Munoz, Susana Maria; Maldonado, Marta Maria
This paper draws from four sets of four in-depth interviews and one subsequent focus group to examine how undocumented Mexicana students navigate identities and the meanings of race, gender, class, and legal status. We mobilize a critical race theory framework to center and explore the content of students' counterstories. While majoritarian…
This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would…
Ryan, James E.
Describes the legal definitions of race discrimination in education, demonstrating how they apply in various contexts; highlighting the role of social science evidence; offering suggestions for answering complex questions about what currently counts as racial discrimination in education; and highlighting the irony that, under the current…
Dorceta E. Taylor
This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...
Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Political revolutions of the 18th and 19th century engendered an idea of universal equality. However, the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen have not been gender sensitive documents. Women had to struggle for a long time in order to achieve visibility in laws and they did gain an equal right to vote in the USA only 144 years later and in France only 160 years after the issuing of these documents. Contemporary international and national law has greatly advanced from a gender equality point of view. However, gender sensitive legislation and implementation of legal norms has been far from widely accepted. Gender sensitive legal education of (future legislators, lawyers, judges, and prosecutors has thus been of the utmost importance. First, the article offers theoretical clarifications and historical background analysis of a sense and purpose of gender mainstreaming. The achievements in international law and strategic documents concerning gender equality will be taken into consideration in the second chapter. The main focus will be on the meaning of and instruments for gender mainstreaming in legal education in Serbia as well as generally. Paradigmatic examples from judicial practice will also be presented.
Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F
Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.
Full Text Available Critiques of legal remedies’ capacity adequately to address the intersectional nature of gender violence lie at the heart of both theoretical and practical discourse. Concern about remedies complements the important literature detailing the narrative experiences of those who experience violence grounded in multiple intersections of identity. This is an introduction to a set of papers that represent highlights from the conference entitled “International Congress on Gender Violence: Intersectionalities”. The papers address approaches to legal remedies that take into account the intersectional nature of gender violence. Las críticas a la capacidad de los remedies legales para abordar la naturaleza interseccional de la violencia de género están en el centro del discurso teórico y práctico. La preocupación sobre los remedios complementa la importante literatura que detalla las experiencias narrativas de las personas que experimentan violencia alojada en múltiples intersecciones de identidad. Esta es una introducción a artículos representativos del Congreso Internacional sobre Violencia de Género: Intersecciones. Los artículos abordan un acercamiento a los remedios legales que tienen en cuenta la naturaleza interseccional de la violencia de género. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2710535
Castilla, Emilio J
This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace.
Susan B. Hansen
Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.
This study sought to examine the relationship between race, family structure and gender on one hand, and food deprivation as a measure of poverty on the other hand in South Africa. Main effects were found for race, residence, presence of children and adults, while interaction effect was found for race and family structure.
Li, David Leiwei
Approaches the categorical construction of "Asian American" through an interdisciplinary examination of its contemporary literary emergence. Investigates the ways with which race, gender, and class are embedded within or absent from an evolving Asian American critical and cultural discourse, and reflects on the interplay among race,…
Holloway, Steven; Ellis, Mark
Gender asymmetry in mixed-race heterosexual partnerships and marriages is common. For instance, black men marry or partner with white women at a far higher rate than white men marry or partner with black women. This article asks if such gender asymmetries relate to the racial character of the neighborhoods in which households headed by mixed-race couples live. Gendered power imbalances within households generally play into decisions about where to live or where to move (i.e., men typically benefit more than women), and we find the same in mixed-race couple arrangements and residential attainment. Gender interacts with race to produce a measurable race-by-gender effect. Specifically, we report a positive relationship between the percentage white in a neighborhood and the presence of households headed by mixed-race couples with a white male partner. The opposite holds for households headed by white-blacks and white-Latinos if the female partner is white; they are drawn to predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods. The results have implications for investigations of residential location attainment, neighborhood segregation analysis, and mixed-race studies. PMID:23073752
Angela M. Cirucci
This study investigates social network site affordances and their implications for perceptions of marginalized communities. I employ Facebook as a case study and speak with young adult users to comprehend how socially marginalized groups are perceived through Facebook’s affordances. In particular, I consider: How familiar are users with Facebook’s tools and functionalities? How are issues of gender and race represented through the site’s interface? How do users conceive of gender and race? Th...
Kim, Linda Jin
This dissertation combines insights from feminist and critical race theory to understand the social significance of Sex and the City (SATC) and its popularity among U.S. fans. I argue that popular consumption of SATC helps to illuminate current discourses and controversies surrounding changing gender roles and feminism in contemporary society. It also explores how responses to the series and film are shaped by fans' gender, race, and sexual orientation. My research is based on 42 in-depth int...
Hall, Erika V; Galinsky, Adam D; Phillips, Katherine W
The current research integrates perspectives on gendered race and person-position fit to introduce the concept of a gender profile. We propose that both the "gender" of a person's biological sex and the "gender" of a person's race (Asians are perceived as feminine and Blacks as masculine) help comprise an individual's gender profile-the overall femininity or masculinity associated with their demographic characteristics. We also propose that occupational positions have gender profiles. Finally, we argue that the overall gender profile of one's demographics, rather than just one's biological sex, determines one's fit and hirability for feminine or masculine occupational roles. The current five studies establish the gender profiles of different races and sexes, and then demonstrate that individuals with feminine-typed and masculine-typed gender profiles are selected for feminine and masculine positions, respectively. These studies provide new insights on who gets ahead in different environments. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Sonia Maria Giacomini
Full Text Available Based on a research carried out with a group of black women enrolled in the II Course for Professional Formation of Mulatas, the article recovers and analyses the categories through which the students represent their condition of mulatta and their passing to the condition of professional mulata. The mulata, who represents and mediates a Brazilian way of being a woman, sensual and race-mixed, the professional mulata debates herself, permanently, between two poles which are both professional and moral: on the one hand, there is a positive pole, of being a dancer, on the other, there is a threatening and negative one, of being a prostitute.
REFLECTIONS The Matrices of Race, Class and Gender: how they. Nova Smith. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23950 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Lim, Shirley Geok-lin
Although Asian American literature has usually been presented from the point of view of race, critics are beginning to take explicit account of gender positions in Asian American writing. Issues of incorporating sexuality into interpretations of Asian American literature are explored, and a bibliography of 41 works is presented. (SLD)
Black feminist literary theory offers tools that teachers can use to initiate discussions on the issues of race, gender and class to analyze the works of adolescent literature. This feminist theory helps in reading and teaching literature about parallel cultures, like African-Americans and their love for self and community and their recognition of…
Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Garvey, Jason C.
This study uses multilevel modeling to analyze data from a national sample of full-time, undergraduate faculty at four-year institutions to examine the connections among race, gender, sources of stress, and productivity in the areas of research, teaching, and service. We find that stress due to discrimination has particular negative salience for…
Heather Bittner Fagan
The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.
Rich, M; Woods, E R; Goodman, E; Emans, S J; DuRant, R H
To examine portrayals of violence in popular music videos for patterns of aggression and victimization by gender and race. Content analysis of 518 music videos broadcast over national music television networks, Black Entertainment Television (BET), Country Music Television (CMT), Music Television (MTV), and Video Hits-1 (VH-1) during a 4-week period at randomly selected times of high adolescent viewership. Differences in the genders and races portrayed as aggressors and victims in acts of violence. Seventy-six (14.7%) of the analyzed music videos contained portrayals of individuals engaging in overt interpersonal violence, with a mean of 6.1 violent acts per violence-containing video. Among the 462 acts of violence, the music video's main character was clearly the aggressor in 80.1% and the victim in 17.7%. In 391 (84.6%) of the violence portrayals, the gender of the aggressor or victim could be determined. Male gender was significantly associated with aggression; aggressors were 78.1% male, whereas victims were 46.3% female. This relationship was influenced by race. Among whites, 72.0% of the aggressors were male and 78.3% of the victims were female. Although blacks represent 12% of the United States population, they were aggressors in 25.0% and victims in 41.0% of music video violence. Controlling for gender, racial differences were significant among males; 29.0% of aggressors and 75.0% of victims were black. A logistic regression model did not find direct effects for gender and race, but revealed a significant interaction effect, indicating that the differences between blacks and whites were not the same for both genders. Black males were more likely than all others to be portrayed as victims of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 28.16, 95% confidence interval = 8.19, 84.94). Attractive role models were aggressors in more than 80% of music video violence. Males and females were victims with equivalent frequency, but males were more than three times as likely to be
Full Text Available While violence directed at Indian students in Australian cities has been highlighted in the Indian and Australian press, far less attention has been paid to the violence directed at Indians in rural areas. This has most often involved Indians employed in contract labour in seasonal industries like fruit or vegetable picking. This article reviews various media accounts, both urban and rural, of violence directed at Indians from 2009 to 2012. It draws attention to the far longer history of labour exploitation which has taken place in rural and urban Australia in contract labour conditions and the particular invisibility of rural settings for such violence. Racial minorities, like Aboriginal and Chinese workers, and women in agriculture and domestic work, have seldom had adequate power to respond industrially or politically. This means that in the past, these groups been particularly vulnerable to such structural exploitation. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention not only to the particular vulnerability of Indians in rural settings but to the wider presence of racialised and gendered exploitation enabled by contract labour structures.
Fagan, Heather Bittner; Wender, Richard; Myers, Ronald E.; Petrelli, Nicholas
The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-sp...
Angela M. Cirucci
Full Text Available This study investigates social network site affordances and their implications for perceptions of marginalized communities. I employ Facebook as a case study and speak with young adult users to comprehend how socially marginalized groups are perceived through Facebook’s affordances. In particular, I consider: How familiar are users with Facebook’s tools and functionalities? How are issues of gender and race represented through the site’s interface? How do users conceive of gender and race? The findings suggest that gender is perceived as a more important identifier than race and that Facebook is post-racial, because of the user interface choices made. In addition, my participants view Facebook as an official social space that should include “authentic” identities; although Facebook has shaped authentic to mean accurate. I conclude that while the construction of affordances is a negotiation between user, interface, and designer, the designers have the most power because they have created the spaces in ways that will most benefit Facebook. In addition, users who are more situated in the socio-cultural majority have no desire to enact agency within Facebook’s structure because they are accustomed to forms and official documents that are well suited to fit their identification needs.
A legal perspective on reproductive health and gender-specific human rights in Nigeria. ... Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... The concept of human rights is very fundamental to society and is based on international instruments signed and ratified by sovereign States after the Second World War. In general ...
Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L
Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.
Massey, Douglas S.; Probasco, LiErin
In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at 28 selective US colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we show that black males, black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that black males are 35% less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyse...
Krieg, R G
"This study investigates the role of migration in the determination of earnings differentials by race and gender. Microdata from the United Status Census are used to estimate earnings functions by race, gender, and migration status. Strong evidence is provided suggesting that unexplained portions of earnings differentials, reflectng wage discrimination and other unobserved heterogeneity, are substantially reduced for both race and gender through the process of interstate migration." excerpt
Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research results of the level of legal conscience forming in law enforcement officials. The study of gender specifics of personnel is now becoming more and more relevant due to a constant increase in the number of women entering the Ministry of Internal Affairs service. The study involved 160 male and 120 female staff members. Analysis of the results revealed a general legal conscience trend typical for male and female employees which manifests in a high level of legal knowledge, adequate understanding of group relativity of moral and ethical norms, civic un-engagement and disinterest to leadership role. This trend reflects a certain viewpoint when human rights are considered to include only freedom, independence and personal self-assertion without responsibility and civic duties. It was found that female employees have higher level of legal conscience forming than male employees. This led to the conclusion of a high-availability of female employees to comply with legal regulations and requirements.
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Meltzoff, Andrew N
Social categories shape children's lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children's knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children's understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child's own age, gender, and race. Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9.94 years). Data were gathered in schools via 1-on-1 semistructured interviews. Analyses focused on specific measures of the importance and meaning of racial and gender identity for children. We found that: (a) children rate gender as a more important identity than race; (b) the meanings children ascribe to gender identity emphasized inequality and group difference whereas the meaning of race emphasized physical appearance and humanism/equality; and (c) children's assessments of importance and meaning varied as a function of child race and gender, but not age. The findings extend research on young children's social identity development and the role of culture and context in children's emerging racial and gender identities. Implications for identity theory and development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang
Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Theppeang, Keson; Glass, Thomas A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Todd, Andrew C; Rohde, Charles A; Schwartz, Brian S
We sought to identify predictors of lead concentrations in the blood, tibias, and patellae of older adults and to describe differences by gender, race/ethnicity, and other factors that can influence lead toxicokinetics and, thus modify health effects. Participants aged 50 to 70 years (N=1140) were randomly identified from selected neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured lead concentrations by anodic stripping voltammetry (in blood) and (109)Cd-induced K-shell x-ray fluorescence (in bone). We used multiple linear regression to identify predictors of lead concentrations. Mean (SD) lead concentrations in blood, tibias, and patellae were 3.5 (2.4) mug/dL, 18.9 (12.5) mug/g, and 6.8 (18.1) mug/g, respectively. Tibia concentrations were 29% higher in African Americans than in Whites (P lead concentrations and by gender on the association of age to tibia lead concentrations. Patella lead concentrations differed by gender; apolipoprotein E genotype modified this relation. African Americans evidenced a prominent disparity in lifetime lead dose. Women may be at higher risk of release of lead from bone and consequent health effects because of increased bone demineralization with aging.
Andrews, Naomi J
This article is a close reading of Gustave D'Eichthal and Ishmayl Urbain's Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche (1839), written during the decade prior to the "second" French emancipation in 1848. The article argues that the hierarchical gendering of race described in the letters is reflective of metropolitan concerns about potential for social disorder accompanying slave emancipation in the French colonies. In arguing for social reconciliation through interracial marriage and its offspring, the symbolically charged figure of the mulatto, the authors deployed gendered and familial language to describe a stable post-emancipation society.
Katchanovski, Ivan; Nevitte, Neil; Rothman, Stanley
Direct comparisons of American and Canadian faculty and students' views concerning issues of race, gender, and affirmative action in higher education are rare. The 1999 North American Academic Study Survey provides a unique opportunity to analyze the role of national and positional factors in faculty and student attitudes towards race, gender, and…
Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen
In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…
Richman, Charles L.; And Others
Self-concept formation has long been considered the most significant developmental milestone of adolescence. To assess the effects of gender, race, and social class on the general and area-specific self-esteem of late adolescents, 195 eleventh grade students, divided according gender, race (black, white), and social class (low, middle, high) were…
Evans, Ashley B; Copping, Kristi; Rowley, Stephanie J; Kurtz-Costes, Beth
We examined the relation between race- and gender-group competence ratings and academic self-concept in 252 Black seventh- and eighth-graders. On average, youth reported traditional race stereotypes, whereas gender stereotypes were traditional about verbal abilities and were nontraditional regarding math/science abilities. Among boys, in-group gender and in-group race-based competence ratings (i.e. ratings of boys and Blacks) were related to math/science and verbal self-concepts. However, only gender-based ratings (i.e. ratings of girls' abilities for reading/writing) were related to girls' self-concepts. These findings suggest that the influence of race stereotypes on Black adolescents' academic self-concepts is different for girls than boys. Whereas self-relevant gender groups were associated with both Black girls' and boys' academic self-concept, race-based competence ratings were only relevant for the academic self-views of Black boys.
Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R
Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states.
Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Piette, John D; Aikens, James E
Background : This study aimed to investigate differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) across race by gender groups. Methods : Using a convenient sampling strategy, participants were 112 patients with type 2 DM who were prescribed insulin (ns = 38 Black women, 34 Black men, 14 White women, and 26 White men, respectively). Linear regression was used to test the associations between sociodemographic variables (race, gender, SES, governmental insurance) and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the pooled sample and within subgroups defined by race and gender. Results : In the pooled sample, neither SES nor governmental insurance were associated with HbA1c. However, the race by gender interaction approached statistical significance (B = 0.34, 95% CI = -0.24-3.00, p =0.094), suggesting higher HbA1c in Black women, compared to other race by gender groups. In stratified models, SES (B = -0.33, 95% CI = -0.10-0.00, p = 0.050), and governmental insurance (B = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.05-2.42, p = 0.042) were associated with HbA1c for Black men, but not for any of the other race by gender subgroups. Conclusion : Socioeconomic factors may relate to health outcomes differently across race by gender subgroups. In particular, SES may be uniquely important for glycemic control of Black men. Due to lack of generalizability of the findings, additional research is needed.
Ronaldo de Albuquerque e Arraes
Full Text Available Analyzing the income differentials amongst the Brazilian workers’ occupations is the focus of this paper. Due to the wide diversity of occupations cataloged by the IBGE (around 800, a theoretical procedure is applied to reduce them to only seven in order to allow statistical treatment of the data. The methodological approach is based on Mincerian quantile equations to be estimated in various strata of the workers’ income distribution, on which a breakdown is made to check the gap among the individuals’ income with distinct inherent attributes and between those living in both more and less developed regions. The estimation results ensure the importance of breakdown analysis for occupational strata as well as for quantiles, since the effects of explanatory variables are distinct along the income distribution and vary among occupations. Regarding the gaps in this distribution, there is a glass ceiling effect in some occupations, that is, the gap is greater at the top of distribution, although in most cases the wider gap occurs at the bottom of the distribution – sticky floor effect, which makes this a distinguished result from other studies. Moreover, contrary to the gap in gender, which is due to the compensation characteristics of individuals only (discrimination, income differentials between regions and races also occur from the heterogeneous characteristics of workers.
Robinson, John Henry
Life in a technological society brings new paradigms and pressures to bear on education. These pressures are magnified for underrepresented students and must be addressed if they are to play a vital part in society. Educational pipelines need to be established to provide at risk students with the means and opportunity to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. STEM educational pipelines are programs consisting of components that seek to facilitate students' completion of a college degree by providing access to higher education, intervention, mentoring, support infrastructure, and programs that encourage academic success. Successes in the STEM professions mean that more educators, scientist, engineers, and researchers will be available to add diversity to the professions and to provide role models for future generations. The issues that the educational pipelines must address are improving at risk groups' perceptions and awareness of the math, science, and engineering professions. Additionally, the educational pipelines must provide intervention in math preparation, overcome gender and race socialization, and provide mentors and counseling to help students achieve better self perceptions and provide positive role models. This study was designed to explorer the underrepresentation of minorities and women in the computer science major at Rowan University through a multilayered action research methodology. The purpose of this research study was to define and understand the needs of underrepresented students in computer science, to examine current policies and enrollment data for Rowan University, to develop a historical profile of the Computer Science program from the standpoint of ethnicity and gender enrollment to ascertain trends in students' choice of computer science as a major, and an attempt to determine if raising awareness about computer science for incoming freshmen, and providing an alternate route into the computer science
Sindhu Vijaya Kumar
Full Text Available The Socio-economic rights are a vital aspect of human rights agenda for women. The slowstudy process and radical change in recognizing the rights of women to a greater extend has helped tobuild her own identity and withstand her rights against all discrimination. The feminist movementquestioned several discriminatory practices against women. However there was a need for revolutionto debar the discriminatory practice of status on the ground of gender. And revolution was created byfeminist movement. These Movements largely contributed by feminist writing recognized the need tosubdue the discriminatory practice of status. Feminist theory emerged from these feministmovements includes general theories and theories about the origins of inequality, economic injusticeand in some cases, about the social construction of sex and gender, in a variety of disciplines.Feminist activists have campaigned for women's rights as such, in contract, property, and voting,while also promoting women's rights from human right perspective. They have opposed domesticviolence sexual harassment and sexual assault, in economics they have advocated for workplacerights, including equal pay and opportunities for careers and to start businesses. Interventions ofnational and international legal instrument have added grace and recognized women’s right. All thisresulted in increase participation of women both in formal and informal job sector. However thejourney to heed her right did not end here; it was the beginning, the beginning to fight for hersurvival.
.... Previous research demonstrates negative employment and earnings consequences for tied migrants, but little is known about how the impact of such mobility differs by the gender, race, and class of the trailing spouse. The U.S...
Joaquin, Edward; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita
The authors examine the U.S. contemporary immigrant and transnational migration phenomena and the historical immigrant experience using a postcolonial theoretical framework. In this chapter, the issues of race and gender and current political positions are discussed.
Smith, Jacqueline S; LaFrance, Marianne; Dovidio, John F
Research on the interaction of emotional expressions with social category cues in face processing has focused on whether specific emotions are associated with single-category identities, thus overlooking the influence of intersectional identities. Instead, we examined how quickly people categorise intersectional targets by their race, gender, or emotional expression. In Experiment 1, participants categorised Black and White faces displaying angry, happy, or neutral expressions by either race or gender. Emotion influenced responses to men versus women only when gender was made salient by the task. Similarly, emotion influenced responses to Black versus White targets only when participants categorised by race. In Experiment 2, participants categorised faces by emotion so that neither category was more salient. As predicted, responses to Black women differed from those to both Black men and White women. Thus, examining race and gender separately is insufficient to understanding how emotion and social category cues are processed.
Harley, Debra A.; Jolivette, Kristine; McCormick, Katherine; Tice, Karen
Examines the intersection of race, class, and gender and the dimensions of oppression and discrimination in counseling. Historical and contemporary dimensions of racism, misogyny, and classism are presented. (Contains 96 references.) (GCP)
Moller, Stephanie; Stearns, Elizabeth
Education researchers have established that educational tracking reinforces inequalities, but they have not fully examined the affect of these tracks on labor market outcomes for men and women of different races/ethnicities. At the same time, labor market researchers have studied the association between education and income by race and gender, but…
Crocco, Margaret Smith; Waite, Cally L.
Recent historiography has documented the singular contributions made by women to racial uplift and progress during the Jim Crow era. In these endeavors, women's contributions were greatly shaped by race, gender, and class. Given the feminization of education in the United States during this time, it is not surprising that their "race work" was for…
Unterhalter, Elaine; Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert; Moletsane, Relebohile
The article examines understandings of class, race, gender and sexuality in the writings of secondary school students in two working-class schools in Durban. The analysis of students' questions and responses to a problem page "agony aunt", indicate how class and race come to be expressed through accounts of sexuality. In the letters many…
Full Text Available Neither the gender aspects of racial discrimination nor the racial aspects of gender discrimination are fully comprehended within human rights discourses. Building on the growing recognition that race and gender discrimination are not mutually exclusive phenomena, this background paper forwards a provisional framework to identify various forms of subordination that can be said to reflect the interactive effects of race and gender discrimination. It suggests a provisional protocol to be followed to better identify the occasions in which such interactive discrimination may have occurred, and posits further that the responsibility to address the causes and consequences of such discrimination be shared widely among all human rights institutions.
Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David
The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…
Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda
Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale [CES-D]), and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome and race by gender as the groups. Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (standardized adjusted B = .135, P .05). Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender.
Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda
Background Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Aim Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. Methods We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]) and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome, and race by gender as the groups. Results Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (Standardized Adjusted B=.135, P 0.05). Conclusion Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender. PMID:26823066
John Schelhas; Yaoqui Zhang; Robert Zabawa; Bin Zheng
Family forestry is characterized by heterogeneity in ownership structure, ownersâ objectives, and management practices. Differences among forest landowners by age and occupation have been regularly documented, but other social dimensions, such as race and gender, have received considerably less attention. We conducted exploratory research on racial and gender...
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Piette, John D; Aikens, James E
Although some studies have shown a link between self-rated health (SRH) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (DM), other studies have failed to support this association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these equivocal findings can be explained by specific interactions between gender, race, and SRH, as suggested by the intersectionality literature. This cross-sectional study included 287 patients with DM (85 Black men, 78 Black women, 64 White men, and 60 White women). After adjusting for demographic and medical factors, we regressed HbA1c on SRH with and without interactions between gender, race, and SRH. We conducted additional subgroup analyses to further characterize gender by race group differences. Although there was no main effect of SRH upon HbA1c (b = .16, 95% CI: .08-.39), we found a significant interaction between gender and SRH on HbA1c (b = -.50, 95% CI: -.97 to -.03). In race by gender-stratified models, SRH (b = .53, 95% CI: .00-1.07) was associated with HbA1c in Black men. SRH was not associated with HbA1c in White men, White women, or Black women. Combined race and gender differences may exist in the link between SRH and glycemic control in DM. Specifically, Black men with DM may be more attuned to the relationship between their overall health and their glycemic control.
Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM across race by gender groups. Methods: Using a convenient sampling strategy, participants were 112 patients with type 2 DM who were prescribed insulin (ns = 38 Black women, 34 Black men, 14 White women, and 26 White men, respectively. Linear regression was used to test the associations between sociodemographic variables (race, gender, SES, governmental insurance and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c in the pooled sample and within subgroups defined by race and gender. Results: In the pooled sample, neither SES nor governmental insurance were associated with HbA1c. However, the race by gender interaction approached statistical significance (B = 0.34, 95% CI = −0.24–3.00, p =0.094, suggesting higher HbA1c in Black women, compared to other race by gender groups. In stratified models, SES (B = −0.33, 95% CI = −0.10–0.00, p = 0.050, and governmental insurance (B = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.05–2.42, p = 0.042 were associated with HbA1c for Black men, but not for any of the other race by gender subgroups. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors may relate to health outcomes differently across race by gender subgroups. In particular, SES may be uniquely important for glycemic control of Black men. Due to lack of generalizability of the findings, additional research is needed.
Joseph J. Ferrare
Researchers have examined racial and gender patterns of intergenerational education mobility, but less attention has been given to the ways that race and gender interact to further shape these relationships. Based on data from the General Social Survey, this study examined the trajectories of education mobility among Blacks and Whites by gender over the past century. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models revealed three noteworthy patterns. First, Black men and women have close...
Full Text Available Aims: To examine the variation in risk factors and hospitalization costs among four elderly dementia cohorts by race and gender. Materials and Methods: The 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharged database was examined. The prevalence, risk factors and cost of inpatient care of dementia were examined for individuals aged 65 years and above, across the four race gender cohorts - white males (WM, black males (BM, white females (WF, and black females (BF. Results: 3.6% of patients hospitalized in 2008 had dementia. Dementia was higher among females than males, and higher among blacks than whites. Further, BF had higher prevalence of dementia than WF; similarly, BM had a higher prevalence of dementia than WM. Overall, six risk factors were associated with dementia for the entire sample including HTN, DM, CKD, CHF, COPD, and stroke. These risk factors varied slightly in predicting dementia by race and gender. Hospital costs were 14% higher among dementia patients compared to non-dementia patients. Conclusions: There exist significant race and gender disparities in prevalence of dementia. A greater degree of co-morbidity, increased duration of hospital stay, and more frequent hospitalizations, may result in a higher cost of inpatient dementia care. Aggressive management of risk factors may subsequently reduce stroke and cost of dementia care, especially in the black population. Race and gender dependent milestones for management of these risk factors should be considered.
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Although stressful life events (SLEs) predict subsequent risk of developing a major depressive episode (MDE), limited information exists on whether or not race and gender alters the predictive role of SLE on risk of MDE over a long-term period. The current study explored race and gender differences in the long-term predictive role of SLE at baseline (1986) on subsequent risk of MDE 25 years later (2011) in a nationally representative cohort in the United States. Using a life course epidemiological approach, this longitudinal study borrowed data from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study 1986-2011. Main predictor of interest was baseline SLE over the last 3 years measured at 1986. Main outcome was risk of MDE [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)] 25 years later (2011). Covariates included demographics, socioeconomics, depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D)], chronic medical conditions, and health behaviors measured at baseline (1986). Gender and race were the focal moderators. We employed logistic regressions in the pooled sample, and specific to race and gender, to test whether or not SLE × race and SLE × gender interactions are significant. In the pooled sample, baseline SLE (1986) predicted risk of MDE 25 years later (2011). We also found a gender by SLE interaction, suggesting a stronger predictive role of SLE for subsequent clinical depression for men compared to women. Race did not modify the predictive role of SLE on subsequent risk of MDE 25 years later. How SLE predicts MDE 25 years later differs for men and women, with a stronger predictive role for men compared to women. More research is needed to better understand the complex links between gender, sex, stress, and depression.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although stressful life events (SLE predict subsequent risk of developing a major depressive episode (MDE, limited information exists on whether or not race and gender alters the predictive role of SLE on risk of MDE over a long-term period. The current study explored race and gender differences in the long-term predictive role of SLE at baseline (1986 on subsequent risk of MDE 25 years later (2011 in a nationally representative cohort in the United States.METHODS: Using a life course epidemiological approach, this longitudinal study borrowed data from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL 1986- 2011. Main predictor of interest was baseline SLE over the last three years measured at 1986. Main outcome was risk of MDE [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI] 25 years later (2011. Covariates included demographics, socioeconomics, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D], chronic medical conditions, and health behaviors measured at baseline (1986. Gender and race were the focal moderators. We employed logistic regressions in the pooled sample, and specific to race and gender, to test whether or not SLE × race and SLE × gender interactions are significant. RESULTS: In the pooled sample, baseline SLE (1986 predicted risk of MDE 25 years later (2011. We also found a gender by SLE interaction, suggesting a stronger predictive role of SLE for subsequent clinical depression for men compared to women. Race did not modify the predictive role of SLE on subsequent risk of MDE 25 year later. CONCLUSIONS: How SLE predicts MDE 25 years later differs for men and women, with a stronger predictive role for men, compared to women. More research is needed to better understand the complex links between gender, sex, stress, and depression.
Rowell, Kacie Lynn
This study investigates variation in preferences for mutual emotional dependence and togetherness in heterosexual romantic relationships among adults in the United States specifically considering the impact of race, gender, gender ideology, and cohort on preferences. A social structure and personality framework and concepts from exchange theory are used to interpret and predict relationship preference patterns found using binary hierarchical logistic regression analysis of data from the 199...
Hojin I Kim
Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.
Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.
The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…
Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent
Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme resp...
Amihai, Ido; Deouell, Leon; Bentin, Shlomo
Previous studies suggested that emotions can be correctly interpreted from facial expressions in the absence of conscious awareness of the face. Our goal was to explore whether subordinate information about a face's gender and race could also become available without awareness of the face. Participants classified the race or the gender of unfamiliar faces that were ambiguous with regard to these dimensions. The ambiguous faces were preceded by face-images that unequivocally represented gender and race, rendered consciously invisible by simultaneous continuous-flash-suppression. The classification of ambiguous faces was biased away from the category of the adaptor only when it was consciously visible. The duration of subjective visibility correlated with the aftereffect strength. Moreover, face identity was consequential only if consciously perceived. These results suggest that while conscious awareness is not needed for basic level categorization, it is needed for subordinate categorization. Emotional information might be unique in this respect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David
Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Although stressful life events (SLEs) and depression are associated, we do not know if the intersection of race and gender modifies the magnitude of this link. Using a nationally representative sample of adults in the USA, we tested if the association between SLE and major depressive episode (MDE) depends on the intersection of race and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 5899 adults including 5008 Blacks (African-Americans or Caribbean Blacks), and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Stressful life events (past 30 days) was the independent variable, 12-month MDE was the dependent variable, and age, educational level, marital status, employment, and region of country were controls. In the pooled sample, SLE was associated with MDE above and beyond all covariates, without the SLE × race interaction term being significant. Among men, the SLE × race interaction was significant, suggesting a stronger association between SLE and MDE among White men compared to Black men. Such interaction between SLE × race could not be found among women. The association between SLE and depression may be stronger for White men than Black men; however, this link does not differ between White and Black women. More research is needed to better understand the mechanism behind race by gender variation in the stress-depression link.
Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam
Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender.
Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam
Background Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. Objectives This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. Materials and Methods With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Results Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Conclusions Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender. PMID:27803717
Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the risk of major depressive episode (MDE) among American adults. National Survey of American Life (NSAL) included 3570 African Americans and 891 Whites. Race, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, household income, education, employment, and marital status) were independent variables. Twelve-month MDE was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). A series of logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. In the pooled sample, race and household income, but not gender, education, employment, and marital status were associated with 12-month MDE. Gender interacted with the effects of income on MDE, suggesting that the association between household income and MDE is larger for women than men. In race by gender specific models that controlled for other SES indicators, high income was protective for White women, education was protective for African American women, and high income became a risk factor for African American men. High income did not show a risk effect for African American men in the absence of other SES indicators. Findings suggest that race, gender, and class interact on how SES indicators, such as education or income, become a protective or a risk factor for MDE among American Adults. When the outcome is MDE, White women benefit more from income, African American women gain from education, however, the residual effect of high income (above and beyond education, employment, and marital status) may become a risk factor for African American men.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the risk of major depressive episode (MDE among American adults. Methods: National Survey of American Life (NSAL included 3570 African Americans and 891 Whites. Race, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, household income, education, employment, and marital status were independent variables. Twelve-month MDE was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. A series of logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: In the pooled sample, race and household income, but not gender, education, employment, and marital status were associated with 12-month MDE. Gender interacted with the effects of income on MDE, suggesting that the association between household income and MDE is larger for women than men. In race by gender specific models that controlled for other SES indicators, high income was protective for White women, education was protective for African American women, and high income became a risk factor for African American men. High income did not show a risk effect for African American men in the absence of other SES indicators. Conclusions: Findings suggest that race, gender, and class interact on how SES indicators, such as education or income, become a protective or a risk factor for MDE among American Adults. When the outcome is MDE, White women benefit more from income, African American women gain from education, however, the residual effect of high income (above and beyond education, employment, and marital status may become a risk factor for African American men.
Elliott, R Douglas; Bonauto, Mary
The article provides a comparative analysis of recent legal developments with regard to LGBT rights in Canada and the United States of America. Both countries have made great progress towards better protection and full recognition of LGBT rights. Despite this progress, Canada appears to be ahead of the United States, as illustrated by two most recent court decisions (e.g. Halpern, legalizing same-sex marriage in Ontario, and Lawrence v. Texas, decriminalizing consensual sodomy in the United States).
Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy
Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…
Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.
The premise of this paper is that, although career choice implies options, issues of gender, race, and class may constrain the occupational choices an individual makes. Dominant career development theories are being reexamined for their appropriateness to diverse groups. This paper reviews the following theories: Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and…
Browne, Irene, Ed.
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
Boek, Stacey; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Chan, Kenny; Goto, Keiko
Objective: To examine the roles of gender and race in students' determinants of food choices on a college campus. Methods: A total of 405 college students participated in a survey entitled "Campus Food: You Tell Us!" Chi-square and logistic regression were used to examine associations between demographics and food choice determinants. Results:…
Li, Diyi; Koedel, Cory
We use data from 2015-2016 to document faculty representation and wage gaps by race-ethnicity and gender in six fields at selective public universities. Consistent with widely available information, Black, Hispanic, and female professors are underrepresented and White and Asian professors are overrepresented in our data. Disadvantaged minority and…
Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.
Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…
Boek, Stacey; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Chan, Kenny; Goto, Keiko
To examine the roles of gender and race in students' determinants of food choices on a college campus. A total of 405 college students participated in a survey entitled "Campus Food: You Tell Us!" Chi-square and logistic regression were used to examine associations between demographics and food choice determinants. Gender and race appeared to play a significant role in determinants of students' food dislikes. Males were significantly more likely to choose cost, taste, and poor quality over poor nutrition as determinants. White students were significantly less likely to choose cost, inconvenience, and taste over poor nutrition than students of other races. Gender was also a significant factor associated with student preferences for campus dining location and determinants of unhealthful food. Future marketing may be more effective if tailored to gender and race. Nutrition educators should consider addressing taste and convenience when attempting to influence students' food choices. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosch, David M.; Boyd, Barry L.; Duran, Kristina M.
Leadership development goal statements of 92 undergraduate students enrolled in a multi-year self-directed leadership development program were analyzed using content and thematic analyses to investigate patterns of similarities and differences across gender and race. This qualitative analysis utilized a theoretical framework that approached…
Harrison, Louis, Jr.; And Others
This study investigated the influence of race and gender on students' self-schema for movement activities. Study participants were 168 male and female seventh- and eighth-grade students, both African American and Euro American, from a semi-rural school in a Southeastern state. The Physical Activity Schema Analysis (PASA) was administered to…
... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...
Watkins, Natasha D.; Aber, Mark S.
Although school climate has been thought to be especially important for racial minority and poor students (Booker, 2006; Haynes, Emmons, & Ben-Avie, 1997), little research has explored the significance of racial climate for these students. Furthermore, research in the area has tended to treat race, socioeconomic class, and gender separately,…
Massey, Douglas S; Probasco, Lierin
In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at 28 selective US colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we show that black males, black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that black males are 35% less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyses consider an array of personal and institutional indicators of academic performance. Grades and graduation rates are improved by academic preparation (particularly high school GPA), scholarly effort, and, for graduation rates, membership in career-oriented or majority-white campus groups. Grade performance and graduation rates are undermined by a hostile racial climate on campus, family stress, and stereotype threat, all of which disproportionately affect minority students. We conclude with recommendations to college administrators for ways of selecting and supporting minority students to reduce differentials in academic achievement across race-gender groups.
Angela J. Hattery
Full Text Available Du Bois was three generations ahead of the sociological literature on race, class and gender. His work today shows its contemporaneous nature, with newly-minted words such as "standpoint epistemology" reflecting some of the pioneering ideas introduced by Du Bois.
Richman, Charles L; And Others
Assessed effects of gender, race, and social class on general and area-specific self-esteem of high school students (N=195). Results indicated that females, Whites, and lower-class adolescents were consistently lower in their self-esteem scores than were males, Blacks, and upper-social-class teenagers, respectively. (Author/NRB)
Stokes, Philip J.; Levine, Roger; Flessa, Karl W.
Geoscience faces dual recruiting challenges: a pending workforce shortage and a lack of diversity. Already suffering from low visibility, geoscience does not resemble the makeup of the general population in terms of either race/ethnicity or gender and is among the least diverse of all science, technology, engineering, and math fields in the U.S.…
Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.
Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…
Phillips, Canek Moises Luna
Research explanations for the disparity across both race and gender in engineering education has typically relied on a deficit model, whereby women and people of color lack the requisite knowledge or psychological characteristics that Whites and men have to become engineers in sufficient numbers. Instead of using a deficit model approach to…
Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.
A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…
Rabe, Marlize; Rugunanan, Pragna
This article explores issues of gender and race in the academic careers of female sociologists in South Africa by focusing on selected women who left academic departments in higher education institutions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants who left various Sociology departments at different times. It was found that young black…
Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.
Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…
Clark, Roger; Nunes, Alex
We have updated Ferree and Hall's (1990) study of the way gender and race are constructed through pictures in introductory sociology textbooks. Ferree and Hall looked at 33 textbooks published between 1982 and 1988. We replicated their study by examining 3,085 illustrations in a sample of 27 textbooks, most of which were published between 2002 and…
Haraway, Donna Jeanne
... photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Haraway, Donna Jeanne. Primate visions : gender, race, and nature in the world of modern science Donna J. Haraway. p. cm. Bibliography : p. Includes index. ISBN 0-415-90114...
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between self-perceived information seeking skills and self-esteem in adolescents and, further, to determine whether this correlation varied according to race and gender. Tenth-grade students from three public high schools in a Midwestern city were given two instruments. Self-perceived…
Physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases are becoming a global epidemic. This article reflects on physical activity levels of undergraduate students at a university in South Africa. Gender and race differences in relation to these levels were investigated. A self-reported measure of physical activity suitable to ...
This article relies on year-long ethnographic data to examine how the intersection of peer status, gender, and race influenced the role stances children took in one urban fifth grade classroom while participating in three different pedagogies: peer tutoring, cooperative peer editing, and collaborative writing. Informed by the sociocultural…
Pudrovska, Tetyana; Schieman, Scott; Carr, Deborah
Few studies have identified the distinctive aspects of singlehood that are distressing to older adults. The objectives of our study were: (a) to examine whether divorced, widowed, and never-married older adults differed in their experiences of single strain, an indicator of chronic stressors associated with being unmarried; and (b) to assess whether the marital status differences we explored varied by gender and race. Using data from a subsample of 530 unmarried older adults and ordinary least squares regression, we estimated main and interactive effects of marital status, gender, and race on single strain. Divorced and widowed persons reported higher single strain than never-married persons, although the magnitude of these effects varied considerably by race and gender. Never-married White women reported higher levels of single strain than their male counterparts. White widows and widowers exhibited higher single strain than widowed Black adults. Black women uniformly fared better than White women, whereas divorced and never-married Black men were not different from their White peers in terms of single strain. Psychological adjustment to singlehood among older adults reflects patterns of gender and race stratification and socialization over the life course.
van Sterkenburg, J.; Spaaij, R.
Mediated football is one of the most popular global cultural practices. Within this cultural practice, meanings given to race/ethnicity, gender and nation are naturalized often in an implicit and unacknowledged manner. In this article, we build on existing literature to critically examine the often
The legal process of gender transition in Hungary had previously been more developed as in most European countries, as the law enabled transsexual people to change their name and gender before or without a medical treatment, which was unique at the time. Over the years, however, lots of European countries developed legal frameworks and accepted international standards of care for the treatment of gender dysphoria that Hungary did not follow. Currently in Hungary there is no consistent legal framework of gender transition, there is no official regulation or guidelines regarding gender transition process, no institution with the obligation to accommodate the process, and there is no nominated specialist in the state health care system whose remit included dealing with transsexual patients. The information on gender transition options both to the professionals and to the patients is limited and incoherent. This paper reviews the legal aspects and clinical management process of gender dysphoria in Hungary. Some issues regarding the Hungarian practice and possible solutions based on examples from the United Kingdom are addressed within the paper.
Keywords: Households, Social grants, Children, Elderly, Labour migration. Resume. Cette étude visait à ... 1993 and 2008 and found that the country's high aggregate level of income inequality increased during this period. .... Poverty among women can also be attributed to the gendered internal division of family labour.
Andreassen, Rikke; Myong, Lene
Drawing upon feminist standpoint theory and memory work, the authors analyse racial privilege by investigating their own racialized and gendered subjectifications as academic researchers. By looking at their own experiences within academia, they show how authority and agency are contingent upon...
Wandner, Laura D; Scipio, Cindy D; Hirsh, Adam T; Torres, Calia A; Robinson, Michael E
Sex, race/ethnic, and age differences in pain have been reported in clinical and experimental research. Gender role expectations have partly explained the variability in sex differences in pain, and the Gender Role Expectations of Pain questionnaire (GREP) was developed to measure sex-related stereotypic attributions about pain. It is hypothesized that similar expectations exist for age- and race-related pain decisions. This study investigated new measures of race/ethnic- and age-related stereotypic attributions of pain sensitivity and willingness to report pain, and examined the psychometric properties of a modified GREP. Participants completed the Race/Ethnicity Expectations of Pain questionnaire, Age Expectations of Pain questionnaire, and modified GREP. Results revealed a 3-factor solution to the race/ethnicity questionnaire and a 2-factor solution to the age questionnaire, consistent with theoretical construction of the items. Results revealed a 4-factor solution to the modified GREP that differed from the original GREP and theoretical construction of the items. Participants' pain-related stereotypic attributions differed across racial/ethnic, age, and gender groups. These findings provide psychometric support for the measures examined herein and suggest that stereotypic attributions of pain in others differ across demographic categories. Future work can refine the measures and examine whether select demographic variables influence pain perception, assessment, and/or treatment. The findings suggest that one's expectations of the pain experience of another person are influenced by the stereotypes one has about different genders, races, and ages. The 3 pain expectation measures investigated in the current study could be used in future work examining biases in pain assessment and treatment. Copyright Â© 2012 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The general aim of this paper is to initiate a long-lasting systemic process of reviewing higher education in Serbia from a gender-sensitive point of view, and to offer initial input for building action plans and policies oriented towards this goal. The main focus is on analyzing legal studies from a gender-sensitive point of view and on initiating gender mainstreaming within law schools. However, this paper can aspire only to modest achievements, dealing solely with preliminary research of legal studies, with a limited but a representative sample. Namely, only two accredited study programs at two public university faculties of law in Serbia - at the Faculty of Law in Belgrade and the Faculty of Law in Niš - were taken into consideration. This pilot analysis is based on an established methodology for gender-sensitive analysis of curricula as well as of syllabi and textbooks for certain legal courses. The mentioned methodology introduces specific gender-sensitive indicators as well as three categories for assessing learning outcomes of study programs, syllabi and textbooks: gender-negative, gender-neutral, and gender-sensitive. The focus of the investigation was on of the following courses: Sociology of Law, Constitutional Law, Family Law, Labor Law, and Criminal Law. The meaning and importance of gender mainstreaming in law schools is explained in the Introduction. The normative and strategic framework for gender mainstreaming in higher education in Serbia is presented in the second chapter. The main focus of analysis - the reconsideration of curricula and textbooks from a gender perspective - is elaborated through the following three chapters: the third chapter explores the main indicators of the gender-sensitive analysis of legal education; the fourth is devoted to the analytical framework and methodology of investigation; chapter five presents the research results and their interpretation. The concluding notes clarify discrepancies between
Reflecting on the idea of “race” and the normative significance of race relations is an essential part of the enterprise of political philosophy. The principal goal is to think systematically about whether, and if so how, race should figure in our evaluation of institutional arrangements and power relations, in our treatment of each other within civil society, and in our self-conceptions and group affiliations. This article discusses the idea of race, racism, racial discrimination and social ...
Goetz, Christopher G.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Wang, Lu; Tilley, Barbara C.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Merkitch, Douglas; Luo, Sheng
Objective Assess MDS-UPDRS items for gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. Background Assessing Differential Item Functioning is a core rating scale validation step. For the MDS-UPDRS, Differential Item Functioning occurs if item-score probability among people with similar levels of parkinsonism differ according to selected covariates (gender, age, race/ethnicity). If the magnitude of Differential Item Functioning is clinically relevant, item-score interpretation must consider influences by these covariates. Differential Item Functioning can be Non-uniform (covariate variably influences an item-score across different levels of parkinsonism) or Uniform (covariate influences an item-score consistently over all levels of parkinsonism. Methods Using the MDS-UPDRS translation database of over 5,000 PD patients from fourteen languages, we tested gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. To designate an item as having clinically relevant Differential Item Functioning, we required statistical confirmation by two independent methods, along with a McFadden pseudo-R2 magnitude statistic greater than “negligible.” Results Most items showed no gender-, age- or race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. When Differential Item Functioning was identified, the magnitude statistic was always in the “negligible” range, and the scale level impact was minimal. Conclusions The absence of clinically relevant Differential Item Functioning across all items and all Parts of MDS-UPDRS is strong evidence that the scale can be used confidently. As studies of Parkinson's disease increasingly involve multinational efforts and the MDS-UPDRS has several validated non-English translations, the findings support the scale's broad applicability in populations with varying gender, age, and race/ethnicity distributions. PMID:27943473
Full Text Available In recent decades, legal Acts, norms, and regulations have proliferated in order to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in multiple contexts, including public and private organizations. Nevertheless, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that, to date, real and legal equality do not match. The current context of the global economy suggests that there may now be a new barrier, related to the fact that women have been partially excluded from positions abroad which would facilitate the acquisition of professional and personal skills which are essential in the present century. This new inequality in access to senior management seems to be in contradiction with the different pressures and initiatives put in place to achieve equality of opportunities between women and men, protected in our national and international laws. In this paper, the main causes excluding women from international assignments, and consequently from senior management, are reviewed, highlighting the motivational and legal aftereffects that this trend may have. En las últimas décadas han proliferado diversas disposiciones legales y normativas con el objetivo de garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres en múltiples contextos, entre ellos el que atañe a las organizaciones públicas y privadas. Pese a ello, existe suficiente evidencia de que la igualdad real no se acerca, hasta la fecha, a la legal. El contexto actual de economía globalizada sugiere que puede aparecer una nueva barrera, al quedar la mujer excluida parcialmente de puestos en el extranjero que le facilitan la adquisición de capacidades profesionales y personales imprescindibles en el siglo actual. Esta nueva desigualdad en el acceso a puestos de alta dirección no parece responder a las distintas presiones e iniciativas por conseguir la igualdad de oportunidades entre hombres y mujeres, protegida en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico nacional e internacional. En este trabajo revisamos
Full Text Available This study aimed to replicate, for the first time on Serbian population, the own-race bias (ORB, a classical effect from the face perception domain. The ORB was additionally contrasted with familiarity and the own-gender bias (OGB. Recognition accuracy for own race faces was higher in comparison both to African (Z=3.29, p<0.01 and Asian faces (Z= 2.59, p<0.01. The introduction of famous faces led to a significant drop in the ORB. However, in all of the conditions a “seen before” effect was measured, suggesting better recognition for own race faces, independent of familiarity. The OGB was obtained for own-race faces (χ2(28, 7 = 119, 34 p <0, 05, while there were no differences in recognition accuracy between the own and the other-race faces of the other gender. These results imply that the ORB could be explained, at least partially, by the OGB. However, these results were obtained on an exclusively female sample. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033 i br. III47020
The thesis looks at the legal responses to prostitution in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic under State Socialism and in Transition, and the understanding of gender equality therein. It argues that both, the legal regimes and the understandings of prostitution, varied between these periods. Under State Socialism, professional prostitutes were criminally liable under provisions on parasitism. In Transition, the ‘boom’ of prostitution after 1989 lead to the adoption of containment provi...
Isaksen, Eirin Winsnes
This thesis examines the recent legal, political and social changes for sexual and gender minorities in Nepal. The empirical data were produced during field work in Nepal in 2010. In a short period of time the sexual and gender minorities have experienced a significant improvement in rights as well as increased inclusion in political processes. However, this study shows that they still experience social challenges such as discrimination and harassment. Although positive social changes like in...
Attell, Brandon K; Kummerow Brown, Kiersten; Treiber, Linda A
A large body of empirical research documents the adverse mental health consequences of workplace bullying. However, less is known about gender and race differences in the processes that link workplace bullying and poor mental health. In the current study, we use structural equation modeling of survey data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2292) and draw on stress process theory to examine coworker support as a buffering mechanism against workplace bullying, and gender and race differences in the relationships between bullying and psychological distress. The results of the analysis indicate that coworker support serves as a protective buffer against workplace bullying, although the buffering effect is relatively small. We also find that the effects of workplace bullying more heavily impact women and persons of color. Specifically, women and African American individuals in our sample were less protected from the buffering mechanism of co-worker social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Osei-Kofi, Nana; Torres, Lisette E.
Numerous reports on the US economy argue that American higher education institutions must prepare a greater number of workers for employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), in order for the US to remain globally competitive. To do so, addressing the underrepresentation of women and people of color who pursue degrees in STEM is viewed as critical. In this study we examine one of the most widespread marketing tools used by institutions of higher education to attract prospective students, the admissions viewbook. Specifically, we provide an analysis of the ways in which gender and race are situated in representations of undergraduate STEM education. Our findings, based on a critical and visual textual analysis of 20 viewbooks, suggest that viewbooks convey strong messages concerning race, gender, and issues of belonging, hierarchy, power, and privilege in STEM.
Full Text Available This article is concerned with how the gendered, raced, and classed practices of readership of a humorous meme on Tumblr organize forms of sociality and belonging along these lines. Based on the anonymous Tumblr blog, WhatShouldWeCallMe , the meme narrates feelings and reactions related to youthful, feminine, Western “everyday” experience through the use of captions and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF images. Drawing on the feminist Cultural Studies tradition of text-reader analysis as well as New Literacy Studies approaches to literacy, I suggest the practices of readerly participation in the meme require a social rather than individual set of competencies and knowledges. I propose “spectatorial girlfriendship” as a term encompassing how the texts of the meme require the reader to operationalize gendered, classed, and raced classificatory knowledges and construct social forms of commonality on this basis. In the meme, the reader “gets” the joke by aligning an ostensibly incongruous GIF and caption, remixing and matching existing classifications of people, bodies, and objects. I demonstrate how spectatorial girlfriendship as a readerly lens arranges, transacts, and interacts gender, class, and race in multiple ways, indexing social inequalities without recognizing them as such. Bodies in the GIFs become “stock” images, used for selective resignification. Consequently, while offering pleasures of an understood readerly feminine commonality, participation in the meme is structured unequally, going beyond the reader’s ability to decipher the GIF and caption in the posts. The meme privileges an ideal reader constructed through postrace, postfeminist “theories” of the useability of gender, race, and class.
This research examines the ways in which race, gender, and capital structure the "War on Terror" by systematically unpacking the connections, and contradictions, in both the global and domestic arenas of US politics and representation of Muslims. The War on Terror is the most privatized war in the history of the US, which provides an important site of analysis to explore the burgeoning industry created and sustained by fear of terrorism. The scapegoating of Muslims as suspected terrorists a...
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Morales, Michele; Cranford, James A.; Delva, Jorge; McPherson, Melnee D.; Boyd, Carol J.
This study examines race/ethnicity and gender differences in drug use and abuse for substances other than alcohol among undergraduate college students. A probability-based sample of 4,580 undergraduate students at a Midwestern research university completed a cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire that included demographic information and several substance use measures. Male students were generally more likely to report drug use and abuse than female students. Hispanic and White students were...
Harvey, E. A.
This thesis considers philanthropic activities directed towards new mothers and destitute children both “at home” and in a particular colonial context. Philanthropic encounters in Birmingham and Sydney are utilised as a lens through which to explore the intersections between discourses of race, gender and class in metropole and colony. Moreover, philanthropic and missionary efforts towards women and children facilitate a broader discussion of ideas of citizenship and nation. Du...
Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Woods, Carol; Unick, G. Jay
This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference grou...
This research examines ways in which African female students from Kenya studying in Australian universities construct their identity, and how their race and gender plays out in the way they are perceived in Australian universities and in the broader community. The findings of this research include that Kenyan female students studying in Australian universities have multiple, shifting and contextual identities. Their Kenyan socio-economic background, experiences of discrimination and negative ...
Full Text Available “Intersectionality” has become a highly influential concept in gender research over the last 25 years. Debates have focused on differences and power asymmetries between women, in terms of race but also addressing class, age, sexuality, ability and nation. However, intersectional paradigms have been used to a much lesser extent in gender studies on men. This article seeks to contribute to an emerging discussion about intersectionality and masculinity by analyzing rap lyrics in Swe-dish songs. The data consists of a broad sample of rap lyrics by male artists 1991-2011, which is analyzed through poststructuralist discourse analysis and queer phenomenology. The analysis shows how classed discourses can be described in terms of orientation and flow, how racialization is articulated in terms of place, and the role of normative notions of gender and sexuality in anti-racist discourses. It is argued that this interconnectedness – class being related to race, which in turn is profoundly gendered – is neither well captured by the prevailing notion of “masculinities” in gender studies on men, nor by the “constitution” vs. “addition” dichotomy in intersectionality debates. Instead, it is suggested that degrees of in-tersectionality might be a more fruitful way of theorizing intersectionality in rela-tion to men.
Wu, Qing; Lefante, John J; Rice, Janet C; Magnus, Jeanette H
Osteoporosis and fractures represent a major public health issue. Accurate normative reference bone mineral density (BMD) values are vital for diagnosing osteoporosis. The generalizability of the T-score method across gender, race, and age in clinic decision-making has been debated. Our aim was to identify the best statistical model to derive normative BMD values in both men and women in the multiethnic United States population. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used as a data source. Gender- and race/ethnicity-stratified data analyses and modeling were conducted on 9779 persons (ages 20 to 65 years) who reported no conditions or medications likely to affect bone metabolism. Sampling and design effects were addressed using STATA 10. Model comparisons were conducted by partial F tests and residual plots. Polynomial regression provided a statistically significant better fit than linear regression in predicting normative BMD in both men and women. Age-centered polynomial models provided the best model for predicting normative BMD values. The gender- and race-specific lower limit of normal values obtained created a new classification method of low BMD, which might mitigate some of the T-score limitations in men and minority populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Witt, Edward A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena
This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and technology use? Five hundred youth, average age 12 years old, one third African American and two thirds Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (e-mail and instant messaging), video game playing, and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with video game playing having a negative influence and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions, but contrary to expectations, girls did not score higher than boys in social self-concept. Only one race difference was observed: African Americans had lower behavioral self-concept than did Caucasian Americans. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth's current and projected technology use are discussed.
Nanaa, K.; Rahman, M. N. A.; Rizon, M.; Mohamad, F. S.; Mamat, M.
Classifying human face based on race and gender is a vital process in face recognition. It contributes to an index database and eases 3D synthesis of the human face. Identifying race and gender based on intrinsic factor is problematic, which is more fitting to utilizing nonlinear model for estimating process. In this paper, we aim to estimate race and gender in varied head pose. For this purpose, we collect dataset from PICS and CAS-PEAL databases, detect the landmarks and rotate them to the frontal pose. After geometric distances are calculated, all of distance values will be normalized. Implementation is carried out by using Neural Network Model and Fuzzy Logic Model. These models are combined by using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Model. The experimental results showed that the optimization of address fuzzy membership. Model gives a better assessment rate and found that estimating race contributing to a more accurate gender assessment.
Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain
Salsberry, Pamela J; Corwin, Elizabeth; Reagan, Patricia B
Metabolic syndrome is a recognizable clinical cluster of risks known to be associated in combination and independently with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Identifying and treating metabolic syndrome is one promising strategy to reduce CVD. The intersection of race/ethnicity, gender, and economic status complicates our understanding of who is at risk for metabolic syndrome, but understanding this social patterning is important for the development of targeted interventions. This study examines the relationship between metabolic syndrome (and the underlying contributing risk factors) and race/ethnicity, economic status, and gender. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1999 through 2002 were used; analysis was completed in 2006-2007. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Economic status was measured using income as a percentage of the poverty level. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and each of its contributing risk factors were determined by race/ethnicity and economic group. Logistic regressions were estimated. All analyses were stratified by gender. Economic effects were seen for women, but not men. Women in the lowest economic group were more likely to be at risk in four of the five risk categories when compared with women in the highest economic group. Differences in the contributing risk profiles for metabolic syndrome were seen by race/ethnicity. Strategies to reduce CVD must be built on a clear understanding of the differences in contributing risk factors for metabolic syndrome across subgroups. The findings from this study provide further information to guide the targeting of these strategies.
Phillips, Canek Moises Luna
Research explanations for the disparity across both race and gender in engineering education has typically relied on a deficit model, whereby women and people of color lack the requisite knowledge or psychological characteristics that Whites and men have to become engineers in sufficient numbers. Instead of using a deficit model approach to explain gender and race disparity, in the three studies conducted for this dissertation, I approach gender and race disparity as the result of processes of segregation linked to the historic and on-going perpetuation of systemic sources of oppression in the United States. In the first study, I investigate the relationship between the odds ratios of women and men enrolled in first year US engineering programs and institutional characteristics. To do this, I employ linear regression to study data from the American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to quantify relationships between odds ratios and institutional characteristics. Results of the linear regression models showed significant relationships between the cost of universities and university selectivity and the odds ratios of women choosing engineering. I theorize how the results could be related to the operation of occupational segregation in engineering, particularly how class-based markers have been historically used by women to overcome gender-based segregation in engineering. In the second study, I examine longitudinal patterns of race, gender, and intersectional combinations of race and gender in enrollments of students in first year engineering programs across the United States (US). Using enrollment data from the American Society of Engineering Education and California Post-Secondary Education Commission, I construct measures of segregation to study how trends in the disparity of students by race could be related to increases in public school segregation nationally over the past 25 years. I found that as
Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC incidence in the United States (US continues to decrease but with significant differences by histology, gender and race. Whereas squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates have been decreasing since the mid-80s, adenocarcinoma rates remain stable in males and continue to increase in females, with large racial disparities. We analyzed LC incidence trends by histology in the US with an emphasis on gender and racial differences.LC incidence rates from 1973-2010 were obtained from the SEER cancer registry. Age-adjusted incidence trends of five major histological types by gender and race were evaluated using joinpoint regression. Trends of LC histology and stage distributions from 2005-2010 were analyzed.US LC incidence varies by histology. Squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates continue to decrease for all gender/race combinations, whereas adenocarcinoma rates remain relatively constant in males and increasing in females. An apparent recent increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma since 2005 can be explained by a concomitant decrease in the number of cases classified as other non-small cell carcinoma. Black males continue to be disproportionally affected by squamous LCs, and blacks continue to be diagnosed with more advanced cancers than whites.LC incidence by histology continues to change over time. Additional variations are expected as screening becomes disseminated. It is important to continue to monitor LC rates to evaluate the impact of screening on current trends, assess the continuing benefits of tobacco control, and focus efforts on reducing racial disparities.
Koo, Kelly H; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Madden, Erin; Seal, Karen H; Maguen, Shira
Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF; predominantly in Afghanistan) and Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn (OIF and OND; predominantly in Iraq) and are enrolled in the VA are comprised of a growing cohort of women and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities than civilians. To compare rates of mental health disorders by race/ethnicity and gender for this diverse cohort, we conducted a retrospective analysis of existing records from OEF/OIF/OND veterans who were seen at the VA 10/7/01-8/1/2013 (N=792,663). We found that race/ethnicity was related to diagnoses of mental health disorders. Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) were diagnosed with all disorders at lower rates than whites, and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) males were diagnosed with most disorders at higher rates than white males. Research is needed to identify contributing factors to differential rates of diagnoses based on race/ethnicity and gender. A/PIs and AI/ANs have unique patterns of mental health diagnoses indicating they should be considered separately to present a comprehensive picture of veteran mental health. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Beh, Hazel G; Pietsch, James H
This article focuses on the thorny and evolving legal issues and implications of health care decision-making for children and adolescents in matters of gender, sexual identity, sexual conduct, and reproduction. In treating minors, health care professionals increasingly experience competing duties and responsibilities to their patient, the parents or guardians, and to the state. This article gives health care professionals a foundation for understanding the legal concepts of adolescent health care decision-making and provides an approach for balancing the potential competing interests of these stakeholders while complying with professional standards,the law, and their own ethical and moral convictions.
Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah
Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent
Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425
Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Donnellan, M Brent
Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period.
