WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal processes affecting

  1. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  2. Legal Decisions, Affective Justice and 'Moving On'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Fijalkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper argues that a move away from the linear approach adopted in transitional justice scholarship is required to the question of ‘moving on’, understood as the way in which a post-dictatorial or a post-conflict regime addresses the past injustices of the predecessor regime. We consider this question in relation to two case studies: post-dictatorial Albania and post-conflict Sierra Leone. Both examples point to important factors that underpin the meanings of ‘moving on’ and of justice, when analysed through a law and aesthetics lens. It has long been established that legal scholarship that makes use of works of art aids and clarifies the points that it wants to make. We examine the power of certain art forms, namely the way in which space ‘speaks’ and the narratives found in an image in the Albanian context, and the use of film to provide a deeper appreciation of the conflict in the Sierra Leonean context. Different aesthetic practices have been used as a way to respond to historical injustice and mass atrocity, also when partial justice (through the law has been achieved. Our article argues that law’s limitations can be understood through the process of unravelling the pieces of the puzzle that make up affective justice. Artistic representation allows for a more complex narration than law’s linear demands. Este artículo defiende que para poder “avanzar”, es necesario un alejamiento del enfoque lineal adoptado por los académicos expertos en justicia transicional, entendida ésta como la forma en la que un régimen aborda, después de una dictadura o un conflicto, injusticias perpetradas durante el régimen anterior. Se considera esta cuestión en relación con dos estudios de caso: Albania después de una dictadura, y Sierra Leona después de un conflicto. Ambos ejemplos apuntan factores importantes que sustentan los significados de “avanzar” y de justicia, cuando se analizan a través de la lente del derecho y la

  3. Legal process, litigation, and judicial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, H Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethically salient issues in neurologic care may have important legal overtones. This chapter considers some of these, emphasizing how law may influence the outcome of controversies over how best to promote autonomy, beneficence, and justice in the care of individuals with neurologic disorders. Constitutional, statutory, and judicial dimensions are addressed. With respect to autonomy, discussion emphasizes legal dimensions of the doctrine of informed consent and the obligations of medical professionals to protect the privacy and confidentiality of their patients. The discussion of beneficence focuses on issues relating to actual or potential conflicts of interest in the care of patients and on the conduct of research involving human subjects. The section on justice considers how law aims to define protectable rights and interests of individuals and to provide a fair and efficient process for resolving disputes. Applications of legal principles and doctrines are illustrated primarily through the examples afforded by judicial decisions. These cases demonstrate how law both promotes ethical decision-making and protects the rights and interests of those affected. The cases also highlight some of the ethical quandaries that evoke resort to litigation and the limits of law in advancing ethically appropriate outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 5 CFR 582.202 - Service of legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of legal process. 582.202 Section... GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.202 Service of legal process. (a) A... agency as a garnishee. (b) Service of legal process may be accomplished by certified or registered mail...

  5. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  6. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…

  7. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  8. How does Investors' Legal Protection affect Productivity and Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Binyamin Berdugo; Sharon Hadad

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the implications of investors' legal protection on aggregate productivity and growth. We have two main results. First, that better investors' legal protection can mitigate agency problems between investors and innovators and therefore expand the range of high-tech projects that can be financed by non-bank investors. Second, investors' legal protection shifts investment resources from less productive (medium-tech) to highly productive (high-tech) projects and therefore enha...

  9. Legal Issues Affecting Faculty and Administration in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Larry E.; Reddick, Thomas L.

    Legal aspects of college teaching and administration are discussed. The faculty and college are liable by tort law for students in three ways: intentional acts or interference, strict liability, and negligence. Intentional acts include improperly installed or dangerous equipment, while strict liability cases usually occur where fault is not…

  10. Legal constraints on genetic data processing in European grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouw, Evert; van't Noordende, Guido; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Louter, Baas; Santcroos, Mark; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.

    2012-01-01

    European laws on privacy and data security are not explicit about the storage and processing of genetic data. Especially whole-genome data is identifying and contains a lot of personal information. Is processing of such data allowed in computing grids? To find out, we looked at legal precedents in

  11. Photovoltaic commercialization: an analysis of legal issues affecting a government-accelerated solar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Photovoltaics Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 is discussed. Legal issues, including solar access, the need for performance standards, the effects of building codes on photovoltaic system use and commercialization, and manufacturer and installer performance guarantees, are examined. Electric utility policies are examined, including interconnection, and rates and legal issues affecting them. (LEW)

  12. Legal Issues Affecting Libraries and Librarians: Employment Law, Liability and Insurance, Contracts, and Problem Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Joseph J.; Shuman, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This fourth lesson in a continuing education course on legal issues affecting libraries and librarians discusses the library's rights and legal responsibilities in the areas of censorship and intellectual freedom, the Freedom of Information Act and patron privacy, problem patrons, and ethical considerations of library services. (14 references)…

  13. Domestic violence survivors and their experiences during legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Yeşiltepe, Gözde; Karaman, Gökçe; Ergönen, Akça Toprak

    2016-05-01

    Many victims of domestic violence do not seek recourse to the needed medical and legal services. The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties faced by and experiences of female survivors of domestic violence during their medical and legal proceedings. We designed our study using a qualitative approach to understand the experiences of survivors during the legal process as well as their feelings and attitudes towards domestic violence through in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Most of our participants reported different types of domestic violence, citing feelings of fear and loneliness during these experiences. They reported feeling dissatisfied with their complaints being ignored by the police and the perpetrators remaining unpunished. They complained of the complex procedures and negligence of staff in health-care centers such as hospitals, and they reported being shifted to several different places. We believe that an assessment of such female survivors in terms of specific standards set by specialists will help make improvements to the legal process. Education programs should be organized for professionals dealing with survivors of domestic violence. Special health-care services with fast proceedings must be established in health-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. 22 CFR 92.85 - Service of legal process usually prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of legal process usually prohibited. 92... RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.85 Service of legal process usually prohibited. The service of process and legal papers is not normally a Foreign Service function. Except when directed by the...

  15. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 22 CFR 92.89 - Fees for service of legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees for service of legal process. 92.89 Section 92.89 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.89 Fees for service of legal process. No charge should be made for...

  17. Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences.

  18. 22 CFR 92.92 - Service of legal process under provisions of State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of legal process under provisions of... AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.92 Service of legal process under provisions of State law. It may be found that a State statue purporting to regulate the service of process in foreign...

  19. The Process of Legal Drafting Regulation in the Development of the Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mardha, Amil

    2009-01-01

    THE PROCESS OF LEGAL DRAFTING REGULATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. In Indonesia, the process of legal drafting to establish the regulation is based on the Act No. 10 Year 2004 on the Establishment of Legislation. The process shall comply with the constitutional and institutional requirements of national political and legal system. In drafting the development of the regulation of nuclear energy, BAPETEN has been involving some other agencies or other related g...

  20. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

  1. Orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours affect the onset of ERP lexical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorni Roberta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that the variability among studies in the onset of lexical effects may be due to a series of methodological differences. In this study we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours of words in determining the onset of word/non-word discriminative responses. Methods ERPs were recorded from 128 sites in 16 Italian University students engaged in a lexical decision task. Stimuli were 100 words, 100 quasi-words (obtained by the replacement of a single letter, 100 pseudo-words (non-derived and 100 illegal letter strings. All stimuli were balanced for length; words and quasi-words were also balanced for frequency of use, domain of semantic category and imageability. SwLORETA source reconstruction was performed on ERP difference waves of interest. Results Overall, the data provided evidence that the latency of lexical effects (word/non-word discrimination varied as a function of the number of a word's orthographic neighbours, being shorter to non-derived than to derived pseudo-words. This suggests some caveats about the use in lexical decision paradigms of quasi-words obtained by transposing or replacing only 1 or 2 letters. Our findings also showed that the left-occipito/temporal area, reflecting the activity of the left fusiform gyrus (BA37 of the temporal lobe, was affected by the visual familiarity of words, thus explaining its lexical sensitivity (word vs. non-word discrimination. The temporo-parietal area was markedly sensitive to phonological legality exhibiting a clear-cut discriminative response between illegal and legal strings as early as 250 ms of latency. Conclusion The onset of lexical effects in a lexical decision paradigm depends on a series of factors, including orthographic familiarity, degree of global lexical activity, and phonologic legality of non-words.

  2. The legal process of environmental evaluation and examination in North America and in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpiano, V.

    1999-01-01

    The most important goal of the Environmental Law is to maximize the prevention approach. As so far, a scheme has been initiated since a few years to reach this objective: a legal environmental process with a lot of mechanisms whose the objective is to estimate the environmental impact of a project in order to control it. This legal environmental process including for example the Environmental Impact Assessment is more and more integrated in the environmental policies of the industrialized countries. It began in North America, first in the U.S.A. but also in Canada. A few years after, the countries of the Western Europe, particularly the European Unions, have introduced a similar legal process taking into account the specificities of these European countries. So if the goals of this legal environmental preventive approach are similar in North America and in Western Europe, the implementation is often different according to the legal, economic but also sociological structures of these two major regions. This Phd Thesis try to study the two major impacts of this legal evaluating process: it is implemented by the public authorities to reach with a best result a Sustainable Development. But also, it tries to combine the protection of the Environment and the utilisation of legal, economic and financial mechanisms of the Market to obtain a fair trade competition. (authors)

  3. 5 CFR 582.203 - Information minimally required to accompany legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process... to the court, or other authority, with an explanation of the deficiency. However, prior to returning...

  4. Paradigms of forensic science and legal process: a critical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2015-08-05

    This article reconsiders the relationship between criminal adjudication and forensic expertise in the light of 'new paradigms' of forensic practice and recent law reform. It briefly summarizes conventional wisdom on the typical shortcomings of forensic science and other expert evidence, as a springboard for a more searching critical diagnosis of longstanding maladies. The fundamentally jurisdictional nature of law is emphasized, and some implications for expert testimony noted. English law's traditionally adversarial model of criminal procedure is then reassessed, taking account of a proper understanding of its normative structure and modern development, and drawing on comparative legal research and theorizing to obtain a more rounded second opinion. In conclusion, some avenues for intelligent prescription are canvassed, highlighting the importance of promoting and facilitating effective communication between experts, lawyers and courts, and prioritizing modest practical remedies over radical surgery. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. How do Mergers and Acquisitions Affect Bondholders in Europe? Evidence on the Impact and Spillover of Governance and Legal Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes to the comparative corporate governance literature by showing how cross-country differences in governance and legal standards affect the bondholder wealth effects of European merger and acquisitions (M&As).Using investment-grade Eurobonds, we find some remarkable

  6. How Do Mergers and Acquisitions Affect Bondholders in Europe? Evidence on the Impact and Spillover of Governance and Legal Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper contributes to the comparative corporate governance literature by showing how cross-country differences in governance and legal standards affect the bondholder wealth effects of European merger and acquisitions (M&As). Using investment-grade Eurobonds, we find some remarkable

  7. Law and Islamic finance: How legal origins affect Islamic finance development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown that differences in legal origin explain differences in financial development. Using historical comparisons and cross-country regressions for 30 countries observed for the period from 2005 to 2010, this study tried to assess if different legal origins impacted on the development of Islamic finance. More particularly, this paper tried to assess empirically why and how Shari'a Law's legal origins adopted wholly or partially (combined with Common or Civil Law could explain the level of development of Islamic finance in different jurisdictions. Firstly, we found that countries adopting a Shari'a legal system had a very well developed Islamic financial system. Secondly, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on Common Law and Shari'a Law, were characterized by the flexibility of their legal systems to make changes to their laws in response to the changing socioeconomic conditions and that these helped the development of the Islamic financial industry. However, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on both Civil Law and Shari'a Law, were less flexible in making changes to their old laws and this thwarted the development of the Islamic financial industry in these countries. Thirdly, we found that the concentration of Muslim population (the percentage of Muslim population had a positive effect on the development of the Islamic banking system. Also, the level of income had a positive and significant effect on the development of Islamic banking.

  8. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  9. The Legal Past, Present and Future of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Professional Liability and Other Legal Challenges Affecting Patient Access to Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pergament

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC, play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments.

  10. Political Science, The Judicial Process, and A Legal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Application of the behavioral approach to the study of the judicial process is examined including methodological approaches used, typical findings, and "behavioralists'" rejection of the case method of studying law. The author concludes that the behavioral approach to the study of judicial politics has not been substantially productive. (JT)

  11. Legislative Process For National Atomic Energy Laws Various Legal Approaches And Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Legislative Process for National Atomic Energy Laws (NAELs) aim at establishing a legal base for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Various approaches (partial and comprehensive) to draft the NAELs are studied. The paper also studies some national nuclear energy laws through a comparative legal analysis and the important developments that have taken place in the legislative process for NAELs. There are lessons learned from the legislative process for NAELs. First, each state must develop its own legislative framework based on its own situation. Second, although the NAELs have common features, they vary considerably due to national legal traditions, social, economic circumstances and cultural values. Third, the NAELs have also evolved in time. Fourth, the technical standards, rules and guidelines should not be part of legislation issued by the Parliament because they would also facilitate quick adaption to new technical developments. Fifth, interface between legal and technical issues, requiring legal and technical experts to interact with each other. Sixth, continuing assessment that may lead to amendments to the law over time

  12. 49 CFR 551.66 - What is the legal effect of service of process on an agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the legal effect of service of process on... Service of Process on Foreign Manufacturers and Importers Method of Service of Process § 551.66 What is the legal effect of service of process on an agent? Service on an agent of administrative or judicial...

  13. The process of outsourcing applied to public administration - legal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Magera Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of outsourcing in the Brazilian Public Administration and the way it currently operates, initiating a process of reform, aiming to reduce the size of the administrative apparatus. Several doctrinal and jurisprudential concepts have been demonstrated in order to demonstrate in a concise way the applicability of outsourcing as a mechanism to reduce costs of the public machine, increase its efficiency and decrease its size. Some advantages of the use of outsourcing by the public administration by several jurists are presented, including the gains in competitiveness and ease of supervision by the citizens. The extension of the responsibility of the public administration by the outsourced company and the way in which it operates, in the light of the legislation, jurisprudence and the best doctrine, suggest efficient alternatives in the exercise of the administration, increasing its credibility and efficiency in the attainment of governmental objectives. The methodology used was through deductive. The achieved results demonstrate that the process of outsourcing after quality and a new dynamics in the public service.

  14. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  15. Affective processes in human-automation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M

    2011-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature on automation reliance by illuminating the influences of user moods and emotions on reliance on automated systems. Past work has focused predominantly on cognitive and attitudinal variables, such as perceived machine reliability and trust. However, recent work on human decision making suggests that affective variables (i.e., moods and emotions) are also important. Drawing from the affect infusion model, significant effects of affect are hypothesized. Furthermore, a new affectively laden attitude termed liking is introduced. Participants watched video clips selected to induce positive or negative moods, then interacted with a fictitious automated system on an X-ray screening task At five time points, important variables were assessed including trust, liking, perceived machine accuracy, user self-perceived accuracy, and reliance.These variables, along with propensity to trust machines and state affect, were integrated in a structural equation model. Happiness significantly increased trust and liking for the system throughout the task. Liking was the only variable that significantly predicted reliance early in the task. Trust predicted reliance later in the task, whereas perceived machine accuracy and user self-perceived accuracy had no significant direct effects on reliance at any time. Affective influences on automation reliance are demonstrated, suggesting that this decision-making process may be less rational and more emotional than previously acknowledged. Liking for a new system may be key to appropriate reliance, particularly early in the task. Positive affect can be easily induced and may be a lever for increasing liking.

  16. Legal and public health considerations affecting the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2008-09-01

    Because the rate of consumption of away-from-home meals has increased dramatically, the distinction between requiring nutrition information for packaged but not restaurant products is no longer reasonable. Public health necessitates that nutrition labels must be included with restaurant menus as a strategy to educate consumers and address the escalation of obesity. Menu-labeling laws are being considered at the local, state, and federal levels, but the restaurant industry opposes such action. We discuss the public health rationale and set forth the government's legal authority for the enactment of menu-labeling laws. We further aim to educate the public health community of the potential legal challenges to such laws, and we set forth methods for governments to survive these challenges by drafting laws according to current legal standards.

  17. How Does Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide Affect Rates of Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert; Paton, David

    2015-10-01

    Several US states have legalized or decriminalized physician-assisted suicide (PAS) while others are considering permitting PAS. Although it has been suggested that legalization could lead to a reduction in total suicides and to a delay in those suicides that do occur, to date no research has tested whether these effects can be identified in practice. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by examining the association between the legalization of PAS and state-level suicide rates in the United States between 1990 and 2013. We used regression analysis to test the change in rates of nonassisted suicides and total suicides (including assisted suicides) before and after the legalization of PAS. Controlling for various socioeconomic factors, unobservable state and year effects, and state-specific linear trends, we found that legalizing PAS was associated with a 6.3% (95% confidence interval 2.70%-9.9%) increase in total suicides (including assisted suicides). This effect was larger in the individuals older than 65 years (14.5%, CI 6.4%-22.7%). Introduction of PAS was neither associated with a reduction in nonassisted suicide rates nor with an increase in the mean age of nonassisted suicide. Legalizing PAS has been associated with an increased rate of total suicides relative to other states and no decrease in nonassisted suicides. This suggests either that PAS does not inhibit (nor acts as an alternative to) nonassisted suicide, or that it acts in this way in some individuals but is associated with an increased inclination to suicide in other individuals.

  18. The Process of Legal Drafting Regulation in the Development of the Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amil Mardha

    2009-01-01

    In Indonesia, the process of legal drafting to establish the regulation is based on the Act No. 10 Year 2004 on the Establishment of Legislation. The process shall comply with the constitutional and institutional requirements of national political and legal system. In drafting the development of the regulation of nuclear energy, BAPETEN has been involving some other agencies or other related government agencies, and stakeholders such as utility, academic institutions, and publics. In general, in the process of legal drafting, international publications or other country regulations can be a reference and adopted. In the establishment of the regulations of nuclear energy, BAPETEN has issued some Government Regulations and Chairman Regulations of BAPETEN. For nuclear safety of NPP, the regulations have not been completed yet, but some regulations related in the area of siting of NPP have been already available. In this paper, it is discussed the process of the establishment of legislation and of the legal drafting nuclear regulation of NPP, and the current status of NPP regulations. (author)

  19. 5 CFR 297.402 - Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory legal process served on the Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory legal process served on the Office. 297.402 Section 297.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS Disclosure of Records § 297.402 Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory...

  20. Neuroimaging of affect processing in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, U.; Kircher, T.; Schneider, F.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging of normal and dysfunctional emotional processes is an important tool for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of affective symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These symptoms are still poorly characterized with respect to their neural correlates. Comparisons of cerebral activation during emotional paradigms offered the possibility for a better characterization of cerebral dysfunctions during emotional processing in schizophrenia. Abnormal activation patterns reveal a complex dysfunctional subcortical-cortical network. This is modulated by respective genotypes as well as psycho- and pharmacotherapy. (orig.) [de

  1. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  2. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  3. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  4. Novel shifts in memory research and their impact on the legal process: introduction to the special issue on memory formation and suggestibility in the legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Petrila, John P

    2013-01-01

    The functioning and frailties of memory are frequently at the centerpiece of much expert testimony about the reliability of eyewitness accounts. Although we have much knowledge about how false memories and suggestibility can affect testimonies, the contributions in this special issue show that when using a sound theoretical framework, novel directions in this field can surface. The papers in this issue can broadly be divided into contributions that are related to: (1) the exact determinants of false memory and suggestibility; (2) new paradigms in legal psychology; (3) positive consequences of memory illusions; and (4) developmental false memory research. Collectively, these contributions have the potential to provide novel shifts in memory research and push this field beyond its current boundaries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  6. A BRIEF STUDY ABOUT THE LEGAL NATURE OF PRECAUTIONA RY PRISONS (? IN BRAZILIAN CRIMINAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paula Cruz de Siqueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, even if soon, the legal nature of prison said as precautionary, that occur during the police investigation or criminal process. Over this study, prison in the act, preventive prison, according to each of its assumptions and, lastly, temporary prison will bel analyzed. At the end, will be presented the measures, which are effectively considered precautionary, serving to the utility of the final provision, like security measures

  7. Legality, legitimacy and formal and informal decision-making processes: when does a decision become legitimate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwetkoff, C.

    2004-01-01

    A few words on the purpose of this paper are given by way of introduction. A brief analysis will be made of the relationship between legality and legitimacy in relation to decision-making processes and within the context of the policies concerning the public management of technological risks. The aim is to raise questions and outline some reflections based on the theory of the state, from the perspective of the conditions of the institutionalization of power. I shall first clarify a few conceptual points. The notion of legality refers to the notion of compliance with legal standards, that is to say, with the law. Is the decision made by a person empowered by law so do to (legal competence)? Is it taken in compliance with legal procedure? And are the effects implicitly in keeping with the spirit of the law? The legitimacy of the power of those who govern, or the legitimacy of their decisions, is not determined solely by legal standards but rather, is a matter of individual and social representation or view. As Hobbes says, in essence, to govern is to convince: to convince people of the rightfulness of the source of the power of those who govern and of the action or public policies that they formulate. The paper is organised around three propositions: 1. The role of the legitimacy or social acceptability of public policies has always been an element of the way all political systems function. This role, however, occupies an increasingly important place on the political agenda in a societal decision-making context that has undergone irreversible changes. 2. Although the essence of the social legitimacy of public policies remains the same, the conditions, mechanisms and criteria evolve. 3. The critical centrality of social legitimacy, together with the evolution of the criteria for legitimate decision, today modify the decision-making mechanisms that were established in response to the requirements of classical democracy. We observe a political organisation i n the

  8. Public administration of processes for supporting of inner ecology safety in Ukraine: organizational and legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Romanenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the legal framework that regulates social relations in the field of internal environmental safety and provides a unified state policy and the exercise of powers by the authorities at all levels. Thus, in the legal field there are the gaps on many issues that are important in solving the tasks, including the powers and responsibilities of the various subjects of law in an extreme situation, as well as management and leadership of emergency rescue activity and other urgent works in disaster areas. It is established that to increase the state’s role in protecting the population from emergency situations of natural character, it is necessary to achieve a qualitative change in the legal status of government, the formation of relevant legislation and conduct regulation. In general, the process of regulation in addressing the problems of population protection from emergency situations of different nature must be carry out through the systematization of the national, regional and local levels regulations that are relevant to the issues of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations; also we must eliminate inconsistencies in current legislation and coordinate the national legislation with international. Based on analysis of existing and unresolved problems of internal environmental safety it is necessity to implement new mechanisms of state influence to prevent environmental degradation, the use of methods and means of protecting the population from current anthropogenic influences; reorganization of the territory, defining the boundaries of zones of sanitary, medical and sanitary survey of the population; ensuring internal environmental safety is realized with the help of legal, operational and rescue, functional and territorial public administration practices; the use of multi-state management controls that are able to simultaneously influence the situation in the sphere of nature.

  9. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Plastic pollution in Argentina harms vulnerable marine species of turtles and mammals. • One tool to advance their conservation is policy. • The legal and institutional framework pertinent to plastic pollution is explored. • Laws and agencies are in place, yet implementation and enforcement is deficient. • Interventions to mitigate plastic pollution and protect marine species are advanced. - Abstract: Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally

  10. Perspectives on the divorce process: parental perceptions of the legal system and its impact on family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, M K; Jackson, T D

    2001-01-01

    Through semistructured interviews, divorcing parents provide a consumer perspective of the legal process of divorce discussed in law and mental health literature. The parents offer a heightened awareness of families' basic needs within the legal system that may otherwise be overlooked by professionals. This article focuses on narrative accounts provided by 41 divorcing parents to describe both their positive and negative experiences with the legal system and court-related professionals. Although many parents entered the divorce process with hopes for a fair and reasonable experience and outcome, only 12 percent of the parents ended the process with positive expectations. Parents conveyed feelings of a lack of power and control over divorce outcomes. The responses from parents provide valuable insight into how reforms of the legal system can be structured best to increase the quality of the process and ameliorate potentially destructive effects of divorce on the family.

  11. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    Personnel within the Office of the Secretary of Defense, other DoD Components responsible for preparing the annual financial statements, and legal counsel who provide legal representations regarding...

  12. Legal Regulations Concerning Some Measures Taken To Accelerate The Settlement Of The Processes In Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Țuțuianu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe small reform represented a significant step in the dynamics of the Romanian legal life. The amendments of the civil and criminal law prefigured the long waited big reform of the national legislation, to identify the mechanisms needed to accelerate the settlement of the processes as an essential coordinate of the constitutional state. The Law no. 202 from October 25, 2010 concerning some measures to accelerate the settlement of the processes brought in actuality several problems the activity of interpretation and law enforcement, of bridging modifying provisions with the existing ones in the Code of Civil Procedure and the Code of Criminal Procedure, at that time, but also concerning the application in time.Keywords: reform, mediation, offense.

  13. Legal Terms Used in Reception Order and their Relevance to Judicial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nakkeerar; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Kumar, Venkatesh Madhan; Chellappan, Dhanabalan Kalingarayan Palayam; Ramasamy, Jeyaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Law governs the admission and management of involuntary admissions of mentally ill persons who are admitted under the provisions of the mental health act. The court directs the doctor to take charge of such persons. In the further dealings of such person the medical officer of the psychiatric facility comes across legal terms, which require understanding so that patients could be dealt with properly. Various terms such as accused, under police custody, judicial custody, remand prisoner, or under trial prisoner are used to denote their legal status. It is imperative for the medical officer to understand the nuances in the meanings of these terms. There are many times when the relevant section under which the admission is ordered is not found in the reception order. In these cases the terminology by which the patient is mentioned throws a light on the status of the patient. Towards this aim a study was carried out to assess the awareness and understanding of such terms by the faculty and post- graduates of a tertiary care hospital that deals with the admission and care of such patients. They were administered a questionnaire containing these terms and asked to provide the meaning of these terms. The results showed that nearly half the faculty and students were not having clarity in awareness or understanding of the terms. Hence these terms and their meanings were gleaned from various judgments. The proper meaning of these terms and their use in judicial process and their importance is discussed.

  14. 'The biggest legal battle in UK casino history': Processes and politics of 'cheating' in sociotechnical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark R

    2018-04-01

    Previous literature on cheating has focused on defining the concept, assigning responsibility to individual players, collaborative social processes or technical faults in a game's rules. By contrast, this paper applies an actor-network perspective to understanding 'cheating' in games, and explores how the concept is rhetorically effective in sociotechnical controversies. The article identifies human and nonhuman actors whose interests and properties were translated in a case study of 'edge sorting' - identifying minor but crucial differences in tessellated patterns on the backs of playing cards, and using these to estimate their values. In the ensuing legal controversy, the defending actors - casinos - retranslated the interests of actors to position edge sorting as cheating. This allowed the casinos to emerge victorious in a legal battle over almost twenty million dollars. Analyzing this dispute shows that cheating is both sociotechnically complex as an act and an extremely powerful rhetorical tool for actors seeking to prevent changes to previously-established networks. Science and Technology Studies (STS) offers a rich toolkit for examining cheating, but in addition the cheating discourse may be valuable to STS, enlarging our repertoire of actor strategies relevant to sociotechnical disputes.

  15. The double-edged sword of genetic accounts of criminality: causal attributions from genetic ascriptions affect legal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Benjamin Y; Heine, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Much debate exists surrounding the applicability of genetic information in the courtroom, making the psychological processes underlying how people consider this information important to explore. This article addresses how people think about different kinds of causal explanations in legal decision-making contexts. Three studies involving a total of 600 Mechanical Turk and university participants found that genetic, versus environmental, explanations of criminal behavior lead people to view the applicability of various defense claims differently, perceive the perpetrator's mental state differently, and draw different causal attributions. Moreover, mediation and path analyses highlight the double-edged nature of genetic attributions-they simultaneously reduce people's perception of the perpetrator's sense of control while increasing people's tendencies to attribute the cause to internal factors and to expect the perpetrator to reoffend. These countervailing relations, in turn, predict sentencing in opposite directions, although no overall differences in sentencing or ultimate verdicts were found. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. The Attorney-Client Relationship as a Business Law-Legal Environment Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Murray S.

