be allowed after 2/3 of served sentence; proposes specification of substantial requirements for approval; retention of solution that the court decides on conditional release, but with obligatory invitation of convicted person who would be entitled to comment on allegations made at hearing; judge for execution should also attend the procedure; an explanation must be justified by precise reasons which were decisive for the court; the appellate court should not only deal with formal aspects of procedure in deciding on contested verdict, but also with merits of arguments on which it is based; politicians should publicly explain the importance of parole in situations that make the public concerned because of media reporting about incidents in which conditionally released persons commit serious crimes; finally criminological sciences should be engaged in research that would help in searching for a suitable model of parole, which would be in accordance with international instruments and jurisprudence of the European Court of Human

  19. Legal and Regulatory Barriers to Reverse Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthorn, Virginia; Plum, Alexander J; Zervos, John

    Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers. The objective of this paper is to understand and elucidate the legal barriers faced by innovators bringing health interventions to the United States. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 key informants who have directly participated in the introduction of global health care approaches to the United States health system. A purposive sampling scheme was employed to identify participants. Phone interviews were conducted over one week in July 2016 with each participant and lasted an average of 35 minutes each. Purely legal barriers included questions surrounding tort liability, standard of care, and concerns around patient-administered self-care. Regulatory burdens included issues of international medical licensure, reimbursement, and task shifting and scope of work challenges among nonprofessionals (e.g. community health workers). Finally, perceived (i.e. not realized or experienced) legal and regulatory barriers to innovative modalities served as disincentives to bringing products or services developed outside of the United States to the United States market. Conflicting interests within the health care system, safety concerns, and little value placed on low-cost interventions inhibit innovation. Legal and regulatory barriers rank among, and contribute to, an anti-innovation atmosphere in healthcare for domestic and reverse innovators alike. Reverse innovation should be fostered through the thoughtful development of

  20. Is imprisonment criminogenic. A comparative study of recidivism rates associated whith terms of imprisonment and suspended prison sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Cid Moliné, Josep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the effects of custodial versus non-custodial sentences on recidivism. An 8-year follow-up study was conducted to track and compare rates of recidivism between former prisoners and offenders who had served a suspended prison sentence. Drawing upon a representative sample of 483 offenders sentenced in 1998 by the Criminal Courts of Barcelona, two subpopulations of offenders were selected. The first group consisted of offenders who were sentenced to prison (n=179) while th...

  1. The Impact of Sentencing on Offenders' Future Labour Market Outcomes and Re-offending- Community Work Versus Fines

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Morris; Charles Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    This study provides evidence to help inform sentencing policy by assessing the differential impact of two types of sentences (community work and fines) on adult offenders subsequent employment, benefit receipt and re-offending. This is the first study in New Zealand to examine post-sentencing employment outcomes and benefit receipt of such offenders. We focus on offences where we observe variation in sentencing after controlling for observable differences and examine outcomes for up to three ...

  2. Court sentences in the aspect of theorems of validity, justice and certainty of bisectrixity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Ol’kov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the theorems of validity justice and certainty of bisectrixity to elaborate the mathematical bases of the theory of court sentences. Methods observation deduction and induction applying the law of formal logic comparative analysis formaljuridical method mathematical methods. Results 1 theorems of validity justice and certainty of bisectrixity are proved and detailed 2 equally probable equilibrium and diagonal court sentences are viewed in the 2dimensional 3dimensional 4dimensional and 5dimensional space of criminal liability when the scope of punishment is determined by four variables y f x1 x2 x3 x4 where y ndash scope of punishment x1 ndash character and degree of the public danger of the deed x2 ndash category of a criminal public danger of the personality x3 ndash circumstances aggravating punishment x4 ndash circumstances extenuating punishment f ndash parameters of the equation connecting the left and right parts of the equation 3 aggravating and extenuating circumstances can be integrated into a single variable in the form of a fraction where the numerator is the scope of circumstances aggravating punishment x3 and thenbspdenominator is the extenuating circumstances x4 thus we obtain an integrated variable x3 x4 4 it is proved that the certainty of diagonal sentence is s c or v c times larger than the certainty of the equally probable sentence where с is the length of the diagonal s is the area of sentences vnbspis the space of sentences 5 it is proved that the bisectral sentence is the most optimal among the equilibrium ones as it equally takes into account the functions of the defense and the prosecution. Scientific novelty the newly obtained scientific results. Practical significance possibility to use the obtained scientific results for the development of criminallegal and criminalprocedural theories tonbspincrease the level of justice of the court sentences. Keywords Criminal procedure Theorem of validity Theorem