Clark, Jillian M R; Krause, James S
To examine and compare vocational interests as a function of gender and race among 247 participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) approximately 10 years after SCI onset utilizing the 2004 edition of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII). For this cross-sectional analysis nested within a prospective cohort study, data were collected via mail and analyzed at a medical university in the Southeastern United States. Among the 563 adults with traumatic SCI initially enrolled during inpatient rehabilitation at a specialty hospital, 247 met current study eligibility criteria and completed the SII approximately 10 years postinjury. The SII is a 291-item measure of vocational interests. Male participants scored highest on the Realistic theme and females scored highest on the Social theme. White participants scored highest on the Realistic theme, whereas Black participants scored highest on the Conventional theme. Differences in vocational interests by gender were seen on two of the six General Occupational Themes (GOT; Realistic and Social) and 12 of the 30 Basic Interest Scales (BIS). Race differences were observed on the Enterprising and Conventional GOT and 11 of 30 BIS. For both female and Black participants, interests are more physically compatible with employment post-SCI than male and White participants. Yet, employment rates in White males with SCI are greater than those of female and Black individuals with SCI. These data suggest further research on factors influencing gender and racial disparities in employment among those with SCI is indicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Navarrete, Carlos David; McDonald, Melissa M; Molina, Ludwin E; Sidanius, Jim
Adopting an evolutionary approach to the psychology of race bias, we posit that intergroup conflict perpetrated by male aggressors throughout human evolutionary history has shaped the psychology of modern forms of intergroup bias and that this psychology reflects the unique adaptive problems that differ between men and women in coping with male aggressors from groups other than one's own. Here we report results across 4 studies consistent with this perspective, showing that race bias is moderated by gender differences in traits relevant to threat responses that differ in their adaptive utility between the sexes-namely, aggression and dominance motives for men and fear of sexual coercion for women. These results are consistent with the notion that the psychology of intergroup bias is generated by different psychological systems for men and women, and the results underscore the importance of considering the gender of the outgroup target as well as the gender of the agent in psychological studies on prejudice and discrimination. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Bedri, Hala; Romanowski, Kathleen S; Liao, Junlin; Al-Ramahi, Ghassan; Heard, Jason; Granchi, Thomas; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy
Age, burn size, and inhalation injury are the major contributing variables related to burn mortality. While the female gender has been linked to higher mortality, the impact of socioeconomic status has not been well studied. The interplay between these three factors is also unknown. This study sought to clarify the effects of these variables on outcomes in a national sample of patients with burns. A retrospective review of 172,640 patient records of the National Burn Repository (version 8, 2002-2011) data was conducted. Of those records, 36,960 (21.4%) patient entries were excluded for duplicate entries, follow-up visits, readmissions, nonburn injuries, skin diseases, and incompleteness (missing date of admission, date of discharge, race, or TBSA of burn or TBSA). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare outcomes by race (Caucasian, African-American, and other minority groups). P < .05 was considered significant. The study group included 135,680 patients and was predominately Caucasian (59.0% Caucasian, 19.0% African-American, and 22.0% other minority groups). The African-American race had more females, operations, longer length of stay, ventilator days, septicemia (all P < .001), and urinary tract infections (UTIs, P < .01). Caucasians had the largest burns (9.27 ± 13.22, P <.001) and were more likely to be older, to be intubated, and to have longer intensive care unit stays and higher mortality (all P < .001). Other non-African-American minorities (other minority group) had the second largest burn sizes, most uninsured members, and lowest mortality (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, mortality was related to African-American race, female gender, TBSA, full-thickness burn injury, inhalation injury, uninsured status, and burn mechanism. African-Americans were 50% more likely to have complications (P < .001), 30% more likely to have UTIs (P = .002), and 41% more likely to get septicemia (P < .001). Other racial minority groups had more
Studies on the association between psychosocial factors and obesity have provided mixed findings. Current study used a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults to investigate how intersection of race, gender and age alters the psychosocial correlates of body mass index (BMI). Data came from the national health measurement study (NHMS), a cross-sectional study with nationally representative sample of Black and White (n = 3,648) adults ages 35 - 89. We tested bivariate correlations between BMI and physical and mental quality of life, purpose in life, number of chronic medical conditions, and discrimination across race × gender × age groups. Higher purpose in life was associated with lower BMI among middle aged and older White women, middle aged Black men, middle aged Black women, and older Black women but not middle aged or older White men and older Black men. There was a positive association between multi-morbidity and BMI in all groups other than older White men. High BMI was associated with poor mental quality of life among older White women, older Black men and women, but not any of middle aged groups, and older White men. High BMI was associated with poor physical quality of life among all groups. Everyday discrimination was positively associated with BMI among older White women but not any other group. Lifetime discrimination was not associated with BMI among any of the groups. Race, gender, and age shape psychosocial and health related correlates of BMI. There is a need for further research on group differences in psychosocial correlates of obesity.
Background Studies on the association between psychosocial factors and obesity have provided mixed findings. Objectives Current study used a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults to investigate how intersection of race, gender and age alters the psychosocial correlates of body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods Data came from the national health measurement study (NHMS), a cross-sectional study with nationally representative sample of Black and White (n = 3,648) adults ages 35 - 89. We tested bivariate correlations between BMI and physical and mental quality of life, purpose in life, number of chronic medical conditions, and discrimination across race × gender × age groups. Results Higher purpose in life was associated with lower BMI among middle aged and older White women, middle aged Black men, middle aged Black women, and older Black women but not middle aged or older White men and older Black men. There was a positive association between multi-morbidity and BMI in all groups other than older White men. High BMI was associated with poor mental quality of life among older White women, older Black men and women, but not any of middle aged groups, and older White men. High BMI was associated with poor physical quality of life among all groups. Everyday discrimination was positively associated with BMI among older White women but not any other group. Lifetime discrimination was not associated with BMI among any of the groups. Conclusions Race, gender, and age shape psychosocial and health related correlates of BMI. There is a need for further research on group differences in psychosocial correlates of obesity. PMID:27822270
Hernandez, Daphne C; Reesor, Layton M; Murillo, Rosenda
The majority of the food insecurity-obesity research has indicated a positive association among women, especially minority women. Less research has been conducted on men, and the findings are inconsistent. The aim was to assess whether gender and race/ethnic disparities exists between the food insecurity and overweight/obesity relationship among adults ages 18-59. We used the cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data (N = 19,990). Three or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale indicated food insecure experiences. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity to estimate the association between food insecurity and overweight/obesity controlling for several demographic characteristics. Adults on average were 36 years of age (51% female; 56% white, 27% Hispanic, and 17% black), 27% were food insecure, and 65% were overweight/obese. Food insecurity was most prevalent among blacks and Hispanics, regardless of gender. A greater percentage of food insecure women were overweight/obese compared to food secure women among all race/ethnicity groups; while similar proportions of white, black, and Hispanic men were overweight/obese irrespective of their food security status. In covariate-adjusted models, food insecurity was associated with a 41% and 29% higher odds of being overweight/obese among white and Hispanic women, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to overweight/obesity among black women nor among white, black, and Hispanic men. The complex relationship between food insecurity and obesity suggests a need to investigate potential behavioral and physiological mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holway, Giuseppina Valle
Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the "normative" and "non-normative" entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories - "early," "normative," "late," and "inexperienced," and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for sex education curriculum and policy makers.
Godbolt, Dawn; Vaghela, Preeti; Burdette, Amy M; Hill, Terrence D
Studies of the association between religious attendance and body mass have yielded mixed results. In this paper, we consider intersectional variations by race and gender to advance our understanding of these inconsistencies. We use data from the 2006-2008 Health and Retirement Study to examine the association between religious attendance and three indicators of body mass: overall body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (n = 11,457). For White women, attendance is either protective or unrelated to body mass. For Black women, attendance is consistently associated with increased body mass. We find that religious attendance is not associated with body mass among the men.
Jacob Steven Euteneuer
This paper examines several recent controversies in the gaming and popular culture fandoms that revolved around issues of sexuality, race, and gender. It uses these examples as a means for examining which roles and identities are privileged when it comes to talking about gamers and gamer identity. The paper argues that a shift toward play as an embodied process allows for more inclusive games and forms of play which would allow for the expansion of who both sees them self in videogames and is...
Assari, Shervin; Watkins, Daphne C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
Although the association between discrimination and depression among Blacks is well-known, we do not know if this effect is influenced by race attribution. In this current study, we investigated the effect modification of race attribution on the association between everyday discrimination and major depressive disorder (MDD) among Blacks in the United States, and whether this effect modification is influenced by the intersection of ethnicity and gender. With a cross-sectional design, this study used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. The study included a nationally representative sample of Blacks (n = 5,008), composed of 3,570 African Americans and 1,438 Caribbean Blacks. Everyday discrimination, two single-item measures of race attribution (race as the major barrier against upward social mobility, and race as the main cause for being discriminated against) and 12-month MDD were measured. In the first step, we fit logistic regressions to the pooled sample. In the next step, we ran regressions specific to the intersections of ethnicity and gender. Interaction between race attribution and discrimination were also entered into the models. Among Caribbean Black men, the belief that race is a major barrier against one's own upward social mobility modified the association between exposure to daily discrimination and MDD. In this group, the association between discrimination and MDD was weaker among those who believed that race is a major barrier against one's own upward social mobility. Race attribution did not modify the association between discrimination and MDD among African American men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. The other measure of race attribution (race as the main cause of being discriminated against) did not modify the association between discrimination and MDD in any ethnicity by gender subgroups. Among Caribbean Black men, the link between everyday discrimination and depression may depend on seeing
Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis
Poorer recognition of other-race faces relative to own-race faces is well documented from late infancy to adulthood. Research has revealed an increase in the other-race effect (ORE) during the first year of life, but there is some disagreement regarding the age at which it emerges. Using cropped faces to eliminate discrimination based on external features, visual paired comparison and spontaneous visual preference measures were used to investigate the relationship between ORE and face gender at 3-4 and 8-9 months. Caucasian-White 3- to 4-month-olds' discrimination of Chinese, Malay, and Caucasian-White faces showed an own-race advantage for female faces alone whereas at 8-9 months the own-race advantage was general across gender. This developmental effect is accompanied by a preference for female over male faces at 4 months and no gender preference at 9 months. The pattern of recognition advantage and preference suggests that there is a shift from a female-based own-race recognition advantage to a general own-race recognition advantage, in keeping with a visual and social experience-based account of ORE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eckes, Suzanne E.; Fox, Robert A.; Buchanan, Nina K.
A growing number of ethnocentric or culturally oriented niche charter schools have opened around the country. These ethnic or culture-oriented models raise legal and policy concerns about church/state entanglement as well as concerns about diversity. Indeed, there has already been litigation focused on racial and ethnic aspects of charter schools…
Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita
Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258
Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita
To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Armstrong, Aisha P; Owens, Archandria C
More than half of the students entering college report a history of potentially traumatic events; however, little is known about the relationship of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology to college students' mental health and access to social support or whether these relationships may show variations as a function of race and gender. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the relationships between PTSD symptoms and both depression and social support were moderated by gender and race. Data were collected from 631 African American (AA) and 299 European American (EA) freshmen students attending 2 universities in the Southeast. The majority of the students (74.3% of the AA and 68.2% of the EA sample) reported lifetime exposure to at least 1 traumatic event. PTSD symptomatology was significantly and positively associated with depression symptoms for all groups (i.e., AA and EA males and females); however, the relationship between these 2 variables was strongest for EA men. Similarly, the relationship between PTSD symptoms on the avoidance cluster and social support was stronger for EA males than other groups; avoidance symptoms did not significantly predict social support for AA men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Despite experiencing numerous barriers, mothers today confront increasing social pressure to embody perfection through their foodwork. A growing body of social science research identifies how gender and class inequality shape women's perceptions of food and their feeding strategies, but this research is thus far limited in its understanding of the roles that race and ethnic identity play in a mother's food landscape. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews with a racially and economically diverse group of mothers, this paper examines how feeding young children is intertwined with contemporary ideas about child health as well as women's efforts to negotiate race, class, and gender hierarchies. Extending Hays' concept of intensive mothering, rich descriptions of feeding children reveal how mothers in this study are discursively engaged with what I call an 'intensive feeding ideology' - the widespread belief that good mothering is synonymous with intensive food labour. Drawing on intersectional theory, this article discusses the limits of an intensive feeding ideology, particularly for poor and middle-class mothers of colour. The findings contribute to an understanding of how power relations are embedded within food ideologies and how mothers of young children attempt to negotiate them. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Keith, NiCole R; Clark, Daniel O; Stump, Timothy E; Callahan, Christopher M
To compare concurrent criterion validity of the Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) Survey, a new fitness measure, between black and white race, gender, and health literacy groups. Cross-sectional. Midwest urban primary care center and commercial fitness center. One hundred one black, white, male, and female primary care patients aged ≥40 years. Measures included demographics, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the SRFit Survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. The BodPod determined percentage of body fat. Body mass index was calculated. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations between corresponding physical tests and SRFit survey items. Correlations between physical tests and SRFit items ranged from r = .52 to .76 (ρ = .41-.85) in males, r = .40 to .79 (ρ = .33-.80) in females, r = .45 to .79 (ρ = .53-.82) in blacks, and r = .49 to .77 (ρ = .33-.82) in whites. Correlations were r = .58 (ρ = .58) to r = .77 (ρ = .79) in persons with low health literacy and r = .50 to .79 (ρ = .39-.85) among persons with moderate to high health literacy. SRFit shows similar concurrent validity across race, gender, and health literacy subgroups.
Full Text Available In The Good Lord Bird, Onion’s gender passing and performance can be seen as fluid and transparent. Performance, mobility, fluid and constant change are themes and currents throughout the novel. The dramatic narrative feeds off tensions arising from race and gender and the ways in which related identities are experienced and performed. The current paper examines factors relating to performativity and identity in terms of race; in the case of Onion’s narrative these inform a specific kind of understanding of a social and geographical situation that requires subversion. Through humor and satire, McBride creastes a powerful work with contemporary resonances. The drama of the novel is based on concepts of performativity and identity, and the understanding represented by the symbol of the “Good Lord” bird in the novel. McBride wrote the novel for a contemporary audience, knowing that they would be attuned to such issues surrounding racial performance and racial identity. In a way, the unusual literary depiction of a self-identified male who inhabits a female performed identity throughout the novel can be seen as McBride’s comment on the ridiculousness of a binary system of racial categorization as used since the slavery era. Using theories from Lacan, Butler and Bhabha, the current work examines the plurality and hybridity of performed identities in The Good Lord Bird as they relate to understanding.
Puhl, R M; Andreyeva, T; Brownell, K D
Limited data are available on the prevalence and patterns of body weight discrimination from representative samples. This study examined experiences of weight/height discrimination in a nationally representative sample of US adults and compared their prevalence and patterns with discrimination experiences based on race and gender. Data were from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, a 1995-1996 community-based survey of English-speaking adults aged 25-74 (N=2290). Reported experiences of weight/height discrimination included a variety of institutional settings and interpersonal relationships. Multivariate regression analyses were used to predict weight/height discrimination controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and body weight status. The prevalence of weight/height discrimination ranged from 5% among men to 10% among women, but these average percentages obscure the much higher risk of weight discrimination among heavier individuals (40% for adults with body mass index (BMI) of 35 and above). Younger individuals with a higher BMI had a particularly high risk of weight/height discrimination regardless of their race, education and weight status. Women were at greater risk for weight/height discrimination than men, especially women with a BMI of 30-35 who were three times more likely to report weight/height discrimination compared to male peers of a similar weight. Weight/height discrimination is prevalent in American society and is relatively close to reported rates of racial discrimination, particularly among women. Both institutional forms of weight/height discrimination (for example, in employment settings) and interpersonal mistreatment due to weight/height (for example, being called names) were common, and in some cases were even more prevalent than discrimination due to gender and race.
Despite the well-established health effects of socioeconomic status (SES), SES resources such as employment may differently influence health outcomes across sub-populations. This study used a national sample of US adults to test if the effect of baseline employment (in 1986) on all-cause mortality over a 25-year period depends on race, gender, education level, and their intersections. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, which followed 2025 Whites and 1156 Blacks for 25 years from 1986 to 2011. The focal predictor of interest was baseline employment (1986), operationalized as a dichotomous variable. The main outcome of interest was time to all-cause mortality from 1986 to 2011. Covariates included baseline age, health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise), physical health (obesity, chronic disease, function, and self-rated health), and mental health (depressive symptoms). A series of Cox proportional hazard models were used to test the association between employment and mortality risk in the pooled sample and based on race, gender, education, and their intersections. Baseline employment in 1986 was associated with a lower risk of mortality over a 25-year period, net of covariates. In the pooled sample, baseline employment interacted with race (HR = .69, 95% CI = .49-.96), gender (HR = .73, 95% CI = .53-1.01), and education (HR = .64, 95% CI = .46-.88) on mortality, suggesting diminished protective effects for Blacks, women, and individuals with lower education, compared to Whites, men, and those with higher education. In stratified models, the association was significant for Whites (HR = .71, 95%CI = .59-.90), men (HR = .60, 95%CI = .43-.83), and individuals with high education (HR = .66, 95%CI = .50-.86) but not for Blacks (HR = .77, 95%CI = .56-1.01), women (HR = .88, 95%CI = .69-1.12), and those with low education (HR = .92, 95%CI = .67-1.26). The largest effects of employment on life expectancy
Smith, Malcolm K; Mathews, Ben
Gender dysphoria is a condition in which a child's subjectively felt identity and gender are not congruent with her or his biological sex. Because of this, the child suffers clinically significant distress or impairment in social functioning. The Family Court of Australia has recently received an increasing number of applications seeking authorisation for the provision of hormones to treat gender dysphoria in children. Some medical procedures and interventions performed on children are of such a grave nature that court authorisation must be obtained to render them lawful. These procedures are referred to as special medical procedures. Hormonal therapy for the treatment of gender dysphoria in children is provided in two stages occurring years apart. Until recently, both stages of treatment were regarded by courts as special medical treatments, meaning court authorisation had to be provided for both stages. In a significant recent development, courts have drawn a distinction between the two stages of treatment, permitting parents to consent to the first stage. In addition, it has been held that a child who is determined by a court to be Gillick competent can consent to stage 2 treatment. The new legal developments concerning treatment for gender dysphoria are of ethical, clinical and practical importance to children and their families, and to medical practitioners treating children with gender dysphoria. Medical practitioners should benefit from an understanding of the recent developments in legal principles. This will ensure that they have up-to-date information about the circumstances under which treatment may be conducted with parental consent, and those in which they must seek court authorisation.
Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo
Hypertension is a major public health issue worldwide, but knowledge is scarce about its patterns and its relationship to multiple axes of social disadvantages in Latin American countries. This study describes the educational inequality in the prevalence of hypertension in Brazil, including a joint stratification by gender and race. We analyzed interview-based data and blood pressure measurements from 59,402 participants aged 18 years or older at the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS). Sociodemographic characteristics analyzed were gender (male, female), racial self-identification (white, brown, black), age (5-years intervals), and educational attainment (pre-primary, primary, secondary, tertiary). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive medications in the last 2 weeks. We used logistic regression to evaluate the age-adjusted prevalences of hypertension (via marginal modeling), and pair-wise associations between education level and odds of hypertension. Further, the educational inequality in hypertension was summarized through the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). All analyses considered the appropriate sampling weights and intersections with gender, race, and education. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 34.0 % and 30.8 % among men and women, respectively. Black and brown women had a higher prevalence than whites (34.5 % vs. 31.8 % vs. 29.5 %), whereas no racial differences were observed among men. White and brown, but not black women, showed graded inverse associations between hypertension and educational attainment; among men, non-statistically significant associations were observed in all racial strata. The RII and SII estimated inverse gradients among white (RII = 2.5, SII = 18.1 %) and brown women (RII = 2.3, SII = 14.5 %), and homogeneous distributions
Horton, K. Renee
As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African and Hispanic descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter and Scott Page remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important since most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences however. While American women are 15 percent of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60 percent of all black scientists and engineers. Yet less than 3 black women and 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S." Donna Nelson's study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors at all. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40 percent of bachelor's degrees to women, 7 are Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Black women are earning degrees from HBCUs at rates above equity, and many singles and firsts at predominantly white institutions continue to persevere despite the obstacles. Prudence Carter. 2005. Intersectional Matters and Meanings: Ethnicity, Gender, and Resistance to ``Acting White
Cragun, Ryan T; Sumerau, J Edward
Prior research has reported that many Americans hold prejudicial attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities. Most of this research analyzed attitudes toward target categories in isolation and not in relation to attitudes toward heterosexuals. In addition, most previous research has not examined attitudes of members of sexual and gender minority categories toward other categories. While some research has examined the influence of religiosity on attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities, none of these studies has examined religiosity while also examining the influence of spirituality. In this article we drew on insights from queer theory to examine attitudes toward heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, as well as individuals who practice polygamy, among college students. Three samples gathered over a four-year period (2009, 2011, 2013) at a private, nonsectarian, midsized urban university in the Southeastern United States were used. We found that heterosexuals had the most positive rating, followed in order of rating by gay/lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, and then those who practice polygamy. Regression analyses revealed gender and race were significant predictors of attitudes toward various sexual and gender categories. Holding a literalistic view of the Bible and self-identifying as more religious were related to more negative views toward sexual minorities, while self-identifying as more spiritual was related to more positive views.
Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Sánchez, Brisa N; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores
Although birthplace and length of residence have been found to be associated with Body Mass Index (BMI)/obesity in the USA, their effects may not be the same across groups defined by education, gender and race/ethnicity. Using cross-sectional population based data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, we investigated the associations of birthplace and US length of residence with BMI, and whether the influence of birthplace-US length of residence on BMI varied by education, gender and race/ethnicity. Our sample included 37,350 adults aged 25-64 years. Self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Birthplace and length of residence were combined into a single variable divided into five levels: US-born, foreign-born living in the United States for more than 15, 10-14, 5-9, and less than 5 years. Controlling for age, gender, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, fruit and vegetable consumption, current smoking and alcohol use, we found that: (1) foreign-born adults had lower BMI than US-born adults; (2) among foreign-born adults, longer residence in the United States was associated with higher BMI; and (3) the effect of birthplace-length of US residence on BMI differed by education level, gender and race/ethnicity. Specifically, longer residence in the United States was associated with the greatest percent increases in BMI among the lowest educated groups than higher educated groups, among women (vs. men) and among Hispanics (vs. other racial/ethnic groups). These findings suggest that a protective effect of foreign birthplace on BMI appears to attenuate with length of residence in the United States, and also reveal that BMI/obesity trajectories associated with length of US residence vary by education, gender and race/ethnicity. Immigrant status, independently and in combination with education, gender and race/ethnicity should be considered in future obesity prevention and reduction efforts.
Horton, K. Renee
As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are
Lee, Chien-Ti; Clark, Trenette T; Kollins, Scott H; McClernon, F Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard F
This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed. A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development. ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites. ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joseph J. Ferrare
Full Text Available Researchers have examined racial and gender patterns of intergenerational education mobility, but less attention has been given to the ways that race and gender interact to further shape these relationships. Based on data from the General Social Survey, this study examined the trajectories of education mobility among Blacks and Whites by gender over the past century. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models revealed three noteworthy patterns. First, Black men and women have closed substantial gaps with their White counterparts in intergenerational education mobility. At relatively low levels of parental education, these gains have been experienced equally among Black men and women. However, Black men are most disadvantaged at the highest levels of parental education relative to Black women and Whites in general. Finally, the advantages in education mobility experienced by White men in the early and midpart of the 20th century have largely eroded. White women, in contrast, have made steady gains in education mobility across a variety of parental education levels.
Montero, Darrel M
The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation.
Britner, Shari L.; Pajares, Frank
The purpose of this study was to discover whether the science motivation beliefs of middle school students (N = 262) vary as a function of their gender or race/ethnicity and to determine whether science self-efficacy beliefs predict science achievement when motivation variables shown to predict achievement in other academic areas are controlled. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and they received higher grades in science. Boys had stronger performance-approach goals. White students had stronger self-efficacy and achievement, and African American students reported stronger task goals. Self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict the science achievement of girls, boys, and White students. Self-efficacy and self-concept predicted the science achievement of African American students. Results are interpreted from the perspective of Bandura's social cognitive theory.
Shaikh, Anwar; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Wiener, Noe
The econophysics “two-class” theory of Yakovenko and his co-authors shows that the distribution of labor incomes is roughly exponential. This paper extends this result to US subgroups categorized by gender and race. It is well known that Males have higher average incomes than Females, and Whites have higher average incomes than African-Americans. It is also evident that social policies can affect these income gaps. Our surprising finding is that nonetheless intra-group distributions of pre-tax labor incomes are remarkably similar and remain close to exponential. This suggests that income inequality can be usefully addressed by taxation policies, and overall income inequality can be modified by also shifting the balance between labor and property incomes.
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Morales, Michele; Cranford, James A; Delva, Jorge; McPherson, Melnee D; Boyd, Carol J
This study examines race/ethnicity and gender differences in drug use and abuse for substances other than alcohol among undergraduate college students. A probability-based sample of 4,580 undergraduate students at a Midwestern research university completed a cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire that included demographic information and several substance use measures. Male students were generally more likely to report drug use and abuse than female students. Hispanic and White students were more likely to report drug use and abuse than Asian and African American students prior to coming to college and during college. The findings of the present study reveal several important racial/ethnic differences in drug use and abuse that need to be considered when developing collegiate drug prevention and intervention efforts.
Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L
Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.
Glasser, Carol L; Robnett, Belinda; Feliciano, Cynthia
Employing a United States sample of 5,810 Yahoo heterosexual internet dating profiles, this study finds race-ethnicity and gender influence body type preferences for dates, with men and whites significantly more likely than women and non-whites to have such preferences. White males are more likely than non-white men to prefer to date thin and toned women, while African-American and Latino men are significantly more likely than white men to prefer female dates with thick or large bodies. Compatible with previous research showing non-whites have greater body satisfaction and are less influenced by mainstream media than whites, our findings suggest Latinos and African Americans negotiate dominant white idealizations of thin female bodies with their own cultures' greater acceptance of larger body types.
Full Text Available The events of September 11, 2001 unleashed a series of security measures designed ostensibly to protect Western nations from terrorist attacks. Many of these measures were aimed at keeping out potential terrorists and neutralizing potential terrorist activities. However, many were also aimed at citizens within the nation, legitimizing their exclusion and denial of rights. Drawing on the case of Omar Khadr, this paper argues that the carceral net ensnaring Omar Khadr was in operation well before 2001. However, since then, the carceral net has tightened to render Muslim bodies unworthy on the grounds of their putative criminality, and as undeserving victims, unbefitting state intervention and societal sympathy. The colour line, I argue, demarcates bodies that are considered worthy as opposed to those precarious others who can be penalized by the state and whose lives simply do not matter. Race, class and gender intersect and interlock to construct particular representations of victimhood as demonstrated by contemporary media representations of Muslim women.
Fiske, Susan T
Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.
This research strives to reveal how ideologies of race, class, and gender manifested in the the social, physical, and material landscapes of pre-emancipation colonial Saba, Dutch Caribbean. Race, class, and gender serve as facets and vectors for ideology. By viewing them as processes, their capacity
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a recipient use race and/or gender... PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN... race and/or gender conscious measures as part of this program? (a) Should the good faith efforts...
Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun
Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited ( N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants' experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants' experience with hypertension and its management. Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers' health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers' well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers' health and disease management within their work environment.
Deb, Shreyasi; Miller, Nancy A
Many working-age individuals with a serious mental health disability go without primary care. Gender and racial/ethnic disparities have been found in primary care utilization. This article examines whether the interaction of gender and race/ethnicity with serious mental health disability is associated with primary care use among working-age individuals. We pooled data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component (MEPS-HC) panels for the years 2001 to 2007 creating a sample of 34,199 individuals, 1,605 of whom had serious mental health disability. MEPS-HC is a nationally representative survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. We defined serious mental health disability as having scored less than 30 on the Mental Health Composite Score of the Short Form 12. Primary care visits were defined as nonspecialty, nonemergency visits to a physician's office or clinic. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models and bootstrapped predictive margins of visits were estimated using weights to account for survey design. Relative to women, men with serious mental health disability had significantly more primary care visits and lower log odds of "zero" visits-the opposite pattern was found for people without serious mental health disability. We did not find a significant interaction between race/ethnicity and serious mental health disability. Serious mental health disability appears to have differing impacts on men and women's use of primary care. There is a continued need to understand what differentiates users from nonusers among adults with serious mental health disability and the relative contribution of patient, provider, and system factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The Jew’s “fair daughter” in Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice converts and marries a Christian, Lorenzo. Recent attention, however, to changing ideas of race and identity in the early modern period has brought into question the divisions of Christian/Jew/Moor. Can Jessica convert and no longer be considered the Jew’s daughter? As “gentle” and “fair” is she to be considered gentile and in no way dark (spiritually or racially? Jessica’s conversion has apparently little religious meaning, but rather she is saved from the Jew her father by marriage to Lorenzo, who becomes Shylock’s heir. Is Jessica’s conversion to be considered a matter of convenience that might, as Launcelot quips, raise the price of hogs, or is it also to be counted as an ideological and racial conversion that reveals underlying anxieties about gender, sexuality, and religious identity? This essay attempts to argue against the grain of the performance history of The Merchant History, which often downplays the role of Jessica or revises the text of the play, and returns to the text in order to contextualize the conversion of Jessica in contemporary discourses of gender, race, and religion in England’s expansionist colonialism and proto-capitalist commerce. The conversion of Jessica can be seen in that context as an exchange of monetary and ethical value, in which women’s sexuality also had a price-tag. These questions have implications for the teaching of the play and for the understanding of its concerns with unstable sexual, religious, and national identities.
Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Washington, Donna L; Upchurch, Dawn M
To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence. Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates. Using gender-stratified weighted binary logistic regression, we examined predictors of SUD persistence, tested an SUD type by race/ethnicity interaction term, and calculated and conducted Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons of predicted probabilities. SUD persistence rates at 3-year follow-up differed for SUD type by gender by race/ethnicity sub-group, and ranged from 31% to 81%. SUD persistence rates were consistently higher among poly-substance users; patterns were mixed in relation to gender and race/ethnicity. Among women, alcohol disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Among men, drug disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Also, Black men with an alcohol or drug use disorder were less likely to persist than Whites, but Black men with a poly-substance use disorder were more likely to persist than Hispanics. The effect of SUD type on SUD persistence varies by race/ethnicity, and the nature of these relationships is different by gender. Such knowledge could inform tailoring of SUD screening and treatment programs, potentially increasing their impact. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Karraker, Amelia; Friedman, Elliot
Objective. Understand the links between race and C-reactive protein (CRP), with special attention to gender differences and the role of class and behavioral risk factors as mediators. Method. This study utilizes the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project data, a nationally representative study of older Americans aged 57–85 to explore two research questions. First, what is the relative strength of socioeconomic versus behavioral risk factors in explaining race differences in CRP levels? Second, what role does gender play in understanding race differences? Does the relative role of socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors in explaining race differences vary when examining men and women separately? Results. When examining men and women separately, socioeconomic and behavioral risk factor mediators vary in their importance. Indeed, racial differences in CRP among men aged 57–74 are little changed after adjusting for both socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors with levels 35% higher for black men as compared to white men. For women aged 57–74, however, behavioral risk factors explain 30% of the relationship between race and CRP. Discussion. The limited explanatory power of socioeconomic position and, particularly, behavioral risk factors, in elucidating the relationship between race and CRP among men, signals the need for research to examine additional mediators, including more direct measures of stress and discrimination. PMID:22588996
Maldonado, Camilo, III
Over the course of 12 months, I conducted an ethnographic study in an urban preschool classroom in the northeastern Unites States. Employing a sociocultural perspective of early childhood development, I investigated the various social and academic discourses related to race and ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) presented in a…
Toutkoushian, Robert K.
This paper summarizes the key findings of two separate studies of issues pertaining to pay equity for faculty by race and gender. Data were obtained from the 1988 and 1993 National Studies of Postsecondary Faculty, which contain information on 11,013 and 31,354 faculty, respectively. It was found that the unexplained wage gap between men and women…
Owens, Jennifer; Lilly, Flavius
There is a paucity of research on the digital literacy of graduate-level students. The study examined whether academic discipline, age, gender, race, parental education, international status, GPA, and self-perceived skills is associated with web-use skills among this population. Hargittai and Hsieh's 27-item Web-use Skills Index was used to…
Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North
Research on science achievement disparities by gender and race/ethnicity often neglects the beginning of the pipeline in the early grades. We address this limitation using nationally representative data following students from Grades 3 to 8. We find that the Black-White science test score gap (-1.07 SD in Grade 3) remains stable over these years,…
Goodchild, Lester F.
This article explores the influence of evolutionary ideas, especially Social Darwinism, on G. Stanley Hall's (1844-1924) educational ideas and major writings on gender and race. Hall formed these progressive ideas as he developed an American Social Darwinist pedagogy, embedded in his efforts to create the discipline of psychology, the science of…
Pagano, Maria E.; Hirsch, Barton J.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; McAdams, Dan P.