    2004-01-01

    Business school law courses should promote understanding of legal processes affecting business, help students learn to recognize legal issues and manage legal risks, increase ethical sensitivity, and help students to develop critical thinking skills. To this end, business law and legal environment textbooks tend to focus on ethical and legal…

  17. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  18. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  19. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  20. Gas industry standards board: Legal considerations in the standard setting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, M.T.; Adelman, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    On December 23, 1993, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued Order 563, a Final Rule adopting the agreements of informal industry-wide working groups to standardize information relating to pipeline capacity release programs mandated under Order 636. Order 563 is noteworthy for its reliance upon the industry to develop consensus standards for Commission adoption. The industry's success in reaching agreements on key communication standards issues spawned recommendations from the working groups to continue the development and maintenance of industry-wide standards through a permanent Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB). This article examines legal issues bearing on GISB's potential role in the regulatory process. Specifically, this article addresses constitutional and statutory considerations relating to the FERC's authority to delegate certain responsibilities to a voluntary, industry sponsored and supported private body such as that taking shape within the gas industry.

  1. Pricing scheme choice: how process affects outcome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shestakova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 99-129 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : choice process * heuristics * price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp411.pdf

  2. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  3. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  4. Physician perspectives on legal processes for resolving end-of-life disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidwick, Paula; Sibbald, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand how to effectively approach end-of-life disputes, this study surveyed physicians' attitudes towards one process for resolving end-of-life disputes, namely, the Consent and Capacity Board of Ontario. In this case, the process involved examining interpretation of best interests between substitute decision-makers and medical teams. Physicians who made "Form G" applications to the Consent and Capacity Board of Ontario that resulted in a decision posted on the open-access database, Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLii), were identified and surveyed. This purposive sample led to 13 invitations to participate and 12 interviews (92% response rate). Interviews were conducted using a prescribed interview guide. No barriers to the Consent and Capacity Board process were reported. Applications were made when physicians reached an impasse with the family and further treatment was perceived to be "unethical." The most significant challenge reported was the delay when appeals were launched. Appeals extended the process for an indefinite period of time making it so lengthy it negated any perceived benefits of the process. Benefits included that a neutral third party, namely the Consent and Capacity Board, was able to assess best interests. Also, when decisions were timely, further harm to the patient was minimized. Physicians reported this particular approach, namely the Consent and Capacity Board has a mechanism that is worthwhile, patient centred, process oriented, orderly and efficient for resolving end-of-life disputes and, in particular, determining best interests. However, unless the appeal process can be adjusted to respond to the ICU context there is a risk of not serving the best interest of patients. Physicians would recommend framing end-of-life treatment plans in the positive instead of negative, for example, propose palliative care and no escalation of treatment as opposed to withdrawal.

  5. "First, do no harm": legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10-17 who sell sex or inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10-17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory "rehabilitation" in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10-17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10-17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10-17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent KPs in institutions, they are

  6. Processing Multimodal Legal Discourse; The Case of Stanley ‘Tookie’ Williams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070378096; Kišiček, Gabrijela

    2017-01-01

    We focus on a striking difference between prototypical legal discourse format and a complex multimodal discourse format: the role of the mediating narrator. In prototypical verbal legal discourse, the narrator concurs with one clearly identifiable top-voice. The narration is close to ‘monotone’; the

  7. Elaboration Likelihood and the Counseling Process: The Role of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Cal D.; And Others

    The role of affect in counseling has been examined from several orientations. The depth of processing model views the efficiency of information processing as a function of the extent to which the information is processed. The notion of cognitive processing capacity states that processing information at deeper levels engages more of one's limited…

  8. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    .... The report is intended to convey systemic concerns across DoD and to provide DoD management and legal counsel the basis for developing policies and procedures for reporting and disclosing contingent...

  9. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    ... contingent liabilities should read this report. It identifies areas where DoD and its Components have not fully complied with Federal financial accounting standards and are not consistent in computing and disclosing contingent legal liabilities...

  10. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  11. Monkeys preferentially process body information while viewing affective displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Machado, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Despite evolutionary claims about the function of facial behaviors across phylogeny, rarely are those hypotheses tested in a comparative context-that is, by evaluating how nonhuman animals process such behaviors. Further, while increasing evidence indicates that humans make meaning of faces by integrating contextual information, including that from the body, the extent to which nonhuman animals process contextual information during affective displays is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) process dynamic affective displays of conspecifics that included both facial and body behaviors. Contrary to hypotheses that they would preferentially attend to faces during affective displays, monkeys looked for longest, most frequently, and first at conspecifics' bodies rather than their heads. These findings indicate that macaques, like humans, attend to available contextual information during the processing of affective displays, and that the body may also be providing unique information about affective states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the rationale behind ACII2009’s special session: Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life. Although affect is embraced by both science and engineering, its recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of ASP and the

  13. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  14. The Legal Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied

  15. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  16. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  17. Participatory Metalegal and Legal Processes for the Coastal Development Plan of Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Asido Jr.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coastal Development Plan that was passed into law as the Municipal Fisheries Ordinance of Bolinao, Pangasinan, is a concrete example of community participation in policy development. Among the effective metalegal strategies used during the evolution of the plan into an ordinance were the lobbies staged by the federation of people’s organizations (KAISAKA, the Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council (MFARMC, and the Municipal Mayor. The capacity of various sectors to participate actively in the passage of the plan was enhanced through legal consultations and training provided by the Marine Fisheries Resources Management Project, in partnership with Tanggol Kalikasan, the legal arm of Haribon Foundation. The experience underscores the need for development projects to include the metalegal training of community constituents as a requisite for the latter to actively participate in the formulation of policies and laws for coastal resources management.

  18. U.S. Case Law and Legal Precedent Affirming the Due Process Rights of Immigrants Fleeing Persecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Shawn S; Boodoo, Ramnarine

    2017-09-01

    The political discourse on domestic immigration policy has shifted rapidly in recent years, mirrored by similar shifts in the geopolitical climate worldwide. However, a nuanced assessment of the legal basis backing such rhetoric is sorely lacking. This article examines the historical, legal, and case law precedent as it pertains specifically to immigrants who are fleeing persecution and residing within the United States. Due process rights emerged from the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Constitutional Amendments and have been expanded to include this population through several sequential United States Supreme Court Cases. We review the 1951 Convention Related to the Status of Refugees and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees and examine subsequent case law and legal precedent. We then present evidence documenting widespread violations of due process rights for immigrants fleeing persecution. Specifically, we address the right to a fair hearing for individuals fearing for their lives upon return to their home country, the right against wrongful detainment, and the right to apply for asylum regardless of religion or country of origin. We conclude by addressing potential counterarguments to our thesis, future directions, and the role of forensic psychiatrists. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. 76 FR 30509 - Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... or deferred arrangements established for private-sector employees under section 401(k) of the... million or more by state, local, and Tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector... light of this current and likely future increase in the Agency's court order workload, the Agency is...

  20. Making Immigrants into Criminals: Legal Processes of Criminalization in the Post-IIRIRA Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisy Abrego

    2017-09-01

    our quantitative and qualitative research to underscore ways immigrants experience criminalization in their family, school, and work lives. The first half of our analysis is focused on immigrant criminalization from the late 1980s through the Obama administration, with an emphasis on immigration enforcement practices first engineered in the 1990s. Most significant, we argue, are the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (IIRIRA and the 1996 Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA. The second section of our analysis explores the social impacts of immigrant criminalization, as people’s experiences bring the consequences of immigrant criminalization most clearly into focus. We approach our analysis of the production of criminality of immigrants through the lens of legal violence (Menjivar and Abrego 2012, a concept designed to understand the immediate and long-term harmful effects that the immigration regime makes possible. Instead of narrowly focusing only on the physical injury of intentional acts to cause harm, this concept broadens the lens to include less visible sources of violence that reside in institutions and structures and without identifiable perpetrators or incidents to be tabulated. This violence comes from structures, laws, institutions, and practices that, similar to acts of physical violence, leave indelible marks on individuals and produce social suffering. In examining the effects of today’s ramped up immigration enforcement, we turn to this concept to capture the violence that this regime produces in the lives of immigrants. Immigrant criminalization has underpinned US immigration policy over the last several decades. The year 1996, in particular, was a signal year in the process of criminalizing immigrants. Having 20 years to trace the connections, it becomes evident that the policies of 1996 used the term “criminal alien” as a strategic sleight of hand. These laws established the concept of

  1. Spiritual Occlusion and Systemic Integrity: Legal Evaluations of Due Process Protections and Freedom of Religious Expression and Practices Safeguards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Jolicoeur

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As is the case with other constitutionally protected rights, the freedom of religion is not unlimited nor without restriction or constraint. Rather, the courts have long held that the state may have legitimate reasons for placing reasonable restrictions on the otherwise free exercise of religious practice. The courts have also held that the state cannot restrict religious practice in a capricious or gratuitous manner. However, the courts have also held that individuals have a constitutional right to due process legal protections. In many instances, these two freedoms exist independently of each other. In instances when they intersect, conflict may result from one right seeking hegemony over the other. In instances such as these, the courts may have to resolve conflicts by establishing legal principles and precedents regarding which of these constitutional protections will be granted contextual prominence over the other. Thus far, the legal evaluation of this important question has been confused at best and contradictory at worst. This has resulted in a number of substantive outcomes that pose significant challenges to the practice and application of both rights and an underlying avoidance of broader constitutional questions.

  2. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  3. Parallel factor analysis PARAFAC of process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewanchuk, A.M.; Ulrich, A.C.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Alostaz, M. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of oil sands process-affected water was presented. Naphthenic acids (NA) are traditionally described as monobasic carboxylic acids. Research has indicated that oil sands NA do not fit classical definitions of NA. Oil sands organic acids have toxic and corrosive properties. When analyzed by fluorescence technology, oil sands process-affected water displays a characteristic peak at 290 nm excitation and approximately 346 nm emission. In this study, a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to decompose process-affected water multi-way data into components representing analytes, chemical compounds, and groups of compounds. Water samples from various oil sands operations were analyzed in order to obtain EEMs. The EEMs were then arranged into a large matrix in decreasing process-affected water content for PARAFAC. Data were divided into 5 components. A comparison with commercially prepared NA samples suggested that oil sands NA is fundamentally different. Further research is needed to determine what each of the 5 components represent. tabs., figs.

  4. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, Mascha van 't; Aleman, Andre; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Cahn, Wiepke; Haan, Edward H. F. de; Kahn, Rene S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as

  5. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Aleman, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Cahn, W.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Kahn, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as

  6. Political Expertise and Affect: Effects on News Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Ling; Price, Vincent

    1993-01-01

    Investigates interactions between political expertise and affect in shaping cognitive strategies people employ in forming reactions to newspaper stories. Finds that, in processing the news articles, political experts produced a greater number of thoughts and a larger share of arguments than did novices. Observes no predicted main effects of…

  7. Organizational Factors that Affect the University-Industry Technology Transfer Processes of a Private University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Closs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study researched organizational factors that affect the university-industry technology transfer (UITT processes of a private university, chosen by its success and uniqueness in the Brazilian context. Stood out as factors: innovation among pillars of management; valuing of research and intellectual property; qualified students, teachers and managers; multidisciplinary research groups; stability of governing body; performance of the TTO, Technology Management Agency and Technology Park. Difficulties highlighted were: reconciliation of time between activities of professors-researchers, bureaucracy and centralization of administrative and legal support; valuation of research results; approach and negotiation with companies. Among suggestions are: granting greater independence to the structures in charge of UITT and making them self-sustainable; training agents in technology marketing, sale, and negotiation skills.

  8. Neural correlates of affect processing and aggression in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; London, Edythe D

    2011-03-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is associated with high rates of aggression but few studies have addressed the contributing neurobiological factors. To quantify aggression, investigate function in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and assess relationships between brain function and behavior in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. In a case-control study, aggression and brain activation were compared between methamphetamine-dependent and control participants. Participants were recruited from the general community to an academic research center. Thirty-nine methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (16 women) who were abstinent for 7 to 10 days and 37 drug-free control volunteers (18 women) participated in the study; subsets completed self-report and behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 25 methamphetamine-dependent and 23 control participants. We measured self-reported and perpetrated aggression and self-reported alexithymia. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI during visual processing of facial affect (affect matching) and symbolic processing (affect labeling), the latter representing an incidental form of emotion regulation. Methamphetamine-dependent participants self-reported more aggression and alexithymia than control participants and escalated perpetrated aggression more following provocation. Alexithymia scores correlated with measures of aggression. During affect matching, fMRI showed no differences between groups in amygdala activation but found lower activation in methamphetamine-dependent than control participants in the bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus. During affect labeling, participants recruited the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and exhibited decreased amygdala activity, consistent with successful emotion regulation; there was no group difference in this effect. The magnitude of decrease in amygdala activity during affect labeling correlated inversely with self-reported aggression in control participants

  9. What the History of Drugs Can Teach Us About the Current Cannabis Legalization Process: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Over time, there have been considerable changes in the variety, availability, production, distribution, and use and user(s) of psychoactive substances, the meaning of substance use and its impact on users and their social or physical environment(s). This article reviews the mechanisms of introduction of psychoactive substances such as alcohol, tobacco, coffee, tea and cannabis to populations and communities that did not have them before. It considers the historical tension between early adopters who greet new substances with various levels of enthusiasm in their eagerness to enjoy what they believe to be the benefits of using these substances, and those focused on what they believe to be the negative aspects of use, who decry these new substances with horror. With more nonusers than users in the population, social policies tend to be directed at preventing, restricting, or punishing selected use, users and .drugs., using controls and interventions such regulation, incarceration, death sentence, treatment, prevention, legalization, taxation, among others. Whatever their intent or wished-for impact, all had consequences that produced additional, unplanned for, and (often) negative effects. This paper will consider some of these sequences as they occurred historically with other substances in light of the current shift to legalization and normalization of cannabis, noting the mechanisms of use, controls, and consequences of some types of formal interventions and give some attention to how and what we can learn from our experiences in order to plan ahead and become better prepared to successfully deal with the 'unexpecteds' of that well-known 'hell' paved with good intentions.

  10. Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affect misattribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The affect misattribution procedure (AMP was proposed as a technique to measure an implicit attitude to a prime image [1]. In the AMP, neutral symbols (e.g., a Chinese pictograph, called the target are presented, following an emotional stimulus (known as the prime. Participants often misattribute the positive or negative affect of the priming images to the targets in spite of receiving an instruction to ignore the primes. The AMP effect has been investigated using behavioral measures; however, it is difficult to identify when the AMP effect occurs in emotional processing-whether the effect may occur in the earlier attention allocation stage or in the later evaluation stage. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of affect misattribution, using event-related potential (ERP dividing the participants into two groups based on their tendency toward affect misattribution. The ERP results showed that the amplitude of P2 was larger for the prime at the parietal location in participants showing a low tendency to misattribution than for those showing a high tendency, while the effect of judging neutral targets amiss according to the primes was reflected in the late processing of targets (LPP. In addition, the topographic pattern analysis revealed that EPN-like component to targets was correlated with the difference of AMP tendency as well as P2 to primes and LPP to targets. Taken together, the mechanism of the affective misattribution was closely related to the attention allocation processing. Our findings provide neural evidence that evaluations of neutral targets are misattributed to emotional primes.

  11. Biosphere processes affecting environmnetal impacts of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, B.; Broderick, M.

    1991-01-01

    ANS Consultants Limited has reviewed and assessed a number of biosphere processes which affect the environmental impact of hazardous waste disposal. Processes examined have included the long-term effects of climate change on biosphere characteristics and the transport of toxic materials in food chains; the role of soil animals and plants roots in cycling elements from depth to the soil surface; volatisation mechanisms; the transport of elements in soil with particular reference to erosion and resuspension; mechanisms for foliar contamination via irrigation waters; and organic matter decomposition in varying environmental conditions. (au)

  12. Smokers exhibit biased neural processing of smoking and affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Jentink, Kade G; Drobes, David J; Evans, David E

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the role that implicit processing of drug cues can play in motivating drug use behavior. However, the extent to which drug cue processing biases relate to the processing biases exhibited to other types of evocative stimuli is largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine how the implicit cognitive processing of smoking cues relates to the processing of affective cues using a novel paradigm. Smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 38) completed a picture-viewing task, in which participants were presented with a series of smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images while engaging in a distractor task designed to direct controlled resources away from conscious processing of image content. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained throughout the task for extraction of event-related potentials (ERPs). Smokers exhibited differential processing of smoking cues across 3 different ERP indices compared with nonsmokers. Comparable effects were found for pleasant cues on 2 of these indices. Late cognitive processing of smoking and pleasant cues was associated with nicotine dependence and cigarette use. Results suggest that cognitive biases may extend across classes of stimuli among smokers. This raises important questions about the fundamental meaning of cognitive biases, and suggests the need to consider generalized cognitive biases in theories of drug use behavior and interventions based on cognitive bias modification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. (1) H-MRS processing parameters affect metabolite quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhogal, Alex A; Schür, Remmelt R; Houtepen, Lotte C

    2017-01-01

    investigated the influence of model parameters and spectral quantification software on fitted metabolite concentration values. Sixty spectra in 30 individuals (repeated measures) were acquired using a 7-T MRI scanner. Data were processed by four independent research groups with the freedom to choose their own...... + NAAG/Cr + PCr and Glu/Cr + PCr, respectively. Metabolite quantification using identical (1) H-MRS data was influenced by processing parameters, basis sets and software choice. Locally preferred processing choices affected metabolite quantification, even when using identical software. Our results......Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) can be used to quantify in vivo metabolite levels, such as lactate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu). However, there are considerable analysis choices which can alter the accuracy or precision of (1) H-MRS metabolite quantification...

  14. Application of ultrasound processed images in space: assessing diffuse affectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Poch, A.; Bru, C.; Nicolau, C.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate diffuse affectations in the liver using texture image processing techniques. Ultrasound diagnose equipments are the election of choice to be used in space environments as they are free from hazardous effects on health. However, due to the need for highly trained radiologists to assess the images, this imaging method is mainly applied on focal lesions rather than on non-focal ones. We have conducted a clinical study on 72 patients with different degrees of chronic hepatopaties and a group of control of 18 individuals. All subjects' clinical reports and results of biopsies were compared to the degree of affectation calculated by our computer system , thus validating the method. Full statistical results are given in the present paper showing a good correlation (r=0.61) between pathologist's report and analysis of the heterogenicity of the processed images from the liver. This computer system to analyze diffuse affectations may be used in-situ or via telemedicine to the ground.

  15. Social and nonsocial affective processing in schizophrenia - An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Ł; Wichniak, A; Jarkiewicz, M; Schudy, A; Gola, M; Jednoróg, K; Marchewka, A; Łojek, E

    2016-09-01

    Despite social cognitive dysfunction that may be observed in patients with schizophrenia, the knowledge about social and nonsocial affective processing in schizophrenia is scant. The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioural responses to neutral and negative stimuli with (faces, people) and without (animals, objects) social content in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 21 healthy controls (HC) completed a visual oddball paradigm with either negative or neutral pictures from the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) as targets while EEG was recorded. Half of the stimuli within each category presented social content (faces, people). Negative stimuli with social content produced lower N2 amplitude and higher mean LPP than any other type of stimuli in both groups. Despite differences in behavioural ratings and alterations in ERP processing of affective stimuli (lack of EPN differentiation, decreased P3 to neutral stimuli) SCZ were still able to respond to specific categories of stimuli similarly to HC. The pattern of results suggests that with no additional emotion-related task demands patients with schizophrenia may present similar attentional engagement with negative social stimuli as healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Processes Affecting Groundwater Quality in the La Digue Aquifer, Seychelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcindor, A. [Public Utilities Corporation, Victoria (Seychelles); Sacchi, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell' ambiente, Universita di Pavia (Italy); Taigbenu, A. E. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2013-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained by the public utilities corporation (PUC), within the framework of an IAEA TC project, which aims to evaluate the potential of the la digue aquifer. Several monitoring activities and hydrochemical and isotopic surveys have been conducted. Results indicate the presence of brackish water at shallow depths, and low redox potentials, attesting to the presence of H{sub 2}S and heavy metals. Groundwater quality is affected by the concomitant presence of different adverse factors, namely aquifer characteristics, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic pressure. In addition, seawater penetrates the river course during high tides and infiltrates through the recharge area of the aquifer that is close to the actual pumping station. The positioning of non return high tide gates, an easy and low cost intervention, could enhance groundwater quality. The understanding of the main processes affecting groundwater quality helped in the identification of areas favourable for new wells, located at higher elevations. (author)

  17. Analysis of geodetic and legal documentation in the process of expropriation for roads. Krakow case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Amendment to the Act on special rules of preparation and implementation of investment in public roads resulted in an accelerated mode of acquisition of land for the development of roads. The decision to authorize the execution of road investment issued on its basis has several effects, i.e. determines the location of a road, approves surveying division, approves construction design and also results in acquisition of a real property by virtue of law by the State Treasury or local government unit, among others. The conducted study revealed that over 3 years, in this mode, the city of Krakow has acquired 31 hectares of land intended for the implementation of road investments. Compensation is determined in separate proceedings based on an appraisal study estimating property value, often at a distant time after the loss of land by the owner. One reason for the lengthy compensation proceedings is challenging the proposed amount of compensation, unregulated legal status of the property as well as imprecise legislation. It is important to properly develop geodetic and legal documentation which accompanies the application for issuance of the decision and is also used in compensation proceedings. Zmiana ustawy o szczególnych zasadach przygotowywania i realizacji inwestycji w zakresie dróg publicznych spowodowała przyspieszony tryb pozyskiwania gruntów przeznaczonych pod budowę dróg. Wydawana na jej podstawie decyzja o zezwoleniu na realizację inwestycji drogowej wywołuje szereg skutków, tj. m.in. ustala lokalizację drogi, zatwierdza podziały geodezyjne, zatwierdza projekt budowlany a także powoduje nabycie nieruchomości z mocy prawa, przez Skarb Państwa lub jednostki samorządu terytorialnego. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały iż w powyższym trybie miasto Kraków nabyło w okresie 3 lat ponad 31 ha gruntów przeznaczonych na realizację inwestycji drogowych. Odszkodowanie ustalane jest w drodze odrębnego postępowania w oparciu o operat szacunkowy okre

  18. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  19. Procedural Due Process and Fairness in Student Discipline. A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. Page

    When the Supreme Court decided that the Constitution requires public school principals to follow procedural due process in suspension and expulsion cases, the Justices recognized a link between procedural due process and the fairness of effective discipline. This report reviews the constitutional due process required when public school officials…

  20. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Commentary: cognitive-affective mechanisms and processes in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A

    2003-03-01

    This commentary highlights some of the interesting points to emerge from the preceding papers about the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. Additionally some cognitive functions are also considered and especially the way in which autobiographical memory supports, constrains, and maintains the goals of the self. Directions for future research into the self, social, directive, and cognitive-affective functions and processes of autobiographical memory are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on future research into the function of autobiographical memory in representations of attachment.

  2. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an Acid Mine Drainage affected estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, Maria P.; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixing of acid riverine water with alkaline seawater was studied in an estuary. • Combination of data and geochemical tools allowed modeling the water mixing. • The main geochemical processes were identified and for the first time quantified. • Water chemistry is the result of mixing, dissolution-precipitation and sorption. • Main reactions: gypsum and calcite dissolution and Al and Fe solids precipitation. - Abstract: This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion–ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH) 3 ); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn)

  3. Affective reactions and context-dependent processing of negations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rubaltelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments demonstrate how the processing of negations is contingent on the evaluation context in which the negative information is presented. In addition, the strategy used to process the negations induced different affective reactions toward the stimuli, leading to inconsistency of preference. Participants were presented with stimuli described by either stating the presence of positive features (explicitly positive alternative or negating the presence of negative features (non-negative alternative. Alternatives were presented for either joint (JE or separate evaluation (SE. Experiment 1 showed that the non-negative stimuli were judged less attractive than the positive ones in JE but not in SE. Experiment 2 revealed that the non-negative stimuli induced a less clear and less positive feeling when they were paired with explicitly positive stimuli rather than evaluated separately. Non-negative options were also found less easy to judge than the positive ones in JE but not in SE. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that people process negations using two different models depending on the evaluation mode. Through a memory task, we found that in JE people process the non-negative attributes as negations of negative features, whereas in SE they directly process the non-negative attributes as positive features.

  4. Mimicry of the Legal: Translating de jure Land Formalization Processes Into de facto Local Action in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Kunz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, as in many other countries of the global South, processes to formalize rights over land have been implemented with the intention to reduce deforestation, decrease poverty and increase tenure security. Literature on de jure processes of land formalization is widely available. There is a gap, however, on the discrepancy of de jure land titling procedures and de facto strategies to legitimize land claims. Led by the theoretical concepts of “law as process” and “politics of scale”, this study closes this gap by analyzing the impact of national tenure formalization processes on de facto local patterns of land titling. Using empirical material from 16 villages in Jambi province, we show that the outcomes of the state-led land reforms and land tenure formalization processes are imitated and translated into locally feasible actions. We refer to these translation processes as “mimicry of the legal”. The land formalization endeavors fostering mimicry of the legal allow for resource exploitation and rent-seeking behavior.

  5. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part II--Help in the dying process, direct and indirect active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, physician-assisted euthanasia involves numerous risks for the attending physician under criminal and professional law. In the absence of clear legal provisions, four different categories of euthanasia have been developed in legal practice and the relevant literature: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The so-called "help during the dying process" by administering medically indicated analgesic drugs without a life-shortening effect is exempt from punishment if it corresponds to the will of the patient. If the physician omits to give such analgesic drugs although the patient demands them, this is deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The same applies if the physician administers analgesics against the will of the patient. Medically indicated pain treatment which has a potential or certain life-shortening effect (indirect active euthanasia) is permitted under certain conditions: if there are no alternative and equally suitable treatment options without the risk of shortening the patient's life, if the patient has given his consent to the treatment and if the physician does not act with the intention to kill. The deliberate killing of a dying or terminally ill patient for the purpose of ending his suffering (direct active euthanasia) is prohibited. This includes both deliberately killing a patient against or without his will (by so-called "angels of death") and the killing of a patient who expressly and earnestly demands such an act from his physician (killing on request/on demand). Physician-assisted suicide is generally not liable to punishment in Germany. Nevertheless, the action may be subject to punishment if the physician omits to rescue the life of an unconscious suicide victim. "Palliative sedation" is regarded as a special case. It may become necessary if certain symptoms in the terminal stage of a fatal disease unbearable for the patient cannot be controlled by any other

  6. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an acid mine drainage affected estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

    2015-02-15

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Affective and executive network processing associated with persuasive antidrug messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Ian S; Yzer, Marco C; Luciana, Monica; Vohs, Kathleen D; MacDonald, Angus W

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has highlighted brain regions associated with socioemotional processes in persuasive message encoding, whereas cognitive models of persuasion suggest that executive brain areas may also be important. The current study aimed to identify lateral prefrontal brain areas associated with persuasive message viewing and understand how activity in these executive regions might interact with activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Seventy adolescents were scanned using fMRI while they watched 10 strongly convincing antidrug public service announcements (PSAs), 10 weakly convincing antidrug PSAs, and 10 advertisements (ads) unrelated to drugs. Antidrug PSAs compared with nondrug ads more strongly elicited arousal-related activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Within antidrug PSAs, those that were prerated as strongly persuasive versus weakly persuasive showed significant differences in arousal-related activity in executive processing areas of the lateral pFC. In support of the notion that persuasiveness involves both affective and executive processes, functional connectivity analyses showed greater coactivation between the lateral pFC and amygdala during PSAs known to be strongly (vs. weakly) convincing. These findings demonstrate that persuasive messages elicit activation in brain regions responsible for both emotional arousal and executive control and represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neural processes responsible for persuasion and subsequent behavior change.

  8. 5 CFR Appendix A to Part 581 - List of Agents Designated To Accept Legal Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Pt. 581, App. A Appendix A to Part... Supervisor, 1969 So. Sheridan Ave., Sheridan, WY 82801, (307) 672-0751 Medicine Bow—Forest Supervisor, 2468...

  9. Selected Legal Issues in Catholic Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Mary Angela

    This book examines legal issues that affect Catholic high schools. Chapter 1 discusses sources of the law and how fairness and due process, federal and state statutes, and various guidelines shape the law. Tort law, corporal punishment, search and seizure, defamation of character, and negligence are covered in chapter 2. Chapter 3 details issues…

  10. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  11. Perceptions of legally mandated public involvement processes in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Andrew Predmore; Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    Results from an agency-wide survey of U.S. Forest Service personnel indicate that respondents in our sample engage in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) public involvement processes primarily to accomplish two goals. The most commonly supported goal was to inform and disclose as mandated by the act. The other goal reflected interests in managing agency...

  12. The Musical Emotional Bursts: A validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien ePaquette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analogue of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV – a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 sec improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (n:40 or a clarinet (n:40. The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, nonlinguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli (30 stimuli x 4 [3 emotions + neutral] x 2 instruments by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task; 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80 was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0% and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems.