  3. The effect of bilingual exposure versus language impairment on nonword repetition and sentence imitation scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Elin; Brandeker, Myrto

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition (NWR) and sentence imitation (SI) are increasingly used as diagnostic tools for the identification of Primary Language Impairment (PLI). They may be particularly promising diagnostic tools for bilingual children if performance on them is not highly affected by bilingual exposure. Two studies were conducted which examined (1) the effect of amount of bilingual exposure on performance on French and English nonword repetition and sentence imitation in 5-year-old French-English bilingual children and (2) the diagnostic accuracy of the French versions of these measures and of receptive vocabulary in 5-year-old monolingual French-speakers and bilingual speakers with and without PLI, carefully matched on language exposure. Study 1 included 84 5-year-olds acquiring French and English simultaneously, differing in their amount of exposure to the two languages but equated on age, nonverbal cognition and socio-economic status. Children were administered French and English tests of NWR and SI. In Study 2, monolingual and bilingual children with and without PLI (four groups, n=14 per group) were assessed for NWR, SI, and receptive vocabulary in French to determine diagnostic accuracy. Study 1: Both processing measures, but in particular NWR, were less affected by previous exposure than vocabulary measures. Bilingual children with varying levels of exposure were unaffected by the length of nonwords. Study 2: In contrast to receptive vocabulary, NWR and SI correctly distinguished children with PLI from children with typical development (TD) regardless of bilingualism. Sensitivity levels were acceptable, but specificity was lower. Bilingual children perform differently than children with PLI on NWR and SI. In contrast to children with PLI, bilingual children with a large range of previous exposure levels achieve high NWR scores and are unaffected by the length of the nonwords. Readers will recognize the effect of language input on the rate of language development

  4. Abandonment (field decommissioning): The legal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1994-01-01

    The main areas to be considered in relation to the abandonment of offshore installations are: (1) the legal requirements to be imposed in relation to abandonment, this will include consideration of English, Norwegian and Dutch law as well as international law; (2) how licensees may protect themselves against joint and several liability for performance of their legal obligations in relation to abandonment by the provision of security; and (3) consideration of practical examples of abandonment such as the abandonment of the Piper Alpha platform on the UK continental shelf and the K13-D platform on the Dutch continental shelf. This paper considers only abandonment of offshore installations as very different considerations apply onshore and applies only to Europe, though the international treaties will also apply elsewhere

  5. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution…

  6. On the Optimization of Sentence Imitation in Primary School English Teaching from the Perspective of Strong Memes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    A sentence is an important unit in English language, and plays a crucial role in language teaching and learning as well. For many years, sentence teaching is always worth discussion in English teaching, because sentence imitation is very important for students' construction of logical discourse. This paper, based on memetics, proposes some certain…

  7. The Impact of Age, Background Noise, Semantic Ambiguity, and Hearing Loss on Recognition Memory for Spoken Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeritzer, Margaret A.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine how background noise, linguistic properties of spoken sentences, and listener abilities (hearing sensitivity and verbal working memory) affect cognitive demand during auditory sentence comprehension. Method: We tested 30 young adults and 30 older adults. Participants heard lists of sentences in…

  8. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  9. Legal Considerations for Health Care Practitioners After Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Tina Batra; Van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Sood, Rishi K; Potter, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    During disaster response and recovery, legal issues often arise related to the provision of health care services to affected residents. Superstorm Sandy led to the evacuation of many hospitals and other health care facilities and compromised the ability of health care practitioners to provide necessary primary care. This article highlights the challenges and legal concerns faced by health care practitioners in the aftermath of Sandy, which included limitations in scope of practice, difficulties with credentialing, lack of portability of practitioner licenses, and concerns regarding volunteer immunity and liability. Governmental and nongovernmental entities employed various strategies to address these concerns; however, legal barriers remained that posed challenges throughout the Superstorm Sandy response and recovery period. We suggest future approaches to address these legal considerations, including policies and legislation, additional waivers of law, and planning and coordination among multiple levels of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:518-524).