The current study explores parental socialization practices and the values transmitted to school-aged and young adult off-spring, focusing on race and gender issues involved in parental teachings. A community sample of 187 black and white mothers and fathers were interviewed with regards to their parenting practices using both quantitative and…
Brooks, D; Barth, R P
Adjustment outcomes of 224 transracial and inracial adoptees were investigated using data collected over 17 years. Findings reveal an association between adoptees' outcomes and their race, gender, and adoptive family structure. Placement history was not significant. Implications for policy and practice are discussed, as are future directions for research.
Liu, Ruth X.
Data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents studied at two points in time are used to examine gender-specific influence of parent-youth closeness on youth's suicidal ideation and its variations by stages of adolescence and race or ethnicity. Logistic regression analyses yielded interesting findings: (a) Closeness with fathers…
Meisel, C. Julius; Blumberg, Carol Joyce
Two studies involving 63 second through fourth graders and 43 ninth graders investigated the influence of gender, race, and friendship on social comparison choices. Implications of the results for social comparison theory and social policy and education practice are discussed. (TJH)
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…
Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.
Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…
Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…
Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.
Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Jones, D E
This chapter traces the way in which Nellie Kleinsmidt, known as the grandmother of karate in Africa, has negotiated discriminatory practices and overcome race and gender-related struggles, including the struggle to free the female body, in pursuit of empowerment. It explores her expectations and the constraints and frustrations she experienced, as well as the many contributions she has made to women's karate in South Africa. Nellie Kleinsmidt's karate career, which began in 1965, coincided with the early developments of South African karate. As a woman of colour her life and karate career were significantly shaped by apartheid legislation. It divided the country into areas of occupancy and residency according to race and was designed to prevent contact between the people of the government defined race groups. Black karate-kas were prohibited by law from practising karate in white designated areas. Lack of facilities and qualified instructors in areas allocated to Kleinsmidt's race group meant that she received very little formal karate instruction between 1966 and 1973. Soon after, she met Johan Roux, a white male. He was to become her chief karate instructor and life-long companion. They defied the apartheid legislation and in 1978 set up home together. They organized defiance campaigns, resisting the pressures from government to close their dojo because of its non-racial policies. Freeing her body at the broader political level involved the abolition of the race categories and all other apartheid legislation which impacted on her life choices and experiences. Initially this struggle and that of freeing her body occurred simultaneously. In her ongoing struggle against gender discrimination in the sport, it was in karate that Nellie Kleinsmidt could strive for the personal empowerment she sought. She could however not translate this into freedom in South African society itself. The impact of apartheid legislation together with the imposition of a sports moratorium
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n2p115 This paper aims at tackling the question as to why Sula as a social nonconformist and sexual dissident ends up as an avatar of evil, a powerless victim of witch-hunt and eventually a scapegoat for the decline and misfortunes of her community. To facilitate this critical task, this paper shall irst apply Michel Foucault’s genealogy of “the body as the bearer of pleasure and desire” as laid out in Abnormal to illustrate that Christian folks in Sula’s community interpret Sula’s nonconformity as evil and treat her as a danger to their social order. Thus, this paper argues that the black folks’ ostracism of Sula betokens their mass hysteria and witch-hunt to exorcise their community of danger and evil. Moreover, this paper suggests that Sula is gendered and racialized as a black witch and symbolically executed. In conclusion, this paper contends that an identiication of body with lesh, a phallocentric gender ideology and race bias converge into the black folk’s association of Sula with a witch and a danger and their subsequent victimization of sula as a scapegoat for all the misfortunes of their community.
Oliver, Vanessa; Flicker, Sarah; Danforth, Jessica; Konsmo, Erin; Wilson, Ciann; Jackson, Randy; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Prentice, Tracey; Larkin, June; Mitchell, Claudia
Focusing on gender, race and colonialism, this paper foregrounds the voices of Indigenous young people, their histories of oppression, their legacies of resistance and the continuing strengths rooted in Indigenous peoples, their cultures and their communities. Exploring the relationship between gender and colonialism, the paper speaks to the lived realities of young people from Indigenous communities across Canada. Over 85 young people participated in six different Indigenous community workshops to create artistic pieces that explored the connections between HIV, individual risk and structural inequalities. In the course of the research, Indigenous young people, and young Indigenous women in particular, talked about how gender intersects with race and colonisation to create experiences that are, at times, especially difficult for them. In this paper, young people discuss the ways in which colonialism has demeaned women's roles and degraded women's sexuality, and how continuing cultural erasure and assimilationist policies impact on their lives and on their bodies.
This study examines the gender and racial or ethnic gaps in college grades and graduation of a 1999 freshman cohort of students attending 24 selective predominantly White institutions (PWIs) and the factors that account for observed gaps. The study is guided by the question of whether gender, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status combine to affect college outcomes or whether they interact so that outcomes are more positive or adverse for one group than another. Gender gaps were observed for Black and Latino students. For Black students, the gender gap in degree attainment widened once sociodemographic factors were considered. In contrast, the gender gap for Latino students narrowed and became insignificant when sociodemographics were controlled. Additional within-group interactions were also evident. For example, the 6-year college graduation rates were higher for Black females than for males whose mothers did not have college degrees, but no gender gap existed when the mother had a college degree. These results show that among this sample of academically motivated students, the significance of gender depends on race and socioeconomic status. This suggests that improving minority success, especially for Black men at PWIs, requires extending the analysis beyond prior academic preparation to creating more supportive college environments. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Reynolds, D Brice; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E
Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race.
Wiener, R L; Hurt, L; Russell, B; Mannen, K; Gasper, C
This research tests the possibility that the reasonable woman as compared to the reasonable person test of hostile work environment sexual harassment interacts with hostile and benevolent sexist beliefs and under some conditions triggers protectionist attitudes toward women who complain of sexual harassment. We administered to a sample of undergraduates the ambivalent sexism inventory along with the fact patterns in two harassment cases and asked them to make legally relevant decisions under either the reasonable woman or person standard. We found that those high in hostile sexism, and women, found more evidence of harassment. However, those high in benevolent sexism did not exhibit the hostile sexism effects. Although men were less sensitive to the reasonable woman standard than women, under some conditions the reasonable woman standard enabled both genders to find greater evidence of harassment. The results are discussed from the perspectives of law and psychology.
Norris, Keith; Nissenson, Allen R
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a national public health problem beset by inequities in incidence, prevalence, and complications across gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. As health care providers, we can directly address some factors crucial for closing the disparities gap. Other factors are seemingly beyond our reach, entrenched within the fabric of our society, such as social injustice and human indifference. Paradoxically, the existence of health inequities provides unique, unrecognized opportunities for understanding biologic, environmental, sociocultural, and health care system factors that can lead to improved clinical outcomes. Several recent reports documented that structured medical care systems can reduce many CKD-related disparities and improve patient outcomes. Can the moral imperative to eliminate CKD inequities inspire the nephrology community not only to advocate for but also to demand high-quality, structured health care delivery systems for all Americans in the context of social reform that improves the ecology, health, and well-being of our communities? If so, then perhaps we can eliminate the unacceptable premature morbidity and mortality associated with CKD and the tragedy of health inequities. By so doing, we could become global leaders not only in medical technology, as we currently are, but also in health promotion and disease prevention, truly leaving no patient behind.
Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Woods, Carol; Unick, G Jay
This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference groups (i.e., Male, Caucasian, and ages 25-59 years), women (OR = 0.62; P gambling to escape (Criterion 5) (OR = 2.22; P < .001) but young adults (OR = 0.62; P < .05) were less likely to endorse it. African Americans (OR = 2.50; P < .001) and Hispanics were more likely to endorse trying to cut back (Criterion 3) (OR = 2.01; P < .01). African Americans were more likely to endorse the suffering losses (OR = 2.27; P < .01) criterion. Young adults were more likely to endorse chasing losses (Criterion 9) (OR = 1.81; P < .01) while older adults were less likely to endorse this criterion (OR = 0.76; P < .05). Further research is needed to identify factors contributing to DIF, address criteria level bias, and examine differential test functioning.
Meier, Ann; Hartmann, Benjamin Swartz; Larson, Ryan
Extracurricular activity participation is linked to positive development, but it is also a setting for inequality. Using a quarter century of data from Monitoring the Future (N = 593,979; 51% female; 65% non-Hispanic white; 13% non-Hispanic black; 12% Hispanic; 4% non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander; 7% other race), this article documents patterns and trends in school-based extracurricular participation by race, social class, gender, and age, and their links to academic and substance use outcomes. Findings reveal differences by race and confirm a division by social class that has worsened over time. Further, girls are gaining on boys and surpass them in some types of school-based activities. Participation is linked to better academic outcomes and less substance use, affirming the importance of redressing the inequalities revealed.
Full Text Available This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC.This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection.Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16.There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.
Chung, Grace H.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Li, Gang; Zhou, Xiaomeng; Hwang, Sun
This is an exploratory study that examined verbal aggression in romantic relationships among unmarried Black and White women and men as a function of gender and race. We employed an ecological approach to examine the receipt of verbal aggression separately for men and women at the levels of individual, relationship, and community. We also explored whether gender-specific correlates of verbal aggression interacted with race. Analyses were based on a sample of 212 women and 133 men in non-marital romantic relationships recruited from 21 U.S. cities for a larger study. Linear mixed-effects models revealed that factors related to experiencing verbal aggression differed substantially for unmarried women and men in romantic relationships. Interesting racial differences also emerged distinctly for women and men. PMID:22298940
Spielman, Bethany; Gorka, Christine; Miller, Keith; Pointer, Carolyn A; Hinze, Barbara
strongly correlated with the intervals between admission to the hospital and request for an ethics consultation. Our findings suggest race and gender disparities in the timing of ethics consultations that consultants may have partially mitigated. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Jones, Leslie Sandra
While natural science is no longer an exclusively white/masculine domain, and there have been some increases in both gender and racial/ethnic diversity, portions of our population remain seriously underserved in science classrooms and underrepresented in scientific career fields. This study sought explanations for the persistence of disproportional representation in the professional scientific community with an interest in how it might impact postsecondary and precollegiate science education. The descriptive and explanatory power of naturalistic inquiry was employed to explore the views and experiences of natural scientists with respect to equity issues. This qualitative research adhered most closely to the methodological traditions of critical ethnography, employing the assumption that, although a great deal of difference exists among disciplines and individual scientists, there is a set of common values and behaviors that can be defined as the "culture" of science. Open-ended interviews were conducted with participants who were both traditional (Caucasian males) and nontraditional (all women and men of color) researchers in both the basic and applied fields of the life and physical sciences. Systematic analysis of decontextualilzed, coded comments led to emergent thematic categories that included: Delusions of Equity, Myth of Meritocracy, Power of the Pedigree, Traditions of Gender, and Typing by Race. Parallel case studies indicated a high level of intersubjective agreement within demographic groups with respect to their perceptions of marginalization. Regardless of racial/ethnic identity, gender issues provide constant obstacles for women in the sciences. Certain racial ethnic groups are better tolerated and more easily assimilated, giving the impression that some people are "more different" than others. Women of color live at the intersection of racism and sexism, never sure which form of oppression is behind the treatment they receive. There was evidence that
Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie
In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…
Baggerly, Jennifer; Tan, Tony Xing; Pichotta, David; Warner, Aisha
This study examined changes in race, ethnicity, and gender of faculty members in APA- and CACREP-accredited counseling programs over 5 decades based on the year of their degree. Of those faculty members working in accredited programs who graduated in the 1960s/1970s, 26.7% were female, 5.6% were racially diverse, and 1.7% were Latina/o. Of those…
36).11 Further research showing such a relationship in animals included studies on rats ,12 and marmosets and rhesus monkeys.13 Demonstrating the...Basic demographic questions included gender, age and race. Questions on medical conditions included history of diabetes, hypothyroidism , other...induces adiposity, increases insulin sensitivity, and alters hypothalamic monoamines in rats . Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14: 1905–1913. 13 Dhurandhar NV
The thesis adopts a post-colonial approach to examine the relationship between historical and contemporary visual representations of Jamaica and identifies the repeated visual associations made with blackness and servitude, and whiteness with luxury from the colonial period in Jamaica and the imperial context in Britain. The thesis addresses a range of tourist advertising images of Jamaica which are analysed in terms of their representations of race, gender, class and sexuality. The theoretic...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310 provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be
Mueller, Anna S; James, Wesley; Abrutyn, Seth; Levin, Martin L
We examined how race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation shape adolescents' likelihood of being bullied and vulnerability to suicide ideation. We analyzed pooled data from the 2009 and 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 75 344) to assess race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation variation in being bullied and suicide ideation. White and Hispanic gay and bisexual males, White lesbian and bisexual females, and Hispanic bisexual females were more likely to be bullied than were White heterosexual adolescents. Black lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths' vulnerability to being bullied was not significantly different from that of White heterosexual youths. Black and Hispanic heterosexual youths were less likely to be bullied than were White heterosexual youths. Despite differences in the likelihood of being bullied, sexual minority youths were more likely to report suicide ideation, regardless of their race/ethnicity, their gender, or whether they have been bullied. Future research should examine how adolescents' intersecting identities shape their experience of victimization and suicidality. School personnel should develop antibullying and antihomophobia policies in response to the disproportionate risk of being bullied and reporting suicidality among sexual minority youths.
Serini, Shirley A.; Powers, Angela A.; Johnson, Susan
Examines media coverage of a gubernatorial election, suggesting that: (1) gender may be a larger factor in selecting policy stories over "horse race" stories; (2) coverage of the horse race has greater impact on election outcome than coverage of policy issues; and (3) a woman will be more successful in an election if she presents herself…
Becker, L.B.; Lauf, E.; Lowrey, W.
This paper examines whether gender, race, and ethnicity are associated with employment in the journalism and mass communication labor market and—if discrepancies in employment exist—what explanations might he offered for them. The data show strong evidence that race and ethnicity are associated with
Lovén, Johanna; Rehnman, Jenny; Wiens, Stefan; Lindholm, Torun; Peira, Nathalie; Herlitz, Agneta
Previous research suggests that the own-race bias (ORB) in memory for faces is a result of other-race faces receiving less visual attention at encoding. As women typically display an own-gender bias in memory for faces and men do not, we investigated whether face gender and sex of viewer influenced visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces, and if preferential viewing of own-race faces contributed to the ORB in memory. Participants viewed pairs of female or male own- and other-race faces while their viewing time was recorded. Afterwards, they completed a surprise memory test. We found that (1) other-race males received the initial focus of attention, (2) own-race faces were viewed longer than other-race faces over time, although the difference was larger for female faces, and (3) even though longer viewing time increased the probability of remembering a face, it did not explain the magnified ORB in memory for female faces. Importantly, these findings highlight that face gender moderates attentional responses to and memory for own- and other-race faces.
Carter, Julia D.; Assari, Shervin
Background: Although obesity and physical activity influence psychosocial well-being, these effects may vary based on race, gender, and their intersection. Using 6-year follow-up data of a nationally representative sample of adults over age of 50 in the United States, this study aimed to explore race by gender differences in additive effects of sustained high body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on sustained depressive symptoms (CES-D) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data came from waves 7, 8, and 10 (2004–2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), an ongoing national cohort started in 1992. The study enrolled a representative sample of Americans (n = 19,280) over the age of 50. Latent factors were used to calculate sustained high BMI and physical activity (predictors) and sustained poor SRH and high depressive symptoms (outcomes) based on measurements in 2004, 2006, and 2010. Age, education, and income were confounders. Multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the additive effects of BMI and physical activity on depressive symptoms and SRH, where the groups were defined based on race by gender. Results: Group differences were apparent in the direction and significance of the association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms. The association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms was positive and significant for White women (B = 0.03, p = 0.007) and non-significant for White men (B = −0.03, p = 0.062), Black men (B = −0.02, p = 0.564) and Black women (B = 0.03, p = 0.110). No group differences were found in the paths from sustained physical activity to depressive symptoms, or from physical activity or BMI to SRH. Conclusion: Sustained high BMI and high depressive symptoms after age 50 are positively associated only for White women. As the association between sustained health problems such as depression and obesity are not universal across race and gender groups, clinical and public health
Carter, Julia D; Assari, Shervin
Background: Although obesity and physical activity influence psychosocial well-being, these effects may vary based on race, gender, and their intersection. Using 6-year follow-up data of a nationally representative sample of adults over age of 50 in the United States, this study aimed to explore race by gender differences in additive effects of sustained high body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on sustained depressive symptoms (CES-D) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data came from waves 7, 8, and 10 (2004-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), an ongoing national cohort started in 1992. The study enrolled a representative sample of Americans ( n = 19,280) over the age of 50. Latent factors were used to calculate sustained high BMI and physical activity (predictors) and sustained poor SRH and high depressive symptoms (outcomes) based on measurements in 2004, 2006, and 2010. Age, education, and income were confounders. Multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the additive effects of BMI and physical activity on depressive symptoms and SRH, where the groups were defined based on race by gender. Results: Group differences were apparent in the direction and significance of the association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms. The association between sustained high BMI and depressive symptoms was positive and significant for White women ( B = 0.03, p = 0.007) and non-significant for White men ( B = -0.03, p = 0.062), Black men ( B = -0.02, p = 0.564) and Black women ( B = 0.03, p = 0.110). No group differences were found in the paths from sustained physical activity to depressive symptoms, or from physical activity or BMI to SRH. Conclusion: Sustained high BMI and high depressive symptoms after age 50 are positively associated only for White women. As the association between sustained health problems such as depression and obesity are not universal across race and gender groups, clinical and public health
Full Text Available Statistics about clinical data is lacking in Uruguay. Herein, we present an account of canine behavioral problems recorded from different sources: a clinical reports on canine behaviour, from 30 veterinary clinics in Montevideo city from 2005 to 2007 (n = 179; b records of dog attacks to people (n = 992 reported at the Servicio de Atención al Mordido (Ministerio de Salud Pública, same period; and c conflicts from records of Comisión Nacional Honoraria de Zoonosis (n = 44,000. Based on these data we discus common behavioral problems, types of aggression involved, the frequency of male / female, if they were neutered or not and the age at the onset of the first episodes of aggression. For each record we obtained an aggressive risk factor associated to breed. The results are consistent with international reports, where the aggression was the most common behavioral problem (58.9%, and dominance aggression has the highest proportion (56%. The RDPCC records revealed that the proportion of animals involved in aggression is similar in both genders. However, SAM-MSP records showed that males (71% were a significantly greater proportion than females (29%. Our data from RDPCC showed that 100% of males involved in aggression towards people were whole, while 38.5% females were castrated. The first signs of canine aggression towards people were observed in first year of life in 56.5% of cases. On the other hand, while the RDPCC record suggests that Cocker breed tended to show more attacks of aggression toward people, the SAM-MSP record pointed to the German Shepher as the more aggressive breed. The Rottweiler and Uruguayan Cimarron, occupied the first and third place respectively in the aggressive risk factor rank associated to breed, both in RDPCC and SAM-MSP set of records. This is the first descriptive work on dog behavior problems and aggression in Montevideo, where also is shows the implication of the Cimarron uruguayo race in aggression.
Nguyen, Huong Tran
"Critical race theory" and "standard language ideology" are employed as theoretical and analytical frames for conceptualizing and understanding the entry perspectives and experiences of some Vietnamese American pre-service teachers in US schools. Study findings from a qualitative case study approach suggest that race,…
Sixty-five eighth grade students responded to a science beliefs survey during a science-inquiry lab unit in an action research project to assess whether gender has an effect on how the students perceive their science classes. The survey was given to eighth grade students during the first week of school. Student results were categorized by gender and by race/ethnicity. The middle school where the study took place is fairly diverse with 540 total students of which 48% of them are White, 42% are Black, and 10% are Hispanic. Six female science teachers are employed at the middle school, two per grade. The first unit that is taught in science is inquiry skills, the basics of all science such as graphing, laboratory tools, safety, etc. This unit is taught in 6 th, 7th, and 8th grades, as a part of our standards. Inquiry test results for 8th graders are also given in this thesis, and are categorized again by gender and race/ethnicity. The results of the surveys and the assessment show a gap in the way students think about and complete activities in science. It was exciting to see that the female students scored better overall than male students on an inquiry-based summative assessment, while white students overall scored better than Black and Hispanic students. White males tended to rank science as the class they enjoyed the most of all core classes and thought science was easier than all the other data demographics. The conclusion found was stunning, in that the true gap in student's beliefs about science lies within the different races/ethnicities, rather than just gender alone.
Taillie, Lindsey Smith
While US home cooking declined in the late twentieth century, it is unclear whether the trend has continued. This study examines home cooking from 2003 to 2016 by gender, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity. Nationally representative data from the American Time Use Study from 2003 to 2016 and linear regression models were used to examine changes in the percent of adults aged 18-65 years who cook and their time spent cooking, with interactions to test for differential changes by demographic variables of gender, education, and race/ethnicity. Cooking increased overall from 2003 to 2016. The percent of college-educated men cooking increased from 37.9% in 2003 to 51.9% in 2016, but men with less than high school education who cook did not change (33.2% in 2016) (p school education had no change (72.3% in 2016) (p Home cooking in the United States is increasing, especially among men, though women still cook much more than men. Further research is needed to understand whether the heterogeneity in home cooking by educational attainment and race/ethnicity observed here contributes to diet-related disparities in the United States.
Brian C. Houle
Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.
Du, Y; Zhao, L-J; Xu, Q; Wu, K-H; Deng, H-W
Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis have become a public health problem. We found that non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults with extremely low education and personal income are more likely to have lower BMD. This relationship is gender-specific. These findings are valuable to guide bone health interventions. The evidence is limited regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and bone mineral density (BMD) for minority populations in the USA, as well as the relationship between SES and BMD for men. This study explored and examined the relationship between SES and BMD by race/ethnicity and gender. Data (n = 6568) from the Louisiana Osteoporosis Study (LOS) was examined, including data for non-Hispanic whites (n = 4153), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 1907), and non-Hispanic Asians (n = 508). General linear models were used to estimate the relationship of SES and BMD (total hip and lumbar spine) stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Adjustments were made for physiological and behavioral factors. After adjusting for covariates, men with education levels below high school graduate experienced relatively low hip BMD than their counterparts with college or graduate education (p population. Efforts to promote bone health may benefit from focusing on men with low education levels and women with low individual income.
Assari, Shervin; Nikahd, Amirmasoud; Malekahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Zamanian, Hadi
Despite the existing literature on the central role of socioeconomic status (SES; education and income) for maintaining health, less is known about group differences in this effect. Built on the intersectionality approach, this study compared race by gender groups for the effects of baseline education and income on sustained health problems in five domains: depressive symptoms, insomnia, physical inactivity, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health (SRH). Data came from waves 7, 8, and 10 of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which were collected in 2004, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The study followed 37,495 white and black men and women above age 50 for up to 6 years. This number included 12,495 white men, 15,581 white women, 3839 black men, and 5580 black women. Individuals reported their depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) 11), insomnia, physical inactivity, BMI, and SRH across all waves. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare black men, black women, white men, and white women for the effects of education and income in 2004 on sustained health problems from 2004 to 2010. In the pooled sample, higher education and income at baseline were associated with lower sustained health problems across all five domains. However, race by gender group differences were found in the effects of education and income on sustained insomnia, physical inactivity, and BMI, but not depressive symptoms and SRH. The protective effects of education against insomnia, physical inactivity, and BMI were not found for black men. For black women, the effect of education on BMI was not found. Income had a protective effect against sustained high BMI among white and black women but not white and black men. The intersection of race and gender alters the protective effects of social determinants on sustained health problems such as insomnia, physical inactivity, and BMI. Social groups particularly vary in the operant
Full Text Available The xenophobia exacerbated after the 9/11 attacks in America brings to sharp focus current immigration policies since the predominant tendency today especially in Europe is to restrict the surge of immigrants, particularly those coming from the Middle East. Within such a context, Jeanne Petit’s The Men and Women We Want: Gender, Race, and the Progressive Era Literacy Test Debate represents a timely contribution to the study of such policies by focusing on the debates about immigration restric...
Anderson, Pamela Bennett
Purpose. The purpose of the first study was to ascertain the extent to which differences were present in the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by Grade 5 and Grade 8 student economic status. The purpose of the second study was to examine differences in Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science test performance by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Finally, with respect to the third study in this journal-ready dissertation, the purpose was to investigate the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores of Grade 8 students by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Method. For this journal-ready dissertation, a non-experimental, causal-comparative research design (Creswell, 2009) was used in all three studies. Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test data were analyzed for the 2011-2012 through the 2014-2015 school years. The dependent variables were the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores for Grade 5 and Grade 8. The independent variables analyzed in these studies were student economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race. Findings. Regarding the first study, statistically significant differences were present in Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by student economic status for each year. Moderate effect sizes (Cohen's d) were present for each year of the study for the Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science exams, Grade 8 Science exams, and the 2014-2015 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. However, a small effect size was present for the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. Regarding the second and third study, statistically significant differences were revealed for Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores based on gender, with trivial effect sizes. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were present in these test scores by ethnicity/race, with moderate effects for each year of the study. With regard to
Richard A. Dunn
This paper employs an identification strategy based on county-level variation in the number of fast-food restaurants to investigate the effect of fast-food availability on weight outcomes by geographic location, gender, and race/ethnicity. The number of interstate exits in the county of residence is employed as an instrument for restaurant location. Using the 2004--2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and self-collected data on the number of fast-food restaurants, I find that avail...
Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Rice, Thomas W.; Adelstein, David J.; Barnett, Gene H.; Mekhail, Tarek M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.
Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.
Williamson, Meredith L C; Elliott, Timothy R; Bogner, Jennifer; Dreer, Laura E; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A; Pretz, Christopher R; Lequerica, Anthony; Perrin, Paul B
This study investigated the influence of race, gender, functional ability, and an array of preinjury, injury-related, and sociodemographic variables on life satisfaction trajectories over 10 years following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A sample of 3157 individuals with TBI from the TBI Model Systems database was included in this study. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were conducted to examine the trajectories of life satisfaction. The Functional Independence Measure, Glasgow Coma Scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were utilized. Initial models suggested that life satisfaction trajectories increased over the 10-year period and Asian/Pacific Islander participants experienced an increase in life satisfaction over time. In a comprehensive model, time was no longer a significant predictor of increased life satisfaction. Black race, however, was associated with lower life satisfaction, and significant interactions revealed that black participants' life satisfaction trajectory decreased over time while white participants' trajectory increased over the same time period. Life satisfaction trajectories did not significantly differ by gender, and greater motor and cognitive functioning were associated with increasingly positive life satisfaction trajectories over the 10 years. Individuals with more functional impairments are at risk for decreases in life satisfaction over time. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms and factors that contribute to the lower levels of life satisfaction observed among black individuals post-TBI. This work is needed to determine strategic ways to promote optimal adjustment for these individuals.
Everett, Bethany G.; Rehkopf, David H.; Rogers, Richard G.
Researchers investigating the relationship between education and mortality in industrialized countries have consistently shown that higher levels of education are associated with decreased mortality risk. The shape of the education-mortality relationship and how it varies by demographic group have been examined less frequently. Using the U.S. National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, which link the 1986 through 2004 NHIS to the National Death Index through 2006, we examine the shape of the education-mortality curve by cohort, race/ethnicity, and gender. Whereas traditional regression models assume a constrained functional form for the dependence of education and mortality, in most cases semiparametric models allow us to more accurately describe how the association varies by cohort, both between and within race/ethnic and gender subpopulations. Notably, we find significant changes over time in both the shape and the magnitude of the education-mortality gradient across cohorts of women and white men, but little change among younger cohorts of black men. Such insights into demographic patterns in education and mortality can ultimately help increase life expectancies. PMID:24288422
Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A
Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.
Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M.A.; Haq, A.U.
Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)
Explores some early findings from a sociological study of school governing bodies in two English local educational authorities (LEAs). Examines the extent to which sexism and racism arise during, and are reproduced by, school governing body meetings, and studies sex and race dynamics in the power relations of governing schools. (Author/AF)
Denham, Bryan E.
Drawing on data gathered in the 2009 Monitoring the Future study of American youth, and controlling for race and noncompetitive exercise frequency, this research examined the explanatory effects of competitive sports participation on alcohol consumption and marijuana use as well as the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers among American…
We aim to demonstrate that the characters' minds are shaped in conformity with the theory of racial essentialism and nativism which suggests the existence of a myth of an identifiable and homogeneous natural character. Such an approach sets a white-black binary of race relations and assigns roles of masters and ...
Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Liang, Guodong
This article examines media coverage of a high school Native American mascot controversy. Discourse analysis of media documents and artifacts was utilized to explore how the issue was socially constructed for public consumption. Critical race feminism was used as a framework to examine how media discourses can oversimplify the complex interaction…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to redress racial and gender inequalities in the training of medical specialists has been a central part of a dedicated programme in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Cape Town (UCT. This study aimed to describe trends in race and gender profiles of postgraduate students in medical specialties (registrars from 1999 to 2006 and to identify factors affecting recruitment and retention of black and female trainees. Method Review of faculty databases for race and gender data from 1999 to 2006. Distribution of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to all registrars in 2005/2006. Results The percentage of African registrars doubled from 10% to 19% from 1999 to beyond 2002. The percentages of Africans, Coloureds and Indians rose steadily from 26% to 46% from 1999 to 2005, as did that of women from 27% to 44%. The institution's perceived good reputation, being an alumnus and originating from Cape Town were common reasons for choosing UCT for training. A quarter of respondents reported knowledge of a friend who decided against studying at UCT for reasons which included anticipated racial discrimination. Black respondents (23%, particularly African (50%, were more likely to describe registrarship at UCT as unwelcoming than white respondents (12%. Specific instances of personal experience of discrimination were uncommon and not associated with respondents' race or gender. Registrars who had had a child during registrarship and those reporting discrimination were more likely to rate the learning and research environment as poor (Odds Ratio, 4.01; 95% CI 0.98 – 16.47 and 1.99 95% CI 0.57 – 6.97, respectively. Conclusion The proportion of black and female registrars at the University of Cape Town has increased steadily from 1999 to 2006, most likely a result of systematic equity policies and procedures adopted in the faculty during this period. The data point to a need for policies to make the
Razack, Sherene H
... as culturally different instead of oppressed. Seen as victims of their own oppressive culture who must be pitied and rescued by white men and women, non-white women cannot then be seen as subjects. This book makes clear why we must be wary of educational and legal strategies that begin with saving 'Other' women. It offers powerful arguments for wh...