  13. "An absolutely necessary piece": A qualitative study of legal perspectives on medical affidavits in the asylum process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Elizabeth; Guetterman, Timothy C; Meyer, Anna C; VanArtsdalen, Jamie; Heisler, Michele

    2016-11-01

    A key challenge for asylum seekers in the United States is being able to provide evidence of prior persecution in their home countries. Medical/psychological affidavits corroborating applicants' accounts often make the difference between successful and unsuccessful applications. The purpose of this study was to identify the unmet demand for and features of effective medical/psychological affidavits in the asylum process, as well as the personal and systemic barriers for asylum seekers. This is a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with legal professionals who work in asylum law. Sixteen asylum lawyers and one Board of Immigration Appeals accredited representative practicing in the state of Michigan, United States, participated in this study. All participants noted that a vast majority of their asylum cases would benefit from a medical affidavit but that they have difficulty finding qualified physicians with experience writing such affidavits and testifying as expert witnesses. The major barriers to obtaining medical/psychological evaluations included inability to pay for services, lack of practitioner availability, and lack of practitioner training. The participants reported that features of a strong medical affidavit included clear, concise, and corroborative accounts that supported the applicant's story from a diagnostic perspective and forensic descriptions that reinforced the credibility of the applicant. Several also noted that medical/psychological evaluations frequently would reveal additional details and incidents of trauma beyond those stated in the applicant's preliminary statement. The study results suggest substantial unmet need for trained physicians to perform medical and psychological evaluations on a pro bono basis. Lawyers' recommendations regarding effective medical affidavits and necessary ongoing support for asylum applicants should inform current efforts to improve physician and lawyer collaborations on asylum cases. Copyright

  14. How understanding and application of drug-related legal instruments affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Sovannary; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Sou, Sochenda; Sawez, Ghazal; Morgan, Phylicia; Srey, Mony; Chan, Tola; Chhoun, Pheak; Golichenko, Olga; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Yi, Siyan

    2017-06-19

    Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders. This qualitative study was conducted in the capital city of Phnom Penh in 2015. We held five focus group discussions (FGDs) with groups of PWID/PWUD, police officers, Sangkat/commune officers, and local non-governmental organization (NGO) field staff. We also conducted ten key informant interviews (KIIs) with representatives from government agencies, donor agencies, and NGOs. FGDs and KIIs with Cambodian participants were transcribed in Khmer and translated into English. KIIs with foreign participants were transcribed in English. Transcripts were read and re-read to identify emerging themes, which were reviewed and refined to develop common and divergent patterns. There was a huge gap between what the DCL and VCSP say and how law enforcement officers and PWID/PWUD understood them. The gap was also evident in how law enforcement officers implemented the DCL and VCSP. Harm reduction services, including health- and non-health-related interventions, were limited and challenged by unsupportive attitudes, misinterpretation of the DCL and VCSP, and the lack of full engagement with NGOs in the development of these instruments. The needs of PWID/PWUD in accessing health care services were not met due to misconduct of authorities while practicing the DCL and VCSP. Further, the misconduct and enforcement of the law and policy lead to increased social discrimination and physical abuses against PWID/PWUD. There is a lack of common understanding of the drug-related law and

  15. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Lowery, M.A.; Campbell, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  16. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Peter

    1995-01-01

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs

  17. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  18. 5 CFR 581.307 - Compliance with legal process requiring the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs. 581.307 Section 581.307 Administrative... payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs. Before complying with legal process that requires withholding for the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs, the governmental entity must...

  19. 5 CFR 582.306 - Lack of entitlement by the employee-obligor to pay from the agency served with legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY... procedures are set forth therein, the agency shall return the legal process to the court, or other authority from which it was issued, and advise the court, or other authority, that the identified employee...

  20. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  1. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  2. Basic abnormalities in visual processing affect face processing at an early age in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-12-15

    A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD and the relation with abnormal SF processing. We investigated whether young ASD children show abnormalities in low spatial frequency (LSF, global) and high spatial frequency (HSF, detailed) processing and explored whether these are crucially involved in the early development of face processing. Three- to 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 22) were compared with developmentally delayed children without ASD (n = 17). Spatial frequency processing was studied by recording visual evoked potentials from visual brain areas while children passively viewed gratings (HSF/LSF). In addition, children watched face stimuli with different expressions, filtered to include only HSF or LSF. Enhanced activity in visual brain areas was found in response to HSF versus LSF information in children with ASD, in contrast to control subjects. Furthermore, facial-expression processing was also primarily driven by detail in ASD. Enhanced visual processing of detailed (HSF) information is present early in ASD and occurs for neutral (gratings), as well as for socially relevant stimuli (facial expressions). These data indicate that there is a general abnormality in visual SF processing in early ASD and are in agreement with suggestions that a fast LSF subcortical face processing route might be affected in ASD. This could suggest that abnormal visual processing is causative in the development of social problems in ASD. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  4. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.; Drouiche, Nadjib; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2013-01-01

    , this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous

  5. Influences of Witnessed Affect on Information Processing in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Autonomic responses of 5- to 10-year-old children were measured while the children watched a videotape in which a doctor and child expressed negative, neutral, or positive affect. For 5- and 6-year-old children, autonomic responses were greatest while watching, and errors in subsequent memory tasks greatest after watching, the negative affect…

  6. Affect and Persuasion: Effects on Motivation for Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Mark M; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    The relationship between mood and information processing, particularly when reviewing the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion, lacks conclusive evidence. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that information processing would be greater for mood-topic congruence than non mood-topic congruence. Undergraduate students (N=216)…

  7. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention affects visual perceptual processing near the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-09-01

    Specialized, bimodal neural systems integrate visual and tactile information in the space near the hand. Here, we show that visuo-tactile representations allow attention to influence early perceptual processing, namely, figure-ground assignment. Regions that were reached toward were more likely than other regions to be assigned as foreground figures, and hand position competed with image-based information to bias figure-ground assignment. Our findings suggest that hand position allows attention to influence visual perceptual processing and that visual processes typically viewed as unimodal can be influenced by bimodal visuo-tactile representations.

  9. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  10. Dynamic modelling of processes in rivers affected by precipitation runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Judith L.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, models for the dynamics of oxygen and organic matter in receiving waters (such as rivers and creeks), which are affected by rain, are developed. A time series analysis framework is used, but presented with special emphasis on continuous time state space models. Also, the concept o....... In most models, precipitation in the form of rain have been included to study the impact from this. Finally, the future and industrial perspectives are presented, along with a list of suggestions for future research related to the subjects considered in this thesis....

  11. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  12. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

  13. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.

    2013-04-01

    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)

  15. Key Process Parameters Affecting Performance of Electro-Coagulation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krystyník, Pavel; Tito, Duarte Novaes

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, JUL (2017), s. 106-112 ISSN 0255-2701 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020130 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : electrocoagulation * dosing concentration * current density Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2016

  16. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  17. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  18. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes; La radiotherapie affecte la cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-10-15

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  19. Infiltration and runoff generation processes in fire-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-wildfire runoff was investigated by combining field measurements and modelling of infiltration into fire-affected soils to predict time-to-start of runoff and peak runoff rate at the plot scale (1 m2). Time series of soil-water content, rainfall and runoff were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during cyclonic and convective rainstorms in the spring and summer of 2011. Some of the field measurements and measured soil physical properties were used to calibrate a one-dimensional post-wildfire numerical model, which was then used as a ‘virtual instrument’ to provide estimates of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and high-resolution (1 mm) estimates of the soil-water profile and water fluxes within the unsaturated zone.Field and model estimates of the wetting-front depth indicated that post-wildfire infiltration was on average confined to shallow depths less than 30 mm. Model estimates of the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, near the soil surface ranged from 0.1 to 5.2 mm h−1. Because of the relatively small values of Ks, the time-to-start of runoff (measured from the start of rainfall),  tp, was found to depend only on the initial soil-water saturation deficit (predicted by the model) and a measured characteristic of the rainfall profile (referred to as the average rainfall acceleration, equal to the initial rate of change in rainfall intensity). An analytical model was developed from the combined results and explained 92–97% of the variance of  tp, and the numerical infiltration model explained 74–91% of the variance of the peak runoff rates. These results are from one burned site, but they strongly suggest that  tp in fire-affected soils (which often have low values of Ks) is probably controlled more by the storm profile and the initial soil-water saturation deficit than by soil hydraulic properties.

  20. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  1. Habitat Complexity in Aquatic Microcosms Affects Processes Driven by Detritivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorea Flores

    Full Text Available Habitat complexity can influence predation rates (e.g. by providing refuge but other ecosystem processes and species interactions might also be modulated by the properties of habitat structure. Here, we focussed on how complexity of artificial habitat (plastic plants, in microcosms, influenced short-term processes driven by three aquatic detritivores. The effects of habitat complexity on leaf decomposition, production of fine organic matter and pH levels were explored by measuring complexity in three ways: 1. as the presence vs. absence of habitat structure; 2. as the amount of structure (3 or 4.5 g of plastic plants; and 3. as the spatial configuration of structures (measured as fractal dimension. The experiment also addressed potential interactions among the consumers by running all possible species combinations. In the experimental microcosms, habitat complexity influenced how species performed, especially when comparing structure present vs. structure absent. Treatments with structure showed higher fine particulate matter production and lower pH compared to treatments without structures and this was probably due to higher digestion and respiration when structures were present. When we explored the effects of the different complexity levels, we found that the amount of structure added explained more than the fractal dimension of the structures. We give a detailed overview of the experimental design, statistical models and R codes, because our statistical analysis can be applied to other study systems (and disciplines such as restoration ecology. We further make suggestions of how to optimise statistical power when artificially assembling, and analysing, 'habitat complexity' by not confounding complexity with the amount of structure added. In summary, this study highlights the importance of habitat complexity for energy flow and the maintenance of ecosystem processes in aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Suprasegmental information affects processing of talking faces at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellai, Bahia; Mersad, Karima; Streri, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    From birth, newborns show a preference for faces talking a native language compared to silent faces. The present study addresses two questions that remained unanswered by previous research: (a) Does the familiarity with the language play a role in this process and (b) Are all the linguistic and paralinguistic cues necessary in this case? Experiment 1 extended newborns' preference for native speakers to non-native ones. Given that fetuses and newborns are sensitive to the prosodic characteristics of speech, Experiments 2 and 3 presented faces talking native and nonnative languages with the speech stream being low-pass filtered. Results showed that newborns preferred looking at a person who talked to them even when only the prosodic cues were provided for both languages. Nonetheless, a familiarity preference for the previously talking face is observed in the "normal speech" condition (i.e., Experiment 1) and a novelty preference in the "filtered speech" condition (Experiments 2 and 3). This asymmetry reveals that newborns process these two types of stimuli differently and that they may already be sensitive to a mismatch between the articulatory movements of the face and the corresponding speech sounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk

    KAUST Repository

    Picone, Sara

    2012-03-30

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. © 2012 SETAC.

  4. From neurons to epidemics: How trophic coherence affects spreading processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaise, Janis; Johnson, Samuel

    2016-06-01

    Trophic coherence, a measure of the extent to which the nodes of a directed network are organised in levels, has recently been shown to be closely related to many structural and dynamical aspects of complex systems, including graph eigenspectra, the prevalence or absence of feedback cycles, and linear stability. Furthermore, non-trivial trophic structures have been observed in networks of neurons, species, genes, metabolites, cellular signalling, concatenated words, P2P users, and world trade. Here, we consider two simple yet apparently quite different dynamical models—one a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model adapted to include complex contagion and the other an Amari-Hopfield neural network—and show that in both cases the related spreading processes are modulated in similar ways by the trophic coherence of the underlying networks. To do this, we propose a network assembly model which can generate structures with tunable trophic coherence, limiting in either perfectly stratified networks or random graphs. We find that trophic coherence can exert a qualitative change in spreading behaviour, determining whether a pulse of activity will percolate through the entire network or remain confined to a subset of nodes, and whether such activity will quickly die out or endure indefinitely. These results could be important for our understanding of phenomena such as epidemics, rumours, shocks to ecosystems, neuronal avalanches, and many other spreading processes.

  5. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  6. The interface of legal and esthetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Smardon

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an overview of development of legal/policy factors affecting visual resource management. Review of major legal issues, court cases, laws and administrative decisionmaking reveals that the "action" regarding legal and aesthetic issues is currently in the public arena as managed by administrative agencies. Analysis of key court cases reveals that...

  7. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  8. Preliminary investigation of processes that affect source term identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickliff, D.S.; Solomon, D.K.; Farrow, N.D.

    1991-09-01

    Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 is known to be a significant source of contaminants, especially tritium ( 3 H), to the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. For example, Solomon et al. (1991) estimated the total 3 H discharge in Melton Branch (most of which originates in SWSA 5) for the 1988 water year to be 1210 Ci. A critical issue for making decisions concerning remedial actions at SWSA 5 is knowing whether the annual contaminant discharge is increasing or decreasing. Because (1) the magnitude of the annual contaminant discharge is highly correlated to the amount of annual precipitation (Solomon et al., 1991) and (2) a significant lag may exist between the time of peak contaminant release from primary sources (i.e., waste trenches) and the time of peak discharge into streams, short-term stream monitoring by itself is not sufficient for predicting future contaminant discharges. In this study we use 3 H to examine the link between contaminant release from primary waste sources and contaminant discharge into streams. By understanding and quantifying subsurface transport processes, realistic predictions of future contaminant discharge, along with an evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial action alternatives, will be possible. The objectives of this study are (1) to characterize the subsurface movement of contaminants (primarily 3 H) with an emphasis on the effects of matrix diffusion; (2) to determine the relative strength of primary vs secondary sources; and (3) to establish a methodology capable of determining whether the 3 H discharge from SWSA 5 to streams is increasing or decreasing

  9. Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco; Maraldi, Nadir M.; D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Massimo; Squarzoni, Stefano; Foisner, Roland; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2α were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies

  10. A computerized legal information management system | Ohiagu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.

  11. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  12. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  13. Translating Legal Collocations in Contract Agreements by Iraqi EFL Students-Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaha A. Abdulwahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will guarantee an overall communicative process and avoid inconsistency in legal translation. However, the inability of the translator to meet these two functions in translating the contract item not only affects the contractors’ comprehension of the contract item but also affects the parties’ contractual obligations. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to find out how legal collocations used in contract agreements are translated from Arabic into English by student-translators in terms of (1 purely technical, (2 semi-technical, and (3 everyday vocabulary collocations. For the data collection, a multiple-choice collocation test was used to be answered by 35 EFL Iraqi undergraduate translator-students to decide on the aspects of weaknesses and strengths of their translation, thus decide on the aspects of correction. The findings showed that these students had serious problems in translating legal collocations as they lack the linguistic knowledge and pragmatic awareness needed to achieve the legal meaning and effect. They were also unable to make a difference among the three categories of legal collocations, purely technical, semi-technical, and everyday vocabulary collocations. These students should be exposed to more legal translation practices to obtain the required experience needed for their future career.

  14. Affect of different ICT processing parameters to the quality of tomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiang; Sun Lingxia; Ye Yunchang

    2009-01-01

    The quality of ICT tomograms is affected by detecting processing parameters and image processing methods besides the performances of ICT systems. Optimal processing parameters and image processing methods can promote not only the quality of tomogram but also the resolution. Some research work was carried out about processing parameters and image processing methods including choice of collimator, filter, false color composite image. And some examples were given in this paper, which can provide the ICT analyst with reference. (authors)

  15. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  16. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  17. Facial affect processing and depression susceptibility: cognitive biases and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L; Ingram, Rick E; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-11-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal experience, cognition, and social behavior. We therefore review the burgeoning depressive facial affect processing literature and examine its potential for integrating disciplines, theories, and research. In particular, we evaluate studies in which information processing or cognitive neuroscience paradigms were used to assess facial affect processing in depressed and depression-susceptible populations. Most studies have assessed and supported cognitive models. This research suggests that depressed and depression-vulnerable groups show abnormal facial affect interpretation, attention, and memory, although findings vary based on depression severity, comorbid anxiety, or length of time faces are viewed. Facial affect processing biases appear to correspond with distinct neural activity patterns and increased depressive emotion and thought. Biases typically emerge in depressed moods but are occasionally found in the absence of such moods. Indirect evidence suggests that childhood neglect might cultivate abnormal facial affect processing, which can impede social functioning in ways consistent with cognitive-interpersonal and interpersonal models. However, reviewed studies provide mixed support for the social risk model prediction that depressive states prompt cognitive hypervigilance to social threat information. We recommend prospective interdisciplinary research examining whether facial affect processing abnormalities promote-or are promoted by-depressogenic attachment experiences, negative thinking, and social dysfunction.

  18. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  19. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Building the South African Nation through Legal Deposit: The Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal deposit of and preservation of digital materials depends on the proper legislative framework and implementation of the Legal Deposit Act. This article examines the challenges related to legal instruments affecting the legal deposit of digital materials in South Africa. Two main objectives of the study upon which this ...

  1. Evidence-based process for decision-making in the analysis of legal demands for medicines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aragão Figueiredo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal actions have been playing a significant role as an alternative pathway to access to medicines in Brazil. These lawsuits demand medicines used in Primary Health Care as well as medicines that are still in clinical research and have not been market approved by the Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA. The goal was to analyze medicines demanded through lawsuits brought to the judicial district which includes the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July/2007 to June/2008. The medicines in 281 lawsuits were examined for their respective indications, classified according to their presence in publicly-funded lists, market approval by ANVISA, compliance with national clinical guidelines, existence of alternative therapies in lists and support of indication by scientific evidence. Six different categories were described, which are deemed useful to managers and the Judiciary in decision-making. The support of evidence is of utmost importance for medicines that are not included in public funding lists and also for those with no available therapeutic alternatives.

  2. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L. de

    1986-01-01

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  3. 10 years of BAWLing into affective and aesthetic processes in reading: what are the echoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M.; Võ, Melissa L.-H.; Briesemeister, Benny B.; Conrad, Markus; Hofmann, Markus J.; Kuchinke, Lars; Lüdtke, Jana; Braun, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Reading is not only “cold” information processing, but involves affective and aesthetic processes that go far beyond what current models of word recognition, sentence processing, or text comprehension can explain. To investigate such “hot” reading processes, standardized instruments that quantify both psycholinguistic and emotional variables at the sublexical, lexical, inter-, and supralexical levels (e.g., phonological iconicity, word valence, arousal-span, or passage suspense) are necessary. One such instrument, the Berlin Affective Word List (BAWL) has been used in over 50 published studies demonstrating effects of lexical emotional variables on all relevant processing levels (experiential, behavioral, neuronal). In this paper, we first present new data from several BAWL studies. Together, these studies examine various views on affective effects in reading arising from dimensional (e.g., valence) and discrete emotion features (e.g., happiness), or embodied cognition features like smelling. Second, we extend our investigation of the complex issue of affective word processing to words characterized by a mixture of affects. These words entail positive and negative valence, and/or features making them beautiful or ugly. Finally, we discuss tentative neurocognitive models of affective word processing in the light of the present results, raising new issues for future studies. PMID:26089808

  4. Macroscopic brain dynamics during verbal and pictorial processing of affective stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Emotions can be viewed as action dispositions, preparing an individual to act efficiently and successfully in situations of behavioral relevance. To initiate optimized behavior, it is essential to accurately process the perceptual elements indicative of emotional relevance. The present chapter discusses effects of affective content on neural and behavioral parameters of perception, across different information channels. Electrocortical data are presented from studies examining affective perception with pictures and words in different task contexts. As a main result, these data suggest that sensory facilitation has an important role in affective processing. Affective pictures appear to facilitate perception as a function of emotional arousal at multiple levels of visual analysis. If the discrimination between affectively arousing vs. nonarousing content relies on fine-grained differences, amplification of the cortical representation may occur as early as 60-90 ms after stimulus onset. Affectively arousing information as conveyed via visual verbal channels was not subject to such very early enhancement. However, electrocortical indices of lexical access and/or activation of semantic networks showed that affectively arousing content may enhance the formation of semantic representations during word encoding. It can be concluded that affective arousal is associated with activation of widespread networks, which act to optimize sensory processing. On the basis of prioritized sensory analysis for affectively relevant stimuli, subsequent steps such as working memory, motor preparation, and action may be adjusted to meet the adaptive requirements of the situation perceived.

  5. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

  6. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  7. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  8. Attachment affects social information processing: Specific electrophysiological effects of maternal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lili; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is critical to each individual. It affects the cognitive-affective processing of social information. The present study examines how attachment affects the processing of social information, specifically maternal information. We assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to maternal information (compared to non-specific others) in a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT) with 22 participants. The results illustrated that attachment affected maternal information processing during three sequential stages of information processing. First, attachment affected visual perception, reflected by enhanced P100 and N170 elicited by maternal information as compared to others information. Second, compared to others, mother obtained more attentional resources, reflected by faster behavioral response to maternal information and larger P200 and P300. Finally, mother was evaluated positively, reflected by shorter P300 latency in a mother + good condition as compared to a mother + bad condition. These findings indicated that the processing of attachment-relevant information is neurologically differentiated from other types of social information from an early stage of perceptual processing to late high-level processing.

  9. Relation between facial affect recognition and configural face processing in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Changes in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollan JK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jackie K Gollan, Laina Rosebrock, Denada Hoxha, Katherine L Wisner Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum to inform future research. Numerous changes occur in attentional processing and affective reactivity across the childbearing period. This review focuses on the definition and methods of measuring attentional processing and affective reactivity. We discuss research studies that have examined the changes in these two processes during the perinatal phases of pregnancy and postpartum, with and without depression and anxiety. We evaluate the importance of using multiple levels of measurement, including physiological and neuroimaging techniques, to study these processes via implicit and explicit tasks. Research that has identified regions of brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as other physiological assessments is integrated into the discussion. The importance of using sophisticated methodological techniques in future studies, such as multiple mediation models, for the purpose of elucidating mechanisms of change during these processes in pregnancy and postpartum is emphasized. We conclude with a discussion of the effect of these processes on maternal psychological functioning and infant outcomes. These processes support a strategy for individualizing treatment for pregnant and postpartum women suffering from depression and anxiety. Keywords: attentional processing, emotion, affective reactivity, depression, pregnancy, postpartum

  11. Thinking back about a positive event: The impact of processing style on positive affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eNelis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70 or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159, followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects: In Study 1, a ‘concrete/imagery’ vs. ‘abstract/verbal’ processing style was compared. In Study 2, a ‘concrete/imagery’, ‘abstract/verbal’, and ‘comparative/verbal’ processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavourable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather then general abstract/verbal processing per se. The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information.

  12. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  13. Loneliness in late-life depression: structural and functional connectivity during affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N M L; Liu, H-L; Lin, C; Huang, C-M; Wai, Y-Y; Lee, S-H; Lee, T M C

    2016-09-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) in the elderly was reported to present with emotion dysregulation accompanied by high perceived loneliness. Previous research has suggested that LLD is a disorder of connectivity and is associated with aberrant network properties. On the other hand, perceived loneliness is found to adversely affect the brain, but little is known about its neurobiological basis in LLD. The current study investigated the relationships between the structural connectivity, functional connectivity during affective processing, and perceived loneliness in LLD. The current study included 54 participants aged >60 years of whom 31 were diagnosed with LLD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of an affective processing task were collected. Network-based statistics and graph theory techniques were applied, and the participants' perceived loneliness and depression level were measured. The affective processing task included viewing affective stimuli. Structurally, a loneliness-related sub-network was identified across all subjects. Functionally, perceived loneliness was related to connectivity differently in LLD than that in controls when they were processing negative stimuli, with aberrant networking in subcortical area. Perceived loneliness was identified to have a unique role in relation to the negative affective processing in LLD at the functional brain connectional and network levels. The findings increas our understanding of LLD and provide initial evidence of the neurobiological mechanisms of loneliness in LLD. Loneliness might be a potential intervention target in depressive patients.

  14. Gender effects in alcohol dependence: an fMRI pilot study examining affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Claudia B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Eliassen, James C; Nelson, Erik; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) has global effects on brain structure and function, including frontolimbic regions regulating affective processing. Preliminary evidence suggests alcohol blunts limbic response to negative affective stimuli and increases activation to positive affective stimuli. Subtle gender differences are also evident during affective processing. Fourteen abstinent AD individuals (8 F, 6 M) and 14 healthy controls (9 F, 5 M), ages 23 to 60, were included in this facial affective processing functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study. Whole-brain linear regression analyses were performed, and follow-up analyses examined whether AD status significantly predicted depressive symptoms and/or coping. Fearful Condition-The AD group demonstrated reduced activation in the right medial frontal gyrus, compared with controls. Gender moderated the effects of AD in bilateral inferior frontal gyri. Happy Condition-AD individuals had increased activation in the right thalamus. Gender moderated the effects of AD in the left caudate, right middle frontal gyrus, left paracentral lobule, and right lingual gyrus. Interactive AD and gender effects for fearful and happy faces were such that AD men activated more than control men, but AD women activated less than control women. Enhanced coping was associated with greater activation in right medial frontal gyrus during fearful condition in AD individuals. Abnormal affective processing in AD may be a marker of alcoholism risk or a consequence of chronic alcoholism. Subtle gender differences were observed, and gender moderated the effects of AD on neural substrates of affective processing. AD individuals with enhanced coping had brain activation patterns more similar to controls. Results help elucidate the effects of alcohol, gender, and their interaction on affective processing. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. A Pontine Region is a Neural Correlate of the Human Affective Processing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M.C. Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo neural activity of the pons during the perception of affective stimuli has not been studied despite the strong implications of its role in affective processing. To examine the activity of the pons during the viewing of affective stimuli, and to verify its functional and structural connectivity with other affective neural correlates, a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging methodology was employed in this study. We observed the in vivo activity of the pons when viewing affective stimuli. Furthermore, small-world connectivity indicated that the functional connectivity (FC between the pons and the cortico-limbic affective regions was meaningful, with the coefficient λ being positively associated with self-reported emotional reactivity. The FC between the pons and the cortico-limbic-striatal areas was related to self-reported negative affect. Corroborating this finding was the observation that the tract passing through the pons and the left hippocampus was negatively related to self-reported positive affect and positively correlated with emotional reactivity. Our findings support the framework that the pons works conjunctively with the distributed cortico-limbic-striatal systems in shaping individuals' affective states and reactivity. Our work paves the path for future research on the contribution of the pons to the precipitation and maintenance of affective disorders.

  16. Legal developments and problems of the Bologna process within the European higher education area and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) for the transfer of period of study abroad; joint degrees; and quality assurance aspects among others. Guidelines for Quality...

  17. The mechanism of valence-space metaphors: ERP evidence for affective word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say "feeling down" or "cheer up" in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations

  18. The Mechanism of Valence-Space Metaphors: ERP Evidence for Affective Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say “feeling down” or “cheer up” in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding

  19. Important processes affecting the release and migration of radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barátová, Dana; Nečas, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect significantly the transport of contaminants through the near field and far field of a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel were studied. The processes can be generally divided into (i) processes related to the release of radionuclides from the spent nuclear fuel; (ii) processes related to the radionuclide transport mechanisms (such as advection and diffusion); and (iii) processes affecting the rate of radionuclide migration through the multi-barrier repository system. A near-field and geosphere model of an unspecified geological repository sited in a crystalline rock is also described. Focus of the treatment is on the effects of the different processes on the activity flow of the major safety-relevant radionuclides. The activity flow was simulated for one spent fuel cask by using the GoldSim simulation tool. (orig.)