  10. [Medico-legal aspects of hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Branislava; Segedi, Dimitrije; Mujović-Zornić, Hajrija

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the lawful implementations of surgical procedures, such as hysterectomy, raises practical questions concerning legal relations between a doctor and his patient, and consequences of this relationship, which may be legally relevant. The modern legal theory and practice consider doctors and patients to be partners. Medical practitioners performing surgical procedures are obliged to obtain informed consent. They are also required to inform their patients about indications, course of the operative procedure, postoperative treatment, possible complications during and after the procedure, and quality of life after the operation. Informed conversation should take into account the age, mental status and patient's intellectual abilities. Legal consequences ofsurgical procedures Malpractice litigation mostly concers medical error and negligence. Medical errors should not be confused with ineffective outcome, or complicated postoperative course. Even if the surgical procedure was followed correctly and uneventful outcome took place, there might be some problems. A patient has a right to receive complete information from a physician about the specific nature of a proposed treatment. A physician has an obligation to elucidate and justify, treatment he proposes. Certain codification of all operative procedures may facilitate this task. Codification instructions about procedures, in this case hysterectomy, must include indications for a certain type of hysterectomy (subtotal, total, radical), as well as for the operative technique (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic). Patient information brochures should be available in print, and include information about indications and potential risks associated with the proposed surgical procedure. In this way, it is possible to prevent the inconveniences which may arise from insufficient knowledge and information about surgical procedures.

  11. The Searchbench - Combining Sentence-semantic, Full-text and Bibliographic Search in Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schäfer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel approach to precise searching in the full content of digital libraries. The Searchbench (for search workbench is based on sentence-wise syntactic and semantic natural language processing (NLP of both born-digital and scanned publications in PDF format. The term born-digital means natively digital, i.e. prepared electronically using typesetting systems such as LaTeX, OpenOffice, and the like. In the Searchbench, queries can be formulated as (possibly underspecified statements, consisting of simple subject-predicate-object constructs such as ‘algorithm improves word alignment’. This reduces the number of false hits in large document collections when the search words happen to appear close to each other, but are not semantically related. The method also abstracts from passive voice and predicate synonyms. Moreover, negated statements can be excluded from the search results, and negated antonym predicates again count as synonyms (e.g. not include = exclude.In the Searchbench, a sentence-semantic search can be combined with search filters for classical full-text, bibliographic metadata and automatically computed domain terms. Auto-suggest fields facilitate text input. Queries can be bookmarked or emailed. Furthermore, a novel citation browser in the Searchbench allows graphical navigation in citation networks. These have been extracted automatically from metadata and paper texts. The citation browser displays short phrases from citation sentences at the edges in the citation graph and thus allows students and researchers to quickly browse publications and immerse into a new research field. By clicking on a citation edge, the original citation sentence is shown in context, and optionally also in the original PDF layout.To showcase the usefulness of our research, we have a applied it to a collection of currently approx. 25,000 open access research papers in the field of computational linguistics and language technology, the ACL

  12. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  13. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.

  14. Effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors. Word supply versus sentence repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N N

    1990-04-01

    The effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors and a control condition were compared in an alternating treatments design with three students who were moderately mentally retarded. The two procedures evaluated were word supply and sentence repeat. The teacher supplied the reader with the correct word immediately after each student error during the word-supply condition. During the sentence-repeat condition, the teacher supplied the correct word immediately after each student error, required the student to repeat the correct word, complete reading the sentence, and then reread the entire sentence. Both word-supply and sentence-repeat procedures were effective in reducing oral reading errors when compared to a no-intervention control condition, but sentence repeat was superior to word supply. In addition, a similar relationship was found between the two procedures when the students were tested for retention on the same reading passages a week later. These results show that sentence repeat is more effective than is the commonly used word-supply procedure in remediating the oral reading errors of students with moderate mental retardation.