Verissimo, Angie Denisse Otiniano; Grella, Christine E
This study examines reasons why people do not seek help for alcohol or drug problems by gender and race/ethnicity using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative survey. Multivariate models were fit for 3 barriers to seeking help (structural, attitudinal, and readiness for change) for either alcohol or drug problems, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and problem severity. Predicted probabilities were generated to evaluate gender differences by racial/ethnic subgroups. Over three quarters of the samples endorsed attitudinal barriers related to either alcohol or drug use. Generally, women were less likely to endorse attitudinal barriers for alcohol problems. African Americans and Latina/os were less likely than Whites to endorse attitudinal barriers for alcohol problems, Latina/os were less likely than Whites to endorse readiness for change barriers for alcohol and drug problems, however, African Americans were more likely to endorse structural barriers for alcohol problems. Comparisons within racial/ethnic subgroups by gender revealed more complex findings, although across all racial/ethnic groups women endorsed attitudinal barriers for alcohol problems more than men. Study findings suggest the need to tailor interventions to increase access to help for alcohol and drug problems that take into consideration both attitudinal and structural barriers and how these vary across groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taber, Daniel R; Robinson, Whitney R; Bleich, Sara N; Wang, Y Claire
To analyze sources of racial and gender disparities in adolescent obesity prevalence in the United States using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Data were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a 2010 nationally representative study of 9th-12th grade students. Obesity status was determined from objective height and weight data; weight-related behaviors and school, home, and environmental data were collected via questionnaire. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was used to independently analyze racial and gender obesity prevalence differences (PD), i.e., comparing Black girls to White girls, and Black girls to Black boys. Overall, measured characteristics accounted for 46.8% of the racial PD but only 11.9% of the gender PD. Racial PD was associated with Black girls having less fruit/vegetable access at home, obtaining lunch at school more often, and playing fewer sports than White girls. Gender PD was associated with differential associations between physical activity (PA) measures-including total activities in the past year and days of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the past week-and obesity. School lunch and home food environmental variables accounted for racial disparities, but not gender disparities, in obesity prevalence. Gender differences in mechanisms between PA and obesity should be explored further. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Sugden, Nicole A; Marquis, Alexandra R
Infants show facility for discriminating between individual faces within hours of birth. Over the first year of life, infants' face discrimination shows continued improvement with familiar face types, such as own-race faces, but not with unfamiliar face types, like other-race faces. The goal of this meta-analytic review is to provide an effect size for infants' face discrimination ability overall, with own-race faces, and with other-race faces within the first year of life, how this differs with age, and how it is influenced by task methodology. Inclusion criteria were (a) infant participants aged 0 to 12 months, (b) completing a human own- or other-race face discrimination task, (c) with discrimination being determined by infant looking. Our analysis included 30 works (165 samples, 1,926 participants participated in 2,623 tasks). The effect size for infants' face discrimination was small, 6.53% greater than chance (i.e., equal looking to the novel and familiar). There was a significant difference in discrimination by race, overall (own-race, 8.18%; other-race, 3.18%) and between ages (own-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 7.32%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 9.17%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 7.68%; other-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 6.12%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 3.70%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 2.79%). Multilevel linear (mixed-effects) models were used to predict face discrimination; infants' capacity to discriminate faces is sensitive to face characteristics including race, gender, and emotion as well as the methods used, including task timing, coding method, and visual angle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Fox Kathleen M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526, Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706, and Hispanic (n = 179 respondents with type 2 diabetes. Results A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56% reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32. Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03. More Non-Hispanic African-American (29% and Hispanic (27% men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02. Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74% and Hispanic women (79% reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P Conclusions Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups.
Chen, Jie; Dagher, Rada
This study examines the changes in health care utilization for mental health disorders among patients who were diagnosed with depressive and/or anxiety disorders during the Great Recession 2007-2009 in the USA. Negative binomial regressions are used to estimate the association of the economic recession and mental health care use for females and males separately. Results show that prescription drug utilization (e.g., antidepressants, psychotropic medications) increased significantly during the economic recession 2007-2009 for both females and males. Physician visits for mental health disorders decreased during the same period. Results show that racial disparities in mental health care might have increased, while ethnic disparities persisted during the Great Recession. Future research should separately examine mental health care utilization by gender and race/ethnicity.
van der Riet, Mary; Nicholson, Tamaryn Jane
Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative study used focus groups and interviews with a sample of 28 tertiary level students and 7 peri-urban youth. The constructions of risk intersected with raced and gendered narratives around sexual risk and responsibility. These constructions were used by the participants to assign and displace responsibility for the risks of HIV and pregnancy, rendering some groups immune to these risks. This constitutes a form of stigmatisation and also has implications for participants' prevention practices.
Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania
This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0-6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness.
Dailey, Amy B; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. African American and white women (1451) aged 40-79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of > or =$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women.
Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel
We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace.
Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca
This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…
Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T
To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000-2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color.
The role of gender, race/ethnicity, and disability category in the relationship between student perceptions of family support of personal growth and school facilitation of student involvement and the development of self-determination was examined in a sample of 190 diverse high school students with disabilities. Results indicated that both school…
Moriarty, Margaret E.
This mixed-methods study was designed to determine how principals perceived the ethicality of sanctions for students engaged in sexting behavior relative to the race/ethnicity and gender of the student. Personality traits of the principals were surveyed to determine if Openness and/or Conscientiousness would predict principal response. Sexting is…
Full Text Available There are large differences in the burden and health implications of obesity by race and gender in the US. It is unclear to what extent policies modifying caloric consumption change the distribution of the burden of obesity and related health outcomes. Meat is a large component of the American diet. We investigate how changing meat prices (that may result from policies or from exogenous factors that reduce supply might impact the burden of obesity by race and gender.We construct a microsimulation model that evaluates the 15-year body-mass index (BMI and mortality impact of changes in meat price (5, 10, 25, and 50% increase in the US adult population stratified by age, gender, race, and BMI.Under each price change evaluated, relative to the status quo, white males, black males, and black females are expected to realize more dramatic reduction in 2030 obesity prevalence than white females. Life expectancy gains are also projected to differ by subpopulation, with black males far less likely to benefit from an increase in meat prices than other groups.Changing meat prices has considerable potential to affect population health differently by race and gender. In designing interventions that alter the price of foods to consumers, it is not sufficient to assess health effects based solely on the population as a whole, since differential effects across subpopulations may be substantial.
Tedeschi, Delores M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a teacher's decision to make a behavioral office referral varies with the race and gender of the student and teacher. The participants in the study were middle school teachers in a suburban/urban school district. The participants involved in the study completed an online self-report instrument…
Pitt, Allison; Bendavid, Eran
There are large differences in the burden and health implications of obesity by race and gender in the US. It is unclear to what extent policies modifying caloric consumption change the distribution of the burden of obesity and related health outcomes. Meat is a large component of the American diet. We investigate how changing meat prices (that may result from policies or from exogenous factors that reduce supply) might impact the burden of obesity by race and gender. We construct a microsimulation model that evaluates the 15-year body-mass index (BMI) and mortality impact of changes in meat price (5, 10, 25, and 50% increase) in the US adult population stratified by age, gender, race, and BMI. Under each price change evaluated, relative to the status quo, white males, black males, and black females are expected to realize more dramatic reduction in 2030 obesity prevalence than white females. Life expectancy gains are also projected to differ by subpopulation, with black males far less likely to benefit from an increase in meat prices than other groups. Changing meat prices has considerable potential to affect population health differently by race and gender. In designing interventions that alter the price of foods to consumers, it is not sufficient to assess health effects based solely on the population as a whole, since differential effects across subpopulations may be substantial.
Beck, Vanessa; Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna
This article examines the impact of gender and "race" on young people's perceptions of the educational and labour market opportunities available to them after they complete their compulsory schooling in England. Its findings are based on a study of the views of girls and boys about the government-supported "Apprenticeships"…
Relational theories of gender conceptualize masculinity and femininity as mutually constitutive. Using a relational approach, I analyzed ethnographic and interview data from male and female black adolescents in Grades 8 through 10 enrolled in ''Diversify,'' an urban-to-suburban racial integration program ("n" = 38).…
Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.
Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…
Since the introduction in 1994 of a democratic dispensation in South Africa black girls seem not to be constructing their own identities, even though the trajectories of gender identities are central to their social interaction and location. Intersectionality contests the way different societies or groups interact in socially ...
Griggs, Susan A.
The number of females in senior level leadership positions in higher education is substantially fewer than males. Yet female students in these same institutions represent over half the population (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2010). The leadership gender gap is a phenomenon that has undergone numerous studies in search of reasons…
Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda
Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…
R. Peeters (Rens); J. van Sterkenburg (Jacco)
textabstractMost people today watch football by way of the mass media, sites that reproduce and transform ideologies and ideas surrounding racial/ethnic and gender identity. However, still little remains known as to what extent actual football viewers take up or resist these ideas. Drawing on a
Glauber, Rebecca; Gozjolko, Kristi L.
Research has shown that men who express traditional gender ideologies spend more time in paid work when they become fathers, whereas men who express egalitarian ideologies spend less time in paid work. This study extends previous research by examining racial differences among men. We drew on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979…
Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.
Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…
This paper demonstrates how this specially designed education system which fell within a broader framework of a racially segregated education system, was crafted in such a way as to make the Coloured people take specific roles in a racially segregated colonial society. At Embakwe, gender as a social category was ...
Gaal, John; Glazier, Michael S.; Evans, Thomas S.
Explores the legal issues surrounding pay disparities between men and women in intercollegiate coaching, including how courts have treated disparate wage claims under the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and Title IX, and the defenses used by institutions. Offers suggestions for defending claims and a detailed review of…
McConnell, Eileen Diaz
Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data to consider racial/ethnic, nativity and legal status differences in one residual income standard. Logistic regression analyses of housing-induced poverty focus on whether there are differences among five distinct groups: U.S.born Latinos, Non-Hispanic Whites, and African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants, and unauthorized Latino immigrants. Results suggest that: 1) Latino natives are significantly more likely to be in housing-induced poverty than African Americans and Latino immigrants, and 2) unauthorized Latino immigrants are not more likely to experience the outcome than other groups. The present work extends previous research. First, the results provide additional evidence of the value of operationalizing housing affordability using a residual income standard. Alternatives to the ratio approach deserve more empirical attention from a wider range of scholars and policymakers interested in housing affordability. Second, housing scholarship to date generally differentiates among Latinos by ethnicity, nativity, and citizenship. The present study contributes to emerging research investigating heterogeneity among Latinos by nativity and legal status.
Drawing on a legacy of Black television and film production, Black web series remediate earlier media forms in order to usher in a twenty-first-century revival of indie Black cultural production. Specifically, video sharing and social media platforms operate as a sphere in which content creators and users are afforded unique opportunities to engage with video content and each other on a variety of levels. Focusing on the YouTube media sphere, one can also observe the myriad ways in which the performance of race, gender, and sexuality influences the types of discourse that circulate within these sites. In watching and analyzing Black queer web series on YouTube, I examine how the performance of gender and sexuality by Black queer women within and outside of web series are policed and protected by both community insiders and outsiders. Utilizing an ethnographic framework, which includes a critical discourse analysis of the YouTube comments for the series Between Women, as well as a textual analysis of series content, this project draws conclusions about the role that the politics of pleasure, performance, and the public sphere play in the recognition and/or refusal of queer sexuality within Black communities.
Women have been an integral part of the particular form of revolution that has erupted across the Arab world since early 2011. As part of their participation, women have articulated concrete demands for reform that reflect their aspirations for gender equality. Knowledge and understanding of existing circumstances are essential for meaningful and lasting change. Thus, this article attempts to bring to light the relationship between gender equality and Islamic law in various contexts,...
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Although obesity is expected to be associated with intention to reduce weight, this effect may be through perceived overweight. This study tested if perceived overweight mediates the association between actual obesity and intention to control weight in groups based on the intersection of race and gender. For this purpose, we compared Non-Hispanic White men, Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, African American women, Caribbean Black men, and Caribbean Black women. National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003 included 5,810 American adults (3516 African Americans, 1415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites). Weight control intention was entered as the main outcome. In the first step, we fitted race/gender specific logistic regression models with the intention for weight control as outcome, body mass index as predictor and sociodemographics as covariates. In the next step, to test mediation, we added perceived weight to the model. Obesity was positively associated with intention for weight control among all race × gender groups. Perceived overweight fully mediated the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control among Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, and Caribbean Black men. The mediation was only partial for Non-Hispanic White men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. The complex relation between actual weight, perceived weight, and weight control intentions depends on the intersection of race and gender. Perceived overweight plays a more salient role for Non-Hispanic White women and Black men than White men and Black women. Weight loss programs may benefit from being tailored based on race and gender. This finding also sheds more light to the disproportionately high rate of obesity among Black women in US.
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Background: Although obesity is expected to be associated with intention to reduce weight, this effect may be through perceived overweight. This study tested if perceived overweight mediates the association between actual obesity and intention to control weight in groups based on the intersection of race and gender. For this purpose, we compared Non-Hispanic White men, Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, African American women, Caribbean Black men, and Caribbean Black women. Methods: National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003 included 5,810 American adults (3516 African Americans, 1415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites). Weight control intention was entered as the main outcome. In the first step, we fitted race/gender specific logistic regression models with the intention for weight control as outcome, body mass index as predictor and sociodemographics as covariates. In the next step, to test mediation, we added perceived weight to the model. Results: Obesity was positively associated with intention for weight control among all race × gender groups. Perceived overweight fully mediated the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control among Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, and Caribbean Black men. The mediation was only partial for Non-Hispanic White men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. Conclusions: The complex relation between actual weight, perceived weight, and weight control intentions depends on the intersection of race and gender. Perceived overweight plays a more salient role for Non-Hispanic White women and Black men than White men and Black women. Weight loss programs may benefit from being tailored based on race and gender. This finding also sheds more light to the disproportionately high rate of obesity among Black women in US. PMID:26644903
Full Text Available Background: Although obesity is expected to be associated with intention to reduce weight, this effect may be through perceived overweight. This study tested if perceived overweight mediates the association between actual obesity and intention to control weight in groups based on the intersection of race and gender. For this purpose, we compared Non-Hispanic White men, Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, African American women, Caribbean Black men, and Caribbean Black women. Methods: National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003 included 5,810 American adults (3516 African Americans, 1415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites. Weight control intention was entered as the main outcome. In the first step, we fitted race/gender specific logistic regression models with the intention for weight control as outcome, body mass index as predictor and sociodemographics as covariates. In the next step, to test mediation, we added perceived weight to the model. Results: Obesity was positively associated with intention for weight control among all race × gender groups. Perceived overweight fully mediated the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control among Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, and Caribbean Black men. The mediation was only partial for Non-Hispanic White men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. Conclusions: The complex relation between actual weight, perceived weight, and weight control intentions depends on the intersection of race and gender. Perceived overweight plays a more salient role for Non-Hispanic White women and Black men than White men and Black women. Weight loss programs may benefit from being tailored based on race and gender. This finding also sheds more light to the disproportionately high rate of obesity among Black women in US.
This thesis investigates the magnitude and evolution of gender and racial occupational segregation and wage gaps in Brazil from 1987 to 2006. First, we provide the construction of a new harmonized and temporally consistent re-classification of the occupational codes using the Brazilian household survey, the PNADs. This new occupational classification permits an examination of the evolution of the Brazilian occupational structure over a protracted period of time.\\ud \\ud Second, we examine the ...
Galinsky, Adam D; Hall, Erika V; Cuddy, Amy J C
Six studies explored the overlap between racial and gender stereotypes, and the consequences of this overlap for interracial dating, leadership selection, and athletic participation. Two initial studies captured the explicit and implicit gender content of racial stereotypes: Compared with the White stereotype, the Asian stereotype was more feminine, whereas the Black stereotype was more masculine. Study 3 found that heterosexual White men had a romantic preference for Asians over Blacks and that heterosexual White women had a romantic preference for Blacks over Asians; preferences for masculinity versus femininity mediated participants' attraction to Blacks relative to Asians. The pattern of romantic preferences observed in Study 3 was replicated in Study 4, an analysis of the data on interracial marriages from the 2000 U.S. Census. Study 5 showed that Blacks were more likely and Asians less likely than Whites to be selected for a masculine leadership position. In Study 6, an analysis of college athletics showed that Blacks were more heavily represented in more masculine sports, relative to Asians. These studies demonstrate that the gender content of racial stereotypes has important real-world consequences.
Ivana Barkovic; Mario Vinkovic
The normative analysis of solutions contained in the Croatian labor-regulative system prima facie does not find flagrant deficiences of legal provisions or their significant discrepancies from comparative national systems of European states or international labour standards, but anti-discrimination measures in the conditions of inadequate level of court protection and ineffi ciency of labour inspectors in protecting substance rights often result in further refl ections of discrimination arisi...
Kerryn E. Bell
Full Text Available Objective to analyze the history occurrence and development of the problem of prison violence from the viewpoint of the intersectionality of raceethnicity and gender factors. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors predetermined the following research methods formallogical comparativelegal and sociological. Results Minority men and women are significantly impacted by mass incarceration. Mass incarceration has also resulted in a growth in prison violence and previous studies in this area have focused on individuals and not their interconnected statuses. This study specifically considers the role of intersectional criminology and the commitment of prison violence in a large western state on female inmates. Intersectional criminology is a theoretical approach that enables a critical look at the impact of individuals39 interconnected statuses in relation to crime. The authors do not hypothesize about the reasons for the dependences between raceethnicity and gender factors and the level of prison violence but state that minority females commit more violent infractions in prison than White women. Intersectionality allows coming closer to solving the problem of identifying the incarcerated females as members of criminal groups and study the potential impact of this factor on the violence level. Scientific novelty for the first time the research proves that intersectionality allows receiving more reliable statistical results when estimating the level of prison violence. It has been proved that minority females commit more violent infractions in prison than White women. Thus this study builds upon previous arguments that intersectionality should be more widely used in future research and discusses implications for the findings. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article
Glasser, Carol L.; Robnett, Belinda; Feliciano, Cynthia
Employing a United States sample of 5,810 Yahoo heterosexual internet dating profiles, this study finds race–ethnicity and gender influence body type preferences for dates, with men and whites significantly more likely than women and non-whites to have such preferences. White males are more likely than non-white men to prefer to date thin and toned women, while African-American and Latino men are significantly more likely than white men to prefer female dates with thick or large bodies. Compa...
Brotherton, S E
Little research has examined indebtedness and the choice of continued subspecialty training. Concerns about a decline in the proportion of primary care physicians obliges medical educators to understand factors that influence the choice of subspecialty training. Survey data on 437 pediatricians who graduated between the years 1981 and 1987 were collected in 1991. Logistic regression was used to examine the influences of sex, race, graduation year, type of medical school, and educational debt (adjusted for inflation) on whether a pediatrician had trained in a subspecialty. Three variables were associated with subspecialty training. Men and whites were significantly more likely to have trained in subspecialties, as were earlier graduates. Type of medical school and debt did not enter the equation. Other variables were found to be more influential than indebtedness in the career decisions of primary care and subspecialty pediatricians. Distinguishing between subspecialties that have noticeably higher incomes and those that serve to enhance primary care pediatrics may be illuminating. That men and whites were more likely to train in subspecialty pediatrics suggests that financial considerations, if present, may be masked under other cultural and societal factors.
This study examined racial disparities in health among women, in particular, the relationship between social status and both the development of psychosocial resources and good health. These relationships were investigated using a sample of 869 women from the 2007 wave of the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement. While Black women developed the intrapersonal rewards of self-efficacy and self-esteem through socioeconomic status, they did not experience the same degree of health benefits with these advantages as White women. Models relating both self-rated health and chronic conditions suggested that, instead, highly educated Black women were at a persistent health disadvantage relative to Whites, even at the same levels of psychosocial resources. That being said, Black women with higher self-efficacy, and particularly, higher self-esteem, were more likely than Black women with lower levels of these resources to report being in better health. Thus, resources may improve health within a disadvantaged group while still not bringing them up to the level of health experienced by their advantaged counterparts. Overall, the findings demonstrated that research should not treat women as a homogenous group, assuming that mechanisms affecting health operate the same for women regardless of their race.
Song, Jinsup; Choe, Kersti; Neary, Michael; Zifchock, Rebecca A; Cameron, Kenneth L; Trepa, Michael; Hannan, Marian T; Hillstrom, Howard
Lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries are common, complex, and costly problems. Literature supports associations between static foot structure and dynamic foot function, as well as between overuse injury and demographic characteristics. Previous studies failed to provide a comprehensive biomechanical foot characteristics of at-risk military personnel. In this study, foot structure, function, and arch height flexibility (AHF) were objectively measured in 1090 incoming cadets (16.3% female, mean age of 18.5years and BMI of 24.5kg/m 2 ) of the United States Military Academy at the start of their training. A Generalized Linear Model with an identity link function was used to examine the effects of race, gender, foot types, and AHF while accounting for potential dependence in bilateral data. Planus and flexible feet independently demonstrated over-pronation, as measured by reduced Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI). When comparing across race, Black participants showed a significantly lower arch height index (AHI), a larger malleolar valgus index (MVI), and a higher prevalence of pes planus (91.7% versus 73.3% overall). However, Asian participants with flexible arches, rather than Black with low arch, displayed over-pronation in gait. Females showed no significant difference in standing AHI and MVI but demonstrated a significantly greater AHF and a reduced CPEI than male participants. This was the first large scale investigation that comprehensively characterized biomechanical foot in a cohort of young at-risk individuals with lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. Long-term goal is to examine the relationship between these biomechanical features and injuries, ultimately to develop effective preventive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph
Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.
D. Alissa Trotz
Full Text Available Suggests that the family plays a role in the production of gendered and racialized differences in the Caribbean. Author focuses especially on Guyana, and the differences between Afro- and Indo-Guyanese. First, she revisits earlier scholarly works on the Caribbean family, limited to domesticity and feminist responses. She stresses that representations of the Caribbean family serve(d the imperatives of governance, and the social stratification, from colonial times to the present. She indicates how the Indo-Caribbean women as submissive housewives thus became opposed to the image of the Afro-Caribbean women as working matriarchs. She further discusses the historic development of the family and women's role therein among Indians in Guyana since indentureship, highlighting the strong influence of colonial manipulation.
Heidi Safia Mirza
Full Text Available Drawing on black feminist theory, this paper examines the professional experiences of postcolonial diasporic black and ethnicized female academics in higher education. The paper explores the embodiment of gendered and racialized difference and reflects on the power of whiteness to shape everyday experiences in such places of privilege. The powerful yet hidden histories of women of color in higher education, such as the Indian women suffragettes and Cornelia Sorabji in late nineteenth century, are symbolic of the erasure of an ethnicized black feminist/womanist presence in mainstream (white educational establishments. The paper concludes that an understanding of black and ethnicized female agency and desire for education and learning is at the heart of a black feminist analysis that reclaims higher education as a radical site of resistance and refutation.
. As the analysis of the empirical material does not follow the expected path of racial, gender and sexuality constructions established by post-colonial scholars, the article discusses if we as researchers have become blind towards alternative versions of interracial engagements. Based on Spivak’s famous question......Based on empirical material from Danish exhibitions of so-called exotic people in which people of color were exhibited as mass entertainment at the turn of the twentieth century, the article aims at nuancing established scholarly understandings of interracial relationships and Asian masculinity...... ‘Can the subaltern speak?’, the article asks, ‘Can the non-subaltern researcher listen?’ The article tries to provide alternative ways of listening by supplementing written sources by photographs. Using these sources, the article explores how interracial relationships between white women and Asian men...
Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook
Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. Copyright Â© 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the concept of bankruptcy as a legal judicial procedure to be followed in case that the legal or natural person becomes insolvent. The paper is focused on the meaning of bankruptcy, the subjects of bankruptcy proceedings, causes for the opening of this proceeding, the competent court and its decision according to the law no.8901, dated 23.05.2002 “On bankruptcy” published in official Journal nr.31/2002. These article deals also with the organs of bankruptcy proceedings, administrator, meeting of creditors and methods of the conclusion of bankruptcy proceedings. A brief description of debtor’s possibilities during bankruptcy proceedings is given also in article. It deals with debtor’s closeout, rehabilitation/reorganization of the company and debtor’s liquidation. However, it should be noted that the bankruptcy procedure is a procedure not very widespread in our country, that due to the small number of cases before our courts. It also has to do with the fact that subjects rarely addressed the court.
Full Text Available Aware of gender discrimintaion of women and students of women in different countries, so they protest and movement finally manage to do some conference that have produced Convention On The Elimination Of All Form Of Diskrimination Against Women (CEDAW. Indonesia has ratified CEDAW with Law No. 7, 1984. But until now gender discrimination still occurs in all facets of life and society. One of them is a fimale civil servant in Sumbawa regency. Discrimination that has accurred not given the opportunity to accupy the fimale civil servant echelon-echelon II and III. In connection with the second echelon echelon II or III on Sumbawa Regency : 1 What are the forms of gender discrimination against fimale civil servants. 2 What factors are causing it, and 3 What is the form of legal protection against civil servants are women from gender discrimination. This study includes empirical legal research aims to determine the effectiveness of the law and the legal vacuum in the administration and management of government, particularly in women civil servants in positions echelon II or III. Dates collected were analyzed with descriptive analytic techniques. These form of discrimination against women in Sumbawa civil servants include marginalization and subordination, the factors that cause it was a mistake in the interpretation and implementation gender equality, influence the understanding and application of Islamic teachings, political and cultural factors shame, geographical factors tough, close relationship with the ruling factor, factor in the civil servants streotif women and a heavier workload factor for women. Moderate forms of legal protection can be seen from the substance of the law, the legal structure and legal culture.
Full Text Available Aware of gender discrimintaion of women and students of women in different countries, so they protest and movement finally manage to do some conference that have produced Convention On The Elimination Of All Form Of Diskrimination Against Women (CEDAW. Indonesia has ratified CEDAW with Law No. 7, 1984. But until now gender discrimination still occurs in all facets of life and society. One of them is a fimale civil servant in Sumbawa regency. Discrimination that has accurred not given the opportunity to accupy the fimale civil servant echelon-echelon II and III. In connection with the second echelon echelon II or III on Sumbawa Regency : 1 What are the forms of gender discrimination against fimale civil servants. 2 What factors are causing it, and 3 What is the form of legal protection against civil servants are women from gender discrimination. This study includes empirical legal research aims to determine the effectiveness of the law and the legal vacuum in the administration and management of government, particularly in women civil servants in positions echelon II or III. Dates collected were analyzed with descriptive analytic techniques. These form of discrimination against women in Sumbawa civil servants include marginalization and subordination, the factors that cause it was a mistake in the interpretation and implementation gender equality, influence the understanding and application of Islamic teachings, political and cultural factors shame, geographical factors tough, close relationship with the ruling factor, factor in the civil servants streotif women and a heavier workload factor for women. Moderate forms of legal protection can be seen from the substance of the law, the legal structure and legal culture.
Mojola, Sanyu A; Everett, Bethany
STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. Data from Waves 3 (2001-2002) and 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults' characteristics. Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors-including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration-than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8-6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3-8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean
Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided legal protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not protect against discrimination based on gender identity in public accommodations settings such as transportation, retail stores, restaurants, health care facilities, and bathrooms. A 2013 survey of Massachusetts transgender and other gender minority adults found that in the past 12 months, 65% had experienced public accommodations discrimination since the law was passed. This discrimination was associated with a greater risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms in the past 30 days. Nondiscrimination laws inclusive of gender identity should protect against discrimination in public accommodations settings to support transgender people's health and their ability to access health care. Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in
Amass, Sandra F; Davis, Kauline S; Salisbury, S Kathleen; Weisman, James L
To determine the impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine decided to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and their career aspirations. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Personal statements from 694 veterinary medical school applications submitted in 2008. Personal statements were read by investigators to identify the turning point for each applicant's decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and each applicant's intended career path. Veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were the most frequently stated reasons for pursuing a veterinary career; differences were not identified between males and females. More Caucasian applicants than underrepresented minority (URM) applicants stated veterinary practice experience and more URM applicants than Caucasian applicants cited animal ownership as a reason for pursuing a veterinary career. Many applicants did not cite a specific career path within veterinary medicine; applicants who indicated a career path most often cited veterinary practice. More females than males stated an interest in equine medicine, and more Caucasian applicants than URM applicants indicated an interest in mixed animal practice. More URM applicants than Caucasian applicants indicated a desire to pursue specialty training. Results suggested that veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were important factors influencing applicants' decision to pursue a veterinary career, but many applicants had not selected a specific career path. Opportunities exist to influence the decisions of individuals to become veterinarians and the selection of specific career paths within the veterinary profession.
Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J
Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.
Burnes, David P R; Antle, Beverley J; Williams, Charmaine C; Cook, Lisa
This qualitative study used the long interview method with Canadian mothers of African and Caribbean descent to understand the underresearched experience of raising a child with sickle cell disease (SCD). Mothers' realities were explored through three levels of social organization: daily caregiver coping (micro level); community views of SCD, such as stigma (meso level); and systemic SCD health care provision (macro level). Through the use of population health and structural social work perspectives, mothers' experiences were examined in the context of perceived gender and racial oppression. Saturation was achieved after initial interviews with 10 participants and a four-month postinterview with half of the participants. Mothers commonly reported several daily coping challenges: fear of their children's death, separation anxiety, loss of control over life, helplessness, and loneliness/isolation. SCD stigma interacted with racism, contributed to social isolation, and prevented families from organizing as a group. All mothers perceived racism as a salient factor behind inadequate mainstream SCD health care. Recommendations to improve SCD health care and implications for social work practice and research are discussed. This is the first known Canadian psychosocial study of SCD and investigation into SCD stigma outside of rural Nigeria.
Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.
Neysmith, S M; Aronson, J
Home care work in metropolitan areas is a source of employment for immigrant women of color. Service work of this type intertwines domestic and caring labor in ways that reinforce the historically gendered and racialized nature of the work. Such macro level economic and political issues are played out at the micro level of daily service provided within elderly clients' homes. A study of these processes in home care work was carried out in urban southern Ontario in two nonprofit home care agencies. In-depth interviews and focus groups held with visible minority home care workers suggested that workers deal daily with racist attitudes and behaviors from clients and their families; agencies recognize these oppressive processes but usually handle them on a case-by-case basis through supervisors; and home care workers handle racism on the job as they do in their off-work hours-by avoidance, situating incidents within an analysis of the circumstances of elderly clients, setting boundaries on discussions, and occasionally, confrontation.
Maynard, Brandy R; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Heyne, David A; Kremer, Kristen P
Truancy has long been regarded a common problem in urgent need of effective intervention. Knowledge about factors associated with truancy can guide the development and implementation of interventions. This paper examined trends in truancy rates between 2002-2014 and correlates of truancy across racial/ethnic groups. Variables of interest included sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, socio-economic background), behavioral factors (e.g., substance use, violence), and psychosocial factors (e.g., academic engagement, grades, parental control). Using data from a large sample of adolescents (n=209,393; 12-17 years) we estimated truancy prevalence rates and examined trends and correlates via regression analyses. Truancy rates remained constant between 2002 (10.8%) and 2014 (11.1%). Rates were highest among older youth, females, and Hispanic youth. For all racial/ethnic groups, truancy was significantly correlated with alcohol and marijuana use, fighting, the propensity to take risks, and lower academic engagement and school grades. Other factors were differentially associated with racial/ethnic groups. This divergence in risk patterns for different racial/ethnic groups points to some heterogeneity amongst truant youth. Despite truancy reduction efforts, truancy rates have remained stable. Efforts to prevent truancy and to intervene with truant youth may need to target risk factors more prevalent in specific racial/ethnic groups.
Susana Rodríguez Escanciano
Full Text Available It has been nearly a decade since the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, where the violence against women was recognized as being an attack on women’s human rights. Under such perspective and following the recommendations of the community institutions and international organizations, States such as Spain and Brazil have incorporated into their systems specific laws -- Organic Law 1/2004 of 28th December, on Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence (LPIVG, in Spain and Law 11.340/2006 (Lei Maria da Penha, in Brazil --.These two provisions have as one of its fundamental objectives, firmly attack such despicable behaviors of violence against women, articulating a set of measures to ensure a whole, full and consistent protection of battered women, making them hold a wide range of rights pertaining to prevention, education, welfare or criminal repression, and down to what is relevant, a series of labor and social security prerogatives, confirming in the end, a dual purpose endowed strategy: on the one hand, facilitate the employment access for women victims of gender violence and, on the other, ensure the maintenance of their jobs. A comparative study of both legal systems may serve to introduce technical improvements that result in benefit of the protected group.
Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M; Whiteford, Natalie T; Gelhorn, Heather L
Measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) across gender, race, and ethnic groups was evaluated in a large sample of college students, using pooled data from 11 universities from diverse geographical regions in the United States (N = 7,369). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of several possible factor structures, and the results from these analyses indicated that the BDI-II was most adequately represented by a hierarchical four-factor structure, composed of three first-order factors and one second-order factor. Results based on analyses of covariance structures indicated there was factorial invariance for this hierarchical four-factor structure across groups, suggesting that the BDI-II provides an assessment of severity of depressive symptoms that is equivalent across gender, race, and ethnicity in college students.