  20. Legal technique: approaches to section on types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Д. Шутак

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal technique is a branch of knowledge about the rules of doing legal work and creating in the process a variety of legal documents, which had previously been part of the theory of law. In modern conditions of the legal technique are isolated in a separate branch of legal science, focused on solving practical problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of legal techniques, in particular, on the basis of theoretical propositions about legal technique to allocate substantial characteristics and types of legal technique. O. Malko and M. Matuzov consider legal technique as a set of rules, techniques, methods of preparation, creation, registration of legal documents, their classification and accounting for their excellence, efficient use. A similar meaning is investing in this concept Alekseev, determining that the legal technique is a set of tools and techniques used in accordance with accepted rules in the formulation and systematization of legal acts to ensure their perfection. So, legal technique – theoretical and applied legal science, which studies the regularities of rational legal practice in the creation, interpretation and implementation of law. In relation to the type of legal techniques in the literature proposed different classifications. For example, G. Muromtsev technique, which is used only in the field of law, divide on the technique of law-making (legislative technique, technique of law enforcement, interpretation, technique of judicial speech, interrogation, notarial activities. V. Kartashov shared legal technique on law making and enforcement (prorealtime, interpretive yourself and prevacidrebatezw, judicial or investigative, prosecutorial, and the like. Some authors clearly indicate that the criterion by which to distinguish types of legal techniques. So, S. Alekseev notes that legal technique is classified from the point of view of the legal nature of the act made on: a techniques of legal acts; b the

  1. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  2. On whether mirror neurons play a significant role in processing affective prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2009-02-01

    Several behavioral and neuroimaging studies have indicated that both right and left cortical structures and a few subcortical ones are involved in processing affective prosody. Recent investigations have shown that the mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in several higher-level functions such as empathy, theory of mind, language, etc., but no studies so far link the mirror neuron system with affective prosody. In this paper is a speculation that the mirror neuron system, which serves as a common neural substrate for different higher-level functions, may play a significant role in processing affective prosody via its connections with the limbic lobe. Actual research must apply electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to assess whether the mirror neuron systems underly affective prosody in humans.

  3. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  4. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  5. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-06-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affective information in words and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Carretié, Luis; Valcárcel, María A; Méndez-Bértolo, Constantino; Pozo, Miguel A

    2009-06-01

    It is generally assumed that affective picture viewing is related to higher levels of physiological arousal than is the reading of emotional words. However, this assertion is based mainly on studies in which the processing of either words or pictures has been investigated under heterogenic conditions. Positive, negative, relaxing, neutral, and background (stimulus fragments) words and pictures were presented to subjects in two experiments under equivalent experimental conditions. In Experiment 1, neutral words elicited an enhanced late positive component (LPC) that was associated with an increased difficulty in discriminating neutral from background stimuli. In Experiment 2, high-arousing pictures elicited an enhanced early negativity and LPC that were related to a facilitated processing for these stimuli. Thus, it seems that under some circumstances, the processing of affective information captures attention only with more biologically relevant stimuli. Also, these data might be better interpreted on the basis of those models that postulate a different access to affective information for words and pictures.

  7. The Effect of Positive Mood on Flexible Processing of Affective Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-07-17

    Recent efforts have been made to understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying psychological resilience. Cognitive flexibility in the context of affective information has been related to individual differences in resilience. However, it is unclear whether flexible affective processing is sensitive to mood fluctuations. Furthermore, it remains to be investigated how effects on flexible affective processing interact with the affective valence of information that is presented. To fill this gap, we tested the effects of positive mood and individual differences in self-reported resilience on affective flexibility, using a task switching paradigm (N = 80). The main findings showed that positive mood was related to lower task switching costs, reflecting increased flexibility, in line with previous findings. In line with this effect of positive mood, we showed that greater resilience levels, specifically levels of acceptance of self and life, also facilitated task set switching in the context of affective information. However, the effects of resilience on affective flexibility seem more complex. Resilience tended to relate to more efficient task switching when negative information was preceded by positive information, possibly because the presentation of positive information, as well as positive mood, can facilitate task set switching. Positive mood also influenced costs associated with switching affective valence of the presented information. This latter effect was indicative of a reduced impact of no longer relevant negative information and more impact of no longer relevant positive information. Future research should confirm these effects of individual differences in resilience on affective flexibility, considering the affective valence of the presented information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Visual and associated affective processing of face information in schizophrenia: A selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    Perception of facial features is crucial in social life. In past decades, extensive research showed that the ability to perceive facial emotion expression was compromised in schizophrenia patients. Given that face perception involves visual/cognitive and affective processing, the roles of these two processing domains in the compromised face perception in schizophrenia were studied and discussed, but not clearly defined. One particular issue was whether face-specific processing is implicated in this psychiatric disorder. Recent investigations have probed into the components of face perception processes such as visual detection, identity recognition, emotion expression discrimination and working memory conveyed from faces. Recent investigations have further assessed the associations between face processing and basic visual processing and between face processing and social cognitive processing such as Theory of Mind. In this selective review, we discuss the investigative findings relevant to the issues of cognitive and affective association and face-specific processing. We highlight the implications of multiple processing domains and face-specific processes as potential mechanisms underlying compromised face perception in schizophrenia. These findings suggest a need for a domain-specific therapeutic approach to the improvement of face perception in schizophrenia.

  9. The Association of State Legal Mandates for Data Submission of Central Line-associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units with Process and Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Reagan, Julie; Furuya, E. Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn T.A; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process/outcome measures. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance. Methods State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices i.e. compliance with checklist and bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate Standardized Infection Ratios (SIR). The association between mandates and process/outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) NICUs were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place for 3 or more years for half. More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least one CLABSI prevention practice (52.3% – 66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9% – 48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4–6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the prevention practices but not with lower CLABSI rates. PMID:25111921

  10. The documental management of the Educational Secretary as guarantee of legality in the control of the university processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Armenteros Arencibia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogic professional formation aspires to obtain superior results in the documental management in order to guarantee the required confidence in the norms and p rocedures. The present article deal the theoretical bases that should be took into account for such aspiration, making emphasis in the characteristics of this process in the faculty of Infantile Education of the U CP the Pinar del Río.

  11. Legal and legal-ethical aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, H.

    1991-01-01

    The article examines why human beings accept risks. An assessment of risk is always carried out in connection with the benefits to be had from an action which is a potential risk. Decisions on the acceptability of risks are the consequence of political assessments. An assessment of risk on a legal basis is only possible to a limited degree. What is important are the criteria according to which the acceptability of risks is determined. In this context, the concept of damage proves itself to be of central importance; this concept includes the question as to the degree to which such damage can be tolerated socially and politically, the question of future damage as well as the degree to which such damage is reversible. It would be ideal if those persons who are affected by potential damage were to be the ones to make such decisions, but this is extremely difficult to put into practice. Special care must be taken in regard to decisions which have repercussions for future generations or for the state of nature. In this case, the decision which those persons who are potentially affected would most probably make must be anticipated and taken into account as if they were here to participate in the decision-making process. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  13. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  14. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A.

    2009-01-01

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants

  15. Selective exposure to information: how different modes of decision making affect subsequent confirmatory information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Fischer, Julia; Weisweiler, Silke; Frey, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    We investigated whether different modes of decision making (deliberate, intuitive, distracted) affect subsequent confirmatory processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information. Participants showed higher levels of confirmatory information processing when they made a deliberate or an intuitive decision versus a decision under distraction (Studies 1 and 2). As soon as participants have a cognitive (i.e., deliberate cognitive analysis) or affective (i.e., intuitive and gut feeling) reason for their decision, the subjective confidence in the validity of their decision increases, which results in increased levels of confirmatory information processing (Study 2). In contrast, when participants are distracted during decision making, they are less certain about the validity of their decision and thus are subsequently more balanced in the processing of decision-relevant information.

  16. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  17. The Insider Threat to Cybersecurity: How Group Process and Ignorance Affect Analyst Accuracy and Promptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    McCarthy, J. (1980). Circumscription - A Form of Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Artificial Intelligence , 13, 27–39. McClure, S., Scambray, J., & Kurtz, G. (2012...THREAT TO CYBERSECURITY : HOW GROUP PROCESS AND IGNORANCE AFFECT ANALYST ACCURACY AND PROMPTITUDE by Ryan F. Kelly September 2017...September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Dissertation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE INSIDER THREAT TO CYBERSECURITY : HOW GROUP PROCESS AND

  18. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  19. Harm avoidance in adolescents modulates late positive potentials during affective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-08-01

    Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  1. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  2. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  3. Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kate E; Martin, Frances H

    2009-06-01

    There are two dominant theories of affective picture processing; one that attention is more deeply engaged by motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., stimuli that activate both the appetitive and aversive systems), and two that attention is more deeply engaged by aversive stimuli described as the negativity bias. In order to identify the theory that can best account for affective picture processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 34 participants during a modified oddball paradigm in which levels of stimulus valence, arousal, and motivational relevance were systematically varied. Results were partially consistent with motivated attention models of emotional perception, as P3b amplitude was enhanced in response to highly arousing and motivationally relevant sexual and unpleasant stimuli compared to respective low arousing and less motivationally relevant stimuli. However P3b amplitudes were significantly larger in response to the highly arousing sexual stimuli compared to all other affective stimuli, which is not consistent with either dominant theory. The current study therefore highlights the need for a revised model of affective picture processing and provides a platform for further research investigating the independent effects of sexual arousal on cognitive processing.

  4. Transactional Distance among Open University Students: How Does it Affect the Learning Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassandrinou, Amanda; Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the presence of transactional distance among students, the factors affecting it, as well as the way it influences the learning process of students in a blended distance learning setting in Greece. The present study involved 12 postgraduate students of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). A qualitative research was conducted,…

  5. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  6. [How is the implementation of the new legal framework for health care affecting HIV-infected immigrants in an irregular situation in Spain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Molina, José A; Pulido, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The entry into force of Royal Decree (RD) 16/2012 in Spain in September 2012 led to the exclusion of the group of irregular immigrants from the National Healthcare System. With this work, GESIDA attempts to measure the impact of the entry into force of the RD in relation to its application by the Autonomous Communities (CCAA), and how it has affected the health care of irregular immigrants infected with HIV. Information was requested from the 17 CCAA of the existence of measures to ensure the care and treatment of people with HIV infection that were left unprotected because of the implementation of the RD. Likewise, a survey was conducted on health professionals and NGOs involved in the care of these people, to find out how it has affected the implementation of the RD to their daily healthcare work and the availability of information on regulations to implement it. The response of the CCAA was variable, hardly contributing, in some cases, to mitigate the negative effect of the RD. To this is added a complex bureaucracy to access the benefits offered by some regions, often inaccessible to the most vulnerable subjects. Lack of information for health-care professionals and NGOs involved in the care of immigrants, hinders access of this population to health care and the establishment of control measures for diseases with an impact on the public health. The RD 16/2012 has had a negative impact on daily healthcare working, generating the appearance of deep inequities throughout the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  8. The effect of pathological narcissism on interpersonal and affective processes in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-10-01

    Narcissism has significant interpersonal costs, yet little research has examined behavioral and affective patterns characteristic of narcissism in naturalistic settings. Here we studied the effect of narcissistic features on the dynamic processes of interpersonal behavior and affect in daily life. We used interpersonal theory to generate transactional models of social interaction (i.e., linkages among perceptions of others' behavior, affect, and one's own behavior) predicted to be characteristic of narcissism. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 102) completed clinical interviews and a 21-day ecological momentary assessment protocol using smartphones. After social interactions (N = 5,781), participants reported on perceptions of their interaction partner's behavior (scored along the dimensions of dominant-submissive and affiliative-quarrelsome), their own affect, and their own behavior. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to examine dynamic links among behavior and affect across interactions, and the role of narcissism in moderating these links. Results showed that perceptions of others' dominance did not predict dominant behavior, but did predict quarrelsome behavior, and this link was potentiated by narcissism. Furthermore, the link between others' dominance and one's own quarrelsome behavior was mediated by negative affect. Moderated mediation was also found: Narcissism amplified the link between ratings of others' dominance and one's own quarrelsomeness and negative affect. Narcissism did not moderate the link between other dominance and own dominance, nor the link between other affiliation and own affiliation. These results suggest that narcissism is associated with specific interpersonal and affective processes, such that sensitivity to others' dominance triggers antagonistic behavior in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P food processing level strata in Seattle v. King County stores at 1-month or 1-year post-policy enactment. Supermarket food prices do not appear to be differentially impacted by Seattle's minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.

  10. Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, K N

    2000-06-01

    The author used the remember/know paradigm and the dual process recognition model of A. P. Yonelinas, N. E. A. Kroll, I. Dobbins, M. Lazzara, and R. T. Knight (1998) to study the states of awareness accompanying recognition of affective images and the processes of recollection and familiarity that may underlie them. Results from all experiments showed that (a) negative stimuli tended to be remembered, whereas positive stimuli tended to be known; (b) recollection, but not familiarity, was boosted for negative or highly arousing and, to a lesser extent, positive stimuli; and (c) across experiments, variations in depth of encoding did not influence these patterns. These data suggest that greater recollection for affective events leads them to be more richly experienced in memory, and they are consistent with the idea that the states of remembering and knowing are experientially exclusive, whereas the processes underlying them are functionally independent.

  11. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  12. Factors Affecting Youth Voice in Decision-Making Processes within Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Tarifa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study aimed at determining the factors affecting the level of inclusiveness of youth voice in the decision-making process of the 4-H youth development program are discussed in this paper. State and field level 4-H professionals identified potential factors which affect youth voice in the decision-making process. The information gathered was utilized to identify the degree to which youth voice was incorporated in the decision-making process, to better understand how to suit youth’s needs, identify promising practices, and diagnose barriers towards fostering youth voice within the 4-H youth development program. This feature article presents the findings of the study, and discusses potential ramifications and remedies.

  13. Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

  14. Selective attention to affective value alters how the brain processes olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Margot, Christian; da Silva, Maria A A P; Velazco, Maria Ines

    2008-10-01

    How does selective attention to affect influence sensory processing? In a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the pleasantness of a jasmine odor, activations were greater in the medial orbito-frontal and pregenual cingulate cortex than when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity of the odor. When the subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity, activations were greater in the inferior frontal gyrus. These top-down effects occurred not only during odor delivery but started in a preparation period after the instruction before odor delivery, and continued after termination of the odor in a short-term memory period. Thus, depending on the context in which odors are presented and whether affect is relevant, the brain prepares itself, responds to, and remembers an odor differently. These findings show that when attention is paid to affective value, the brain systems engaged to prepare for, represent, and remember a sensory stimulus are different from those engaged when attention is directed to the physical properties of a stimulus such as its intensity. This differential biasing of brain regions engaged in processing a sensory stimulus depending on whether the cognitive demand is for affect-related versus more sensory-related processing may be an important aspect of cognition and attention. This has many implications for understanding the effects not only of olfactory but also of other sensory stimuli.

  15. Self-focused attention affects subsequent processing of positive (but not negative) performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Valentiner, David P

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models highlight the conjoint roles of self-focused attention (SFA), post-event processing (PEP), and performance appraisals in the maintenance of social anxiety. SFA, PEP, and biased performance appraisals are related to social anxiety; however, limited research has examined how SFA affects information-processing following social events. The current study examined whether SFA affects the relationships between performance appraisals and PEP following a social event.. 137 participants with high (n = 72) or low (n = 65) social anxiety were randomly assigned to conditions of high SFA or low SFA while engaging in a standardized social performance. Subsequent performance appraisals and PEP were measured. Immediate performance appraisals were not affected by SFA. High levels of SFA led to a stronger, inverse relationship between immediate positive performance appraisals and subsequent negative PEP. High levels of SFA also led to a stronger, inverse relationship between negative PEP and changes in positive performance appraisals.. Future research should examine whether the current findings, which involved a standardized social performance event, extend to interaction events as well as in a clinical sample. These findings suggest that SFA affects the processing of positive information following a social performance event. SFA is particularly important for understanding how negative PEP undermines positive performance appraisals.. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars

    processes operating in the chalk sediments at widely different scales into a single diagenetic model: At Stevns the chalk is affected by an extensive polygonal fault system which is expressed in onshore and offshore seismic profiles. Smaller scale contractional features like deformation bands (hairline...... strongly affect reservoir properties of the chalk both by establishing compartments and vertical connections. A better understanding of these reservoir modifications will be critical for improving the predictive capability of models describing the behaviour of drinking water and hydrocarbons hosted...

  17. Predictors of affect following treatment decision-making for prostate cancer: conversations, cognitive processing, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Kysa M; Meyerowitz, Beth E; Giedzinska-Simons, Antoinette; Gross, Mitchell; Agus, David B

    2009-05-01

    Research suggests that cancer patients who are more involved in treatment decision-making (TDM) report better quality of life following treatment. This study examines the association and possible mechanisms between prostate cancer patient's discussions about TDM and affect following treatment. We predicted that the length of time patients spent discussing treatment options with social networks and physicians prior to treatment would predict emotional adjustment after treatment. We further predicted that cognitive processing, coping, and patient understanding of treatment options would mediate this association. Fifty-seven patients completed questionnaires prior to treatment and at 1 and 6 months following treatment completion. Findings from the present study suggest that discussing treatment options with others, prior to beginning treatment for prostate cancer, significantly contributed to improvements in affect 1 and 6 months following treatment. Residualized regression analyses indicated that discussing treatment options with patient's social networks predicted a decrease in negative affect 1 and 6 months following treatment, while discussions with physicians predicted an increase in positive affect 1 month following treatment. Patients who spent more time discussing treatment options with family and friends also reported greater pre-treatment social support and emotional expression. Mediation analyses indicated that these coping strategies facilitated cognitive processing (as measured by a decrease in intrusive thoughts) and that cognitive processing predicted improvement in affect. Greater time spent talking with family and friends about treatment options may provide opportunities for patients to cope with their cancer diagnosis and facilitate cognitive processing, which may improve patient distress over time. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eDuke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift towards a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  19. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  20. Some considerations on the legal regulation of the process for public licitation, contracts and agreements on the establishment of educational partnerships between the government and the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Dragone Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the joint between the public administration and the private sector assumes new contours in function of the of the Brazilian State reform, configuring itself as a trend that if it has accented in the educational area, in the São Paulo’s cities, from the municipalization (municipal ownership of elementary school education, with the consolidation of partnerships and agreements involving the purchase of educational private system’s for municipal education net’s, the vacant subvention in private entities and the hiring of private institutions, aiming at the elaboration of educational politics for the management municipal. (ADRIÃO, BORGHI, 2008. Thus being, this article to look for introduce and to analyze, from the national legislation, the procedures for the establishment of these different partnership’s modalities between the municipal government and private institutions, physical or corporation body, discussing the rules for the licitation process for the services and works hiring, property and consumer goods acquisition, for the contracts celebration and the accords establishment with social organizations to transfer it of public resources, to look for understand the legal possibilities for the introduction of the privatizations mechanisms in the education.

  1. LEGAL DRAFTING IN CROATIA - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Đerđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of legal drafting and its essential elements, which has not drawn a lot of attention in the Republic of Croatia so far. The paper emphasises the importance of proportionality in the simplicity and legal distinctness of a legal text in the process of drafting for the purpose of its clarity. The paper also presents objective requirements necessary for quality legal drafting, as well as subjective qualities of the drafters. With the purpose of drawing attention to imperfections in the legal drafting in Croatia, some defi ciencies are presented in the process of drafting and amending of the Utility Services Act. The process of drafting and amending of this Act is a good example of the way how legal drafting should not be done. It contains a lot of defi ciencies and failures that are the result of legal drafting mistakes. At the end, authors expect that the adoption of the Uniform methodology and nomotechnical rules for the drafting of acts enacted by Parliament should contribute to the higher quality of legal texts and to their full adjustment to the general requirements of legal certainty and rule of law.

  2. Neural bases of different cognitive strategies for facial affect processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Salgado-Pineda, Pilar; Delaveau, Pauline; Hariri, Ahmad R; Blin, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    To examine the neural basis and dynamics of facial affect processing in schizophrenic patients as compared to healthy controls. Fourteen schizophrenic patients and fourteen matched controls performed a facial affect identification task during fMRI acquisition. The emotional task included an intuitive emotional condition (matching emotional faces) and a more cognitively demanding condition (labeling emotional faces). Individual analysis for each emotional condition, and second-level t-tests examining both within-, and between-group differences, were carried out using a random effects approach. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) were tested for variations in functional connectivity between amygdala and other brain regions as a function of changes in experimental conditions (labeling versus matching). During the labeling condition, both groups engaged similar networks. During the matching condition, schizophrenics failed to activate regions of the limbic system implicated in the automatic processing of emotions. PPI revealed an inverse functional connectivity between prefrontal regions and the left amygdala in healthy volunteers but there was no such change in patients. Furthermore, during the matching condition, and compared to controls, patients showed decreased activation of regions involved in holistic face processing (fusiform gyrus) and increased activation of regions associated with feature analysis (inferior parietal cortex, left middle temporal lobe, right precuneus). Our findings suggest that schizophrenic patients invariably adopt a cognitive approach when identifying facial affect. The distributed neocortical network observed during the intuitive condition indicates that patients may resort to feature-based, rather than configuration-based, processing and may constitute a compensatory strategy for limbic dysfunction.

  3. Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  4. The growth and photosynthesis of Typha in oil sands process affected material and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Hornung, J. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Aquatic plants such as cattail contribute substantially to the energy flow in wetlands. Since Typha (cattail) plants acquire and cycle carbon and nutrients through wetlands, their growth and recycling of captured nutrients are an important part of natural, healthy wetland ecosystems. Cattail are pervasive and satisfy many of the criteria to be used as indicators of wetland integrity. This study investigated if cattail growth and carbon accrual were influenced by oil sands process materials (OSPM) such as consolidated tailings (CT). The purpose was to facilitate land reclamation initiatives by evaluating the impact that constituents of oil sands process material have on aquatic plant growth. The study was conducted at Suncor's experimental trenches. Six lined basins were used, of which 3 were filled with natural water and 3 were filled with trench water. Cattail were planted in different growth medium combinations, including CT over CT; soil over soil; soil over CT; and soil over sterilized sand. All leaf lengths and widths were measured along with the photosynthesis of the leaves and root and plant biomass at planting and after 2-years growth. A larger leaf area was observed under oil sands process influence, which may indicate increased carbon accrual above ground. Leaf area data suggested that CT affected plants are quite productive. The study also indicated that oil sands affected water may reduce plant fitness, and therefore could influence the overall oil sands reclamation timelines. Conversely, cattail grown in soil capped process affected material had a much larger leaf area compared to those grown in soil capped sand, most likely due to the higher levels of ammonia in process affected material.

  5. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...-hour) costs in the form of filing fees and postage costs. This collection has filing fees associated... that approximately 5 petitions will be filed per year with a fee of $130, for a total fee cost of $650. There are no other fees associated with this information collection. Customers may incur postage costs...

  6. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to Shirley Hassan, Office of General Law...

  7. Differential Contribution of Right and Left Amygdala to Affective Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Markowitsch

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for a differential involvement of the human left and right amygdala in emotional and cognitive behaviour is reviewed, with a particular emphasis on functional imaging results and case reports on patients with amygdalar damage. The available evidence allows one to conclude that there is definitely a hemisphere specific processing difference between the left and right amygdala. However, between studies the direction of the asymmetry is partly incongruent. In spite of this, the following tentative proposals are made: the left amygdala is more closely related to affective information encoding with a higher affinity to language and to detailed feature extraction, and the right amygdala to affective information retrieval with a higher affinity to pictorial or image-related material. Furthermore, the right amygdala may be more strongly engaged than the left one in a fast, shallow or gross analysis of affect-related information.

  8. Extraversion and reward-related processing: probing incentive motivation in affective priming tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Ode, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Based on an incentive motivation theory of extraversion (Depue & Collins, 1999), it was hypothesized that extraverts (relative to introverts) would exhibit stronger positive priming effects in affective priming tasks, whether involving words or pictures. This hypothesis was systematically supported in four studies involving 229 undergraduates. In each of the four studies, and in a subsequent combined analysis, extraversion was positively predictive of positive affective priming effects, but was not predictive of negative affective priming effects. The results bridge an important gap in the literature between biological and trait models of incentive motivation and do so in a way that should be informative to subsequent efforts to understand the processing basis of extraversion as well as incentive motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  10. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  11. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  12. Integrative processing of touch and affect in social perception: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd eEbisch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top-down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others' feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content.

  13. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Muminović; Željana Aljinović Barać

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most dev...

  14. Process parameters affecting the delignification of eucalyptus kraft pulp with peroxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandranupap, P.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Various process parameters affecting eucalyptus kraft pulp delignification with peroxyacetic acid were investigated. The results showed that pH was an important factor. The delignification rate increased with increasing pH to the value of 6. High delignification rate was obtained when the pulp was chelated with Na4-EDTA prior to the peroxyacetic acid stage. Therefore, delignification reaction rate depends on peroxyacid charge, temperature, pH and metal content of pulp.

  15. Evaluation of regulatory processes affecting nuclear power plant early site approval and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey and evaluation of existing federal, state and local regulatory considerations affecting siting approval of power plants in the United States. Those factors that may impede early site approval of nuclear power plants are identified, and findings related to the removal of these impediments and the general improvement of the approval process are presented. A brief evaluation of standardization of nuclear plant design is also presented

  16. The relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure. For the purposes of research a new experiment was created, where affective priming was measured in a lexical decision task. The term affective priming stands for facilitation in recognition of the stimuli that comes after the presentation of stimuli of the same valence. In this experiment, two words were presented on a screen in front of the subject (stimuli-prime and stimuli-target. Those two words were of the same or different affective valence, and the subject's were instructed to respond whether the second word on the screen had a meaning or not. The basic personality structure was defined by the 'Big five' model and the Disintegration model and measured by NEO PI-R and Delta 10 questionnaires. The results of the affective priming experiment indicated a strong effect of positive facilitation and much weaker effect off negative facilitation. Two significant functions were extracted by quasicanonical correlation analysis. The first function showed correlation between the effect of positive facilitation and all of the subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Conscientiousness (NEO PI-R, as well as all sub dimensions of Disintegration (DELTA 10. The second one indicated to a correlation between the negative facilitation effect and some subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness (NEO PI-R, as well as all subscales of Disintegration (DELTA 10.

  17. Intrinsic colony conditions affect the provisioning and oviposition process in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Morais, M M; Nascimento, F S; Bego, L R

    2009-01-01

    The cell provisioning and oviposition process (POP) is a unique characteristic of stingless bees (Meliponini), in which coordinated interactions between workers and queen regulate the filling of brood cells with larval resources and subsequent egg laying. Environmental conditions seem to regulate reproduction in stingless bees; however, little is known about how the amount of food affects quantitative sequences of the process. We examined intrinsic variables by comparing three colonies in distinct conditions (strong, intermediate and weak state). We predicted that some of these variables are correlated with temporal events of POP in Melipona scutellaris colonies. The results demonstrated that the strong colony had shorter periods of POP.

  18. The effect of welding line heat-affected-zone on the formability of tube hydroforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChiuHuang, Cheng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-En; Lee, Ping-Kun

    2016-08-01

    Tube hydroforming has been used as a lightweight design approach to reduce CO2 emission for the automotive industry. For the high strength steel tube, the strength and quality of the welding line is very important for a successful tube hydroforming process. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the welding line's strength and the width of the heat-affected zone on the tube thinning during the hydroforming process. The simulation results show that both factors play an important role on the thickness distribution during the tube expansion.

  19. The effect of welding line heat-affected-zone on the formability of tube hydroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ChiuHuang, Cheng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-En; Lee, Ping-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Tube hydroforming has been used as a lightweight design approach to reduce CO_2 emission for the automotive industry. For the high strength steel tube, the strength and quality of the welding line is very important for a successful tube hydroforming process. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the welding line's strength and the width of the heat-affected zone on the tube thinning during the hydroforming process. The simulation results show that both factors play an important role on the thickness distribution during the tube expansion. (paper)

  20. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique eJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  1. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  2. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  3. Legal Education, Liberal Education, and the Trivial "Artes."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the influence of liberal education upon legal education, studying the historical process according to which changes of emphasis within liberal education (from rhetoric to dialectic or the reverse) have been reflected in related changes in legal education. (AYC)

  4. Conflict Tasks of Different Types Divergently Affect the Attentional Processing of Gaze and Arrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingxia; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Xuemin; Feng, Qing; Sun, Mengdan; Xu, Mengsi

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored the attentional processing mechanisms of gaze and arrow cues in two different types of conflict tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed a flanker task in which gaze and arrow cues were presented as central targets or bilateral distractors. The congruency between the direction of the target and the distractors was manipulated. Results showed that arrow distractors greatly interfered with the attentional processing of gaze, while the processing of arrow direction was immune to conflict from gaze distractors. Using a spatial compatibility task, Experiment 2 explored the conflict effects exerted on gaze and arrow processing by their relative spatial locations. When the direction of the arrow was in conflict with its spatial layout on screen, response times were slowed; however, the encoding of gaze was unaffected by spatial location. In general, processing to an arrow cue is less influenced by bilateral gaze cues but is affected by irrelevant spatial information, while processing to a gaze cue is greatly disturbed by bilateral arrows but is unaffected by irrelevant spatial information. Different effects on gaze and arrow cues by different types of conflicts may reflect two relatively distinct specific modes of the attentional process.