  15. Predicting Neural Activity Patterns Associated with Sentences Using a Neurobiologically Motivated Model of Semantic Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Aguilar, Mario; Wang, Xixi; Doko, Donias; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an approach that predicts neural representations of word meanings contained in sentences then superposes these to predict neural representations of new sentences. A neurobiological semantic model based on sensory, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive attributes was used as a foundation to define semantic content. Previous studies have predominantly predicted neural patterns for isolated words, using models that lack neurobiological interpretation. Fourteen participants read 240 sentences describing everyday situations while undergoing fMRI. To connect sentence-level fMRI activation patterns to the word-level semantic model, we devised methods to decompose the fMRI data into individual words. Activation patterns associated with each attribute in the model were then estimated using multiple-regression. This enabled synthesis of activation patterns for trained and new words, which were subsequently averaged to predict new sentences. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that prediction accuracy was highest using voxels in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortex, although a broad range of regions returned statistically significant results, showing that semantic information is widely distributed across the brain. The results show how a neurobiologically motivated semantic model can decompose sentence-level fMRI data into activation features for component words, which can be recombined to predict activation patterns for new sentences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Rapid L2 Word Learning through High Constraint Sentence Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.

  17. Assessing Risk-Based Policies for Pretrial Release and Split Sentencing in Los Angeles County Jails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericcan Usta

    Full Text Available Court-mandated downsizing of the CA prison system has led to a redistribution of detainees from prisons to CA county jails, and subsequent jail overcrowding. Using data that is representative of the LA County jail system, we build a mathematical model that tracks the flow of individuals during arraignment, pretrial release or detention, case disposition, jail sentence, and possible recidivism during pretrial release, after a failure to appear in court, during non-felony probation and during felony supervision. We assess 64 joint pretrial release and split-sentencing (where low-level felon sentences are split between jail time and mandatory supervision policies that are based on the type of charge (felony or non-felony and the risk category as determined by the CA Static Risk Assessment tool, and compare their performance to that of the policy LA County used in early 2014, before split sentencing was in use. In our model, policies that offer split sentences to all low-level felons optimize the key tradeoff between public safety and jail congestion by, e.g., simultaneously reducing the rearrest rate by 7% and the mean jail population by 20% relative to the policy LA County used in 2014. The effectiveness of split sentencing is due to two facts: (i convicted felony offenders comprised ≈ 45% of LA County's jail population in 2014, and (ii compared to pretrial release, split sentencing exposes offenders to much less time under recidivism risk per saved jail day.

  18. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PGreece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary

  19. The promise and perils of positive psychology in legal education

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, G

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces positive psychology in general and Positive Psychology in particular, and argues that legal education may benefit from utilisation of positive psychology. Positive Psychology is a self-declared movement will be referred to as Positive Psychology below: positive psychology will be taken to include Positive Psychology. However, it argues that legal educators need to be cautious in how and why they adopt the findings of positive psychology into the curriculum and practice o...

  20. Current trends for medico-legal disputes related to functional nasal surgery in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, S; Nappi, S

    2014-06-01

    The problem of professional liability in case of adverse outcomes or failures secondary to surgery is very sensitive in many countries of the European Community. In Italy, a recent sentence of the Supreme Court concerning a patient who underwent septoplasty raised considerable doubts in relation to the guidance to be followed in disputes related to an alleged professional liability, further exacerbating the juridical orientation of recent years in this context. This ruling involves any surgery, as well as rhinologic surgery, and calls into question most regulatory and legal principles that have traditionally been adopted by the Italian Civil Law. The sentence states that the plaintiff is only required to document the failure of surgical treatment, but not the breach of the duty of care by the surgeon, thus shifting the burden of proof to the physician-debtor. It also considers that, in assessing the degree of negligence, reference should be made to the qualifications of the surgeon, according to principles that are not covered by current regulations, denying that in general surgery (i.e., not with aesthetic purposes) the surgeon must only to act with diligence and need not guarantee a favourable outcome. This series of statements, complementing one another and evolving more unfavourably towards physicians, facilitate legal disputes for speculative purposes through complainants, with obvious health and socio-economic implications.