Ramsay, David B; Friedman, Mark; Borum, Marie L
HCV infection with concurrent or superinfection with HAV or HBV has the potential to worsen the liver status of HCV-infected individuals. This study evaluates if patients' race or gender influenced whether HAV or HBV serologic status was determined for the purpose of providing immunization. Medical records of consecutive African-American and white patients referred for management of HCV were evaluated to determine whether the referring physicians had obtained HAV and HBV serology. Race and gender analysis revealed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) in HAV testing of African-American and white patients, a statistically significant difference in HAV (P < 0.0001) and HBV (P < 0.0001) testing of African-American and white men, and a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0026) in HBV testing of African-American and white women. HCV-infected individuals were inconsistently tested for HAV and HBV. Patients' race, but not gender, had a significant impact upon whether HCV-infected individuals were tested for HAV and HBV.
Jacobs, J L
Interviews conducted with 45 adolescents in attendance at a Denver, Colorado, high school for teen mothers highlighted the interactions among psychological tasks, family structure, and social location. The subjects, who ranged in age from 14-19 years (mean, 16 years), were Black or Hispanic. Gender-specific developmental theory posits that teenage girls struggle to balance competing needs for autonomy on the one hand and connection and attachment on the other hand. Premarital sexual activity represents a means of both defying parental control and achieving intimacy. For the 19 largely Black subjects raised by mothers in single-parent households, mother-daughter conflict was linked to race and class oppression. Black mothers overwhelmed by multiple roles tended to be overly restrictive about dating in an attempt to protect their daughters from similar hardships, especially if they had been a teen parent. In the 21 predominantly Latino 2-parent families of origin, conflicts were more often centered around religious values and abuse by male family members. Although only 8 respondents indicated that they found sex gratifying, a sexual relationship offered the promise of a more meaningful emotional attachment. Similarly, mothering offered these girls an alternative for self-development in a social environment characterized by economic and racial oppression and an opportunity to give to a child the nurturing and caretaking they were seeking for themselves. The mothers interviewed indicated they were remaining in school not for themselves, but to become better able to support their child. A third of the teens were abandoned by their child's father when pregnancy was confirmed, but many of those who had the option of marriage preferred single parenthood. Dependency on sexual intimacy became replaced by emotional investment in the mother-child dyad. These findings suggest a need for prevention programs that offer poor women of color alternative paths to achieving adult
Sue-Je L. Gage
Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationships between the U.S. military, race, masculinity, and power in South Korea. I argue that notions of empire are played out in off-base interactions among U.S. soldiers themselves, but also between U.S. soldiers and non-U.S. military others, particularly in the post-9/11 “war on terror” era. In these strategic interplays, soldiers often carry stereotypes held in the United States, but also reinforced by their identities and training as U.S. soldiers. Globalization trends and international relations also influence modes of communication and relations within this hierarchically ranked system and structure. This article discusses how power, gender, race, and racisms play out in the camptowns of South Korea by using an ethnographic lens to link the human face with empire.
Full Text Available Background. Disparities in acute myocardial infarction (AMI care for women and minorities have been extensively reported in United States but with limited information on Hispanics. Methods. Medical records of 287 (62% Hispanic and 176 (38% non-Hispanic white (NHW patients and 245 women (53% admitted with suspected AMI to a southern California nonprofit community hospital with a large Hispanic patient and provider representation were reviewed. Baseline characteristics, outcomes (mortality, CATH, PCI, CABG, and use of pertinent drug therapy, and medical insurance were analyzed according to gender, Hispanic and NHW race/ethnicity when AMI was confirmed. For categorical variables, 2×2 chi-square analysis was conducted. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for outcomes adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and insurance were obtained. Results. Women and Hispanics had similar drug therapy, CATH, PCI, and mortality as men and NHW when AMI was confirmed (n=387. Hispanics had less private insurance than NHW (31.4% versus 56.3%, P<0.001; no significant differences were found according to gender. Conclusions. No differences in quality measures and outcomes were found for women and between Hispanic and NHW in AMI patients admitted to a facility with a large Hispanic representation. Disparities in medical insurance showed no influence on these findings.
Moore, Carolyn E; Radcliffe, John D; Liu, Yan
To determine if dietary, supplemental and total vitamin D intakes in the USA are influenced by income, race/ethnicity or gender. Cross-sectional. US vitamin D intakes were estimated by poverty income ratio (PIR), race/ethnicity and gender using 24 h dietary intake recalls and dietary supplement use questionnaires. Statistical analyses of weighted data were performed using SAS (version 9.2) to estimate means and their standard errors. Race and ethnic intake differences controlling for PIR, gender and age were assessed by ANCOVA. Adults aged ≥19 years. The 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA. Total (dietary and supplement) vitamin D intake was greater in the high (10.0 (se 0.30) μg/d) v. the medium (7.9 (se 0.3) μg/d) or the low (8.0 (se 0.3) μg/d) PIR categories. Total vitamin D intake of non-Hispanic Whites (10.6 (se 0.4) μg/d) was greater than that of Hispanics (8.1 (se 0.3) μg/d) and non-Hispanic Blacks (7.1 (se 0.3) μg/d). Supplemental vitamin D intake was greater by females (5.3 (se 0.2) μg/d) than by males (3.3 (se 0.2) μg/d). Participants with high income were more likely to be vitamin D supplement users (33.0%) than those with medium (22.5%) or low (17.6%) income. High-income non-Hispanic Whites had the lowest percentage (57%) not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin D. Fortified milk and milk products provided 43.7% of the dietary vitamin D intake. Public health efforts should expand the number of vitamin D-fortified foods and encourage the consumption of foods high in vitamin D and use of supplements.
Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S
This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Cohn, Amy M; Rose, Shyanika W; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Gray, Tiffany; Curry, Laurel; Villanti, Andrea C; Mays, Darren; Lindblom, Eric; Tercyak, Kenneth; Debnam, Charles; Mayo, Ashley; Perreras, Lexie
Harm perceptions of menthol cigarettes may contribute to their appeal and use. African-Americans, women, and younger smokers disproportionately use menthol cigarettes, and may misperceive harm of menthol cigarettes. Data were from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted analyses of current adult smokers (18 and older) were used to estimate the correlates of menthol smoking among all cigarette brands and separately for the top three cigarette brands (Newport, Camel, and Marlboro). Adjusted models examined the main effect of menthol smoking on harm perceptions of one's own brand of cigarette and interactions with race/ethnicity, age, and gender. Menthol cigarettes were used by nearly 40% of current smokers, although the prevalence of menthol smoking differed across the top three brands (94% Newport, 46% Camel, and 18% Marlboro). Among menthol smokers, 80% perceived their cigarette as equally harmful, 14% perceived their brand as more harmful, and 7% perceived their brand as less harmful. In adjusted models, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to misperceive their own brand as more harmful than other brands (compared to no difference in harm). Race and gender emerged as moderators of the association between menthol brand preference and harm perceptions. In adjusted analyses, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their brand as more harmful than other brands, with differences by sub-groups who disproportionately use menthol. Menthol cigarettes have been historically marketed with messages conveying lower harm than other cigarettes. Little is known about how contemporary adult menthol smokers perceive the harm of their usual brand, and potential differences by race, gender, and young adult versus older adult age group. After adjusting for other factors, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their cigarette brand as more harmful than other brands
Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…
Shehab, Abdulla; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; AlHabib, Khalid F; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Almahmeed, Wael; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Hersi, Ahmad; Al Faleh, Hussam; Asaad, Nidal; Al Saif, Shukri; Amin, Haitham
Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients. Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008-2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; Pmanagement differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities. Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.
Diehl, Alessandra; Vieira, Denise Leite; Zaneti, Marina Milograna; Fanganiello, Ana; Sharan, Pratap; Robles, Rebecca; de Jesus Mari, Jair
The aim of this article is to provide a narrative literature review of the 'third gender' phenomenon in Brazil ( Travestis), India ( Hijras) and Mexico ( Muxes), considering the social stigma, the legal and health aspects of these identities. These three groups share similar experiences of stigmatisation, marginalisation, sexual abuse, HIV infection, infringement of civil rights and harassment accessing health services. Brazil, India and Mexico public services for the third gender conditions are still very scarce and inadequate for the heavy demand from potential users. Although all three countries have used legislation to promote provision of comprehensive healthcare services for third gender, there is still strong resistance to implementation of such laws and policies. Brazil, India and Mexico face a huge challenge to become countries where all human rights are respected.
Sharron Xuanren Wang
Full Text Available We use data from the Current Population Survey from 2007 and 2013 to investigate demographic differentials in unemployment during the Great Recession in the U.S. Although our analysis is primarily exploratory and descriptive, our major research objective is to illuminate the unemployment differential between the foreign born and the native born. The findings indicate that during the height of the Great Recession, the foreign born had higher unemployment rates than the native born. However, this differential is statistically explained by their observed characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, gender, age and education. With the net of those variables and a few other demographic covariates, foreign born workers as an overall group actually had somewhat lower chances of being unemployed than native born workers. This finding is discussed in terms of the selectivity of immigrant workers and the possibility that they are somewhat more immediately dependent on having a job. After breaking down the foreign born into major racial/ethnic groups, the results suggest that foreign-born blacks and foreign-born Hispanics are particularly selective with the net of their observed characteristics. The possible sources of such differentials by race/ethnicity and by gender are discussed.
Vishnu, Abhishek; Ahuja, Vasudha
The cross-sectional association of serum vitamin D levels with blood pressure and hypertension status among a representative sample of U.S. adults was examined. Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2010 were included in these analyses. Harmonizing of the vitamin D levels from 2001 to 2006 with vitamin D measurement from 2007 to 2010 was done using regression equations released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of vitamin D supplements was assessed for all participants. Statistical analyses included examination of linear association of vitamin D levels with blood pressure and non-linear cubic splines with hypertension in overall population, by gender, and by race/ethnicity. With every 10 nmol/L higher vitamin D, systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.19 mmHg in this population (pcubic splines show that vitamin D has an inverse association with odds of hypertension up to 100 nmol/L with no apparent benefit at higher levels in overall population, and even lower threshold levels of vitamin D in non-Hispanic blacks (50 nmol/L) and Hispanic Americans (70 nmol/L). Significant race/ethnic and gender differences exist in the association of vitamin D and systolic blood pressure. Odds for hypertension are reduced significantly at higher vitamin D levels, but this benefit plateaus at very high vitamin D levels. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M
This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for race and gender differences in controlling elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol may be related to variations in prescribed lipid-lowering therapy. We examined the effect of lipid-lowering drug treatment and potency on time until LDL control for black and white women and men with a baseline elevated LDL. Methods We studied 3,484 older hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in 6 primary care practices over a 4-year timeframe. Potency of lipid-lowering drugs calculated for each treated day and summed to assess total potency for at least 6 and up to 24 months. Cox models of time to LDL control within two years and logistic regression models of control within 6 months by race-gender adjust for: demographics, clinical, health care delivery, primary/specialty care, LDL measurement, and drug potency. Results Time to LDL control decreased as lipid-lowering drug potency increased (P Conclusions Black women and, to a lesser extent, black men and white women were less likely to achieve LDL control than white men after accounting for lipid-lowering drug potency as well as diverse patient and provider factors. Future work should focus on the contributions of medication adherence and response to treatment to these clinically important differences.
Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH, and free thyroxine (FT4 if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11. Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49 and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23. Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.
Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R; Bateman, Lori Brand
This study investigates the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with markers of systemic inflammation in midlife by race and gender. Data were obtained from the Survey of Midlife in the United States, a cross-sectional, observational study of Americans 35 years old or older (White men: N = 410; White women: N = 490; Black men: N = 58; Black women: N = 117). Inflammation was measured by concentrations of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) in fasting plasma and concentrations of E-selectin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fasting serum. Anthropometric data were used to obtain BMI and WC. Socio-demographic and health-related factors were assessed with a survey. Multivariate models by race and gender were estimated to test the roles of BMI and WC for each inflammation marker. Compared to White men, Black women have higher BMI and higher levels of all four inflammation markers; White women have lower BMI, lower WC, and lower E-selectin and fibrinogen but higher CRP; and Black men have higher fibrinogen. After adjusting for socio-demographic and health-related covariates as well as perceived discrimination, WC is associated with all four markers of inflammation among White men and women; with three markers (fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6) of inflammation among Black women; and with CRP (and marginally with fibrinogen and E-selectin) among Black men. BMI is associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen among Black men (marginally so for White men) but not for women of either race. WC shows more consistent associations with inflammation markers than BMI, although the relationships vary by inflammation marker and population group. Our findings suggest that WC is a risk factor for systemic inflammation among White and Black men and women, and BMI is an additional risk factor for Black men.
Shen, Qiuhua; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra
To examine the relationship between major depression and insulin resistance by gender and race/ethnicity among young adults without diabetes mellitus. Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008 were performed (n = 2265). Major depression was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for risk factors of insulin resistance were conducted. There was a significant negative association between major depression and insulin resistance among men. For women, no significant association was found. There was no significant interaction between race/ethnicity and major depression on insulin resistance (Wald χ(2) = 4.2927, P = 0.2315). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were significantly associated with insulin resistance among both men (odds ratio [OR] 1.255, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.195-1.318 for BMI; OR 1.095, 95% CI 1.076-1.115 for WC) and women (OR 1.220, 95% CI 1.182-1.260 for BMI; OR 1.084, 95% CI 1.064-1.105 for WC). There are gender differences in the relationship between major depression and insulin resistance among adults aged 20-39 years. No evidence was found to support the role of race/ethnicity in this relationship. Health care professionals should be aware of risk factors for insulin resistance and develop interventions to help prevent the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2013 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Kian Ang, K.; Movsas, Benjamin
Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.
Sheldon, C T; Aubry, T D; Arboleda-Florez, J; Wasylenki, D; Goering, P N
The following study evaluates the complex association between legal involvement and mental illness. It describes a population of consumers of community mental health programs, comparing those with legal involvement to those without legal involvement, on a number of demographic, clinical and social indicators. It is a secondary analysis of data collected in studies making up the Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative (CMHEI) in the province of Ontario, Canada. Legal involvement was a significant issue among community mental health program consumers; about one in five consumers had at least some contact with the legal system in the preceding nine months. Legally involved consumers were more likely to be in receipt of social assistance and be unstably housed than those legally uninvolved. However, there were no significant differences between legally involved and uninvolved consumers with respect to severity of symptomatology, current medication use or number of hospitalization days in the past 9 months. A predictive model compared the differential impact of clinical and social determinants upon legal involvement. Analyses failed to uncover a significant relationship between severity of psychiatric symptomatology and legal involvement. Significant predictors of legal involvement included gender, race, drug use as well as housing instability, and receipt of social assistance. Legal involvement was attributable to factors other than the severity of mental illness; these results challenge assumptions that the most symptomatically severe consumers are most at risk of legal involvement. Accordingly, the rate of legal involvement in a sample of community mental health program users must be considered in a broad context, with particular emphasis on social disadvantage.
Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Uscilka, Ali; Baek, Jonggyu; Zhang, Lindy
Epidemiologic studies have observed influences of the food environment near schools on children's overweight status but have not systematically assessed the associations by race, sex, and grade. The authors examined whether the associations between franchised fast food restaurant or convenience store density near schools and overweight varied by these factors using data for 926,018 children (31.3% white, 55.1% Hispanic, 5.7% black, and 8% Asian) in fifth, seventh, or ninth grade, nested in 6,362 schools. Cross-sectional data were from the 2007 California physical fitness test (also known as "Fitnessgram"), InfoUSA, the California Department of Education, and the 2000 US Census. In adjusted models, the overweight prevalence ratio comparing children in schools with 1 or more versus 0 fast food restaurants was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), with a higher prevalence ratio among girls compared with boys. The association varied by student's race/ethnicity (P = 0.003): Among Hispanics, the prevalence ratio = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03); among blacks, the prevalence ratio = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), but among Asians the prevalence ratio = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97). For each additional convenience store, the prevalence ratio was 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01), with a higher prevalence ratio among fifth grade children. Nuanced understanding of the impact of food environments near schools by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade may help to elucidate the etiology of childhood overweight and related race/ethnic disparities.
Sánchez, Brisa N.; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V.; Uscilka, Ali; Baek, Jonggyu; Zhang, Lindy
Epidemiologic studies have observed influences of the food environment near schools on children’s overweight status but have not systematically assessed the associations by race, sex, and grade. The authors examined whether the associations between franchised fast food restaurant or convenience store density near schools and overweight varied by these factors using data for 926,018 children (31.3% white, 55.1% Hispanic, 5.7% black, and 8% Asian) in fifth, seventh, or ninth grade, nested in 6,362 schools. Cross-sectional data were from the 2007 California physical fitness test (also known as “Fitnessgram”), InfoUSA, the California Department of Education, and the 2000 US Census. In adjusted models, the overweight prevalence ratio comparing children in schools with 1 or more versus 0 fast food restaurants was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), with a higher prevalence ratio among girls compared with boys. The association varied by student’s race/ethnicity (P = 0.003): Among Hispanics, the prevalence ratio = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03); among blacks, the prevalence ratio = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), but among Asians the prevalence ratio = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97). For each additional convenience store, the prevalence ratio was 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01), with a higher prevalence ratio among fifth grade children. Nuanced understanding of the impact of food environments near schools by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade may help to elucidate the etiology of childhood overweight and related race/ethnic disparities. PMID:22510276
Ning, Lei; Song, Li-Jiang; Fan, Shun-Wu; Zhao, Xing; Chen, Yi-Lei; Li, Zhao-Zhi; Hu, Zi-Ang
This study established gender-specific reference values in mainland Chinese (MC) and is important for quantitative morphometry for diagnosis and epidemiological study of osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture. Comparisons of reference values among different racial populations are then performed to demonstrate the MC-specific characteristic. Osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture (OVCF) is a common complication of osteoporosis in the elder population. Clinical diagnosis and epidemiological study of OVCF often employ quantitative morphometry, which relies heavily on the comparison of patients' vertebral parameters to existing reference values derived from the normal population. Thus, reference values are crucial in clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish reference values of the mainland Chinese (MC) for quantitative morphometry. Vertebral heights including anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), posterior (Hp) heights, and predicted posterior height (pp) from T4 to L5 were obtained; and ratios of Ha/Hp, Hm/Hp and Hp/pp. were calculated from 585 MC (both female and male) for establishing reference values and subsequent comparisons with other studies. Vertebral heights increased progressively from T4 to L3 but then decreased in L4 and L5. Both genders showed similar ratios of vertebral dimensions, but male vertebrae were statistically larger than those of female (P values for MC. Our results also indicated the necessity of establishing reference values that are not only race- and gender-specific, but also population- or region-specific for accurate quantitative morphometric assessment of OVCF.
This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...
This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...
H. F. Moskalyk
Full Text Available Topicality. Under the conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the European community, there is an urgent need to restructure all social institutions, freeing them from all forms of discrimination, including on the basis of gender. Modern problems of the state's socioeconomic development require a new look at the functional roles of men and women, as well as the understanding that the political, economic, cultural future of society depends on overcoming gender stereotypes that are deeply rooted in the social and individual consciousness and inhibit social progress, and also the development of democracy. That is why, today, it is extremely important to study the issue of social influence and the role of women and determine their social status against the backdrop of the historical development of our state. Purpose. The article studies the emergence and adoption of the phenomenon of gender as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman in the historical, philosophical and legal realm. Methodology. In the research process the authors used the methods of analyzing and synthesizing historical sources to study the content and main provisions of philosophical concepts and legal norms that formed the social status of a Ukrainian woman at different historical periods of society development, with their subsequent comparison and generalization. Originality. The work further develops the theory of gender processes with the use of interdisciplinary approaches to the study of the phenomenon of gender in the historical, philosophical and legal field as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman, to critically re-evaluate the value guidelines on the construction of modern society and the formation of new ideas about the role and model of behavior of men and women and their interaction in society. Conclusions. For a long time, the social status of women was formed under the influence of philosophical views and concepts, slowly turned into
Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.
Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129
Daw, Jonathan; Margolis, Rachel; Verdery, Ashton M.
Many unhealthy behaviors develop during adolescence, and these behaviors can have fundamental consequences for health and mortality in adulthood. Social network structure and the degree of homophily in a network affect how health behaviors and innovations are spread. However, the degree of health behavior homophily across different social ties and within subpopulations is unknown. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by using a novel regression model to document the degree of homophily across various relationship types and subpopulations for behaviors of interest that are related to health outcomes. These patterns in health behavior homophily have implications for which behaviors and ties should be the subjects of future research and for predicting how homophily may shape health programs focused on specific subpopulations (gender, race, class, health status) or a specific social context (families, peer groups, classrooms, or school activities). PMID:24673889
van den Berg, Patricia A; Mond, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Marla; Ackard, Diann; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally. A school-based survey of eating, weight, and related attitudes was conducted with a diverse sample of adolescents aged 11-18 years (N = 4,746). Height and weight were measured in the schools at Time 1. Participants were resurveyed through mails 5 years later (Time, 2; N = 2,516). The relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong and significant in both boys and girls (all p values p = .16), or between the middle school and high school cohorts in either boys (p = .79) or girls (p = .80). Among girls, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong, but did vary across weight status, race/ethnicity, and SES (all p values = .0001-.03). The relationship was nonsignificant in underweight girls (p = .36), and weaker but still significant among black, Asian, and low SES group girls (all p values p values = .18-.79). In longitudinal analyses, the strength of the association did not change significantly as adolescents grew older. Findings indicate that body dissatisfaction and self-esteem are strongly related among nearly all groups of adolescents. This suggests the importance of addressing body image concerns with adolescents of all backgrounds and ages.
Hawthorne, Dawn M; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Brooten, Dorothy
In the United States, 57,000 children (newborn to 18 years) die annually. Bereaved parents may rely on religious or spiritual beliefs in their grief. The study's purpose was to examine differences in parents' use of spiritual and religious coping practices by gender, race/ethnicity, and religion at 1 and 3 months after infant/ICU death. The sample consisted of 165 bereaved parents, 78% minority. The Spiritual Coping Strategies Scale was used to measure religious and spiritual coping practices, separately. One-way ANOVAs indicated that Black non-Hispanic mothers used significantly more religious coping practices at 3 months than White non-Hispanic mothers. Protestant and Catholic parents used more religious coping practices than the "no" and "other" religion groups at 1 and 3 months. Within the 30 mother-father dyads (paired t-tests), mothers reported significantly greater use of religious coping practices at 1 and 3 months and spiritual coping practices at 3 months than fathers. Religious coping practices were most commonly used by Black mothers and Protestant and Catholic parents. Within dyads, mothers used more spiritual and religious coping practices than fathers. These findings are beneficial for healthcare personnel in providing support to bereaved parents of diverse races/ethnicities and religions. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
This research paper on the implementation of Directive 2006/54/EC provides an independent legal analysis of the main provisions of this Directive, taking into account relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the EU. The aim of this paper is also to identify gaps in its implementation at the
Comments on Awad El Karim M. Ibrahim's "Becoming Black: Rap and Hip-Hop, Race, Gender, and Identity and the Politics of ESL Learning" [and] A Reader Reacts . . . [and] Identity or Identification? A Response to Some Objections.
Goldstein, Lynn; Ibrahim, Awad El Karim M.
Goldstein questions the way Awad El Karim M. Ibrahim portrayed her research on the language and identity of Hispanic English-as-a-Second-Language learners in his article, "Becoming Black: Rap and Hip-Hop, Race, Gender, and Identity and the Politics of ESL Learning." Ibrahim responds to these comments. (Author/VWL)
Television Viewing and Its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among U.S. High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.
Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kann, Laura
Examined race, ethnic, and gender specific differences in the association between television viewing and high school students' overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Data from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that most students' television viewing exceeded recommended levels, many students were…
Rennick, Liz A.; Smedley, Cynthia Toms; Fisher, Dan; Wallace, Elizabeth; Young, Kim
This study examines the general and differential effects of spiritual/religious engagement on affective college outcomes (i.e., leadership skills, interpersonal skills, social satisfaction, sense of belonging, and psychological well-being) across different gender and racial groups among undergraduate students at research universities. The study…
Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall
This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…
Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.
Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…
Stephens, Janna D; Althouse, Andrew; Tan, Alai; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek
Overweight and obesity are a massive public health problem and young adults are at high risk for gaining weight once they enter a college. This study sought to examine gender and race as they relate to nutrition habits and self-efficacy in a population of diverse young adults from the Young Adult Weight Loss Study. Participants ( N = 62) were 29% males, 38.7% white, 33.8% Asian, and 12.9% African American. Males had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating (mean score = 92.5, SD = 17.1) compared to females (mean = 102.3, SD = 13.7, p = 0.02). Males had higher consumption of sodium compared to females (4308 versus 3239 milligrams/day, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences across racial subgroups in self-efficacy for healthy eating ( p = 0.67) or self-efficacy for exercise ( p = 0.61). Higher self-efficacy scores for healthy eating were significantly associated with less total sodium ( r = -0.37, p = 0.007), greater fruit consumption, and less saturated fat. Our results indicate that weight loss interventions should be individualized and that there may be specific areas to target that are different for men and women. Additional larger studies should be conducted to confirm if racial differences exist across nutrition habits and self-efficacy and to confirm gender differences noted in this study.
Janna D. Stephens
Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are a massive public health problem and young adults are at high risk for gaining weight once they enter a college. This study sought to examine gender and race as they relate to nutrition habits and self-efficacy in a population of diverse young adults from the Young Adult Weight Loss Study. Participants (N=62 were 29% males, 38.7% white, 33.8% Asian, and 12.9% African American. Males had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating (mean score = 92.5, SD = 17.1 compared to females (mean = 102.3, SD = 13.7, p=0.02. Males had higher consumption of sodium compared to females (4308 versus 3239 milligrams/day, p=0.01. There were no significant differences across racial subgroups in self-efficacy for healthy eating (p=0.67 or self-efficacy for exercise (p=0.61. Higher self-efficacy scores for healthy eating were significantly associated with less total sodium (r=-0.37, p=0.007, greater fruit consumption, and less saturated fat. Our results indicate that weight loss interventions should be individualized and that there may be specific areas to target that are different for men and women. Additional larger studies should be conducted to confirm if racial differences exist across nutrition habits and self-efficacy and to confirm gender differences noted in this study.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author advances the thesis that in today's Serbia there is no social consensus concerning the unequal treatment of men and women, and that 'patriarchal syndrome', stereotypes and prejudices are still widely present and are greatly influencing the functioning of social mechanisms and the achievement of gender equality. In Serbia the process of achieving the equal treatment of women de jure is still in progress. With the absence of consensus, which is a prerequisite for 'transmitting' social values encompassed by gender equality, the chances are little that equality will be attained de facto. This paper is meant as a warning that not all types of women's inequality are easily noticeable, as well as that on the social scene there are many different and intertwined social actors which influence dealing with the problem of inequality, implementation of international and domestic legal acts, ethical standards, and taking steps to introduce mechanisms for achieving women's equality in society. One of the prerequisites for overcoming these difficulties is a system of education and educational resources, which promote the idea of gender equality.
Riaño Galán, Isolina; Del Río Pastoriza, Inés; Chueca Guindulain, María; Gabaldón Fraile, Sabel; de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Federico
An ethical and legal view of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is presented from the perspective of the best interest of the child and the principle of protection against vulnerability. The identification of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a process that requires support, coordination and a multidisciplinary team that improves care and helps to obtain evidence that is lacking today. Secure, equitable and comprehensive access to care and health care should be guaranteed when required. It is necessary to promote a changing of social outlook, capable of overcoming the stereotypes that lead to discrimination and increase suffering. Respect for gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a fundamental Human Right. The recognition of a positive value in diversity is an ethical imperative. All of this, without forgetting that we are talking about minors often in contexts of vulnerability, and currently very uncertain, so prudence is the main rule that should guide decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Walsemann, Katrina M; Ailshire, Jennifer A; Bell, Bethany A; Frongillo, Edward A
Race/ethnicity and education are among the strongest social determinants of body mass index (BMI) throughout the life course, yet we know relatively little about how these social factors both independently and interactively contribute to the rate at which BMI changes from adolescence to midlife. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine variation in trajectories of BMI from adolescence to midlife by mothers' and respondents' education and (2) determine if the effects of mothers' and respondents' education on BMI trajectories differ by race/ethnicity and gender. We used nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our sample included white (n=4433), black (n=2420), and Hispanic (n=1501) respondents. Self-reported height and weight were collected on 16 occasions from 1981 to 2008. We employed two-level linear growth models to specify BMI trajectories. Mothers' education was inversely associated with BMI and BMI change among women. Among men, mothers' education was inversely associated with BMI; these educational disparities persisted for whites, diminished for blacks, and widened for Hispanics. Respondents' education was inversely associated with BMI among women, but was positively associated with the rate of BMI change among black women. Respondents' education was inversely associated with BMI among white and Hispanic men, and positively associated with BMI among black men. These educational disparities widened for White and Black men, but narrowed for Hispanic men. Our results suggest that by simultaneously considering multiple sources of stratification, we can more fully understand how the unequal distribution of advantages or disadvantages across social groups affects BMI across the life course.
Patil, Pratima A; Porche, Michelle V; Shippen, Nellie A; Dallenbach, Nina T; Fortuna, Lisa R
We sought to conduct the first systematic review of studies applying an intersectional lens to assessing risk and protective factors for depression in minority adolescents in the United States. Twenty-five studies were identified which investigated the role of racial and ethnic identity and gender for minority groups and how marginalization may be associated with differential outcomes in depression symptomology. The results showed substantial variability in whether studies intentionally operationalized intersectionality through theoretical frameworks, study design, sampling, and analyses. Studies were rated on a scale of 1 through 5; those with scores of 3 or higher were included in the review. A rating of 5 indicated studies had explicitly used an intersectional theoretical framework, integrating the process of racial/ethnic identity development and gender socialization during adolescence. Three studies met the criteria for 5, one study was rated 4, and 21 studies were rated 3. Attention to experiences with discrimination was common throughout. Overall, the collective findings point to the importance of using an intersectional lens for understanding differential mechanisms for how and why specific adolescent minority youth are at greater risk for reporting depression symptoms, identifying cultural and developmental protective factors, and informing how interventions can effectively target specific mechanisms for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L
A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.
Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean
Context Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. Methods In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in health care was independently associated with adverse self-reported health, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings. Findings Overall, 65% of respondents reported public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months. The 5 most prevalent discrimination settings were transportation (36%), retail (28%), restaurants (26%), public gatherings (25%), and health care (24%). Public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months in health care settings was independently associated with a 31% to 81% increased risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms and a 2-fold to 3-fold increased risk of postponement of needed care when sick or injured and of preventive or routine health care, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings (which also conferred an additional 20% to 77% risk per discrimination setting endorsed
Weber, Lynn; Hilfinger Messias, Deanne K
By disrupting the routine practices and social structures that support social hierarchy, disasters provide a unique opportunity to observe how gender, race, and class power relations are enacted and reconstituted to shape health inequities. Using a feminist intersectional framework, we examine the dynamic relationships among a government/corporate alliance, front-line disaster recovery workers, and disadvantaged residents in Mississippi Gulf Coast communities in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, which struck in August, 2005. Data were collected between January 2007 and October 2008 through field observations, public document analysis, and in-depth interviews with 32 front-line workers representing 27 non-governmental, nonprofit community-based organizations. Our analysis reveals how power relationships among these groups operated at the macro-level of the political economy as well as in individual lives, increasing health risks among both the disadvantaged and the front-line workers serving and advocating on their behalf. Socially situated as outsiders-within, front-line recovery workers operated in the middle ground between the disadvantaged populations they served and the powerful alliance that controlled access to essential resources. From this location, they both observed and were subject to the processes guiding the allocation of resources and their unequal outcomes. Following a brief period of hope for progressive change, recovery workers became increasingly stressed and fatigued, particularly from lack of communication and coordination, limited resources, insufficient capacity to meet overwhelming demands, and gendered and racialized mechanisms of marginalization and exclusion. The personal and collective health burdens borne by these front-line recovery workers--predominantly women and people of color - exemplify the ways in which the social relations of power and control contribute to health and social inequities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All
Gonzalez, Jodi M; Alegría, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E
Promoting help-seeking for mental health problems can result in improved treatment rates. For the most impact, social marketing interventions need to be tailored to targeted demographic subgroups. We investigated the influence of interactions between attitudes toward treatment and age, gender, ethnicity/race and education for both general medical and specialty care. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) were analyzed using multivariate models adjusted for the sampling design and controlled for relevant clinical and sociodemographic factors. Greater comfort talking to a professional was associated with greater past-year specialty care across all demographic groups, while strongest for non-Latino whites and not evident for those 50-64 years old. For all demographic groups, reported willingness to seek professional help was associated with general medical care. However, for specialty care the association was much stronger for men compared to women. For African Americans, but not non-Latino whites, the perceived efficacy of mental health treatment improved the likelihood of past-year specialty use. Our analyses suggest both the importance of understanding demographic differences in relevant attitudes and potential directions for marketing campaigns.