  5. Association of impaired facial affect recognition with basic facial and visual processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Daniel; McBain, Ryan; Holt, Daphne J; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2009-06-15

    Impaired emotion recognition has been reported in schizophrenia, yet the nature of this impairment is not completely understood. Recognition of facial emotion depends on processing affective and nonaffective facial signals, as well as basic visual attributes. We examined whether and how poor facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia is related to basic visual processing and nonaffective face recognition. Schizophrenia patients (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 29) performed emotion discrimination, identity discrimination, and visual contrast detection tasks, where the emotionality, distinctiveness of identity, or visual contrast was systematically manipulated. Subjects determined which of two presentations in a trial contained the target: the emotional face for emotion discrimination, a specific individual for identity discrimination, and a sinusoidal grating for contrast detection. Patients had significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) than control subjects for discriminating both fearful and happy faces. Furthermore, patients' poor performance in fear discrimination was predicted by performance in visual detection and face identity discrimination. Schizophrenia patients require greater emotional signal strength to discriminate fearful or happy face images from neutral ones. Deficient emotion recognition in schizophrenia does not appear to be determined solely by affective processing but is also linked to the processing of basic visual and facial information.

  6. Organizational factors affecting the adoption of diabetes care management processes in physician organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Simon, Jodi; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Gillies, Robin R; Casalino, Lawrence; Schmittdiel, Julie; Shortell, Stephen M

    2004-10-01

    To describe the extent of adoption of diabetes care management processes in physician organizations in the U.S. and to investigate the organizational factors that affect the adoption of diabetes care management processes. Data are derived from the National Survey of Physician Organizations and the Management of Chronic Illness, conducted in 2000-2001. A total of 1,104 of the 1,590 physician organizations identified responded to the survey. The extent of adoption of four diabetes care management processes is measured by an index consisting of the organization's use of diabetic patient registries, clinical practice guidelines, case management, and physician feedback. The ordinary least-squares model is used to determine the association of organizational characteristics with the adoption of diabetes care management processes in physician organizations. A logistic regression model is used to determine the association of organizational characteristics with the adoption of individual diabetes care management processes. Of the 987 physician organizations studied that treat patients with diabetes, 48% either do not use any or use only one of the four diabetes care management processes. A total of 20% use two care management processes, and 32% use three or four processes. External incentives to improve quality, computerized clinical information systems, and ownership by hospitals or health maintenance organizations are strongly associated with the diabetes care management index and the adoption of individual diabetes care management processes. Policies to encourage external incentives to improve quality and to facilitate the adoption of computerized clinical information technology may promote greater use of diabetes care management processes. Copyright 2004 American Diabetes Association

  7. How Are Distributed Groups Affected by an Imposed Structuring of their Decision-Making Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Anders Lorentz; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Groups often suffer from ineffective communication and decision making. This experimental study compares distributed groups solving a preference task with support from either a communication system or a system providing both communication and a structuring of the decision-making process. Results...... show that groups using the latter system spend more time solving the task, spend more of their time on solution analysis, spend less of their time on disorganized activity, and arrive at task solutions with less extreme preferences. Thus, the type of system affects the decision-making process as well...... as its outcome. Notably, the task solutions arrived at by the groups using the system that imposes a structuring of the decision-making process show limited correlation with the task solutions suggested by the system on the basis of the groups’ explicitly stated criteria. We find no differences in group...

  8. How does context affect intimate relationships? linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2004-02-01

    Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.

  9. Application of ultrasound processed images in space: Quanitative assessment of diffuse affectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Poch, A.; Bru, C.; Nicolau, C.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate diffuse affectations in the liver using texture image processing techniques. Ultrasound diagnose equipments are the election of choice to be used in space environments as they are free from hazardous effects on health. However, due to the need for highly trained radiologists to assess the images, this imaging method is mainly applied on focal lesions rather than on non-focal ones. We have conducted a clinical study on 72 patients with different degrees of chronic hepatopaties and a group of control of 18 individuals. All subjects' clinical reports and results of biopsies were compared to the degree of affectation calculated by our computer system , thus validating the method. Full statistical results are given in the present paper showing a good correlation (r=0.61) between pathologist's report and analysis of the heterogenicity of the processed images from the liver. This computer system to analyze diffuse affectations may be used in-situ or via telemedicine to the ground.

  10. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y; Lindquist, Kristen A; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity , the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60-90 ms), middle (270-300 ms), and later (540-570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals' level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8-12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30-50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of "emotional complexity." Implications for models of emotion are also discussed.

  11. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAltmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1 the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM, and (2 the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simulatiously liked, selectively engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  12. The power of emotional valence—from cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy. PMID:22754519

  13. The power of emotional valence-from cognitive to affective processes in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  14. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Trbižan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compared and based on these conclusions were drawn.Results: An individual has an active role and the use of ICT enables, through the processes of reflection and exchanges of views, for an individual to resolve problems and consequently is able to achieve excellent results at both the personal (educational level and in business. In learning and working with computers, individuals needinternal motivation. Internal motivation can be increased with positive affective processes that also positively influence cognitive processes.Organization:Knowledge of generational characteristics is currently becoming a competitive advantage of organizations. Younger generations are growing up with computers and both teachers and managers have to beaware and accommodate their teaching and business processes to the requirements of ICT.Society: In the 21st century we live in a knowledge society that is unconditionally connected and dependent on the development of information technology. Digital literacy is an everyday concept that society also is aware of and training programmes are being offered on computer literacy for all generations.Originality: The paper presents a concise synthesis of research and authors points of views recorded over the last 25 years and these are combined with our own conclusions based on observations.Limitations/Future Research:The fundamental limitation is that this is a comparative research study that compares the views and conclusions of different authors

  15. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  16. Using Comics to Communicate Legal Contract Cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Botes

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...

  17. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  18. Plasmalogens Inhibit APP Processing by Directly Affecting γ-Secretase Activity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Mett, Janine; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias; Grimm, Marcus O. W.

    2012-01-01

    Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously it has been shown that plasmalogens, the major brain phospholipids, are altered in AD. However, it remained unclear whether plasmalogens themselves are able to modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing or if the reduced plasmalogen level is a consequence of AD. Here we identify the plasmalogens which are altered in human AD postmortem brains and investigate their impact on APP processing resulting in Aβ production. All tested plasmalogen species showed a reduction in γ-secretase activity whereas β- and α-secretase activity mainly remained unchanged. Plasmalogens directly affected γ-secretase activity, protein and RNA level of the secretases were unaffected, pointing towards a direct influence of plasmalogens on γ-secretase activity. Plasmalogens were also able to decrease γ-secretase activity in human postmortem AD brains emphasizing the impact of plasmalogens in AD. In summary our findings show that decreased plasmalogen levels are not only a consequence of AD but that plasmalogens also decrease APP processing by directly affecting γ-secretase activity, resulting in a vicious cycle: Aβ reduces plasmalogen levels and reduced plasmalogen levels directly increase γ-secretase activity leading to an even stronger production of Aβ peptides. PMID:22547976

  19. Does radiographic arthrosis correlate with cartilage pathology in Labrador Retrievers affected by medial coronoid process disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael; Heller, Jane; Solano, Miguel; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Sparrow, Tim; Kowaleski, Mike

    2014-02-01

    To compare radiographic elbow arthrosis with arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers with elbow osteoarthritis secondary to medial coronoid process (MCP) disease. Retrospective epidemiological study. Labrador retrievers (n = 317; 592 elbow joints). Data were collected retrospectively (June 2007-June 2011) to identify Labrador retrievers with thoracic limb lameness and elbow pain, a complete set of elbow radiographs, and a comprehensive arthroscopic surgery report. Each radiograph was scored for osteophytosis on the anconeal process and ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis using a modification of the International Elbow Working Group (IEWG) scoring system. Elbows affected by traumatic MCP fracture, humeral condylar osteochondrosis, or ununited anconeal process were excluded. The arthroscopic report was used to generate a composite cartilage score (CCS; 0 = normal, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) for each elbow joint. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between radiographic arthrosis score and CCS. There was a significant relationship between radiographic elbow arthrosis and CCS (P arthrosis can be used to predict the severity of arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers affected by MCP disease. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  1. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  2. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  3. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Muminović

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most developed countries. Results obtained show that comprehensive measure of productivity EBITDA per employee has statistically significant positive impact on company’s profitability, the same as productivity management components labour cost competitiveness and capital productivity.

  4. Selective perception of novel science: how definitions affect information processing about nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoun; Akin, Heather; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2017-05-01

    This study examines how familiarity with an issue—nanotechnology—moderates the effect of exposure to science information on how people process mediated messages about a complex issue. In an online experiment, we provide a nationally representative sample three definitions of nanotechnology (technical, technical applications, and technical risk/benefit definitions). We then ask them to read an article about the topic. We find significant interactions between perceived nano-familiarity and the definition received in terms of how respondents perceive favorable information conveyed in the stimulus. People less familiar with nanotechnology were more significantly affected by the type of definition they received.

  5. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  6. Rethinking a Negative Event : The Affective Impact Of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing Of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories

  7. Rethinking a Negative Event : The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories

  8. Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.

  9. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct reciprocity in animals: The roles of bonding and affective processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Esteban; Carballo, Fabricio; Bentosela, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    The presence of direct reciprocity in animals is a debated topic, because, despite its evolutionary plausibility, it is believed to be uncommon. Some authors claim that stable reciprocal exchanges require sophisticated cognition which has acted as a constraint on its evolution across species. In contrast, a more recent trend of research has focused on the possibility that direct reciprocity occurs within long-term bonds and relies on simple as well as more complex affective mechanisms such as emotional book-keeping, rudimentary and higher forms of empathy, and inequity aversion, among others. First, we present evidence supporting the occurrence of long-term reciprocity in the context of existing bonds in social birds and mammals. Second, we discuss the evidence for affective responses which, modulated by bonding, may underlie altruistic behaviours in different species. We conclude that the mechanisms that may underlie reciprocal exchanges are diverse, and that some act in interaction with bonding processes. From simple associative learning in social contexts, through emotional contagion and behavioural mimicry, to empathy and a sense of fairness, widespread and diverse social affective mechanisms may explain why direct reciprocity may not be a rare phenomenon among social vertebrates. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Statistical and hydrogeochemical approach to study processes that affect groundwater composition in the Ferrara province (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di roma, Antonella; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-04-01

    The ground water should not be seen only as a reserve for the water supply, but also be protected for its environmental value. Groundwater plays an essential role in the hydrological cycle for which the characterization, pollution prevention, monitoring and restoration are essential in view of the recovery and identification of the water bodies to be submitted to recharge for the adaptation to DM n. 100/2016. Groundwater of Ferrara province presents salinisation problems and pollution of noxious metals that can be mitigated through recharge processes evaluated based on the specific site characteristics. It is essential to know the hydrogeochemical characteristics of different aquifer levels. To do this have been discuss analytical results of groundwater (2014-2015 monitoring phreatic ground water and temporal series from 2003-2015 A1-A2-A3 samples from Emilia Romagna databases). Results showed that in the territory analyzed insist both salinization and refreshening processes. Factor analysis(FA) conducted on samples has divided them into three groups. 1: samples affected by ionic exchange, 2: pH reaction on heavy metal, 3: samples affected by mineralization. The geochemical groundwater facies changed from Ca-HCO3, and NaHCO3 with a small samples group of CaSO4 and through geochemical investigations were observed the reactions that take place in the waters mixing of different composition. The Na excesses are explained by ionic exchange processes. A determinant role is played by ionic exchange between Ca and Na. In this territory is important also the role of CH4 presence which typically rises towards the surface along faults and fractures and influence rise of deep water with different composition. On samples selected from FA Group 1 has been observed an increase of the CEC (Cation exchange capacity). Adsorption-desorption exchanges take place between water and the fine fraction sediment rich in clay minerals. Higher CEC values are found in rich organic substance

  12. Prefrontal cortex executive processes affected by stress in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, Milena; Adler, Samantha M; Bulin, Sarah E; Fucich, Elizabeth A; Paredes, Denisse; Morilak, David A

    2017-07-06

    Prefrontal cortical executive functions comprise a number of cognitive capabilities necessary for goal directed behavior and adaptation to a changing environment. Executive dysfunction that leads to maladaptive behavior and is a symptom of psychiatric pathology can be instigated or exacerbated by stress. In this review we survey research addressing the impact of stress on executive function, with specific focus on working memory, attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. We then consider the neurochemical pathways underlying these cognitive capabilities and, where known, how stress alters them. Finally, we review work exploring potential pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches that can ameliorate deficits in executive function. Both preclinical and clinical literature indicates that chronic stress negatively affects executive function. Although some of the circuitry and neurochemical processes underlying executive function have been characterized, a great deal is still unknown regarding how stress affects these processes. Additional work focusing on this question is needed in order to make progress on developing interventions that ameliorate executive dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on the Affect and Evaluation of the Creative Process among Fine Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of intrinsic motivation on affect, subjective evaluation, and the creative process of young artists. Relations between motivation, affect, and evaluation were treated as a dynamic process and measured several times. The unique contribution of this study is that it…

  14. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields.

  15. 44 CFR 6.8 - Subpoena and other legal demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subpoena and other legal..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 6.8 Subpoena and other legal demands. Access to records in systems of records by subpoena or other legal process shall be...

  16. Legal identity as spiritual constituent of sense of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kravtsov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern social and cultural situation of modern man requires mobility and adequate response to the requirements of modern society, and put it in front of the need to revise the traditional goals and targets. The authors show that it is not a system of knowledge and skills in itself, but a set of core competencies in modern intellectual, social, legal, communication, information sphere should be the main result of the process of formation of legal consciousness of modern man. In identifying the identification own life trajectory, gaining experience of independent activity and personal responsibility law today a special place. The authors emphasize that the position of acting, its identity is defined situation in the legal space. From its goals, values, personal preferences affect the choice of a particular mode of action. Familiarity with the legal situation as a choice situation, analysis of the position and actions of the person who is the subject of them, it is the spiritual content of justice, and creates conditions for personal self­determination ­ to find an answer to the question «Who am I, what do I want?»

  17. "Legal Highs"--An Emerging Epidemic of Novel Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also known as "legal highs," across the world. They include a wide range of products, from natural plant-originated substances to synthetic compounds, that can be purchased both online and from high street retailers. "Legal highs" mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. However, they are claimed to consist of compounds that are legal to sell, possess, and use, often labeled as "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Based on the spectrum of their actions on cognitive processes, mood, and behavior, "legal highs" can be classified into four basis categories: amphetamine- and ecstasy-like stimulants, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), hallucinogenic/dissociative, and opioid-like compounds. NPS may, however, exhibit a combination of these actions due to their designed chemical structure. Although the prevalence and pattern of NPS use differ between various countries, the most popular groups are SCs and psychostimulants, described in this chapter. Currently, there is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these substances. However, the number of intoxicated people presenting with emergencies is constantly increasing, providing evidence that negative health and social consequences may indeed seriously affect recreational and chronic users. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors Affecting Ballability of Mixture Iron Ore Concentrates and Iron Oxide Bearing Wastes in Metallurgical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfon Udo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS are produced at every segment of processing stage of sinter, molten iron and steel production. They are hard to handle and in many cases are stockpiled only to be a source of environmental pollution but can be balled into pellets. Pellet of good ballability values are transportable and recyclable as they can withstand stress they will encounter without disintegrating back to dust. But ballability is affected by some factors like the grain sizes of the materials, the moisture and binder contents of the ball mix, wettability of the balled materials and the processing perimeters of the granulator. The objective of this research work is to investigate the factors affecting ballability of mixture of iron ore concentrates and iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS in metallurgical processing. The parameters under consideration were grain size of materials, the moisture contents, the speed of balling disc, IROBEWAS and Bentonite (Binder contents of the balled mix. This was carried out by balling different volume fractions of mix containing iron oxide concentrate and IROBEWAS using a balling disc and testing the resulting balls for green compressive strength using universal testing machine. It was found that the ballability of the mixture of iron ore concentrate and IROBEWAS increases as grain sizes of the materials reduce but increases as the moisture contents and IROBEWAS content increase up to an optimum value of moisture content in the mix before it starts to reduce. The ballability also increases as the speed of the granulator (Balling disc increases within the limit of this work. It was also observed that there was an increase in ballability with slight increase in bentonite content in the mix.

  19. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  20. Legal, ethical,and economic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libassi, F.P.; Donaldson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the legal, ethical, and economic constraints to developing a comprehensive knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. These constraints are not fixed and immutable; rather they are determined by the political process. Political issues cannot be evaded. The basic objective of developing a comprehensive knowledge about the biological effects of ionizing radiation exists as an objective not only because we wish to add to the store of human knowledge but also because we have important use for that knowledge. It will assist our decision-makers to make choices that affect us all. These choices require both hard factual information and application of political judgment. Research supplies some of the hard factual information and should be as free as possible from political influence in its execution. At the same time, the political choices that must be made influence the direction and nature of the research program as a whole. Similarly, the legal, ethical, and economic factors that constrain our ability to expand knowledge through research reflect a judgment by political agents that values other than expansion of knowledge should be recognized and given effect

  1. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  2. Breakage or uprooting: How tree death type affects hillslope processes in old-growth temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamonil, Pavel; Daněk, Pavel; Adam, Dušan; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2017-12-01

    Tree breakage and uprooting are two possible scenarios of tree death that have differing effects on hillslope processes. In this study we aimed to (i) reveal the long-term structure of the biomechanical effects of trees (BETs) in relation to their radial growth and tree death types in four old-growth temperate forests in four different elevation settings with an altitudinal gradient of 152-1105 m a.s.l., (ii) quantify affected areas and soil volumes associated with the studied BETs in reserves, and (iii) derive a general model of the role of BETs in hillslope processes in central European temperate forests. We analyzed the individual dynamics of circa 55,000 trees in an area of 161 ha within four old-growth forests over 3-4 decades. Basal tree censuses established in all sites in the 1970s and repeated tree censuses in the 1990s and 2000s provided detailed information about the radial growth of each tree of DBH ≥ 10 cm as well as about types of tree death. We focused on the quantification of: (i) surviving still-living trees, (ii) new recruits, (iii) standing dead trees, (iv) uprooted trees, and (v) broken trees. Frequencies of phenomena were related to affected areas and volumes of soil using individual statistical models. The elevation contrasts were a significant factor in the structure of BETs. Differences between sites increased from frequencies of events through affected areas to volumes of soil associated with BETs. An average 2.7 m3 ha-1 year-1 was associated with all BETs of the living and dying trees in lowlands, while there was an average of 7.8 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the highest mountain site. Differences were caused mainly by the effects of dying trees. BETs associated with dead trees were 7-8 times larger in the mountains. Effects of dying trees and particularly treethrows represented about 70% of all BETs at both mountain sites, while it was 58% at the highland site and only 32% at the lowland site. Our results show a more significant role of BETs in

  3. The Right of the Accused in Saudi in Criminal Procedure during Investigation Process and Arbitrary Dentation and Prohibits Torture and Protects the Rights of Suspects to Obtain Legal Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmed Alqahtani Faten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has recent in years pass several important legislations to ensure a fair and balanced justice system, including: 1 The Law of Procedure Before Sharia Courts of September 2001, which grants defendants the right to legal representation and outlines the process by which please, evidence and experts are heard by the courts. 2 The Code of Law Practice of January 2001, which outlines requirements necessary to become an attorney and defines the duties and right of lawyers, including the right of attorney-client privilege. 3 The Law of Criminal Procedure of May 2001, which protects a defendant right with the regard to interrogation, investigation, and incarceration; outlines a series of regulations that justice and law enforcement authorities must follow during all stages of legal process, from arrest and interrogation to trial and sentencing; prohibits torture and protects the right of suspects to obtain legal counsel; and limits the period of arbitrary detention. The main objective of this study is to examine the operation of the criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia in light of the international human rights standards pertaining to the administration of justice. It involves the international human rights treaties and focuses mainly on the instruments in which the right to a fair trail in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  5. DLPFC implication in memory processing of affective information. A look on anxiety trait contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferrari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested to approach to the analysis of the emotions and cognition from an integrating point of view rather than investigate the two constructs per se. In line with this research approach, the present study aims to investigate how emotions can affect memory processes and which cerebral areas are involved in this mechanism. We also aim to understand if and how this processing is influenced by specific personality traits, as anxiety trait. Using a rTMS measure, participants were asked to performance a memory task (a retrieval task composed by verbal material with and without emotional content. Subjects were also assessed for their anxiety trait (high and low anxiety subjects. Our study provided a strong evidence for the influence of the emotional content and personality trait on the memory processes. Secondly, the role of the Left Dorso-Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in emotional memory was pointed out with a specific function of this frontal network in managing the emotional memories.

  6. A plastome mutation affects processing of both chloroplast and nuclear DNA-encoded plastid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Schnabelrauch, L S; Sears, B B

    1991-01-01

    Immunoblotting of a chloroplast mutant (pm7) of Oenothera showed that three proteins, cytochrome f and the 23 kDa and 16 kDa subunits of the oxygen-evolving subcomplex of photosystem II, were larger than the corresponding mature proteins of the wild type and, thus, appear to be improperly processed in pm7. The mutant is also chlorotic and has little or no internal membrane development in the plastids. The improperly processed proteins, and other proteins that are completely missing, represent products of both the plastid and nuclear genomes. To test for linkage of these defects, a green revertant of pm7 was isolated from cultures in which the mutant plastids were maintained in a nuclear background homozygous for the plastome mutator (pm) gene. In this revertant, all proteins analyzed co-reverted to the wild-type condition, indicating that a single mutation in a plastome gene is responsible for the complex phenotype of pm7. These results suggest that the defect in pm7 lies in a gene that affects a processing protease encoded in the chloroplast genome.

  7. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species.

  8. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  10. Conducting longitudinal, process-oriented research with conflict-affected youth: Solving the inevitable challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F; Aber, J Lawrence; Betancourt, Theresa S; Cummings, E Mark; Huesmann, L Rowell

    2017-02-01

    The reader might get the impression that the four projects described in this Special Section proceeded in a systematic and predictable way. Of course, those of us engaged in each research project encountered pitfalls and challenges along the way. A main goal of this Special Section is to provide pathways and encouragement for those who may be interested in advancing high-quality research on this topic. In this paper, we describe a set of practical and ethical challenges that we encountered in conducting our longitudinal, process-oriented, and translational research with conflict-affected youth, and we illustrate how problems can be solved with the goal of maintaining the internal and external validity of the research designs. We are hopeful that by describing the challenges of our work, and how we overcame them, which are seldom treated in this or any other literature on research on child development in high-risk contexts, we can offer a realistic and encouraging picture of conducting methodologically sound research in conflict-affected contexts.

  11. Chain Assembly and Disassembly Processes Differently Affect the Conformational Space of Ubiquitin Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker

    2018-02-06

    Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rethinking a Negative Event: The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Slofstra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRuminative (abstract verbal processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing.MethodsThe affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample (n = 99 using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory.ResultsMain findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing.DiscussionThese results cast doubt

  13. Rethinking a Negative Event: The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. The affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample ( n  = 99) using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures) was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory. Main findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state) measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal) processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that ruminative processing of

  14. Processes Affecting Agricultural Drainwater Quality and Organic Carbon Loads in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Deverel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2000 to 2003 we quantified drain flow, drain-and ground-water chemistry and hydrogeologic conditions on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The primary objective was to quantify processes affecting organic carbon concentrations and loads in agricultural drainage water. We collected physical and chemical data in southern and northern areas: TN and TS, respectively. Corn grew in both areas during the spring and summer. The peat soils in the TN area are more decomposed than those in the TS area. Results elucidate processes affecting drain flow and concentrations under varying hydrologic conditions. During May through November, groundwater flows from the permanently saturated zone to drainage ditches, and the resulting average drainage-water quality and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration was similar to the groundwater; the median DOC loads in the TN and TS study areas ranged from 9 to 27 g C/ha-day. The major ion chemistry and stable isotope data confirmed that groundwater was the primary source of drainflow. In contrast, during December through April the drainwater is supplied from the shallow, variably saturated soil-zone. The DOC concentrations, major-ion chemistry, and stable isotope data indicate that the shallow-zone water is partially evaporated and oxidized. Higher flows and DOC concentrations during these months result in higher median DOC loads, which ranged from 84 to 280 g C/ha-day. During December through April, increasing groundwater levels in the shallow peat layers and mobilization of organic carbon result in high drain flow and increased trihalomethane precursor concentrations and loads. On a per mass DOC basis, drain water collected during high flow periods is less likely to form THMs than during low flow periods. However, the high flows and subsequent high concentrations contribute to substantially higher trihalomethane precursor and DOC loads.

  15. Factors Affecting the Location of Road Emergency Bases in Iran Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Hajebrahimi, Ahmad; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Ravangard, Ramin; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    To identify and prioritize factors affecting the location of road emergency bases in Iran using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This was a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) study conducted in 2016. The participants in this study included the professionals and experts in the field of pre-hospital and road emergency services issues working in the Health Deputy of Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education, which were selected using purposive sampling method. In this study at first, the factors affecting the location of road emergency bases in Iran were identified using literature review and conducting interviews with the experts. Then, the identified factors were scored and prioritized using the studied professionals and experts' viewpoints through using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique and its related pair-wise questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using MAXQDA 10.0 software to analyze the answers given to the open question and Expert Choice 10.0 software to determine the weights and priorities of the identified factors. The results showed that eight factors were effective in locating the road emergency bases in Iran from the viewpoints of the studied professionals and experts in the field of pre-hospital and road emergency services issues, including respectively distance from the next base, region population, topography and geographical situation of the region, the volume of road traffic, the existence of amenities such as water, electricity, gas, etc. and proximity to the village, accident-prone sites, University ownership of the base site, and proximity to toll-house. Among the eight factors which were effective in locating the road emergency bases from the studied professionals and experts' perspectives, "distance from the next base" and "region population" were respectively the most important ones which had great differences with other factors.

  16. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  17. Early affective processing in patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder: magnetoencephalographic correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Burgmer

    Full Text Available In chronic PTSD, a preattentive neural alarm system responds rapidly to emotional information, leading to increased prefrontal cortex (PFC activation at early processing stages (<100 ms. Enhanced PFC responses are followed by a reduction in occipito-temporal activity during later processing stages. However, it remains unknown if this neuronal pattern is a result of a long lasting mental disorder or if it represents changes in brain function as direct consequences of severe trauma.The present study investigates early fear network activity in acutely traumatized patients with PTSD. It focuses on the question whether dysfunctions previously observed in chronic PTSD patients are already present shortly after trauma exposure. We recorded neuromagnetic activity towards emotional pictures in seven acutely traumatized PTSD patients between one and seven weeks after trauma exposure and compared brain responses to a balanced healthy control sample. Inverse modelling served for mapping sources of differential activation in the brain.Compared to the control group, acutely traumatized PTSD patients showed an enhanced PFC response to high-arousing pictures between 60 to 80 ms. This rapid prefrontal hypervigilance towards arousing pictorial stimuli was sustained during 120-300 ms, where it was accompanied by a reduced affective modulation of occipito-temporal neural processing.Our findings indicate that the hypervigilance-avoidance pattern seen in chronic PTSD is not necessarily a product of an endured mental disorder, but arises as an almost immediate result of severe traumatisation. Thus, traumatic experiences can influence emotion processing strongly, leading to long-lasting changes in trauma network activation and expediting a chronic manifestation of maladaptive cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

  18. Photosynthetic and Ultrastructure Parameters of Maize Plants are Affected During the Phyto-Rhizoremediation Process of Degraded Metal Working Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalbo, Lucía; Gutierrez Mañero, Francisco Javier; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; Lucas, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A phyto-rhizoremediation system using corn and esparto fiber as rooting support to remediate degraded metal working fluids (dMWFs) has been developed in the present study. In order to improve the process, plants were inoculated at the root level with bacteria either individually, and with a consortium of strains. All strains used were able to grow with MWFs. The results show that this system significantly lowers the Chemical Oxygen Demand below legal limits within 5 days. However, results were only improved with the bacterial consortium. Despite the effectiveness of the phyto-rhizoremediation process, plants are damaged at the photosynthetic level according to the photosynthetic parameters measured, as well as at the ultrastructure of the vascular cylinder and the Bundle Sheath Cells. Interestingly, the bacterial inoculation protects against this damage. Therefore, it seems that that the inoculation with bacteria can protect the plants against these harmful effects.

  19. Treatment of solid wastes. Preventing waste production, recovery, waste collection, waste disposal, sanitation. Procedures, technical processes, legal foundations. 2. rev. ed. Behandlung fester Abfaelle. Vermeiden, Verwerten, Sammeln, Beseitigen, Sanieren. Verfahrensweise, technische Realisierung, rechtliche Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, K.; Emberger, J.

    1990-01-01

    The book 'Treatment of Solid Wastes' was compiled by the group 'Environmental Protection/Waste Disposal' and looks at disposal methods and processes. The initial chapters deal with technical methods of environmental protection, describe laws and legal regulations pertaining to waste disposal, explain the quantities and composition of the waste matter and give an overview of the treatments which are available. Methods and technical process of waste collection, transport, sorting, recapturing of valuable matter, biochemical and thermal conversion and depositing. Treatment of poisonous wastes and old sites are dealt with in the final chapters. (orig./EF).

  20. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  1. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  2. Carbon availability affects diurnally controlled processes and cell morphology of Cyanothece 51142.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stöckel

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142.

  3. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types – an fMRI study

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    Margarethe eKorsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  4. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types-an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, [e.g., stimulus-stimulus (S-S) or stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts] trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC) task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions [caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus (MOG)] during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  5. Neuroimaging of affect processing in schizophrenia; Funktionelle Bildgebung von emotionalem Verhalten und Erleben bei schizophrenen Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habel, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Universitaetsklinikum, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Aachen (Germany); Kircher, T.; Schneider, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

    2005-02-01

    Functional imaging of normal and dysfunctional emotional processes is an important tool for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of affective symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These symptoms are still poorly characterized with respect to their neural correlates. Comparisons of cerebral activation during emotional paradigms offered the possibility for a better characterization of cerebral dysfunctions during emotional processing in schizophrenia. Abnormal activation patterns reveal a complex dysfunctional subcortical-cortical network. This is modulated by respective genotypes as well as psycho- and pharmacotherapy. (orig.) [German] Die funktionell bildgebende Untersuchung emotionaler Prozesse und ihrer Dysfunktionen ist fuer ein besseres Verstaendnis der Pathophysiologie emotionaler Stoerungen wesentlich. Schizophrene Patienten zeigen eine Reihe affektiver Symptome, die klinisch relevant, aber nur unzureichend bzgl. ihrer neurobiologischen Korrelate bekannt sind. Der Vergleich zerebraler Aktivierung zwischen gesunden und schizophrenen Patienten waehrend unterschiedlicher emotionaler Paradigmen hat dazu beigetragen, zerebrale Dysfunktionen naeher zu charakterisieren. So weisen auffaellige Aktivierungsmuster auf eine komplex gestoerte subkortikal-kortikale Netzwerkstruktur hin. Deren Modulation durch genetische Faktoren und durch psycho- wie auch pharmakologische therapeutische Interventionen konnte mittlerweile nachgewiesen werden. (orig.)

  6. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  7. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  8. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  9. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  10. Factors Affecting the Levels of Heavy Metals in Juices Processed with Filter Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jackson, Lauren S; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated factors that may contribute to the presence of arsenic and other heavy metals in apple and grape juices processed with filter aids. Different types and grades of filter aids were analyzed for arsenic, lead, and cadmium with inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. Potential factors affecting the transfer of heavy metals to juices during filtration treatments were evaluated. Effects of washing treatments on removal of heavy metals from filter aids were also determined. Results showed that diatomaceous earth (DE) generally contained a higher level of arsenic than perlite, whereas perlite had a higher lead content than DE. Cellulose contained the lowest level of arsenic among the surveyed filter aids. All samples of food-grade filter aids contained arsenic and lead levels that were below the U.S. Pharmacopeia and National Formulary limits of 10 ppm of total leachable arsenic and lead for food-grade DE filter aids. Two samples of arsenic-rich (>3 ppm) food-grade filter aids raised the level of arsenic in apple and grape juices during laboratory-scale filtration treatments, whereas three samples of low-arsenic (filter aids did not affect arsenic levels in filtered juices. Filtration tests with simulated juices (pH 2.9 to 4.1, Brix [°Bx] 8.2 to 18.1, total suspended solids [TSS] 0.1 to 0.5%) showed that pH or sugar content had no effect on arsenic levels of filtered juices, whereas arsenic content of filtered juice was elevated when higher amounts of filter aid were used for filtration. Authentic unfiltered apple juice (pH 3.6, °Bx 12.9, TSS 0.4%) and grape juice (pH 3.3, °Bx 16.2, TSS 0.05%) were used to verify results obtained with simulated juices. However, body feed ratio did not affect the arsenic content of filtered authentic juices. Washing treatments were effective at reducing arsenic, but not cadmium or lead, concentrations in a DE filter aid. This study identified ways to reduce the amount of arsenic transferred to juices

  11. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  12. The legal mentality and the succession of the law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rybakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law. 

  13. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  14. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H 2 S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm.

  15. Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching

  16. Autolytic degradation of skipjack tuna during heating as affected by initial quality and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Nicola J; Amato, Penny M; Giesbrecht, Francis; Lanier, Tyre C

    2012-02-01

    Several factors were studied as affecting protein degradation and texture of skipjack tuna muscle following ambient pressure thermal processing (precooking). These included degree of mushy tuna syndrome (MTS) evidenced in the raw meat, raw meat pH, abusive thawing/holding, and precooking temperature/time. Slurries and intact pieces from frozen skipjack tuna, either tempered for 2 h or thawed and held at 25 °C for 22 h (abusive treatment) were heated at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C for up to 2 h, and also at 90 °C for 1 h, with or without prior adjustment of pH to 5 or 7 to favor cathepsin or calpain activity, respectively. Proteolysis of precooked samples was monitored by Lowry assay and SDS-PAGE; cooked texture of intact meat was measured using a Kramer shear press and by sensory profile analysis. Proteolysis maximally occurred in slurries of skipjack tuna muscle that had been abusively stored (22 h at 25 °C) and adjusted to pH 5 prior to heating at 55 °C. Intact pieces of tuna abusively thawed/held for 22 h with subsequent heating at 55 °C also evidenced the most proteolysis and were the least firm in texture. Raw fish that evidenced higher severity of MTS when raw displayed higher levels of proteolysis prior to cooking, which were further increased after cooking at 55 °C. The kinetic data presented here can be used to optimize processing conditions for skipjack tuna canning to minimize textural degradation and optimize quality. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Callousness and affective face processing in adults: Behavioral and brain-potential indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J; Yancey, James R; Perkins, Emily R; Palumbo, Isabella M; Drislane, Laura E; Salekin, Randall T; Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Blair, R James R; Patrick, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The investigation of callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been central to contemporary research on child behavior problems, and served as the impetus for inclusion of a specifier for conduct disorder in the latest edition of the official psychiatric diagnostic system. Here, we report results from 2 studies that evaluated the construct validity of callousness as assessed in adults, by testing for affiliated deficits in behavioral and neural processing of fearful faces, as have been shown in youthful samples. We hypothesized that scores on an established measure of callousness would predict reduced recognition accuracy and diminished electocortical reactivity for fearful faces in adult participants. In Study 1, 66 undergraduate participants performed an emotion recognition task in which they viewed affective faces of different types and indicated the emotion expressed by each. In Study 2, electrocortical data were collected from 254 adult twins during viewing of fearful and neutral face stimuli, and scored for event-related response components. Analyses of Study 1 data revealed that higher callousness was associated with decreased recognition accuracy for fearful faces specifically. In Study 2, callousness was associated with reduced amplitude of both N170 and P200 responses to fearful faces. Current findings demonstrate for the first time that callousness in adults is associated with both behavioral and physiological deficits in the processing of fearful faces. These findings support the validity of the CU construct with adults and highlight the possibility of a multidomain measurement framework for continued study of this important clinical construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Providing assistive technology in Italy: the perceived delivery process quality as affecting abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Borsci, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The study brings together three aspects rarely observed at once in assistive technology (AT) surveys: (i) the assessment of user interaction/satisfaction with AT and service delivery, (ii) the motivational analysis of AT abandonment, and (iii) the management/design evaluation of AT delivery services. 15 health professionals and 4 AT experts were involved in modelling and assessing four AT Local Health Delivery Service (Centres) in Italy through a SWOT analysis and a Cognitive Walkthrough. In addition 558 users of the same Centres were interviewed in a telephone survey to rate their satisfaction and AT use. The overall AT abandonment was equal to 19.09%. Different Centres' management strategies resulted in different percentages of AT disuse, with a range from 12.61% to 24.26%. A significant difference between the declared abandonment and the Centres' management strategies (p = 0.012) was identified. A strong effect on abandonment was also found due to professionals' procedures (p = 0.005) and follow-up systems (p = 0.002). The user experience of an AT is affected not only by the quality of the interaction with the AT, but also by the perceived quality of the Centres in support and follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation AT abandonment surveys provide useful information for modelling AT assessment and delivery process. SWOT and Cognitive Walkthrough analyses have shown suitable methods for exploring limits and advantages in AT service delivery systems. The study confirms the relevance of person centredness for a successful AT assessment and delivery process.

  19. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  20. Haloperidol differentially affects reinforcement and motivational processes in rats running an alley for intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, K; Ettenberg, A

    1995-12-01

    The role of drug-paired environmental stimuli in opiate self-administration was investigated by exposing animals to discrete cues that were predictive of the availability or unavailability of heroin reinforcement. Rats were trained to traverse a straight arm runway for a reinforcement consisting of a single 0.1 mg/kg intravenous infusion of heroin delivered upon entrance to the goal box. On each trial, one of two discriminative olfactory stimuli (orange and almond) was used: one which signaled the availability of heroin in the goal box (S+), and one which signaled its absence (S-). The effect of dopamine (DA) receptor antagonism on reinforcement and motivational processes was investigated by pretreating subjects with 0.0, 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of the DA receptor antagonist drug, haloperidol. Haloperidol had no effect on operant runway performance (i.e. goal time) in any condition. However, 24 h later, on the first post-treatment trial, those haloperidol animals that received heroin in the goal box on the previous trial (i.e. the S+ condition) ran reliably more slowly than subjects that received vehicle on the previous S+ trial. These results suggest that haloperidol does not affect the motivational properties of stimuli which predict the availability of heroin, while it does diminish the reinforcing effects of actually receiving heroin.

  1. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  2. The Electrochemical Properties of Biochars and How They Affect Soil Redox Properties and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochars are complex heterogeneous materials that consist of mineral phases, amorphous C, graphitic C, and labile organic molecules, many of which can be either electron donors or acceptors when placed in soil. Biochar is a reductant, but its electrical and electrochemical properties are a function of both the temperature of production and the concentration and composition of the various redox active mineral and organic phases present. When biochars are added to soils, they interact with plant roots and root hairs, micro-organisms, soil organic matter, proteins and the nutrient-rich water to form complex organo-mineral-biochar complexes Redox reactions can play an important role in the development of these complexes, and can also result in significant changes in the original C matrix. This paper reviews the redox processes that take place in soil and how they may be affected by the addition of biochar. It reviews the available literature on the redox properties of different biochars. It also reviews how biochar redox properties have been measured and presents new methods and data for determining redox properties of fresh biochars and for biochar/soil systems.

  3. Affective processing in positive schizotypy: Loose control of social-emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas

    2014-10-30

    Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Power to punish norm violations affects the neural processes of fairness-related decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei eCheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG. The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people’s responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the Impunity Game (IG, was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder’s income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people’s behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process.

  5. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35% followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

  6. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) detection, avoidance, and chemosensory effects of oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-06-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) - a byproduct of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada - is currently stored in on-site tailings ponds. The goal of the present study was to investigate the interaction of OSPW with the olfactory system and olfactory-mediated behaviours of fish upon the first encounter with OSPW. The response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10%) of OSPW was studied using a choice maze and electro-olfactography (EOG), respectively. The results of the present study showed that rainbow trout are capable of detecting and avoiding OSPW at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Exposure to 1% OSPW impaired (i.e. reduced sensitivity) the olfactory response of rainbow trout to alarm and food cues within 5 min or less. The results of the present study demonstrated that fish could detect and avoid minute concentrations of OSPW. However, if fish were exposed to OSPW-contaminated water and unable to escape, their olfaction would be impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance predictions affect attentional processes of event-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jan; Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Touron, Dayna R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether making performance predictions affects prospective memory (PM) processing, we asked one group of participants to predict their performance in a PM task embedded in an ongoing task and compared their performance with a control group that made no predictions. A third group gave not only PM predictions but also ongoing-task predictions. Exclusive PM predictions resulted in slower ongoing-task responding both in a nonfocal (Experiment 1) and in a focal (Experiment 2) PM task. Only in the nonfocal task was the additional slowing accompanied by improved PM performance. Even in the nonfocal task, however, was the correlation between ongoing-task speed and PM performance reduced after predictions, suggesting that the slowing was not completely functional for PM. Prediction-induced changes could be avoided by asking participants to additionally predict their performance in the ongoing task. In sum, the present findings substantiate a role of metamemory for attention-allocation strategies of PM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects-Directed Analysis of Dissolved Organic Compounds in Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Garrett D; Wiseman, Steve B; Pereira, Alberto; Mankidy, Rishikesh; Gault, Ian G M; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2015-10-20

    Acute toxicity of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is caused by its complex mixture of bitumen-derived organics, but the specific chemical classes that are most toxic have not been demonstrated. Here, effects-directed analysis was used to determine the most acutely toxic chemical classes in OSPW collected from the world's first oil sands end-pit lake. Three sequential rounds of fractionation, chemical analysis (ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry), and acute toxicity testing (96 h fathead minnow embryo lethality and 15 min Microtox bioassay) were conducted. Following primary fractionation, toxicity was primarily attributable to the neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), containing 27% of original organics mass. In secondary fractionation, F1-NE was subfractionated by alkaline water washing, and toxicity was primarily isolated to the ionizable fraction (F2-NE2), containing 18.5% of the original organic mass. In the final round, chromatographic subfractionation of F2-NE2 resulted in two toxic fractions, with the most potent (F3-NE2a, 11% of original organic mass) containing predominantly naphthenic acids (O2(-)). The less-toxic fraction (F3-NE2b, 8% of original organic mass) contained predominantly nonacid species (O(+), O2(+), SO(+), NO(+)). Evidence supports naphthenic acids as among the most acutely toxic chemical classes in OSPW, but nonacidic species also contribute to acute toxicity of OSPW.

  9. Religious legal systems: challenges of the modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. В. Лук’янов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of world globalization processes on the development of the religious legal systems has been analyzed in the paper. Globalization processes in the XXI century are regarding individuals, nations, and civilizations. Global transformations lead to qualitative changes in the socio-cultural relations and actualize a wide range of issues which are related to the formation of a new world culture. Modern globalization takes diverse range of public relations in its own orbit. The relationship between the legal systems in the twentieth century is some of the most important aspects of this process. However, the interaction of legal systems has significant differences from the interaction of economies of different countries. There are actual economic relations domination of Western financial and economic institutions and standardization of relevant rules. But the attempts to apply this approach to law lead to resistance to Western standards and the spread of major civilizational conflicts in different parts of the world. Globalization should be based on respect for cultural, religious and legal diversity. It has to ensure preservation of forced “Westernisation”. Significant differences in the impact of globalization on the convergence of legal systems of Western law (Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American and their impact on religious legal systems of Muslim, Hindu and Jewish law must be emphasized. The religious legal systems are not exposed to other systems and the related changes. This is due to such features as the divine nature, increased stability, specific sources of law etc. An important issue that requires further study is the reverse influence which religious law exercises to secularized modern legal system.

  10. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  11. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  12. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  13. An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process…

  14. Task Difficulty Differentially Affects Two Measures of Processing Load: The Pupil Response during Sentence Processing and Delayed Cued Recall of the Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Festen, Joost M.; Kramer, Kramera

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the influence of masking level (29% or 71% sentence perception) and test modality on the processing load during language perception as reflected by the pupil response. In addition, the authors administered a delayed cued stimulus recall test to examine whether processing load affected the encoding of…

  15. An exploration of decision aid effectiveness: the impact of promoting affective vs. deliberative processing on a health-related decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esther L; McCaffery, Kirsten; Mullan, Barbara; Juraskova, Ilona

    2015-12-01

    Decision aids (DAs) are non-directive communication tools that help patients make value-consistent health-care decisions. However, most DAs have been developed without an explicit theoretical framework, resulting in a lack of understanding of how DAs achieve outcomes. To investigate the effect of promoting affective vs. deliberative processing on DA effectiveness based on dual-process theory. One hundred and forty-eight female university students participated in a randomized controlled experiment with three conditions: emotion-focused, information-focused and control. Preference-value consistency, knowledge, decisional conflict and satisfaction were compared across the conditions using planned contrast analyses. The intervention comprised two different DAs and instructional manipulations. The emotion-focused condition received a modified DA with affective content and instructions to induce an affective reaction. The information-focused and control conditions received the same DA without the affective content. The information-focused condition received additional instructions to induce deliberative processing. Controlling for the experiment-wise error rate at P processing may hinder value-consistent decision making, while deliberative processing may enhance decisional satisfaction. This investigation of the effect of affective and deliberative processes in DA-supported decision making has implications for the design and use of DAs. DA effectiveness may be enhanced by incorporating a simple instruction to focus on the details of the information. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Positive and negative affect mediate the bidirectional relationship between emotional processing and symptom severity and impact in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibelli, Alice; Chalder, Trudie; Everitt, Hazel; Chilcot, Joseph; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with IBS report higher levels of psychological distress compared to healthy controls. Distress has been associated with emotional processing difficulties but studies have not explored how the relationship between distress and emotional processing affects IBS. There is little research on the role of positive affect (PA) in IBS. (a) If difficulties in self-reported emotional processing are associated with affect and IBS measures (i.e., symptom severity, interference in life roles) (b1) If affect mediates the relationship between emotional processing and IBS measures (b2) Alternative model: if affect mediates the relationship between IBS and emotional processing (c) If PA moderates the relationship between distress and IBS. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of IBS (n=558) completed a questionnaire including measures of emotional processing (i.e., unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions, impoverished emotional experience), distress, PA, and IBS symptoms/interference. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted with Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Distress and PA mediated or partly mediated the relationship between unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions/impoverished emotional experience and both IBS measures. The alternative models were also valid, suggesting a two-way relationship between emotional processing and IBS through affect. PA did not moderate the relationship between distress and IBS. Future interventions in IBS may benefit from not only targeting the management of physical symptoms and their daily impact but also aspects related to the experience of both negative and positive affect, and the acceptance and expression of negative emotions. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm causal relationships within the explored models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...... of majoritarian democracy on the number of referrals. The paper concludes that, owing to the uneven legal push for Europe, some member states and their citizens remain at arms' length from the legal integration process - and, in consequence, from the full impact of European integration....

  18. Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine. Demands for legal reform have come from both inside and outside Palestine. Inside Palestine, legal reform is seen as a prerequisite for democracy and good governance. Outside, legal reform is perceived as integral to the continued peace process with Israel.

  19. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  20. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

  1. Lung vitamin E transport processes are affected by both age and environmental oxidants in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Vasu, Vihas T.; Yokohama, Wallace; Corbacho, Ana M.; Phung, Anh; Lim, Yunsook; Aung, Hnin Hnin; Cross, Carroll E.; Davis, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the physiological importance of alpha-tocopherol (AT), the molecular mechanisms involved in maintaining cellular and tissue tocopherol levels remain to be fully characterized. Scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1), one of a large family of scavenger receptors, has been shown to facilitate AT transfer from HDL to peripheral tissues via apo A-1-mediated processes and to be important in the delivery of AT to the lung cells. In the present studies the effects of age and two environmental oxidants ozone (O 3 ) (0.25 ppm 6 h/day) and cigarette smoke (CS) (60 mg/m 3 6 h/day) for 4 days on selected aspects of AT transport in murine lung tissues were assessed. While AT levels were 25% higher (p 3 or CS at the doses used had no effect. Gene expression levels, determined by RT-PCR of AT transport protein (ATTP), SRB1, CD36, ATP binding cassette 3 (ABCA3) and ABCA1 and protein levels, determined by Western blots for SRB1, ATTP and ABCA1 were assessed. Aged mouse lung showed a lower levels of ATTP, ABCA3 and SRB1 and a higher level CD36 and ABCA1. Acute exposure to either O 3 or CS induced declines in ATTP and SRB1 in both aged and young mice lung. CD36 increased in both young and aged mice lung upon exposure to O 3 and CS. These findings suggest that both age and environmental oxidant exposure affect pathways related to lung AT homeostasis and do so in a way that favors declines in lung AT. However, given the approach taken, the effects cannot be traced to changes in these pathways or AT content in any specific lung associated cell type and thus highlight the need for further follow-up studies looking at specific lung associated cell types

  2. Modification of Cell Wall Polysaccharides during Drying Process Affects Texture Properties of Apple Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of hot air drying (AD, medium- and short-wave infrared drying (IR, instant controlled pressure drop drying (DIC, and vacuum freeze drying (FD on cell wall polysaccharide modification were studied, and the relationship between the modifications and texture properties was analyzed. The results showed that the DIC treated apple chips exhibited the highest crispness (92 and excellent honeycomb-like structure among all the dried samples, whereas the FD dried apple chips had low crispness (10, the minimum hardness (17.4 N, and the highest volume ratio (0.76 and rehydration ratio (7.55. Remarkable decreases in the contents of total galacturonic acid and the amounts of water extractable pectin (WEP were found in all the dried apple chips as compared with the fresh materials. The highest retention of WEP fraction (102.7 mg/g AIR was observed in the FD dried apple chips, which may lead to a low structural rigidity and may be partially responsible for the lower hardness of the FD apple chips. In addition, the crispness of the apple chips obtained by DIC treatment, as well as AD and IR at 90°C, was higher than that of the samples obtained from the other drying processes, which might be due to the severe degradation of pectic polysaccharides, considering the results of the amounts of pectic fractions, the molar mass distribution, and concentrations of the WEP fractions. Overall, the data suggested that the modifications of pectic polysaccharides of apple chips, including the amount of the pectic fractions and their structural characteristics and the extent of degradation, significantly affect the texture of apple chips.

  3. Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

    2013-10-01

    We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation

  4. ER stress affects processing of MHC class I-associated peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meloche Sylvain

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infection and neoplastic transformation trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Thus, a large proportion of the cells that must be recognized by the immune system are stressed cells. Cells respond to ER stress by launching the unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR regulates the two key processes that control major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I-peptide presentation: protein synthesis and degradation. We therefore asked whether and how the UPR impinges on MHC I-peptide presentation. Results We evaluated the impact of the UPR on global MHC I expression and on presentation of the H2Kb-associated SIINFEKL peptide. EL4 cells stably transfected with vectors coding hen egg lysozyme (HEL-SIINFEKL protein variants were stressed with palmitate or exposed to glucose deprivation. UPR decreased surface expression of MHC I but did not affect MHC I mRNA level nor the total amount of intracellular MHC I proteins. Impaired MHC I-peptide presentation was due mainly to reduced supply of peptides owing to an inhibition of overall protein synthesis. Consequently, generation of H2Kb-SIINFEKL complexes was curtailed during ER stress, illustrating how generation of MHC I peptide ligands is tightly coupled to ongoing protein synthesis. Notably, the UPR-induced decline of MHC I-peptide presentation was more severe when the protein source of peptides was localized in the cytosol than in the ER. This difference was not due to changes in the translation rates of the precursor proteins but to increased stability of the cytosolic protein during ER stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ER stress impairs MHC I-peptide presentation, and that it differentially regulates expression of ER- vs. cytosol-derived peptides. Furthermore, this work illustrates how ER stress, a typical feature of infected and malignant cells, can impinge on cues for adaptive immune recognition.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO 3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO 4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ 34 S SO4 and δ 18 O SO4 ) verified that the SO 4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 ) indicated that NO 3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO 3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ 34 S SO4 and δ 15 N NO3 . This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different

  6. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    may lead to the perception of law as ars aequi et boni. According to Viehweg, 'topica' is a technique of problem-based reasoning which is fully different from the deductive-systematic reasoning. Interpretation or construing meaning is part of 'topica' which enables flexibility of practical argumentation by expanding and reducing the catalogue of 'topoi'. In legal hermeneutics, the new quality of argumentation and topical reasoning stems from the fact that the classical methods of interpretation are substituted by a far more extensive number of arguments (Giovanni Tarello recognizes 15 legal topoi and Gerhard Struck as many as 64 legal topoi]. It ultimately points out to the creative role of the interpreter's rhetoric research and decision-making processes.

  7. Factors Affecting Process Innovation Teams’ Learning and Their Impact on the Success of the Process Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim H. Seyrek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on 145 process innovation teams, we have studied factors supporting team learning and their impact on the success of the process innovation projects. As a result, we have found that team vision, recording and reviewing project related information, filing, following a structural development process and co-location of team members are factors supporting team learning and project success. Also, two dimensions of learning, information acquisition and information implementation, are positively related to the success of the process innovation projects

  8. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Brief Study of Legal Problems in the Music Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankman, Ned N.

    1977-01-01

    Individuals who go into music careers will find that they are affected and sometimes governed by particular laws and legal agreements. Provides, as an example of a legal concern of a music career, an examination of a songwriter' contract, particularly the question of sources. (Editor/RK)

  10. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  11. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  12. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun

    2017-07-18

    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  13. Parameters that affect parallel processing for computational electromagnetic simulation codes on high performance computing clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hongsik

    What is the impact of multicore and associated advanced technologies on computational software for science? Most researchers and students have multicore laptops or desktops for their research and they need computing power to run computational software packages. Computing power was initially derived from Central Processing Unit (CPU) clock speed. That changed when increases in clock speed became constrained by power requirements. Chip manufacturers turned to multicore CPU architectures and associated technological advancements to create the CPUs for the future. Most software applications benefited by the increased computing power the same way that increases in clock speed helped applications run faster. However, for Computational ElectroMagnetics (CEM) software developers, this change was not an obvious benefit - it appeared to be a detriment. Developers were challenged to find a way to correctly utilize the advancements in hardware so that their codes could benefit. The solution was parallelization and this dissertation details the investigation to address these challenges. Prior to multicore CPUs, advanced computer technologies were compared with the performance using benchmark software and the metric was FLoting-point Operations Per Seconds (FLOPS) which indicates system performance for scientific applications that make heavy use of floating-point calculations. Is FLOPS an effective metric for parallelized CEM simulation tools on new multicore system? Parallel CEM software needs to be benchmarked not only by FLOPS but also by the performance of other parameters related to type and utilization of the hardware, such as CPU, Random Access Memory (RAM), hard disk, network, etc. The codes need to be optimized for more than just FLOPs and new parameters must be included in benchmarking. In this dissertation, the parallel CEM software named High Order Basis Based Integral Equation Solver (HOBBIES) is introduced. This code was developed to address the needs of the

  14. The power of emotional valence—from cognitive to affective processes in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the ne...

  15. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrike eAltmann; Ulrike eAltmann; Isabel C Bohrn; Isabel C Bohrn; Oliver eLubrich; Oliver eLubrich; Winfried eMenninghaus; Winfried eMenninghaus; Arthur M Jacobs; Arthur M Jacobs; Arthur M Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the ne...

  16. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Jin [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ryu, Jong-Sik [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Lee, Kwang-Sik, E-mail: kslee@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sin-Woo [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO{sub 3} were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO{sub 4} were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4}) verified that the SO{sub 4} in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO3}) indicated that NO{sub 3} in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO{sub 3} in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3}. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes

  17. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  18. Case Study: University of Anyplace: Strategic Legal Risk Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John T.; Ferguson, Rowan

    2000-01-01

    Considers legal issues and risks faced by a fictional American university as it seeks to establish an operation based in London. Addresses the first step in the process of risk management, the risk review exercise, and provides an explanation of the legal issues involved to allow progression to the second stage in the process (evaluation of the…

  19. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  20. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  1. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  2. An Estimation of a Nonlinear Dynamic Process Using Latent Class Extended Mixed Models: Affect Profiles After Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burro, Roberto; Raccanello, Daniela; Pasini, Margherita; Brondino, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    Conceptualizing affect as a complex nonlinear dynamic process, we used latent class extended mixed models (LCMM) to understand whether there were unobserved groupings in a dataset including longitudinal measures. Our aim was to identify affect profiles over time in people vicariously exposed to terrorism, studying their relations with personality traits. The participants were 193 university students who completed online measures of affect during the seven days following two terrorist attacks (Paris, November 13, 2015; Brussels, March 22, 2016); Big Five personality traits; and antecedents of affect. After selecting students whose negative affect was influenced by the two attacks (33%), we analysed the data with the LCMM package of R. We identified two affect profiles, characterized by different trends over time: The first profile comprised students with lower positive affect and higher negative affect compared to the second profile. Concerning personality traits, conscientious-ness was lower for the first profile compared to the second profile, and vice versa for neuroticism. Findings are discussed for both their theoretical and applied relevance.