Gupta, Vishal; Yesilbursa, Dilek; Huang, Wen Ying; Aggarwal, Kul; Gupta, Vijaya; Gomez, Camilo; Patel, Vinod; Miller, Andrew P; Nanda, Navin C
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a well-recognized risk factor for ischemic strokes. The true prevalence of PFO among stroke patients is still under debate. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the "gold standard" in diagnosing PFO but the physiology requires right-to-left atrial shunting. In this report, we evaluate the prevalence of PFO in a diverse group of ischemic stroke patients studied by TEE. TEE of 1,663 ischemic stroke patients were reviewed for cardiac source of embolism, including PFO and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA). Agitated saline bubble injection was performed to look for right to left atrial shunting. Success of maneuvers to elevate right atrial pressure (RAP) was noted by looking at the atrial septal bulge. Among 1,435 ischemic stroke patients analyzed, the presence or absence of PFO could not be determined in 32.1% because bulging of the septum could not be demonstrated in patients with negative contrast study despite aggressive maneuvers to elevate RAP. Of the remaining 974 patients, 294 patients (30.2%) had a PFO. The mean age was 61.5 years in both groups, with a bimodal distribution of PFO and the highest prevalence occurring in gender or racial difference in the prevalence of PFO, but there was a bimodal distribution in prevalence with age.
Alceu Ravanello Ferraro
Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a relação entre gênero, cor/raça e escolarização nos estados da Bahia e do Rio de Janeiro com base em microdados do Censo 2000. Pesquisa a trajetória da média de anos de estudo de homens brancos, homens negros, mulheres brancas e mulheres negras através das gerações. Os resultados evidenciam a reprodução das desigualdades regionais quanto à escolarização; confirmam, para ambos os sexos e estados, a reprodução, através das gerações, das desigualdades educacionais que desfavorecem a população negra; evidenciam, tanto para brancos/as como para negros/as, uma inversão na relação entre gênero e educação nos dois estados. O desafio para a pesquisa é traçar no tempo a trajetória do movimento que levou as mulheres da condição de inferioridade à de superioridade em relação aos homens quanto à escolarização, tanto entre brancos/as quanto entre negros/as e em ambos os estados pesquisados.Based on microdata from the Census of 2000, this article approaches the relation between gender, skin color/race and schooling in the states of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. It examines the course of the average years of study of white men, black men, white women, and black women throughout the generations. Its results make evident the reproduction of regional inequalities regarding schooling throughout the generations; they confirm the reproduction of educational inequalities to the prejudice of the black population throughout the generations for both genders and states; they make evident an inversion of the relation between gender and education in both states, both for male and female whites and blacks. The challenge posed by the research is to sketch the course of the movement in time that resulted in the change of the female condition of inferiority in schooling to that of superiority in relation to men, both among female and male whites and among female and male blacks in both states.
Bakhshaei, Mahsa; Henderson, Rita Isabel
In French-language secondary schools in Quebec, among all immigrant-origin students, those originating from South Asia have the highest dropout rate. However, girls belonging to this group consistently outperform their male peers of similar ethnic background. This stirs questions about the reasons for this relative outperformance and its linkage with overall wellbeing among these girls. A mixed methods approach guided data collection. It involved in-depth interviews with female and male students of South Asian origin (n = 19) and with individuals holding educational roles in the lives of youth (n = 25). An additional anonymous questionnaire aggregated parent perspectives (n = 36), though this article focuses primarily on qualitative lessons. This article shows three main reasons for why South Asian female adolescents in Quebec French-language secondary schools outperform their male counterparts in schooling attainment: parental expectations after migration, socialization at home, and relationships at school. According to our findings, academic perseverance among these girls does not necessarily translate into their improved wellbeing or their involvement in an advantageous process of acculturation. This study highlights that although gender, ethnicity, and class can create an interlocking system of oppression in certain social spheres for a specific group of women, it can emerge as advantageous in other contexts for the same group. This provides educational policy makers, as well as school and community workers, with guidance and avenues for action that can promote the wellbeing of immigrant-origin girls through involvement in beneficial processes of acculturation aligned with their improved academic performance.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008-2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2. Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; P<0.001, more overweight (BMI: 28.1±6.6 vs. 26.7±5.1; P<0.001, and more likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Fewer women than men received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE, aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers or statins at discharge. They also underwent fewer invasive procedures including angiography (27.0% vs. 34.0%; P<0.001, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (10.5% vs. 15.6%; P<0.001 and reperfusion therapy (6.9% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001 than men. Women were at higher unadjusted risk for in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4.0%, P<0.001 and heart failure (HF (18% vs. 11.8%, P<0.001. Both 1-month and 1-year mortality rates were higher in women than men (11% vs. 7.4% and 17.3% vs. 11.4%, respectively, P<0.001. Both baseline and management differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.
Lasiewski, Doreen Kovacsofsky
Lack of growth in the science talent pool raises concerns about the ability of colleges and universities to meet the demands of the nation's labor market for scientists and engineers. Previous research has focused on ways to improve the K--16 learning environment and increase retention rates of undergraduate students in the sciences. This study extends previous work by considering the next stage in the educational pipeline---the transition to graduate study. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of factors related to science, mathematics, and engineering (SME) undergraduate degree recipients' subsequent enrollment in graduate study. This research utilizes 1994 data from the first follow-up of the 1993 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). Four groups of factors were examined---pre-college characteristics, personal characteristics, institutional characteristics, and the college experience. Analyses were conducted on the overall sample and by gender and race/ethnicity. Male and female subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. White and non-White subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. The best factor to predict enrollment in graduate study for all samples was cumulative grade point average. The models suggested, however, two different journeys taken by SME bachelor's degree recipients. Along one path taken by male and White students, factors associated with graduate school enrollment included having well-educated parents, at least a middle class family background, a good mathematics grade point average, being satisfied with the undergraduate curriculum, being less than twenty-three years old, and having participated in community service. Women and minority students, however, traveled a different path, where marriage negatively influenced enrollment in graduate study. In addition, having children and being over the age of twenty-three were negative factors for
Cubbin, Catherine; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen; LeClere, Felicia B
To determine whether menthol is related to initiation, quantity or quitting, we examined differences in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, and adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. Cross-sectional, using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and Cancer Control Supplement. United States. Black, Hispanic and white women and men aged 25-64 years. For each group, we examined (i) proportion of menthol smokers (comparing current and former smokers); (ii) age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempt in the past year (comparing menthol and non-menthol current smokers); and (iii) time since quitting (comparing menthol and non-menthol former smokers). We calculated predicted values for each demographic group, adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. After adjusting for age, income and education, black (compared with Hispanic and white) and female (compared with male) smokers were more likely to choose menthol cigarettes. There was only one statistically significant difference in age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts or time since quitting between menthol and non-menthol smokers: white women who smoked menthol cigarettes reported longer cessation compared with those who smoked non-menthol cigarettes. The results do not support the hypothesis that menthol smokers initiate earlier, smoke more or have a harder time quitting compared with non-menthol smokers. A menthol additive and the marketing of it, given the clear demographic preferences demonstrated here, however, may be responsible for enticing the groups least likely to smoke into this addictive behavior. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...
Csete, Joanne; Cohen, Jonathan
Social exclusion and legal marginalization are important determinants of health outcomes for people who use illicit drugs, sex workers, and persons who face criminal penalties because of homosexuality or transgenderism. Incarceration may add to the health risks associated with police repression and discrimination for these persons. Access to legal services may be essential to positive health outcomes in these populations. Through concrete examples, this paper explores types of legal problems and legal services linked to health outcomes for drug users, sex workers, and sexual minorities and makes recommendations for donors, legal service providers, and civil society organizations. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
significantly across gender, race/ethnicity and age. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
well as the television reporting in the 1970s on the Majdanek Trials against male and female SS concentration camp guards. The authors ask how and which gender stereotypes influenced the jurisdiction and media reporting, which functions the hereby formulated images of men and women took on in the context of the formation of both German societies, and how they are to be situated on a cultural-historical level. While research on female perpetrators has already been established, a gender-historical method is now considered in the research on Nazi legal proceedings and their perceptions. This research perspective can be thought-provoking for both women’s and men’s history.
Full Text Available Tanto os aspectos de gênero da discriminação racial quanto os aspectos raciais da discriminação de gênero não são totalmente apreendidos pelos discursos dos direitos humanos. O presente documento, baseado no crescente reconhecimento de que as discriminações de raça e de gênero não são fenômenos mutuamente excludentes, propõe um modelo provisório para a identificação das várias formas de subordinação que refletem os efeitos interativos das discriminações de raça e de gênero. Este documento também sugere um protocolo provisório a ser seguido, a fim de melhor identificar as situações em que tal discriminação interativa possa ter ocorrido e, além disso, defende que a responsabilidade de lidar com as causas e as conseqüências dessa discriminação deva ser amplamente compartilhada entre todas as instituições de direitos humanos.Neither the gender aspects of racial discrimination nor the racial aspects of gender discrimination are fully comprehended within human rights discourses. Building on the growing recognition that race and gender discrimination are not mutually exclusive phenomena, this background paper forwards a provisional framework to identify various forms of subordination that can be said to reflect the interactive effects of race and gender discrimination. It suggests a provisional protocol to be followed to better identify the occasions in which such interactive discrimination may have occurred, and posits further that the responsibility to address the causes and consequences of such discrimination be shared widely among all human rights institutions.
Osmundo de Araújo Pinho
Full Text Available Neste artigo, o autor apresenta dados preliminares de pesquisa etnográfica com jovens de ambos os sexos em grande bairro popular na periferia de São Gonçalo, Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. O objetivo da pesquisa é interrogar sobre a experiência da modernização em ambiente de pobreza e subcidadania e, mais especificamente, como as práticas e representações de raça e gênero são mobilizadas pelos agentes nesse contexto. O debate sobre modernização e relações raciais, assim como uma descrição sociológica sintética do bairro, ajudam a enquadrar as observações etnográficas, relacionadas principalmente aos usos do corpo, sua racialização e gendering; a experiência da subalternidade de classe; e o sentimento de excentricidade ou condição periférica.In this article the author displays some ethnographic data from a research with young people of both sexes in a big popular periphery neighborhood of São Gonçalo city, Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro. The research main goal is to interrogate the modernization experience in an environment of sub-citizenship and poverty. More specifically the question is how the agents mobilize race/gender practices and representations in that context. The discussion about modernization and race relations as well a brief sociological description of the neighborhood help to better understand the ethnographic observations which are related with the body uses, its racialization and gendering; the class subalternity experience; and the feeling of eccentricity or peripheral condition.
Celious, Aaron; Oyserman, Daphna
Recommends moving beyond simple racial dichotomies to unpack differences among African Americans in order to better understand the experience of being Black in America, arguing that African Americans do not experience race homogeneously but distinguish between and among themselves on such features as socioeconomic status, gender, and skin tone.…
As an emancipating movement for women, the American Woman’s Rights Movement can be considered as a "counter public sphere" which transgressed dominant orders of gender. In their alliance at the outset of Reconstruction, women's rights activists not only sought gender equality, but under the label of "universal suffrage" connected it to the ideal of racial equality. The discussion about the introduction of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1869 is understood as a political intersection for the moveme...
The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf
The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.
Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist insurge...
Morgan Hughey, S; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Justin B; Porter, Dwayne; Hibbert, James
Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13.469) in a southeastern US county to determine body mass index (BMI) percentiles. Enumeration and audits of the county's parks (n=103) were concurrently conducted. Neighborhood park and playground availability were calculated as the number of each facility within or intersecting each youth's Census block group. Multilevel linear regression models were utilized to examine study objectives. For boys, no main effects were detected; however, SES moderated associations such that higher park availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for low-SES youth but higher BMI percentile for high-SES youth. For girls, the number of parks and playgrounds were significantly associated with lower BMI (b=-2.2, b=-1.1, pyouth obesity by SES and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of studying the intersection of these characteristics when exploring associations between built environment features and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adams, Michael W.
This study focused on the perceived ethics of the decisions superintendents make in response to a situation with a teacher that was value-laden, potentially volatile, and potentially affected by the teachers' gender or ethnicity. Superintendents (N = 123) each read one of 12 versions of a vignette depicting a sexting incident between a…
David A. Geier
Full Text Available Firearms have a longstanding tradition in the United States (US and are viewed by many with iconic stature with regards to safety and personal freedom. Unfortunately, from a public health point of view, firearm-related deaths (FRDs in the US have reached a crisis point with an estimated >31,000 deaths and 74,000 nonfatal injuries resulting from firearms each year. This longitudinal ecological study analyzed variations in FRDs following firearm assaults (FAs and law enforcement incidents involving a firearm (LEIF in comparison to variations in household firearm ownership (HFO among different geographic and demographic groups in the US from 1999 to 2014. The Underlying Cause of Death database was examined on the CDC Wonder online interface. Records coded with ICD-10 codes: FA (X93 – assault by handgun discharge, X94 – assault by rifle, shotgun, and larger firearm discharge, or X95 – assault by other and unspecified firearm discharge and LEIF (Y35.0 were examined, and the prevalence of HFO was determined using the well-established proxy of the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm. Gender, ethnicity, Census Division, and urbanization significantly impacted the death rates from FA and LEIF. Significant direct correlations between variations in HFO and death rates from FAs and LEIF were observed. Understanding the significant impacts of gender, race, Census Division, and urbanization status may help shape future public health policy to promote increased firearm safety.
As women's health has received significant political and media attention recently, I proposed an expanded structural theory of women's communication about health. Women's health communication and critical race and systemic racism research framed this study. I interviewed 15 communicators and community health workers from grass-roots organizations focused on women's health to learn of their challenges of communicating with women from communities experiencing health disparities. Findings suggest that communicators face difficulties in developing meaningful messaging for publics because of disjunctures between medical and community frames, issues in searching for health among women's many priorities, Whiteness discourses imposed on publics' experiences, and practices of correcting for power differentials. A structural theory of women's health communication, then, consists of tenets around geographic, research/funding, academic/industry, and social hierarchies. Six frames suggesting racial biases about women and health disparities are also defined. This study also includes practical solutions in education, publishing, and policy change for addressing structural challenges.
Okech, Allan P.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in
Kertzner, Robert M; Meyer, Ilan H; Frost, David M; Stirratt, Michael J
Using a social stress perspective, the authors studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual vs. gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, the authors examined whether LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. The authors found different patterns when looking at social versus psychological well-being and positive versus negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Although no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. The authors conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Kertzner, Robert M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Frost, David M.; Stirratt, Michael J.
Using social stress perspective, we studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African-American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual versus gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, we examined if LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. We found different patterns when looking at social vs. psychological well-being and positive vs. negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Though no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. We conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model. PMID:20099941
Aware of gender discrimintaion of women and students of women in different countries, so they protest and movement finally manage to do some conference that have produced Convention On The Elimination Of All Form Of Diskrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Indonesia has ratified CEDAW with Law No. 7, 1984. But until now gender discrimination still occurs in all facets of life and society. One of them is a fimale civil servant in Sumbawa regency. Discrimination that has accurred not given the o...
Janice A Sabin
Full Text Available Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT (N = 359,261. A sub-sample identified their highest level of education as MD (N = 2,284. Among the MDs, 55% were female, 78% reported their race as white, and 62% had a normal range BMI. This large sample of test-takers showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 1.0. MDs, on average, also showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 0.93. All test-takers and the MD sub-sample reported a strong preference for thin people rather than fat people or a strong explicit anti-fat bias. We conclude that strong implicit and explicit anti-fat bias is as pervasive among MDs as it is among the general public. An important area for future research is to investigate the association between providers' implicit and explicit attitudes about weight, patient reports of weight discrimination in health care, and quality of care delivered to overweight patients.
The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45 Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...
Interseccionalidade de gênero, classe e raça e vulnerabilidade de adolescentes negras às DST/aids Intersectionality of gender, class and race, and vulnerability of black female adolescents to STD/AIDS
Stella R. Taquette
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/aids de adolescentes femininas moradoras de favelas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: foi utilizada uma combinação de métodos, quantitativo e qualitativo. Na etapa quantitativa, realizou-se um estudo observacional de corte transversal por meio de entrevistas e exames clínico/laboratoriais para diagnóstico de DST, e, na qualitativa, desenvolveram-se grupos focais sobre os temas sexualidade, gênero e raça. RESULTADOS: foram entrevistadas 816 adolescentes de 10 diferentes comunidades, com um grupo focal em cada favela: 74% eram negras, 39% eram sexualmente ativas e destas 24,4% eram portadoras de DST. Houve uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre a variável raça/cor negra e a atividade sexual. Na fase qualitativa, evidenciou-se que a discriminação racial sofrida é cotidiana e contribui para a construção de autoimagem negativa que aliada a pobreza, violência de gênero e dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde ampliam a vulnerabilidade às DST/aids. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo sugere a criação de políticas que proporcionem o aumento da oferta de serviços de atendimento ginecológico a esse público, com ações que favoreçam a utilização de preservativo feminino e contribuam para reduzir a desigualdade social, de gênero e de raça.OBJECTIVE: To verify the vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of female adolescents that live in poor communities of the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: It was carried out with quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative phase was a cross-sectional study, through interviews of 816 adolescents and clinical/laboratory tests in ten different slums, and the qualitative phase was done on one focus group about sexuality of gender and race in each community. RESULTS: 74% of the adolescents were black, 39% had sexual activity and 24.4% of those had STD. A statistical significant association occurred between the black color/race and sexual activity
Poteat, V Paul; Anderson, Carolyn J
This study documented significant changes in prejudice toward gay and lesbian individuals among adolescents from the ages of 12 to 18 years. Moreover, in line with developmental theories of prejudice, there was substantial variability in these patterns, partially predicted by the gender and ideological beliefs (reflected by social dominance orientation [SDO]) of individuals. Boys reported higher prejudice at age 12 than girls. SDO also accounted for initial differences in levels of prejudice. Further, although prejudice toward gay men did decrease among girls over time, it did not decrease among boys. Prejudice toward lesbians decreased at similar rates for boys and girls. These different trajectories are explained within the context of gender socialization processes during adolescence. In addition, fluctuations in adolescents' own SDO corresponded with fluctuations in their level of prejudice, over and above those tied to age-related changes. This association was even stronger among those with overall higher SDO tendencies than others. However, SDO, when treated as a stable invariant factor, did not predict different patterns of progressive age-related change in prejudice. These results extend the research on sexual prejudice by examining it within a broader and more dynamic developmental framework, in greater alignment with developmental theories of prejudice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....
The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...
Greenlund, Sujay F; Croft, Janet B; Kobau, Rosemarie
To inform public health efforts to prevent epilepsy-related deaths, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER; Wonder.cdc.gov) to examine any-listed epilepsy deaths for the period 2005-2014 by age groups (≤24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-84, ≥85years), sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native). Epilepsy deaths were defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes G40.0-G40.9. The total number of deaths per year with epilepsy as any listed cause ranged from 1760 in 2005 to 2962 in 2014. Epilepsy was listed as the underlying cause of death for about 54% of all deaths with any mention of epilepsy in 2005 and for 43% of such deaths in 2014. Age-adjusted epilepsy mortality rates (as any-listed cause of death) per 100,000 significantly increased from 0.58 in 2005 to 0.85 in 2014 (47% increase). In 2014, deaths among the non-Hispanic Black population (1.42 deaths per 100,000) were higher than among non-Hispanic White (0.86 deaths per 100,000) and Hispanic populations (0.70 deaths per 100,000). Males had a higher mortality rate than females (1.01 per 100,000 versus 0.74 per 100,000 in 2014), and those aged 85years or older had the highest mortality among age groups. Results highlight the need for heightened action to prevent and monitor epilepsy-associated mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lent, Robert W; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Miller, Matthew J; Cusick, Megan E; Penn, Lee T; Truong, Nancy N
We tested the interest and choice portion of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in the context of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Data from 143 studies (including 196 independent samples) conducted over a 30-year period (1983 through 2013) were subjected to meta-analytic path analyses. The interest/choice model was found to fit the data well over all samples as well as within samples composed primarily of women and men and racial/ethnic minority and majority persons. The model also accounted for large portions of the variance in interests and choice goals within each path analysis. Despite the general predictive utility of SCCT across gender and racial/ethnic groups, we did find that several parameter estimates differed by group. We present both the group similarities and differences and consider their implications for future research, intervention, and theory refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This article sets out to interrogate the ideological hegemony of the superstructuring narrative voice in advertisements by studying linguistic, structural devices and encoding that are employed, in order to expose its racial, class and gender undertones embedded in the authorial voice. The sample of advertisements discussed is derived from The Bantu World and its two sequels, The World and The Sowetan. The sample is thinly dispersed over a period of five decades. Most of the advertisements selected were duplicated in the sister newspapers, Mochochono (Sesotho and Imvo (isiXhosa, which were published under the auspices of the Associated Bantu Press. In the latter case the advertisements in the different languages were directly translated from English. The thrust of our argument is that the narrative voice, together with the images, are loaded with a stereotyping preconceived notion of the “other”, which is either conscious or subconscious. We also suggest that the change of the newspaper’s name is accompanied by a perceptible evolution of ideological bias in both the images and the narrative voice.
Marília Pinto de Carvalho
Full Text Available Este estudo pretendeu avaliar se a definição de objetivos pedagógicos claros e a consequente adoção de critérios de avaliação de aprendizagem bem delimitados poderiam minimizar os desequilíbrios socioeconômicos, de sexo e de raça, evidenciados no interior do grupo de alunos indicados para atividades de reforço por nove professoras alfabetizadoras de diferentes escolas públicas na cidade de São Paulo. Foram realizadas observações em sala de aula, entrevistas com as educadoras e formulados questionários de caracterização socioeconômica dos alunos. Conclui-se que: a maior alteração relativa a alunos e alunas de baixa renda se refere ao papel atribuído pela professora à recuperação, que passa a ser considerada não como punição, mas como oportunidade de aprendizagem; a presença majoritária no reforço de crianças percebidas como pretas, pardas e indígenas diminui ligeiramente pela melhor definição de critérios de avaliação escolar; é nítido o equilíbrio na indicação de meninos e meninas ao reforço quando se avalia com precisão a aprendizagem e não o comportamento. São feitas também indicações para a formação inicial e continuada de educadores/as no que se refere a relações de gênero e de raça.This study aimed to verify if both the definition of plain educational goals and the adoption of clearly defined evaluation criteria could minimize inequalities at school, especially those related to socioeconomic, sex and race disparities noticed within a group of students referred to additional support activities by nine literacy teachers at different public schools in the city of São Paulo. The teachers were interviewed and the students answered a socioeconomic survey. Furthermore, observations within the schools were taken. The study concludes that the disproportionate number of children from low income families in that group is due to the particular role teachers attribute to those activities, which
Marília Pinto de Carvalho
historically and culturally. As such it can be defined, at that level of teaching, as an intervention of the teacher on extra-cognitive aspects of the development of his/her pupils, an attitude that requires emotional involvement and commitment to the children. Based on an ethnographic study the presence of the care in the ideals and pedagogical practices of Alda - a teacher that did not fully comply with those guidelines - is discussed. It is in that sense an approximation that reveals the limits of essentialist approaches that establish a linear relation between "femininity" and the ideal of a teacher. On one hand, the plurality of meanings of femininity, and their articulation with class and race relations, is stressed. On the other hand, it is suggested that the guidelines related to care are part of a school culture produced and reproduced within the institution itself, rather than in specific forms of feminine socialization. Alda’s story shows the need to discuss racism inside schools starting with the teachers themselves. It also shows that, if there is a certainty that practices of care are relevant to teaching, it is necessary to bring them to the center of the pedagogical debate so that they gain legitimacy as a professional practice.
Carmen H Logie
Full Text Available HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro.HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma experiência piloto de formação a distância de profissionais de educação nas temáticas de gênero, sexualidade, orientação sexual e relações étnico-raciais, resultado de uma articulação entre diversos ministérios do governo federal (Secretaria Especial de Políticas para Mulheres, Secretaria Especial de Políticas de Promoção da Igualdade Racial e o Ministério da Educação, o British Council e o Centro Latino-Americano em Sexualidade e Direitos Humanos da Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro. O curso, ocorrido entre maio e setembro de 2006, teve como público-alvo professores/as do ensino fundamental em seis municípios da rede pública e seu objetivo primordial foi ampliar a compreensão sobre a dinâmica dos processos de discriminação na sociedade brasileira, especificamente o racismo, o sexismo e a homofobia, possibilitando o fortalecimento de ações de combate a essas discriminações.This article presents a pilot experience in distance training for professionals in education in the areas of gender, sexuality, sexual orientation, and racial relations resulting from the coordination of several ministries of the Brazilian Federal Government, the British Council and the Latin American Center for Sexuality and Human Rights of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The course, was held between May and September 2006, and was aimed at elementary school teachers of the public school system. Its main purpose was to further the understanding of the dynamics of discrimination processes in the Brazilian society, especially racism, sexism, and homophobia, thus strengthening actions for fighting such discrimination.
Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R
HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination
Soneji, Samir; Metlay, Joshua
We determined the effectiveness of a 23-valent-polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV-23) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in reducing adult pneumococcal mortality by comparing historically predicted declines in pneumococcal disease mortality with observed patterns since the introduction of PPV-23 and PCV-7, including analyses of age, gender, and racial/ethnic subgroups. We analyzed all deaths registered on U.S. death certificates reporting any site of pneumococcal infection (e.g., meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, bacteremia, and peritonitis) from 1968 to 2006. We used time-series dynamic linear regression on annual pneumococcal mortality rates to determine the percentage reduction in post-1983 mortality rates for a given increase in PPV-23 vaccination rates and post-2000 mortality rates for a given increase in PCV-7 vaccination rates. Pneumococcal mortality decreased well before the introduction of PPV-23 in 1983 and again before the introduction of PCV-7 in 2000. The level of PPV-23 vaccination was associated with a direct and significant reduction in adult mortality, especially white female adults > or = 65 years of age. In contrast, the level of PCV-7 vaccination in the population was not associated with an indirect and significant reduction in pneumococcal mortality beyond the historical pace of decline. PPV-23 introduction was associated with a reduction in pneumococcal mortality among older adults > or = 65 years of age beyond levels predicted by secular trends, whereas PCV-7 introduction was not. Mortality reduction was not uniformly experienced across the population, revealing the need for additional strategies to reduce pneumococcal mortality in older adults.
Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.
Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the
This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...
Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.
Describes history of legal theory behind affirmative action, with examples from case law and Department of Education regulations, identifying legal pitfalls in admissions and financial aid, including categorization of students by race, racially disproportionate financial aid awards after accounting for need, racially disproportionate scholarship…
Paulo A. Lotufo
Full Text Available Stroke mortality rates have a discrepant distribution according to socioeconomic variables as social exclusion in Brazil. Recently, data from race has been available from the official health statistics considering five categories: White, Mixed, Black, Asian and Native. We addressed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, an analysis of cerebrovascular mortality according to race (excluding Asian and Native due to small number of events and gender during 1999-2001 for people aged 30 to 79 years-old. For all cerebrovascular diseases, age-adjusted mortality rates (x 100,000 for men were higher for Black (150.2, intermediate for Mixed (124.2 and lower for White (104.5 people. These gradient patterns were similar for all stroke subtypes, except for subarachnoideal hemorrhage in which no differences were detected. For women, the rates were lower compared to men and the same pattern was observed among Black (125.4, Mixed (88.5 and White (64.1 women. Compared to White men, the risk ratio of Black men was 1.4. However, compared to White women, the risk ratio for Black women was 2.0. Concluding, there is a significant gradient of stroke mortality according to race, mainly among women.As taxas de mortalidade pela doença cerebrovascular apresentam distribuição diferenciada de acordo com variáveis socioeconômicas. Informação sobre raça é nova no sistema de informação de mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Na cidade de São Paulo foi verificada entre três categoria de raça - branca, parda e negra - a taxa específica de mortalidade nos anos de 1999-2001 para pessoas entre 30 e 79 anos. Para o conjunto das doenças cerebrovasculares as taxas de mortalidade ajustadas para idade (x 100.000 para homens foram maiores entre os negros (150,2, intermediária para os pardos (124,2 e menor para brancos (104,5. Esse gradiente foi o mesmo para todos os subtipos, excluindo a hemorragia subaracnoídea. Para as mulheres, as taxas foram menores quando comparada aos
for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...
Efficacy and tolerability of a single-pill combination of telmisartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg according to age, gender, race, hypertension severity, and previous antihypertensive use: planned analyses of a randomized trial
Full Text Available Dingliang Zhu,1 Harold Bays,2 Pingjin Gao,1 Michaela Mattheus,3 Birgit Voelker,3 Luis M Ruilope4 1Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany; 4Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain Background: The purpose of this work was to describe the efficacy and safety of a telmisartan 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (T80/H25 single-pill combination therapy in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (mean seated trough cuff systolic blood pressure [BP] ≥ 160 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 100 mmHg in specific patient subpopulations. Methods: This was a planned analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial that demonstrated the superiority of a single-pill combination of T80/H25 versus T80 monotherapy in terms of systolic BP change from baseline to week 7. Subpopulations included older (aged ≥ 65 years versus younger, gender, race, hypertension severity, and prior antihypertensive therapy. Endpoints were change from baseline in mean seated trough cuff systolic and diastolic BP, proportion of patients achieving their BP goal (systolic/diastolic BP 30 mmHg and >40 mmHg. Results: Across all subgroups, the T80/H25 single-pill combination provided consistently greater systolic and diastolic BP reductions than T80 and more patients had systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg. In the T80 and T80/H25 groups, BP control was achieved in 34.1% and 48.8% of men, 35.5% and 62.7% of women, 34.5% and 56.6% of Asians, 22.6% and 38.6% of blacks, 36.7% and 57.8% of whites, 36.9% and 57.5% of patients < 65 years, 29.3% and 49.3% ≥65 years, 44.2% and 66.2% of those with grade 2 hypertension, 20.4% and 39.4% of those with grade 3 hypertension, 38.9% and 53.2% of previously untreated patients, 38.1% and 62.5% of patients previously treated with one antihypertensive, and 29.7% and 48.9% of patients
Alceu Ravanello Ferraro
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um experimento de articulação das dimensões gênero, raça e classe social no estudo da dinâmica da escolarização no Brasil, com base nos microdados do Censo Demográfico 2000. O nível de escolarização é medido por meio da média de anos de estudo realizados com aprovação pela população de 10 anos ou mais. O estudo evidencia que essas três dimensões produzem efeitos que não podem ser simplesmente adicionados, porque obedecem a lógicas distintas. À medida que se passa das gerações mais velhas para as mais novas, as mulheres passam da condição de inferioridade à de superioridade em termos de média de anos de estudo, ao passo que a população negra mantém-se em posição de inferioridade, em relação à população branca, em todas as idades, embora com alguma redução no nível de desigualdade. Por sua vez, as desigualdades educacionais relacionadas com as diferentes posições na ocupação, tomadas aqui como indicadores de classe, aparecem como as mais acentuadas, e isso tanto na população masculina como na feminina, tanto na população branca como na negra. O texto reforça, assim, a importância e a viabilidade de se articular, no estudo da escolarização, as dimensões gênero, raça e classe social, como recomendado pela literatura sobre a questão.The article presents results of an experiment in articulating the dimensions of gender, race, and social class in the study of the dynamics of schooling in Brazil based on the micro-data of the 2000 Demographic Census. The level of schooling is measured from the average years of study successfully completed by the population aged 10 or more. The study reveals that these three dimensions produce effects that cannot be simply added to each other, because they follow different logics. As we move from the older generations to the younger, women go from a situation of inferiority to one of superiority in terms of average years of
Women’s representation on corporate boards, political committees, and other teams is increasing, in part because of legal mandates. Data on team dynamics and gender differences in preferences (risk-taking behavior, taste for competition, prosocial behavior) show how gender composition influences group decision-making and subsequent performance through channels such as investment decisions, internal management, corporate governance, and social responsibility.
Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle
This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ben-David, Orit Brawer; Abu-Rabi, Aref
The transplantation of organs, which at first sight appears to be just a technical medical procedure, is, first and foremost a sociocultural action that gives expression to existential perceptions. In Israeli society, as in most western societies the donation of the body or parts of it, is interpreted as possible at a societal level, and not as a gift from one individual to another. The medical achievement inherent in organ transplantation brings forward the relationship between the body, death and society. The moment the body ceases to function biologically, its position within the social entity is examined. The donation of organs evinces the acceptance of the idea that the personal body belongs to the society which sanctions the transition of the private body into organs that become national assets. This research is a first attempt to study the motives of people from Muslim society, who donated organs of their dear ones. The ability of these people to enter into a system of exchange flows from a tacit assumption by all of them that the action is approved by their social group. This paper presents the concepts of death and of the body that enable donation in general and the donation of the Muslim population in particular.
Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ
The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.
Templeton, Alan R.
Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...
Maria Cardeira da Silva
Full Text Available Ouadane, um pequeno oásis do Adrar mauritano, entrou recentemente na rotas da patrimonialização e do turismo, para o que também terá contribuído uma singela acção de cooperação com Portugal. Uma etnografia centrada nos novos detalhes da paisagem mas, sobretudo, em Zeida, a jovem proprietária de um albergue de sucesso, permite acompanhar o modo como o impulso do espanto, o desejo de conhecimento e a ânsia de salvação/protecção que atraem para ali turistas, cooperantes e antropólogos são transformados em recursos e apropriados localmente, de forma estratificada pela classe, raça e género. Essa apropriação objectificada justifica novas configurações sociais que, por serem aparentemente surpreendentes, reciclam a força atractiva de Ouadane. O caso de Zeida permite, paralelamente, esclarecer o modo como o Islão pode oferecer alternativas de legitimação de comportamentos individuais, face a códigos sociais rígidos e paralisantes pouco preparados para a mudança rápida.Ouadane, a small oasis in the Mauritanian Adrar, has recently entered the touristic patrimonialization routes, partly due to a residual Portugueseproject of cultural cooperation. Through an ethnography centered in the new landscape, but essentially in Zeida (a young and successful hostel manager, will lead us into seeing how the impulse of wonder, the desire of knowledge, and the thrust for salvation/protection - attracting tourists, development agents and anthropologists - are transformed into resources and locally incorporated through class, race and gender stratifications. This incorporation arouses new social configurations that, through their apparent unexpectedness, recycle Ouadane’s attractive force. In parallel, Zeida’s case shows us how Islam can offer alternative legitimations for individual behaviors, within rigid and paralyzing social codifications, unready for quick social change.
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke
of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...
Cristiani Bereta da Silva, Maria Bernardete Ramos Flores
the way the pedagogies which aimed the formation of citizens and the idea of a modern and civilised country prescribed the ethos of virility to achieve the progress of the Nation. Keywords: gender, nation, virilization of the race GÉNERO Y NACIÓN: LA SERIE FONTES Y LA VIRILIZACIÓN DE LA RAZA Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es hacer un ejercicio de interpretación de la colección didáctica conocida como Serie Fontes, cuyo autor es Henrique da Silva Fontes (1885-1966, como una de las lecturas recomendadas por la escuela en el contexto de la construcción de la Nación republicana. Dicha colección fue distribuida en forma gratuita en la red de Instrucción Pública de Santa Catarina, y adoptada también en los establecimientos de enseñanza privados, desde la década de 1920 hasta mediados de la década de 1950. Partimos del supuesto de que los manuales didácticos cumplieron una importante función en las últimas décadas del siglo XIX y primeras décadas del siglo XX, como vehículos del proyecto de Estado-Nación, respaldado primordialmente en el ideario nacionalista. El foco principal de análisis será el de percibir cómo, en ese proceso de formación de ciudadanos y de construcción de la idea de patria moderna y civilizada, las pedagogías prescribían el ethos de la virilidad para alcanzar el progreso de la Nación. Palabras-clave: género; nación; virilización de la raza. GENRE ET NATION: LA SÉRIE FONTES ET LA VIRILISATION DE LA RACE Résumé L'objectif de cet article est de donner une interprétation de la collection didactique connue comme la Série Fontes de l'auteur Henrique da Silva Fontes (1885-1966. Cette série faisait partie des lectures exigées à l'école dans le contexte de la construction de la Nation Républicaine. Cette collection didactique a été gratuitement distribu
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
Full Text Available There is a rich body of work in critical race and feminist theories that have criticised as Euro/Anglo-centric, and hence exclusionary, the liberal foundations of Western democratic legal systems. The basis of such critiques is that legal personhood is premised on an atomistic individual agent that purports to be neutral but in actuality reflects and maintains the hegemonic gendered and raced status quo privileging the white, middle to upper-class man to the exclusion of women and all racial and cultural Others. Some approaches, such as cultural defences in criminal law, have sought to address this via a recognition and incorporation of the difference of Other groups and their different moral norms, proclivities and circumstances. To illustrate, this discussion will draw on a cultural defence that was advanced in a series of group sexual violence cases that involved four Pakistani, Muslim brothers. While concluding that culture permeates the actions of all individuals, this article seeks to show how cultural recognition approaches in law often overlook the individual agency of those differentiated through their racial, ethnic and religious visibility. Instead of asserting the primacy of individual free will and a rational agent as the main driver of criminal behaviour cultural defences, in particular, appear to attribute criminal action to the morally aberrant traditions and practices of non-Western cultures. At the same time, such approaches to cultural recognition fail to acknowledge that culture, and not just the culture of Others, is necessarily the backdrop for all (group sexual violence. With these points in mind, the paper ends with some suggestions for accommodating alternative narratives that seek to avoid the reductive scripts that currently appear to characterise legal and judicial musings on culture
of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...
of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...
Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laura Cecilia López
Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar as políticas de enfrentamento ao HIV/Aids com foco nas campanhas em torno da temática, na perspectiva da interseccionalidade de raça e gênero. Tal perspectiva nos auxilia a pensar como se entrecruzam e potencializam eixos de opressão, mas também permite visualizar uma ação política que gera processos de desconstrução dessas desigualdades, abrindo a possibilidade de transformação das instituições na promoção de igualdade racial e de gênero. Os dados etnográficos analisados foram coletados mediante pesquisa qualitativa, que focou as ações do movimento negro e a demanda ao poder público pelo enfrentamento ao HIV/Aids entre a população negra na região Sul do Brasil. No primeiro tópico do texto, examinou-se a relação entre raça, gênero e saúde por meio do conceito de biopoder. Na segunda parte, realizou-se uma análise das representações de corpo e sujeitos mobilizadas em duas campanhas de enfrentamento ao HIV/ Aids em âmbito nacional que tiveram como protagonista uma mulher negra, assim como as disputas em torno dessas campanhas. Como resultado da análise, percebeu-se a centralidade do corpo como expressão na luta política do movimento de mulheres negras, enfatizando e questionando a vulnerabilidade social produzida pelo trabalho da biopolítica sobre os corpos, particularmente quando se leva em consideração a intersecção de raça e gênero.This article aims to analyze the HIV/AIDS policies, particularly campaigns, in the perspective of race and gender intersection. Such perspective enables the understanding of how gender oppression and race oppression intersect each other, whereas, on the other hand, political action deconstructs these inequalities and enables the transformation of institutions in the promotion of gender and race equality. The ethnographic data I analyzed were collected during a qualitative research that focused on the actions carried out by
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…
An investigation of the relationship between race and research output by examining the productivity of black and non-black holders of the Ph.D. in sociology, revealed that race had no predictive value in regard to the publication productivity of sociologists. (EH)
Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.
In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...
Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J
This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality. Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions ...
Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...
A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)
Liu, Shaoying; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Zhu, Dandan; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang
Previous studies have reported that 3- to 4-month-olds show a visual preference for faces of the same gender as their primary caregiver (e.g., Quinn et al., 2002). In addition, this gender preference has been observed for own-race faces, but not for other-race faces (Quinn et al., 2008). However, most of the studies of face gender preference have focused on infants at 3-4 months. Development of gender preference in later infancy is still unclear. Moreover, all of these studies were conducted with Caucasian infants from Western countries. It is thus unknown whether a gender preference that is limited to own-race faces can be generalized to infants from other racial groups and different cultures with distinct caregiving practices. The current study investigated the face gender preferences of Asian infants presented with male versus female face pairs from Asian and Caucasian races at 3, 6, and 9 months and the role of caregiving arrangements in eliciting those preferences. The results showed an own-race female face preference in 3- and 6-month-olds, but not in 9-month-olds. Moreover, the downturn in the female face preference correlated with the cumulative male face experience obtained in caregiving practices. In contrast, no gender preference or correlation between gender preference and face experience was found for other-race Caucasian faces at any age. The data indicate that the face gender preference is not specifically rooted in Western cultural caregiving practices. In addition, the race dependency of the effect previously observed for Caucasian infants reared by Caucasian caregivers looking at Caucasian but not Asian faces extends to Asian infants reared by Asian caregivers looking at Asian but not Caucasian faces. The findings also provide additional support for an experiential basis for the gender preference, and in particular suggest that cumulative male face experience plays a role in inducing a downturn in the preference in older infants.
Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that 3- to 4-month-olds show a visual preference for faces of the same gender as their primary caregiver (e.g., Quinn et al., 2002. In addition, this gender preference has been observed for own-race faces, but not for other-race faces (Quinn et al., 2008 However, most of the studies of face gender preference have focused on infants at 3 to 4 months. Development of gender preference in later infancy is still unclear. Moreover, all of these studies were conducted with Caucasian infants from Western countries. It is thus unknown whether a gender preference that is limited to own-race faces can be generalized to infants from other racial groups and different cultures with distinct caregiving practices. The current study investigated the face gender preferences of Asian infants presented with male versus female face pairs from Asian and Caucasian races at 3, 6, and 9 months and the role of caregiving arrangements in eliciting those preferences. The results showed an own-race female face preference in 3- and 6-month-olds, but not in 9-month-olds. Moreover, the downturn in the female face preference correlated with the cumulative male face experience obtained in caregiving practices. In contrast, no gender preference or correlation between gender preference and face experience was found for other-race Caucasian faces at any age. The data indicate that the face gender preference is not specifically rooted in Western cultural caregiving practices. In addition, the race dependency of the effect previously observed for Caucasian infants reared by Caucasian caregivers looking at Caucasian but not Asian faces extends to Asian infants reared by Asian caregivers looking at Asian but not Caucasian faces. The findings also provide additional support for an experiential basis for the gender preference, and in particular suggest that cumulative male face experience plays a role in inducing a downturn in the preference in older
Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task
Full Text Available Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115, we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.
Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi
Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623
Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi
Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.
Lee, Catherine; Skrentny, John D
Despite the lack of consensus regarding the meaning or significance of race or ethnicity amongst scientists and the lay public, there are legal requirements and guidelines that dictate the collection of racial and ethnic data across a range of institutions. Legal regulations are typically created through a political process and then face varying kinds of resistance when the state tries to implement them. We explore the nature of this opposition by comparing responses from businesses, scientists, and science-oriented businesses (pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies) to U.S. state regulations that used politically derived racial categorizations, originally created to pursue civil rights goals. We argue that insights from cultural sociology regarding institutional and cultural boundaries can aid understanding of the nature of resistance to regulation. The Food and Drug Administration's guidelines for research by pharmaceutical companies imposed race categories on science-based businesses, leading to objections that emphasized the autonomy and validity of science. In contrast, similar race categories regulating first business by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and later scientific research sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) encountered little challenge. We argue that pharmaceutical companies had the motive (profit) that NIH-supported scientists lacked and a legitimate discourse (boundary work of science) that businesses regulated by the EEOC did not have. The study suggests the utility of a comparative cultural sociology of the politics of legal regulation, particularly when understanding race-related regulation and the importance of examining legal regulations for exploring how the meaning of race or ethnicity are contested and constructed in law.
Blume, Peter Erik
This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...
Griffin, Rachel Alicia
This essay positions sport as a pedagogical social institution from which people learn about race, gender, power, and privilege. The National Basketball Association is examined closely with a critical race lens with regard to the commodification of Black masculinity. A critical race analysis reveals the sharp contradictions between the league’s progressive image as an “industry leader” of racial diversity (Lapchick, Bustamante, & Ruiz, 2007, p.1) and the actualization of league discourse, policy, and practice.
A female, Asian American professor of ethnic literature examines entrenched racial attitudes in higher education institutions. The attitudes are rarely acknowledged, especially regarding race-related courses, teaching, and tenure evaluations that consider race and gender. Compares her experience with that of white male colleagues who have…
Phan, Phu; Vugia, Holly; Wright, Paul; Woods, Dianne Rush; Chu, Mayling; Jones, Terry
Teaching about race, racism, and oppression presents higher education programs with complex challenges. This article reports on the experiences of a new MSW program in designing a gateway "race, gender, and inequality" course. Embracing a theoretical base of culturally competent practice and solutions to the inherent difficulties of discussing…
The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.
Atrash, H K; Cheek, T G; Hogue, C J
Legal abortion-related mortality as reported to the Centers for Disease Control declined eightfold between 1972 and 1981. However, the causes of legal abortion mortality have changed over time. We reviewed all legal abortion-related deaths that occurred between 1972 and 1985 in the United States. We found that, although the absolute number of legal abortion-related deaths caused by general anesthesia complications did not increase, the proportion of such deaths increased significantly, from 7.7% between 1972 and 1975 to 29.4% between 1980 and 1985. Women who died of general anesthesia complications did not differ by age, presence of preexisting medical conditions, or type of facility from women who died of other causes. However, the proportion of deaths from general anesthesia complications was significantly higher among women of black and other races, women obtaining abortions during the first trimester, and women obtaining abortions in the Northeast. Our results indicate that at least 23 of the 27 deaths were due to hypoventilation and/or loss of airway resulting in hypoxia. Persons administering general anesthesia for abortion must be skilled in airway management as well as the provision of general anesthesia.
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
Subjects of authority, class, gender, and race in literature are, in most cases, so inextricably intertwined that we ... written that “gender is an identity one adopts or creates” (qtd in Buchanan 198). Invariably, the question is: ... more radical brand of feminism advocated by American feminist scholars. This, of course, has led to a ...
Reilly, Amanda; Jones, Deborah; Rey Vasquez, Carla; Krisjanous, Jayne
This study, set in a New Zealand Business School, takes an integrative view of the university as an "inequality regime" Acker, J. (2006b). Inequality regimes: Gender, class and race in organizations. "Gender and Society," 20(4), 441-464 including all types of women staff: academic women in permanent positions, academics on…
Full Text Available Abstract:Background: Despite the well-established literature on the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES against mortality, these effects may vary based on contextual factors such as race and place. Using 25-year follow up data of a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S., this study had two aims: 1 to explore separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race and place (urbanity on mortality, and 2 to test the effects of education and income against all-cause mortality based on race and place.Methods: The Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study followed Whites and Blacks 25 years and older adults from 1986 until 2011. The focal predictors were baseline SES (education and income collected in 1986. The main outcome was time to death due to all causes from 1986 until 2011. Age, gender, and behaviors (smoking and exercise and health (chronic medical conditions, self-rated health and depressive symptoms were potential confounders. A series of survey Cox proportional hazard models were used to test protective effects of education and income on mortality based on race and urbanity. Results: While race and place had separate effects on mortality, the additive and multiplicative effects of race and place were not significant. Higher education and income were protective against all-cause mortality in the pooled sample. While the protective effects of education was explained by baseline health, the effect of income remained significant beyond health. Race and urbanity significantly interacted with baseline education but not income on all-cause mortality, suggesting that protective effects of education but not income depend on race and place. Conclusion: The survival gain associated with education in the United States depends on race and place. These findings suggest that populations differently benefit from SES resources, particularly education. Differential effect of education on employment and health care may explain
Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David
The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…
presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...
Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing
Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine
This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012...
Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller
In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...
The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.
The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...
Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
: an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...
The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...
The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.
Jeynes, William H.
This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…
Dowling, William C.
Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…
On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...
The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Secular States, Muslim Law and Islamic Religious Culture: Gender Implications of Legal Struggles in Hybrid Legal Systems in Contemporary West Africa Les États laïques, le droit musulman et la pratique culturelle dite islamique : Implications pour les femmes des luttes juridiques dans les systèmes juridiques hybrides de l’Afrique de l’Ouest contemporaine
Barbara M. Cooper
Full Text Available This article sets out the differing approaches of three West African states (Niger, Senegal, and Nigeria towards reconciling the multiple legal systems (Islamic, western, military they have inherited as ostensibly secular states in regions with prominent Muslim populations. While Senegal has adopted a Family Code that appears to modify and regulate some of the perceived injustices of Islamic law in family life, a number of states within Nigeria have gone in the opposite direction, expanding Islamic law beyond family law into the criminal domain. In Niger, on the other hand, multiple systems of law co-exist uneasily, without any effective hierarchy or definitive conclusion to legal disputes carried into different legal domains. In all three cases the state does not have the capacity to effectively enforce a single coherent legal system, nor does it succeed in controlling the «justice» that so commonly occurs in extra-legal settings. Throughout West Africa legal reform must contend with the dual problems of weak state capacity to impose a unified legal system and of the vigilantism of pressure groups that may have limited mastery of the Islamic juridical tradition in an atmosphere that is nevertheless heavy with the rhetoric of a return to Islamic purity.Cet article expose les différentes approches de trois États ouest-africains que sont le Niger, le Sénégal et le Nigeria en vue de concilier les divers systèmes juridiques (islamique, occidental, militaire dont ils ont hérité en tant qu’États ostensiblement laïques dans des régions majoritairement musulmanes. Si le Sénégal a adopté un Code de la famille qui paraît modifier et réglementer les dites injustices du droit musulman dans la vie de famille, un certain nombre d'États du Nigéria sont allés en sens inverse, en élargissant le droit islamique au-delà du droit de la famille en l’étendant au domaine pénal. Au Niger, d’autre part, plusieurs systèmes de droit
Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
What is biological race and how is it made relevant in specific practices? How to address the materiality of biological race without fixing it? And how to write about it without reifying race as a singular object? These are the central questions in this short essay. Instead of debunking or
Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…
Nadya Araújo Guimarães
Full Text Available O texto documenta a existência de padrões distintos de desigualdades nos rendimentos auferidos no trabalho entre grupos de sexo e cor, no Brasil, analisando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios para os anos de 1989 e 1999. Argumenta em favor da importância dos demarcadores inscritos no corpo como elementos explicativos importantes, embora não exclusivos, das desigualdades salariais documentadas, procura isolar prováveis indícios de discriminação racial e/ou de gênero, controlando estatisticamente o efeito de outros possíveis determinantes das desigualdades nos rendimentos. Finalmente, reflete sobre os elos entre desigualdade, discriminação e intolerância nos ambientes de trabalho no Brasil.Different patterns of wage inequality prevail among black men, black women and white women vis-à-vis white men. Analyzing data from the National Household Sample Survey (1989 and 1999, and controlling over other possible explaining variables (like individual assets and features of labor market structure the author claims that adscription is an important (although not exclusive source of wage differentiation among sex and race groups. Should we expect that inequalities (grounded on discriminatory practices could lead to the emergence of intolerance and violence at the workplaces?
Full Text Available Gender is a social construct that outlines the roles, behaviors, activities and features that a particular society believes are appropriate for men and women. Gender equality is necessary in order to ensure a fair and productive labor market. Even though, Bosnia and Herzegovina has established legal framework including gender equality laws, women are still facing barriers to participation in the labor market. This research paper will indicate what are the main challenges behind the low participation of women in the labor market. It will provide information on gender differences; the main challenges, and also emphasize gender stereotypes which are contributing the gendered division in labor market.
Taksaudom, Noppon; Tongsiri, Natee; Potikul, Amarit; Leampriboon, Chawakorn; Tantraworasin, Apichat; Chaiyasri, Anong
Unique rough-terrain ultra-trail running races have increased in popularity. Concerns regarding the suitability of the candidates make it difficult for organizers to manage safety regulations. The purpose of this study was to identify possible race predictors and assess hemodynamic change after long endurance races. We studied 228 runners who competed in a 66 km-trail running race. A questionnaire and noninvasive hemodynamic flow assessment including blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, stroke volume variation, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation were used to determine physiologic alterations and to identify finish predictors. One hundred and thirty volunteers completed the questionnaire, 126 participants had a prerace hemodynamic assessment, and 33 of these participants completed a postrace assessment after crossing the finish line. The participants were divided into a finisher group and a nonfinisher group. The average age of all runners was 37 years (range of 24-56 years). Of the 228 runners, 163 (71.5%) were male. There were 189 (82.9%) finishers. Univariable analysis indicated that the finish predictors included male gender, longest distance ever run, faster running records, and lower diastolic pressure. Only a lower diastolic pressure was a significant predictor of race finishing (diastolic blood pressure 74-84 mmHg: adjusted odd ratio 3.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-13.27 and diastolic blood pressure resistance and cardian index did not change significantly. The only race finishing predictor from the multivariable analysis was lower diastolic pressure. Finishers seem to have a hypovolemic physiologic response and a lower level of oxygen saturation.
Bolliger, Doris U.
Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…
Miller, Douglas L; Paxson, Christina
This paper examines the relationship between relative income and mortality. Our research is motivated by recent literature that posits that, holding individual income fixed, those whose income are low relative to the incomes of those in a reference group will have worse health. We develop an empirical model in which an individual's health is a function of his or her own income and the incomes of those who live in the same geographical area. We show how this individual-level model can be estimated using semi-aggregated data on the mortality rates of people categorized by age, race, gender, and place of residence. The model is estimated using mortality data from the 1980 and 1990 Compressed Mortality Files, merged with income data from the 1980 and 1990 5% Public Use samples of the US Census. We find no evidence that having relatively wealthy neighbors, holding own income fixed, is associated with higher mortality. Instead, we find evidence that among some demographic and age groups--in particular working-aged black males--having relatively wealthy neighbors is associated with lower mortality. For example, among younger (aged 25-64) black men, an increase in the income of others is estimated to have a beneficial effect on mortality that is 40% as large as an equivalent increase in own income.
This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.
Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman
Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...
Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard
This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....
Cattermole, H R
A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record.
Full Text Available Considering the overwhelming amount of media products that we are subjected to in the 21st century and the way in which those inevitably influence our perception of reality, this research pays specific attention to the role of the media in the construction and enhancement of stereotypes in everyday life, via the language or, more specifically, specialized languages. In particular, this paper aims to investigate an American legal TV series in order to analyze the way in which legal English is used in dialogues. The major research questions are: to what extent such a kind of specialized discourse may be really understood by the greater audience? How does legal drama participate in the shaping of stereotypes relating to the legal environment in the country where it is produced, and cross-culturally, bearing in mind the prominence of “made in the USA” products in the television programming across the world? Ultimately, in the light of the previous questions, should the growing field of research in audiovisual translation extend its investigation into the area of legal English? Taking into consideration the seminal work of Pedersen (2008 and Diaz Cintas (2008 in the field of Audiovisual Translation (AVT, the study will examine the subtitling techniques employed for this atypical genre. Through the analysis of a corpus comprising several dialogues from a collection of episodes of the legal show Reckless, the paper will mostly focus on gender representations and their most common linguistically enhanced stereotypes.
Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...
This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15. For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.
CERN Running club
The CERN running club, in collaboration with the Staff Association, is happy to announce the 2018 relay race edition. It will take place on Thursday, May 24th and will consist as every year in a round trip of the CERN Meyrin site in teams of 6 members. It is a fun event, and you do not have to run fast to enjoy it. Registrations will be open from May 1st to May 22nd on the running club web site. All information concerning the race and the registration are available there too: http://runningclub.web.cern.ch/content/cern-relay-race. A video of the previous edition is also available here : http://cern.ch/go/Nk7C. As every year, there will be animations starting at noon on the lawn in front of restaurant 1, and information stands for many CERN associations and clubs will be available. The running club partners will also be participate in the event, namely Berthie Sport, Interfon and Uniqa.
Witbrodt, Jane; Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E; Kerr, William C
While prior studies have reported racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems at a given level of heavy drinking (HD), particularly lower levels, it is unclear whether these occur in both genders and are an artifact of racial/ethnic differences in drink alcohol content. Such information is important to understanding disparities and developing specific, targeted interventions. This study addresses these questions and examines disparities in specific types of alcohol problems across racial-gender groups. Using 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey data (N = 7,249 current drinkers), gender-stratified regression analyses were conducted to assess black-white and Hispanic-white disparities in alcohol dependence and negative drinking consequences at equivalent levels of HD. HD was measured using a gender-specific, composite drinking-patterns variable derived through factor analysis. Analyses were replicated using adjusted-alcohol consumption variables that account for group differences in drink alcohol content based on race/ethnicity, gender, age, and alcoholic beverage. Compared with white men, black and Hispanic men had higher rates of injuries/accidents/health and social consequences, and marginally greater work/legal consequences (p racial/ethnic disparities. Interventions focused on reducing HD might not address disparities in alcohol-related problems that exist at low levels of HD. Future research should consider the potential role of environmental and genetic factors in these disparities. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan
The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p economy (moderate effect, p economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.
Islamic laws, gender discrimination and legal injustices: The Zina Hudood Ordinance of Pakistan and its implication for women -AND- Shared oppressions and narrative and cross-cultural communication through autobiography in the Muslim world
The first essay will examine the trend of sexual violence against women that emerged in Pakistan with the introduction of the Idamipation process through the implementation of the Sharia laws since 1979. The paper's main focus will be on rape and the state-legislation that governs it, namely the Zina Hudood Ordinance of 1979 and the Law ofEvidence of 1984, and how the gender-discriminatory nature of these laws in the name of religion serves to subjugate women. The second essay d evaluate the ...
Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we
Full Text Available O ensaio tem por objetivo refletir sobre a utilidade do conceito de não sincronia, na educação, entre desigualdades de gênero e raça. Para tanto, apresenta e discute o perfil de estudantes e candidatos/as ao Programa Internacional de Bolsas de Pós-Graduação da Fundação Ford no Brasil, propondo interpretações referentes à sobrerepresentação feminina no ensino superior e na pós-graduação. Termina alertando sobre a necessidade de se abrir o debate sobre o melhor desempenho educacional das mulheres no contexto atual de discussão sobre ação afirmativa no ensino superior para negros e indígenasThe essay is a reflection on the usefulness of the concept of non synchrony between gender and racial inequalities in education. It presents and discusses the profile of the students and candidates in the International Fellowships Program of the Ford Foundation in Brazil, proposing interpretations with respect to the over-representation of women in higher education and in graduate studies. It ends by calling attention to the need to open up the discussion about the better educational performance of women in the present context of the debate on affirmative action in higher education for blacks and the indigenous population.
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Fishman, Inna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula
Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition with a distinctive social phenotype characterized by excessive sociability accompanied by a relative proficiency in face recognition, despite severe deficits in the visuospatial domain of cognition. This consistent phenotypic characteristic and the relative homogeneity of the WS genotype make WS a compelling human model for examining genotype-phenotype relations, especially with respect to social behavior. Following up on a recent report suggesting that individuals with WS do not show race bias and racial stereotyping, this study was designed to investigate the neural correlates of the perception of faces from different races, in individuals with WS as compared to typically developing (TD) controls. Caucasian WS and TD participants performed a gender identification task with own-race (White) and other-race (Black) faces while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In line with previous studies with TD participants, other-race faces elicited larger amplitude ERPs within the first 200 ms following the face onset, in WS and TD participants alike. These results suggest that, just like their TD counterparts, individuals with WS differentially processed faces of own-race versus other-race, at relatively early stages of processing, starting as early as 115 ms after the face onset. Overall, these results indicate that neural processing of faces in individuals with WS is moderated by race at early perceptual stages, calling for a reconsideration of the previous claim that they are uniquely insensitive to race.
In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.
Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
: an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...
Bright, Liam Kofi
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foiles Sifuentes, A. M.
This article examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and academic success through an ethnographic case study in a Texas charter high school. The 98% working-class, Latino student population was exposed to an array of stigmas ascribed to their persons based on negative social stereotypes of race, ethnicity, gender, and class due to the…
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.
Queen, Robin M.; Abbey, Alicia N.; Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Yoder, Jordan C.; Nunley, James A.
Despite the differences in materials, racing flats have begun to be used not only for racing, but also for daily training. As there are data suggesting a gender difference in overuse injuries in runners, shoe choice may affect loading patterns during running. The purpose was to determine differences
Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Taylor, Kelley R.
The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro
This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...
Harrison, Louis; Clark, Langston
Ongoing events in the United States show the continual need to address issues of social justice in every social context. Of particular note in this article, the contemporary national focus on race has thrust social justice issues into the forefront of the country's conscious. Although legal segregation has ran its course, schools and many…
Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).
Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.
Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…
Perez, Angel B.
Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…
Focusing on long-term arms-race education, discusses what physicists can do to help provide students and the public with technical information needed to understand issues involved in the nuclear cold war. Suggestions provided focus on public programs, media, publications, education of physicists, arms-race courses, "enrichment in physics courses,"…
This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…
The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.
Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart
Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....
Larson, Brian N.
Some studies have found characteristics of written texts that vary with author gender, echoing popular beliefs about essential gender differences that are reinforced in popular works of some scholarly authors. This article reports a study examining texts (N = 193) written in the same genre--a legal memorandum--by women and men with similar…
'Service', particularly 'domestic service', operates as a specific articulation or intersection of processes of race, class, gender and age that reiterates images of the sexual desirability of some women racially marked by blackness or indigeneity in Latin America. The sexualisation of racially subordinated people has been linked to the exercise of power. This article focuses on an aspect of subordination related to the condition of being a servant, and the 'domestication' and 'acculturation'...
Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first
Badke, Lara K.
A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.
Harish, Dasari; Sharma, B R
Transsexualism is a condition wherein an individual's psychological gender is the opposite of his or her anatomic sex. The general belief now among behavioral scientists and physicians is that it is an identifiable and incapacitating disease, which can be diagnosed and successfully treated by reassignment surgery in carefully selected patients. Although many advances have been made in the reassignment surgery techniques, phalloplasty still remains a major challenge; to date, no ideal technique has been developed. The new gender created by the reassignment surgery has, in turn, led to many legal complications for postoperative transsexuals because states and the judiciary have not recognized the new gender. However, with wider acceptance of transsexuals by society, this outlook has changed for the better, with many states amending their laws in accordance with the advances in medical sciences. But in many developed and the developing countries, transsexuals are not given a legal identity, thereby adding to their agonies and miseries.
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.