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Processing of Nonverbal Affective Vocalizations by Japanese and Canadian Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko eKoeda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs consist of a database of nonverbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group x Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of nonverbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al, 2010, but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions.

  4. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael; Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas; Braus, Dieter F.; Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl; Roesch, Frank; Cumming, Paul; Gruender, Gerhard; Bartenstein, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [ 18 F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [ 18 F]DOPA net influx constant K in app /[ 18 F]DMFP-binding potential (BP N D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  5. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  6. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P nitrite concentration in all samples. High-pressure processing and cooking treatment increased (P nitrite concentration decreased with pressure processing, no effect was observed with the heating process of meat batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  7. Adult Age Differences in Dual Information Processes: Implications for the Role of Affective and Deliberative Processes in Older Adults' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel; Auman, Corinne

    2007-03-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for judgment and decision theory and important pragmatic implications for older-adult decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age. However, age-related adaptive processes, including motivated selectivity in the use of deliberative capacity, an increased focus on emotional goals, and greater experience, predict better or worse decisions for older adults depending on the situation. The aim of the current review is to examine adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes in order to understand their potential impact on judgments and decisions. We review evidence for the role of these dual processes in judgment and decision making and then review two representative life-span perspectives (based on aging-related changes to cognitive or motivational processes) on the interplay between these processes. We present relevant predictions for older-adult decisions and make note of contradictions and gaps that currently exist in the literature. Finally, we review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and how theories and findings regarding dual processes could be applied to decision theory and decision aiding. In particular, we focus on prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) and how prospect theory and theories regarding age differences in information processing can inform one another. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  8. Automatic processing of facial affects in patients with borderline personality disorder: associations with symptomatology and comorbid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Instability of affects and interpersonal relations are important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Interpersonal problems of individuals suffering from BPD might develop based on abnormalities in the processing of facial affects and high sensitivity to negative affective expressions. The aims of the present study were to examine automatic evaluative shifts and latencies as a function of masked facial affects in patients with BPD compared to healthy individuals. As BPD comorbidity rates for mental and personality disorders are high, we investigated also the relationships of affective processing characteristics with specific borderline symptoms and comorbidity. Twenty-nine women with BPD and 38 healthy women participated in the study. The majority of patients suffered from additional Axis I disorders and/or additional personality disorders. In the priming experiment, angry, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces that had to be evaluated. Evaluative decisions and response latencies were registered. Borderline-typical symptomatology was assessed with the Borderline Symptom List. In the total sample, valence-congruent evaluative shifts and delays of evaluative decision due to facial affect were observed. No between-group differences were obtained for evaluative decisions and latencies. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders was found to be positively correlated with evaluative shifting owing to masked happy primes, regardless of baseline-neutral or no facial expression condition. The presence of comorbid depressive disorder, paranoid personality disorder, and symptoms of social isolation and self-aggression were significantly correlated with response delay due to masked angry faces, regardless of baseline. In the present affective priming study, no abnormalities in the automatic recognition and processing of facial affects were observed in BPD patients compared to healthy individuals

  9. Family-based processes associated with adolescent distress, substance use and risky sexual behavior in families affected by maternal HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth aggressive conflict style, maternal bonding, maternal role reversal expectations, and overall family functioning. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that youth aggressive conflict resolution style was strongly associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. In HIV-affected families, youth less frequently reported using an aggressive conflict resolution style and more frequently reported positive maternal bonds; their mothers reported less positive family functioning than control families. Finally, maternal distress indirectly affected adolescent distress and risk behavior via youth aggressive conflict resolution style.

  10. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  11. Conflict and disfluency as aversive signals: context-specific processing adjustments are modulated by affective location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Reindl, Anna-Lena; Fischer, Rico

    2018-03-01

    Context-specific processing adjustments are one signature feature of flexible human action control. However, up to now the precise mechanisms underlying these adjustments are not fully understood. Here it is argued that aversive signals produced by conflict- or disfluency-experience originally motivate such context-specific processing adjustments. We tested whether the efficiency of the aversive conflict signal for control adaptation depends on the affective nature of the context it is presented in. In two experiments, high vs. low proportions of aversive signals (Experiment 1: conflict trials; Experiment 2: disfluent trials) were presented either above or below the screen center. This location manipulation was motivated by existing evidence that verticality is generally associated with affective valence with up being positive and down being negative. From there it was hypothesized that the aversive signals would lose their trigger function for processing adjustments when presented at the lower (i.e., more negative) location. This should then result in a reduced context-specific proportion effect when the high proportion of aversive signals was presented at the lower location. Results fully confirmed the predictions. In both experiments, the location-specific proportion effects were only present when the high proportion of aversive signals occurred at the more positive location above but were reduced (Experiment 1) or even eliminated (Experiment 2) when the high proportion occurred at the more negative location below. This interaction of processing adjustments with affective background contexts can thus be taken as further hint for an affective origin of control adaptations.

  12. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

  13. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  14. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  15. Telling good from bad news: ADHD differentially affects processing of positive and negative feedback during guessing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meel, C.S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on ADHD suggest abnormalities in brain regions associated with decision-making and reward processing such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and orbitofrontal cortex. Recently, event-related potential (ERP) studies demonstrated that the ACC is involved in processing feedback

  16. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  17. Process dissociation of familiarity and recollection in children: response deadline affects recollection but not familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Laura; Wimmer, Marina C; Hollins, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    According to dual-process theories, recollection (slow and associated with contextual details) and familiarity (fast and automatic) are two independent processes underlying recognition memory. An adapted version of the process dissociation paradigm was used to measure recognition memory in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-olds already recollect details of items (i.e., number). Recollection increased particularly between 5 and 7 years. Familiarity differed between 5 years and adulthood. In Experiment 2, under limited response time during retrieval, recollection was eliminated in 5-year-olds and reduced across all ages, whereas familiarity was left unaffected. Together, these findings are consistent with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide support for two processes underlying recognition memory from a developmental perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXTENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROCESS MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND THE LEGAL FORM OF THE BUSINESS AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Maříková; Ladislav Rolínek; Jana Kubecová; Jaroslav Vrchota

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, enterprises are challenged with continuously changing environment and they have to react quickly to these changes. Process management can be a tool that greatly helps businesses in this difficult time to survive (Hora, 2010). Process Management brings a relatively new perspective on corporate governance. According to McCoy et al. (2007) enterprises which implemented rules of process management have a competitive advantage over others. The paper presents the application ...

  19. Emotional face processing and flat affect in schizophrenia: functional and structural neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, M; Sergerie, K; Benoit, A; Czechowska, Y; Dickie, E; Armony, J L

    2011-09-01

    There is a general consensus in the literature that schizophrenia causes difficulties with facial emotion perception and discrimination. Functional brain imaging studies have observed reduced limbic activity during facial emotion perception but few studies have examined the relation to flat affect severity. A total of 26 people with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls took part in this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Sad, happy and neutral faces were presented in a pseudo-random order and participants indicated the gender of the face presented. Manual segmentation of the amygdala was performed on a structural T1 image. Both the schizophrenia group and the healthy control group rated the emotional valence of facial expressions similarly. Both groups exhibited increased brain activity during the perception of emotional faces relative to neutral ones in multiple brain regions, including multiple prefrontal regions bilaterally, the right amygdala, right cingulate cortex and cuneus. Group comparisons, however, revealed increased activity in the healthy group in the anterior cingulate, right parahippocampal gyrus and multiple visual areas. In schizophrenia, the severity of flat affect correlated significantly with neural activity in several brain areas including the amygdala and parahippocampal region bilaterally. These results suggest that many of the brain regions involved in emotional face perception, including the amygdala, are equally recruited in both schizophrenia and controls, but flat affect can also moderate activity in some other brain regions, notably in the left amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in the volume of the amygdala.

  20. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  1. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  2. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  3. Development of capability for microtopography-resolving simulations of hydrologic processes in permafrost affected regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, S.; Moulton, J. D.; Berndt, M.; Coon, E.; Garimella, R.; Lewis, K. C.; Manzini, G.; Mishra, P.; Travis, B. J.; Wilson, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The frozen soils of the Arctic and subarctic regions contain vast amounts of stored organic carbon. This carbon is vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as temperatures warm and permafrost degrades. Understanding the response of the subsurface and surface hydrologic system to degrading permafrost is key to understanding the rate, timing, and chemical form of potential carbon releases to the atmosphere. Simulating the hydrologic system in degrading permafrost regions is challenging because of the potential for topographic evolution and associated drainage network reorganization as permafrost thaws and massive ground ice melts. The critical process models required for simulating hydrology include subsurface thermal hydrology of freezing/thawing soils, thermal processes within ice wedges, mechanical deformation processes, overland flow, and surface energy balances including snow dynamics. A new simulation tool, the Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is being developed to simulate these coupled processes. The computational infrastructure must accommodate fully unstructured grids that track evolving topography, allow accurate solutions on distorted grids, provide robust and efficient solutions on highly parallel computer architectures, and enable flexibility in the strategies for coupling among the various processes. The ATS is based on Amanzi (Moulton et al. 2012), an object-oriented multi-process simulator written in C++ that provides much of the necessary computational infrastructure. Status and plans for the ATS including major hydrologic process models and validation strategies will be presented. Highly parallel simulations of overland flow using high-resolution digital elevation maps of polygonal patterned ground landscapes demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Simulations coupling three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology with a simple thaw-induced subsidence model illustrate the strong feedbacks among the processes. D. Moulton, M. Berndt, M. Day, J

  4. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  5. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  6. Isoflavone profile in soymilk as affected by soybean variety, grinding, and heat-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    Isoflavones impart health benefits and their overall content and profile in foods are greatly influenced at each step during processing. In this study, 2 soybean varieties (Prosoy and black soybean) were processed with 3 different grinding (ambient, cold, and hot grinding) and heating methods (traditional stove cooking, 1-phase UHT, and 2-phase UHT) for soymilk making. The results showed after cold, ambient, and hot grinding, the total isoflavones were 3917, 5013, and 5949 nmol/g for Prosoy; the total isoflavones were 4073, 3966, and 4284 nmol/g for black soybean. Grinding could significantly increase isoflavone extraction. The grinding process had a destructive effect on isoflavones and this effect varied with grinding temperature. Different heating methods had different effects on different isoflavone forms. Two soybean varieties showed distinct patterns with respect to the change of isoflavone profile during processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Coupled processes affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.

    1985-09-01

    Contributed papers were in the following subject areas: geochemistry, geohydrology, and geomechanics. In addition to the contributed papers, current field projects were reviewed. Individual papers were processed separately. (LM)

  8. Factors Affecting Bacterial Inactivation during High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Qamar-Abbas; Buffa, Martin; Guamis, Buenaventura; Saldo, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Although, the High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) technology has been gaining gradual popularity in food industry since last two decades, intensive research is needed to explore the missing information. Bacterial inactivation in food by using HHP applications can be enhanced by getting deeper insights of the process. Some of these aspects have been already studied in detail (like pressure, time, and temperature, etc.), while some others still need to be investigated in more details (like pH, rates of compression, and decompression, etc.). Selection of process parameters is mainly dependent on type of matrix and target bacteria. This intensive review provides comprehensive information about the variety of aspects that can determine the bacterial inactivation potential of HHP process indicating the fields of future research on this subject including pH shifts of the pressure treated samples and critical limits of compression and decompression rates to accelerate the process efficacy.

  9. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  10. Flexible and fast: linguistic shortcut affects both shallow and deep conceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that people use linguistic distributional information during conceptual processing, and that it is especially useful for shallow tasks and rapid responding. Using two conceptual combination tasks, we showed that this linguistic shortcut extends to the processing of novel stimuli, is used in both successful and unsuccessful conceptual processing, and is evident in both shallow and deep conceptual tasks. Specifically, as predicted by the ECCo theory of conceptual combination, people use the linguistic shortcut as a "quick-and-dirty" guide to whether the concepts are likely to combine into a coherent conceptual representation, in both shallow sensibility judgment and deep interpretation generation tasks. Linguistic distributional frequency predicts both the likelihood and the time course of rejecting a novel word compound as nonsensical or uninterpretable. However, it predicts the time course of successful processing only in shallow sensibility judgment, because the deeper conceptual process of interpretation generation does not allow the linguistic shortcut to suffice. Furthermore, the effects of linguistic distributional frequency are independent of any effects of conventional word frequency. We discuss the utility of the linguistic shortcut as a cognitive triage mechanism that can optimize processing in a limited-resource conceptual system.

  11. Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gilles Mathieu

    Full Text Available Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP, sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.

  12. Legal mentality: the interpretation of the scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор Олексійович Поліщук

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of the interpretation of «legal mentality ‘category in different scientific concepts. The most authoritative study of the mentality directions: social psychology, which is based on the sociological theory of E. Durkheim; general psychology, theory of archetypes as the basis of the «collective unconscious,» K. Jung, the concept of «social character», V. Rayh. Legal mentality – a deep, well-established system of views and opinions of a particular social group, class, stratum, people, nation or community to another institute of law, peculiarities of its application and role in society. The specifics of the legal mentality lies in its visual Depending on historical traditions and culture of a particular nation. This necessitates mandatory accounting features of the legal mentality of the people in the legislative process. Formation of legal culture of the people is impossible without its primer on its historical traditions, culture and language. Revival Ukrainian legal culture consistent with modern legal policy polyarchy. Despite the trend of integration of their own political, economic and legal systems in the European community of the European Union member states to carefully refer to the national legal traditions. National mentality and its features are reflected in the legal submissions which are contained in proverbs, sayings, myths, thoughts, tales, is the oral form of manifestation of the people's legal culture, as well as reflected in the customs, traditions, ways of working, which were made in the legal daily on throughout the history of the people. In addition, the features appear in the national legal notions and reactions in relation to such objects of political and legal reality as a state, local government, law, crime, punishment, the court, the trial, the political leaders, customs reform, civil servants, family, inheritance, labor, property, and so on. It is noted that in legal science

  13. Dissociating the Influence of Affective Word Content and Cognitive Processing Demands on the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowparast Rostami, Hadiseh; Ouyang, Guang; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin; Zhou, Changsong; Sommer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective stimuli in the event-related brain potential (ERP) is often assumed to be a member of the P3 family. The present study addresses the relationship of the LPP to the classic P3b in a published data set, using a non-parametric permutation test for topographical comparisons, and residue iteration decomposition to assess the temporal features of the LPP and the P3b by decomposing the ERP into several component clusters according to their latency variability. The experiment orthogonally manipulated arousal and valence of words, which were either read or judged for lexicality. High-arousing and positive valenced words induced a larger LPP than low-arousing and negative valenced words, respectively, and the LDT elicited a larger P3b than reading. The experimental manipulation of arousal, valence, and task yielded main effects without any interactions on ERP amplitude in the LPP/P3b time range. The arousal and valence effects partially differed from the task effect in scalp topography; in addition, whereas the late positive component elicited by affective stimuli, defined as LPP, was stimulus-locked, the late positive component elicited by task demand, defined as P3b, was mainly latency-variable. Therefore LPP and P3b manifest different subcomponents.

  14. Tuning to the significant: neural and genetic processes underlying affective enhancement of visual perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Jelena; Anderson, Adam K; Todd, Rebecca M

    2014-02-01

    Emotionally arousing events reach awareness more easily and evoke greater visual cortex activation than more mundane events. Recent studies have shown that they are also perceived more vividly and that emotionally enhanced perceptual vividness predicts memory vividness. We propose that affect-biased attention (ABA) - selective attention to emotionally salient events - is an endogenous attentional system tuned by an individual's history of reward and punishment. We present the Biased Attention via Norepinephrine (BANE) model, which unifies genetic, neuromodulatory, neural and behavioural evidence to account for ABA. We review evidence supporting BANE's proposal that a key mechanism of ABA is locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) activity, which interacts with activity in hubs of affective salience networks to modulate visual cortex activation and heighten the subjective vividness of emotionally salient stimuli. We further review literature on biased competition and look at initial evidence for its potential as a neural mechanism behind ABA. We also review evidence supporting the role of the LC-NE system as a driving force of ABA. Finally, we review individual differences in ABA and memory including differences in sensitivity to stimulus category and valence. We focus on differences arising from a variant of the ADRA2b gene, which codes for the alpha2b adrenoreceptor as a way of investigating influences of NE availability on ABA in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields.

  16. How does sustainability certification affect the design process? Mapping final design projects at an architectural office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Mathilde; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    process and informing the industry of them. This has led to optimised design processes such as Integrated Energy Design, in which many decisions related to energy consumption and indoor climate are made in the early design stages. The current tendency is to use an expanded notion of sustainability......, derived from the sustainability certification system itself, and to apply it even in the early design process. This perspective emphasises all phases of the life cycle of a building. The goal of the present study was to map how a Danish architectural office approached sustainability in the projects......The context of the study is the very strict regulation of energy consumption for operating buildings in Denmark. It is difficult to meet the requirements by system optimisation in the final design phase, so recent research has focused on ways of meeting the target by adapting the whole design...

  17. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  18. Mood-dependent integration in discourse comprehension: happy and sad moods affect consistency processing via different brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Legal Context for Teacher Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsches-Simmons, Grace; Bray, Judith

    Teacher improvement programs must comply with federal and state constitutional requirements for due process, equal protection, and freedom of speech, as well as state and federal laws covering collective bargaining, civil rights, and the authority to institute improvement programs. This booklet explores these legal considerations, focusing on…

  20. Development Methodology for an Integrated Legal Cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanha, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis describes the research process followed in order to achieve a development methodology applicable to the reform of cadastral systems with a legal basis. It was motivated by the author’s participation in one of the first surveying and mapping operations for a digital cadastre in Portugal,

  1. Visual encoding impairment in patients with schizophrenia: contribution of reduced working memory span, decreased processing speed, and affective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Abellán-Vega, Helena; Roca, Mercedes; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has revealed the contribution of decreased processing speed and reduced working memory span in verbal and visual memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia. The role of affective symptoms in verbal memory has also emerged in a few studies. The authors designed a picture recognition task to investigate the impact of these factors on visual encoding. Two types of pictures (black and white vs. colored) were presented under 2 different conditions of context encoding (either displayed at a specific location or in association with another visual stimulus). It was assumed that the process of encoding associated pictures was more effortful than that of encoding pictures that were presented alone. Working memory span and processing speed were assessed. In the patient group, working memory span was significantly associated with the recognition of the associated pictures but not significantly with that of the other pictures. Controlling for processing speed eliminated the patients' deficit in the recognition of the colored pictures and greatly reduced their deficit in the recognition of the black-and-white pictures. The recognition of the black-and-white pictures was inversely related to anxiety in men and to depression in women. Working memory span constrains the effortful visual encoding processes in patients, whereas processing speed decrement accounts for most of their visual encoding deficit. Affective symptoms also have an impact on visual encoding, albeit differently in men and women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Chinese legal texts – Quantitative Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš GAJDOŠ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide a quantitative description of legal Chinese. This study adopts the approach of corpus-based analyses and it shows basic statistical parameters of legal texts in Chinese, namely the length of a sentence, the proportion of part of speech etc. The research is conducted on the Chinese monolingual corpus Hanku. The paper also discusses the issues of statistical data processing from various corpora, e.g. the tokenisation and part of speech tagging and their relevance to study of registers variation.

  3. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  4. Governance and Media Attention: A Research Agenda About How Media Affect (Network) Governance Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Erik Hans; Korthagen, Iris

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the influence of media attention on governance processes and explores some new thoughts to incorporate in our theory building on governance. It systematically discusses recent theories about mediatization and connects them to what we know about governance in the field of Public

  5. Mental Rotation of Tactical Instruction Displays Affects Information Processing Demand and Execution Accuracy in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Till; Steggemann-Weinrich, Yvonne; Baumeister, Jochen; Krause, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In sports games, coaches often use tactic boards to present tactical instructions during time-outs (e.g., 20 s to 60 s in basketball). Instructions should be presented in a way that enables fast and errorless information processing for the players. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different orientations of visual tactical…

  6. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira de Sá, D.S.; Schulz, A.; Streit, F.E.; Turner, J.D.; Oitzl, M.S.; Blumenthal, T.D.; Schächinger, H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin

  7. Combined Enzymatic and High-Pressure Processing Affect Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Berries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Lille, M.; Poutanen, K.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on cell wall polysaccharides in berries was investigated. HPP decreased the degree of methyl esterification (DM), probably by activation of pectin methyl esterase (PME), and improved the extractability of pectins. When commercial enzyme mixtures were

  8. Problems affecting the operational procurement process: A study of the Zimbabwean public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Dzuke

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The public sector occupies a key role in the economy comprising the appropriation of state revenue to purchase goods and to render services productively, while ensuring the optimum utilisation of available funds and resources to benefit the inhabitants of the country. Problems in the Zimbabwean public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are key contemporary issues. This is evident from the numerous complaints of poor service delivery received by the public that can be attributed to public procurement. Objective: The purpose of this article was to report on a study that investigated problems in the different stages of the operational procurement process in the Zimbabwean public sector that detract from service delivery, the extent of these problems and how the public procurement process can be improved to enhance service delivery. Method: This descriptive and exploratory study followed a quantitative approach. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to all public entities in Zimbabwe. Data were analysed using SPSS. Results: The majority of the identified problems in the public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are found in the advertising, bid evaluation and contract stages. Conclusion: As only a few studies on this topic have been conducted in Zimbabwe, the findings of this research add a significant perspective to the existing body of knowledge and can assist stakeholders with regard to how the public procurement process can be improved in order to enhance service delivery through public procurement process reform and restructuring.

  9. Does ownership affect the variability of the production process? Evidence from international courier services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsieh, C.; Lazzarini, S.G.; Nickerson, J.A.; Laurini, M.

    2010-01-01

    A firm often must ensure that products or services it produces match customer expectations. We define variability as any deviation in a production process yielding products or services whose attributes differ from the firm's stated target specifications. Firms pursuing products marked by low

  10. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of

  11. Factors affecting long-term-care residents' decision-making processes as they formulate advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather C; McColl, Mary Ann; Gilbert, Julie; Wong, Jiahui; Murray, Gale; Shortt, Samuel E D

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors contributing to the decision-making processes of elderly persons as they formulate advance directives in long-term care. This study was qualitative, based on grounded theory. Recruitment was purposive and continued until saturation was reached. Nine residents of a long-term-care facility were interviewed by use of a semistructured format. Open and axial coding of interview transcripts were carried out and the factors contributing to the decision process were defined. Elders based their decisions primarily on information gathered from personal experiences with death and illness. They obtained very little information from professionals or the media. Major factors considered by elders as they weighed information included spiritual, emotional, and social considerations. The factors considered during the decision-making process were oriented more toward the individual's experiences and less on contributions from objective sources than anticipated. Decision making for advance directives is a highly personalized process. The approach of health professionals when assisting with end-of-life decision making should be planned with these contributing factors in mind, so that the services offered to the individuals in this population best meet their needs.

  12. Affective and cognitive processes and the development and maintenance of anxiety and its disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; Silverman, W.K.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective review of research related to cognitive hypotheses and models of childhood anxiety. The cognitive behavioral approach and the information processing approach to childhood anxiety are explored. Cognitive developmental aspects of anxiety-related cognition, the typical patterns of

  13. Culture as Information and Culture as Affective Process: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an application of the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) to measure the effects of two ways to teach about German culture in beginning language courses. Qualitative analysis of results established that the treatment group, taught with constructivist, process-oriented tasks experienced significantly positive results on the CCAI…

  14. Formulation and process considerations affecting the stability of solid dosage forms formulated with methacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petereit, H U; Weisbrod, W

    1999-01-01

    General considerations concerning the stability of coated dosage forms are discussed, in order to avoid predictable interactions which may cause long-term stability problems. As polymers themselves maintain a high chemical stability and a low reactivity, instability phenomena mainly have to be explained by interactions of low molecular weight substances or physical changes. Possible interactions of functional groups can be predicted easily and insulating subcoates are proper countermeasures. Impurities, remaining in the polymeric material from the manufacturing process, may accelerate the hydrolysis of sensitive drugs. Instabilities of coated dosage forms are mainly based on physical interactions, caused by improper formulations of coating suspensions (i.e. plasticizers or pigments) or the film coating process. Residual moisture or solvents, probably enclosed in the core and migrating over time, may increase the permeability of coatings, due to plasticizing effects. The functionality of coatings from aqueous dispersions is linked to coalescence of latex particles. Thus any incomplete film formation, caused by too high or too low coating temperatures, may result in high permeable coatings. During storage, preferably under stress conditions this process will continue and thus change the release profile. Therefore bed temperatures of 10-20 degrees C above MFT must ensure the formation of homogeneous polymer layers during the coating process. Stability test procedures and packaging materials also need to be adapted to the physicochemical properties of the dosage form, in order to get meaningful results in stability tests.

  15. Education of legal human as way to the construction of law governed society in contemporary Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Сліпенчук

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the process of legal education of the individual, the impact on the formation of legal consciousness. Analyzed understanding of the educational process and its possibilities in the concept of philosophy of education S.I. Hessen. Defined the main directions of education legal human in Ukrainian society.

  16. Day Care Legal Handbook: Legal Aspects of Organizing and Operating Day Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, William F.

    This guide for providers of day care services presents information on business regulations and other legal considerations affecting for-profit and not-for-profit day care programs. Three basic topics covered are: (1) choosing the type of organization (sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation), (2) forming the organization, and (3) operating…

  17. Legal framework of the Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Diana

    2002-01-01

    This presentation prepared by the Deputy Director of Energy Mrs. Diana Freire de Nave overviews the following issues: objectives and functions of the national authority on the following activities: controlling, licensing and inspections. Also describes the legal process to authorize installations, operators, equipment and the legal frame on radiation safety in Guatemala

  18. Transforming the Legal Studies Classroom: Clickers and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susan; Farag, Denise

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors address the use of a personal response system ("clickers") in legal studies courses. As legal studies professors, the authors both found that the use of clickers transformed their classrooms--both professors and students are more engaged in the material and in the process of teaching and learning. Building off…

  19. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-04

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Vision affects tactile target and distractor processing even when space is task-irrelevant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Katrin eWesslein

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is adapted to integrate the information from multiple sensory modalities into coherent, robust representations of the objects and events in the external world. A large body of empirical research has demonstrated the ubiquitous nature of the interactions that take place between vision and touch, with the former typically dominating over the latter. Many studies have investigated the influence of visual stimuli on the processing of tactile stimuli (and vice versa. Other studies, meanwhile, have investigated the effect of directing a participant’s gaze either toward or else away from the body-part receiving the target tactile stimulation. Other studies, by contrast, have compared performance in those conditions in which the participant’s eyes have been open versus closed. We start by reviewing the research that has been published to date demonstrating the influence of vision on the processing of tactile targets, that is, on those stimuli that have to be attended or responded to. We outline that many – but not all – of the visuotactile interactions that have been observed to date may be attributable to the direction of spatial attention. We then move on to focus on the crossmodal influence of vision, as well as of the direction of gaze, on the processing of tactile distractors. We highlight the results of those studies demonstrating the influence of vision, rather than gaze direction (i.e., the direction of overt spatial attention, on tactile distractor processing (e.g., tactile variants of the negative-priming or flanker task. The conclusion is that no matter how vision of a tactile distractor is engaged, the result would appear to be the same, namely that tactile distractors are processed more thoroughly.

  1. Key parameters and processes affecting the re-establishment of eelgrass in estuaries and coastal water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula

    and sediment trapping. In the last decades seagrass, in general and eelgrass (Zostera marina) in particular, have been heavily reduced, primarily due to a generalized euthrophication of the coastal waters. In Denmark, a numerous efforts on nutrient reduction and improvement on coastal water quality have been....... As a result it was proven that macroalgae generated SPM affected the light climate by dampening greatly the light availability at the sea bed in shallow coastal waters. An agent based model to simulate opportunistic and slower growing macroalgae species transport in Odense fjord was created. In this model......Seagrass are considered engineering species, and as such, provide numerous “ecosystem functions, services and goods”. Among them, seagrass systems offers structural functionality, shelter and food for a diverse trophic chain, high productivity, slow nutrient turnover, reduced hydrodynamic forcing...

  2. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Legal aspects of E-HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan; Cierkens, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Cross-border activities in health care in the European single market are increasing. Many of these cross-border developments are related to e-Health. E-Health describes the application of information and communication technologies across the whole range of functions that affect the health care sector. E-health attracts a growing interest on the European level that highlights the sharp need of appropriate regulatory framework able to ensure its promotion in the European Union. Some Directives constitute a step in this direction. Both the Data Protection Directive, the E-Commerce Directive, the Medical Device Directive and the Directive on Distance Contracting are some of the most important European legal achievements related to e-Health. Although the directives are not adopted especially for e-health applications, they are indirectly very important for e-Health. Firstly, the Data Protection Directive applies to personal data which form part of a filing system and contains several important principles that have to be complied with by e-Health actors processing personal data concerning health. Secondly, the E-commerce Directive applies to services provided at a distance by electronic means. Many e-Health applications fall within this scope. Thirdly, the Medical Devices Directive is of importance for the e-Health sector, especially with regard to e.g. the medical software that is used in many e-health applications. Finally, the Directive on Distance Contracting applies to contracts for goods or services which make use of one or more means of distance communication; E-Health business may involve the conclusion of contracts. Despite these Directives more developments are needed at the European level in order to make sure that e-Health will play an even more important role in health care systems than is the case today. The new e-Health applications like electronic health records, e-health platforms, health grids and the further use of genetic data and tissue involve new

  4. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for fingerprinting process-affected waters in the oil sands industry: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.J.; Birks, S.J.; Moncur, M.; Yi, Y.; Tattrie, K.; Jasechko, S.; Richardson, K.; Eby, P. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    During 2009 and 2010, Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures carried out a pilot study for Alberta Environment to examine the possibility of labeling process affected water from oil sands operations with isotropic and geochemical tracers. For the study, 3 oil sands operators furnished logistical support and personnel, 39 samples were gathered and several isotope tracers were measured. In addition, geotechnical analyses were performed and the presence of organic compounds in the samples was scanned using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Results showed that the selected tracers were able to label water sources in some locations, however they cannot be used as a universal method and a case by case approach needs to be adopted. This study pointed out that Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is the best way to construct a dataset for use in identification of process affected waters.

  5. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which...... reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions......: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive...

  6. How can usability measurement affect the re-engineering process of clinical software procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazzi, A; Giordano, A; Minuco, G

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of the dramatic improvements achieved in information technology standards in terms of single hardware and software components, efforts in the evaluation processes have been focused on the assessment of critical human factors, such as work-flow organisation, man-machine interaction and, in general, quality of use, or usability. This trend is particularly valid when applied to medical informatics, since the human component is the basis of the information processing system in health care context. With the aim to establish an action-research project on the evaluation and assessment of clinical software procedures which constitute an integrated hospital information system, the authors adopted this strategy and considered the measurement of perceived usability as one of the main goals of the project itself: the paper reports the results of this experience.

  7. The influence of information processing goal pursuit on postdecision affect and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Two important forces in human behavior are action and inaction. Although action and inaction are commonly associated with the presence and the absence of behavioral activity, they can also be represented as information processing goals. Action (inaction) goals influence decision effort and increase satisfaction with environments that are structured to allow for more (less) processing (Studies 1 and 2). This increased satisfaction can transfer to the decision (Study 3) and can increase the intent to perform a decision-congruent behavior (Studies 4 and 6). Finally, the author shows escalation of action and inaction goals when they are not achieved (Study 5) and rebound of the alternative goal when the focal goal is achieved (Study 6).

  8. Factors Affecting Oral Participation in Lecturing Process in Prospective Accounting Teacher Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fahmi Johan Syah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to know a friendly environmental governance system. One sector of economic governance can certainly be initiated through green consumption. The focus of the problem was the green consumption education. This research was conducted by using qualitative approach in order to reveal how the process of conservation education in the Faculty of Economics in fostering behaviors that tend to conserve the consumption behavior in this case the green consumption attitude. The collecting data of research used observation, documentation and interview. This research uncovers how the conservation education is able to shape and build the green consumption attitudes that exist among the students from planning process, implementation, and evaluation of conservation education on the aspects of green consumption. Internalization of conservation value performed by the educators (in this case the lecturers at the Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang runs well enough.

  9. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process.

  10. The impact of pre-existing anxiety on affective and cognitive processing of a Virtual Reality analogue trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tina; Schmitz, Julian; Plempe, Laura; Sun, Dali; Becker-Asano, Christian; Leonhart, Rainer; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs. Individuals with high and low trait anxiety (N = 80) were exposed to a multi-sensory Virtual Reality emergency scenario while psychophysiological stress response, emotion regulation and intrusive memories were assessed. Our results showed that high trait anxiety individuals display increased (i) subjective stress responses, (ii) emotion dysregulation and (iii) intrusive memories upon VR analogue trauma exposure. In particular, our sample of high trait anxiety individuals displayed limited access to different emotion regulation strategies as well as increased worry and rumination regarding perceived intrusive memories. Considering the complex interplay of multiple risk factors, our findings suggests that peri-traumatic affective processing seems to mediate high trait anxiety and post-traumatic intrusive memories thereby pointing out the central role of peri-traumatic processes for intrusion development. In addition, HA as a modulating pre-traumatic risk factor might further increase the risk of later dysfunctional processing of an analogue trauma by interacting with factors of affective processing during analogue trauma exposure. Implications of these findings which may contribute to a higher risk to develop PTSD are discussed.

  11. The impact of pre-existing anxiety on affective and cognitive processing of a Virtual Reality analogue trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Schweizer

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs. Individuals with high and low trait anxiety (N = 80 were exposed to a multi-sensory Virtual Reality emergency scenario while psychophysiological stress response, emotion regulation and intrusive memories were assessed. Our results showed that high trait anxiety individuals display increased (i subjective stress responses, (ii emotion dysregulation and (iii intrusive memories upon VR analogue trauma exposure. In particular, our sample of high trait anxiety individuals displayed limited access to different emotion regulation strategies as well as increased worry and rumination regarding perceived intrusive memories. Considering the complex interplay of multiple risk factors, our findings suggests that peri-traumatic affective processing seems to mediate high trait anxiety and post-traumatic intrusive memories thereby pointing out the central role of peri-traumatic processes for intrusion development. In addition, HA as a modulating pre-traumatic risk factor might further increase the risk of later dysfunctional processing of an analogue trauma by interacting with factors of affective processing during analogue trauma exposure. Implications of these findings which may contribute to a higher risk to develop PTSD are discussed.

  12. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located ne...

  13. The low-frequency encoding disadvantage: Word frequency affects processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A; Reder, Lynne M

    2006-07-01

    Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative recognition, are used, the effects seem to contradict a low-frequency advantage in memory. Four experiments are presented to support the claim that in addition to the advantage of low-frequency words at retrieval, there is a low-frequency disadvantage during encoding. That is, low-frequency words require more processing resources to be encoded episodically than high-frequency words. Under encoding conditions in which processing resources are limited, low-frequency words show a larger decrement in recognition than high-frequency words. Also, studying items (pictures and words of varying frequencies) along with low-frequency words reduces performance for those stimuli. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Emotional voices in context: a neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  16. Waiting is the hardest part: anticipating medical test results affects processing and recall of important information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B

    2010-07-01

    Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how "bracing" for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well as recall of information delivered during this period. Healthy U.S. university students (N = 150) were tested for a deficiency of a fictitious saliva biomarker that was said to be predictive of long-term health problems using a 2 (Test Result) x 2 (Expected immediacy of result: 10 min, 1 month) factorial design. Participants expecting to get the test result shortly should have been bracing for the result. While waiting for the test results participants completed measures of cognitive processing. After participants received the test result, recall of information about the biomarker was tested in addition to cognitive measures. One week later, participants who were originally told they did not have the deficiency had their recall assessed again. Results showed that anticipating an imminent test result increased cognitive distraction in the processing of information and lowered recall of information about the test and the biomarker. These results suggest that delivering critical information to patients after administering a test and immediately before giving the results may not be optimal.

  17. Action during body perception: processing time affects self-other correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Catherine L; McGoldrick, John E

    2007-01-01

    The accurate perception of other people and their postures is essential for functioning in a social world. Our own bodies organize information from others to help us respond appropriately by creating self-other mappings between bodies. In this study, we investigated mechanisms involved in the processing of self-other correspondences. Reed and Farah (1995) showed that a multimodal, articulated body representation containing the spatial relations among parts of the human body was accessed by both viewing another's body and moving one's own. Use of one part of the body representation facilitated the perception of homologous areas of other people's bodies, suggesting that inputs from both the self and other activated the shared body representation. Here we investigated whether this self-other correspondence produced rapid facilitation or required additional processing time to resolve competing inputs for a shared body representation. Using a modified Reed and Farah dual-task paradigm, we found that processing time influenced body-position memory: an interaction between body-part moved and body-part attended revealed a relative facilitation effect at the 5 s ISI, but interference at the 2 s ISI. Our results suggest that effective visual-motor integration from the self and other requires time to activate shared portions of the spatial body representation.

  18. Thermal analysis of friction stir welding process and investigation into affective parameters using simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Behrouz [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keivani, Rasoul [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Friction stir welding (FSW) as an efficient solid state joining process has numerous applications in industries. Temperature distribution analysis through simulation not only brings the possibility to characterize the microstructure of different zones, but also enables one to save cost and energy as optimum welding variables are obtained with less concern. In the present study, the temperature distribution during the friction stir welding (FSW) process of AA6061-T6 was evaluated using finite element method (FEM). Since experimental measurements cannot be readily made in the weld region, it is difficult to understand physics in the stir zone of the welds without simulation. Abaqus software was applied to model the parts and simulate the process of welding, while Johnson-Cook law utilized to evaluate the effect of strain rate and generated heat. FE-results were verified by experimental results. The comparisons revealed a good compatibility between the results. The effect of probe shape on temperature distribution was also studied. It was found that spherical pins result in the highest temperatures at workpieces with respect to cylindrical and tapered pins. Additionally, it was concluded that more heat is generated in workpieces as pin angle increases.

  19. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  20. Processed kaolin affects the probing and settling behavior of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Lividae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo P; Zanardi, Odimar Z; Tomaseto, Arthur F; Volpe, Haroldo Xl; Garcia, Rafael B; Prado, Ernesto

    2018-03-05

    Alternative methods that have the potential to reduce the entry of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the major citrus pest worldwide, into commercial groves could be a viable approach for huanglongbing management. Kaolin is an aluminum silicate that when sprayed on plants forms a white particle film that interferes with host recognition by the insects. Diaphorina citri orients towards the host plants by visual and olfactory cues. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of processed kaolin on D. citri settling (no-choice) and probing behavior [electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique] under laboratory conditions, and to study its host plant finding ability and dispersal under field conditions in the absence and presence of young shoots. Under laboratory conditions, kaolin caused an overall reduction of 40% in the number of psyllids settled on treated seedlings; furthermore, the proportion of individuals that were able to reach the phloem was 50% lower on kaolin-treated plants than on untreated plants. In the field, the plant finding ability of D. citri was disrupted on kaolin-treated trees (overall reduction of 96%), regardless of the vegetative condition, and psyllid dispersal was slower in kaolin-treated plots than in the untreated control. This study clearly demonstrates that processed kaolin interferes negatively with different aspects of the host plant finding ability of D. citri. These findings suggest that processed kaolin has a high potential to reduce huanglongbing primary infection. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Thermal analysis of friction stir welding process and investigation into affective parameters using simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Behrouz; Keivani, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) as an efficient solid state joining process has numerous applications in industries. Temperature distribution analysis through simulation not only brings the possibility to characterize the microstructure of different zones, but also enables one to save cost and energy as optimum welding variables are obtained with less concern. In the present study, the temperature distribution during the friction stir welding (FSW) process of AA6061-T6 was evaluated using finite element method (FEM). Since experimental measurements cannot be readily made in the weld region, it is difficult to understand physics in the stir zone of the welds without simulation. Abaqus software was applied to model the parts and simulate the process of welding, while Johnson-Cook law utilized to evaluate the effect of strain rate and generated heat. FE-results were verified by experimental results. The comparisons revealed a good compatibility between the results. The effect of probe shape on temperature distribution was also studied. It was found that spherical pins result in the highest temperatures at workpieces with respect to cylindrical and tapered pins. Additionally, it was concluded that more heat is generated in workpieces as pin angle increases.

  2. Computer tomography of inflammatory rheumatic degenerative and reparative affections and transformation processes in the region of the sacroiliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Guertler, K.F.; Dihlmann, W.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Barmbek, Hamburg

    1980-01-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic, degenerative and reparative affections and transformation processes in the region of the sacroiliac joints can be demonstrated via computer tomography and/or conventinal roentgenology. It is found that computer tomography is superior to plain roentgenography diagnosis, including tomography, in respect of malpositioning of the articulating bones and reparative phenomena. On the other hand, early diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic changes does not yield any additional information via computer tomography. (orig.) [de

  3. Negative affect and smoking motives sequentially mediate the effect of panic attacks on tobacco-relevant processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Blalock, Janice A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Empirical work has documented a robust and consistent relation between panic attacks and smoking behavior. Theoretical models posit smokers with panic attacks may rely on smoking to help them manage chronically elevated negative affect due to uncomfortable bodily states, which may explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and quit problems. The current study examined the effects of panic attack history on nicotine dependence, perceived barriers for quitting, smoking inflexibility when emotionally distressed, and expired carbon monoxide among 461 treatment-seeking smokers. A multiple mediator path model was evaluated to examine the indirect effects of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives as mediators of the panic attack-smoking relations. Panic attack history was indirectly related to greater levels of nicotine dependence (b = 0.039, CI95% = 0.008, 0.097), perceived barriers to smoking cessation (b = 0.195, CI95% = 0.043, 0.479), smoking inflexibility/avoidance when emotionally distressed (b = 0.188, CI95% = 0.041, 0.445), and higher levels of expired carbon monoxide (b = 0.071, CI95% = 0.010, 0.230) through the sequential effects of negative affect and negative affect smoking motives. The present results provide empirical support for the sequential mediating role of negative affect and smoking motives for negative affect reduction in the relation between panic attacks and a variety of smoking variables in treatment-seeking smokers. These mediating variables are likely important processes to address in smoking cessation treatment, especially in panic-vulnerable smokers.

  4. Effects of a laser surface processing induced heat-affected zone on the fatigue behavior of AISI 4340 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniels, R.L.; White, S.A.; Liaw, K.; Chen, L.; McCay, M.H.; Liaw, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in AISI 4340 steel created by laser-surface alloying (LSA) on high-cycle fatigue behavior have been investigated. This research was performed by producing several lots of laser-processed AISI 4340 steel using different laser processing parameters, and then subjecting the samples to high-cycle fatigue and Knoop microindentation hardness studies. Samples of tested material from each lot were examined using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) in order to establish the effects of laser processing on the microstructure of the fatigue-tested AISI 4340 steel. When these three techniques, microindentation hardness testing, high-cycle fatigue testing, and SEM, are combined, a mechanistic understanding of the effect of the HAZ on the fatigue behavior of this alloy might be gained. It was found that the HAZ did not appear to have an adverse effect on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of LSA-processed AISI 4340 steel

  5. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.

    1997-01-01

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de

  6. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, 𔃺 le. ~~rt n the

  7. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  8. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eYang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N, but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics,the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage. A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates (PNR, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids

  9. Food matrix and cooking process affect mineral bioaccessibility of enteral nutrition formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2014-02-01

    When enteral formulas (EF) are administered orally as a supplement to the normal diet, they are often mixed with conventional foods or included in recipes in order to seek new flavors and textures and avoid monotony. The aims of this work were to study the bioaccessibility of Fe, Zn and Ca from commercial EF and the impact upon their incorporation into sweet preparations. Twenty commercial EF, before and after inclusion in sweet food (rice pudding, RP; banana smoothie, BS; tea, T; chocolate dessert, CD) were evaluated regarding Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability (%DFe , %DZn , %DCa ) as an estimator of mineral bioaccessibility. Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability from EF was variable and generally low. Heating during EF-sweet food preparation (T and CD) lowered values to 44.1 %DFe , possibly due to degradation of vitamin C, and 52.7 %DZn and 25.3 %DCa , due to the interaction with food components. EF and EF-sweet foods did not represent a good supply of Fe, Zn and Ca as recommended. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of these minerals is affected by the food matrix in which EF is included as well as heating during food preparation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  11. Affective-associative two-process theory: a neurocomputational account of partial reinforcement extinction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Billing, Erik; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Balkenius, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is an experimentally established phenomenon: behavioural response to a given stimulus is more persistent when previously inconsistently rewarded than when consistently rewarded. This phenomenon is, however, controversial in animal/human learning theory. Contradictory findings exist regarding when the PREE occurs. One body of research has found a within-subjects PREE, while another has found a within-subjects reversed PREE (RPREE). These opposing findings constitute what is considered the most important problem of PREE for theoreticians to explain. Here, we provide a neurocomputational account of the PREE, which helps to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings of within-subjects experimental conditions. The performance of our model demonstrates how omission expectancy, learned according to low probability reward, comes to control response choice following discontinuation of reward presentation (extinction). We find that a PREE will occur when multiple responses become controlled by omission expectation in extinction, but not when only one omission-mediated response is available. Our model exploits the affective states of reward acquisition and reward omission expectancy in order to differentially classify stimuli and differentially mediate response choice. We demonstrate that stimulus-response (retrospective) and stimulus-expectation-response (prospective) routes are required to provide a necessary and sufficient explanation of the PREE versus RPREE data and that Omission representation is key for explaining the nonlinear nature of extinction data.

  12. The influence of inhibitory processes on affective theory of mind in young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Vetter, Nora; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Löcher, Carolin; Krautschuk, Susan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of an inhibition manipulation on the effect of age on theory of mind (ToM) in an ecologically valid, affective ToM task. Participants were 30 young and 30 old adults. The Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery was used to measure ToM; in addition, measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence were taken. Participants were subjected to three levels of inhibitory demand during ToM reasoning: emotional inhibition, non-emotional inhibition, and no inhibition. Old adults performed worse than young adults. The emotional and non-emotional inhibition conditions resulted in worse ToM performance compared to the no inhibition condition. There were no differences in the impact of the inhibition conditions on old and young adults. Regression analyses suggested that old adults' crystallized intelligence was a significant predictor of ToM performance, whereas it did not predict young adults' ToM performance. Results are discussed in terms of verbal ability as a possible compensatory mechanism in coping with verbal inhibitory load in ToM reasoning.

  13. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Sarah E; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB 1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB 1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure.

  14. Factors affecting the silver corrosion performance of jet fuel from the Merox process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viljoen, C.L. [Sasol Oil R& D (South Africa); Hietkamp, S. [CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa); Marais, B.; Venter, J.J. [National Petroleum Refineries of South Africa, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    1995-05-01

    The Natref refinery at Sasolburg, South Africa, which is 63,6% owned by Sasol and 36,5% by Total, is producing Jet A-1 fuel at a rate of 80 m{sup 3}/h by means of a UOP Merox process. A substantial part of the crude oil slate is made up from crudes which have been stored for considerable times in underground mines. Since the 1970`s, Natref has experienced sporadic non-conformance of its treated jet fuel to the silver corrosion (IP 227) test. Various causes and explanations for the sporadic silver corrosion occurrence have been put forward but a direct causal link has remained obscure. The paper addresses these possible causes for silver corrosion and some of the process changes which have been made to alleviate the problem. Emphasis is placed on the most recent approaches which were taken to identify the origin of the sporadic silver corrosion. An inventory of all the potential causes was made, such a bacterial action, elemental sulphur formation in storage, etc. and experiments designed to test the validity of these causes, are discussed. A statistical evaluation which was done of the historical process data over a 2 year period, failed to link the use of mine crudes directly to Ag-corrosion occurrence. However, a correlation between elemental sulphur and H{sub 2}S levels in the feed to the Merox reactor and Ag-corrosion was observed. Finally, the outcome of the experiments are discussed, as well as the conclusions which were reached from the observed results.

  15. Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction. Final Technical Report EMSP 70045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected

  16. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity in any hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water-column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting data set was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  17. The Low-Frequency Encoding Disadvantage: Word Frequency Affects Processing Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative recognition, are used, the effects seem to contradict a low-frequency advantage in memory. Four experiments are presented to support the claim that in ad...

  18. Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seljåsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    in content of terpenes, β-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1–4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30–40% for β-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic...... of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality...

  19. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet - Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  20. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet: Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  1. Market oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Few disagree on the advantage of market oriented product development. However, can a well-known theory on consumer behaviour be used as a catalyst for achieving it? This paper describes a case study where means-end chain (MEC) approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two...... different stages of the development process. Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed. The results also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team...

  2. Law n. 13.015/2014: Amendment of Labor Magazine Feature and Possible offenses to Constitutional Principles of Due Process Legal Access to Jurisdiction and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henriques Zandona Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article aims to study the reforms undertaken by the Law 13.015/2014 under the proposed amendments to the labor resources of magazines, and a growing demand in the edition of overviews by the Regionals Labors Court. At first, the theoretical basis, we analyze the prospects of the constitutional process model within the framework leveraged as a democratic state. After, it enters to the principle concept of due process of law, the access Jurisdiction and Effectiveness, doing, in a third moment, a brief survey and survey as the main proposals of changes made by Law n. 13.015/2014, demonstrating the likelihood that some provisions of this standard or not contradict principles and constitutional guarantees. Trough the deductive method and the bibliographic research this article has been written from a large conception to a small one. And as technical proceeding were used the theme analysis as a way of looking for a solution for the problem.

  3. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  4. β-lactoglobulin stabilized nanemulsions--Formulation and process factors affecting droplet size and nanoemulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali; Mekhloufi, Ghozlene; Huang, Nicolas; Agnely, Florence

    2016-03-16

    To avoid the toxicological concerns associated to synthetic surfactants, proteins might be an alternative for the stabilization of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions. The present study investigates the use of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) to stabilize oil in water biocompatible nanoemulsions intended for a pharmaceutical use and prepared by high pressure homogenization (HPH). The effects of composition (nature and weight fraction of oil, β-lg concentration) and of process parameters (pressure and number of cycles) on the droplet size and on the stability of nanoemulsions were thoroughly assessed. The nanoemulsions prepared with β-lg at 1 wt% and with 5 wt% Miglyol 812 (the oil with the lowest viscosity) displayed a relatively small particle size (about 200 nm) and a low polydispersity when a homogenization pressure of 100 MPa was applied for 4 cycles. These nanoemulsions were the most stable formulations over 30 days at least. Emulsification efficiency of β-lg was reduced at higher homogenization pressures (200 MPa and 300 MPa). The effect of HPH process on the interfacial properties of β-lg was evaluated by drop shape analysis. This treatment had an effect neither on the interfacial tension nor on the interfacial dilatational rheology of β-lg at the Miglyol 812/water interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in Mediterranean seawater and processes affecting their accumulation in plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Del Vento, Sabino; Ojeda, María José; Valle, María Carmen; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Mariani, Giulio; Wollgast, Jan; Hanke, Georg

    2011-05-15

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to riverine and atmospheric inputs of organic pollutants. Here, we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where water and plankton samples were collected simultaneously. Both matrixes were analyzed for hexaclorochyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The comparison of the measured HCB and HCHs concentrations with previously reported dissolved phase concentrations suggests a temporal decline in their concentrations since the 1990s. On the contrary, PCB seawater concentrations did not exhibit such a decline, but show a significant spatial variability in dissolved concentrations with lower levels in the open Western and South Eastern Mediterranean, and higher concentrations in the Black, Marmara, and Aegean Seas and Sicilian Strait. PCB and OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) concentrations in plankton were higher at lower plankton biomass, but the intensity of this trend depended on the compound hydrophobicity (K(OW)). For the more persistent PCBs and HCB, the observed dependence of POP concentrations in plankton versus biomass can be explained by interactions between air-water exchange, particle settling, and/or bioaccumulation processes, whereas degradation processes occurring in the photic zone drive the trends shown by the more labile HCHs. The results presented here provide clear evidence of the important physical and biogeochemical controls on POP occurrence in the marine environment.

  8. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  9. Epistemic motivation affects the processing of negative emotional stimuli in interpersonal decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu eWei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present electrophysiological study investigated the role of the need for cognitive closure (NFC in emotional processing. The NFC is conceptualized as an epistemic motive that is related to how and why people seek out information in social environments. Event-related potentials were recorded while individuals with high NFC (i.e., low epistemic motivation or low NFC (i.e., high epistemic motivation performed a modified Ultimatum Game, in which the emotions of happy or angry game agents were employed to predict their most likely offer. High-NFC participants more closely adhered to the decisions rules of the game than low-NFC individuals did. The electrophysiological results showed that the dispositional NFC modified early perceptual components (N170, N200, and P200. The potentials showed that high-NFC subjects had a processing bias to angry faces, whereas low-NFC individuals exhibited no such effects. These findings indicated that high-NFC individuals were more sensitive to negative emotional stimuli than low-NFC individuals in an interpersonal decision-making task.

  10. MODERNIZATION, OPTIMIZATION PROCESS OF REGULATION OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK AS A BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF MUNICIPALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the problems associated with the maintenance of financial stability of municipalities. The process of improving the regulatory framework in the public sector of the economy, ensuring the development of economic entities of financial relations at the municipal level, and contributing to the achievement of financial sustainability of municipalities. We consider a number of theses that constitute the theoretical basis of the financial sustainability of municipalities. 

  11. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  12. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  13. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  14. The National Legal Framework of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosland, Martha S.

    2017-01-01

    Ms Crosland presented the United States legal framework regarding public participation. Under the Administrative Procedure Act, the primary way of conducting public participation is through 'notice and comment rulemaking'. A proposed rule is published in the Federal Register and is open to comment by the general public; the final publication of the rule includes the answers to the comments received. The various agencies in the United States make use of several digital tools to expand effective public participation and manage the process. The Atomic Energy Act established an adjudicatory process including 'trial-type' hearings, providing participation opportunities to any individual or group whose interests may be affected by a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing action. The National Environmental Policy Act requires several levels of review for all actions with potentially significant environmental impacts. An environmental assessment (EA) is conducted, to determine whether there is no significant impact or if a more detailed environmental impact statement (EIS) is needed. The EA requires notification of the host state and/or tribe, and the agency in charge has discretion as to the level of public involvement. The EIS requires public notification, a period for public comments on the draft EIS, and at least one public hearing. Ms Crosland presented stakeholder involvement initiatives carried out beyond the legal requirements, such as Citizen Advisory Boards at certain Department of Energy nuclear sites or the National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

  15. 39 CFR 230.26 - Do these rules affect the service of process requirements of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do these rules affect the service of process....26 Do these rules affect the service of process requirements of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure... Rules of Civil Procedure regarding service of process. ...

  16. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Schulz, André; Streit, Fabian E; Turner, Jonathan D; Oitzl, Melly S; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-12-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin (n=13), 30mg oral cortisol (n=12), both (n=15), or placebo (n=14). Acoustic startle responsiveness was assessed during presentation of food and non-food pictures. Cortisol enhanced startle responsiveness during visual presentation of "high glycemic" food pictures, but not during presentation of neutral and pleasant non-food pictures. Insulin had no effect. Based on the "frustrative nonreward" model these results suggest that the reward value of high glycemic food items is specifically increased by cortisol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transport and reaction processes affecting the attenuation of landfill gas in cover soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxidation reactions on the overall gas transport regime and to evaluate, the contributions of various gas transport processes on methane attenuation in landfill cover soils....... For this purpose, a reactive transport model that includes advection and the Dusty Gas Model for simulation of multicomponent gas diffusion was used. The simulations are constrained by data from a series of counter-gradient laboratory experiments. Diffusion typically accounts for over 99% of methane emission...... to the atmosphere. Oxygen supply into the soil column is driven exclusively by diffusion, whereas advection outward offsets part of the diffusive contribution. In the reaction zone, methane consumption reduces the pressure gradient, further decreasing the significance of advection near the top of the column...

  18. Interpersonal processes affecting early alliance formation in experiential therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen; Pos, Alberta E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of in-session interpersonal process and pre-therapy interpersonal problems on session-one alliance formation for 32 clients who received short-term experiential therapy for depression. Interpersonal behavior measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, as well as clients' pre-therapy reports of interpersonal problems significantly related to session-one alliance scores. Greater client disclosure independently predicted a stronger session-one bond with the therapist. Both greater client disclosure (positively) and pre-therapy Social Inhibition (negatively) independently predicted early goal agreement. Findings suggest that client disclosure is a marker of early engagement in experiential therapy, as well as support this model's mandate to form interpersonally safe therapeutic environments from the first moments of therapy.

  19. Stability of micronutrients and phytochemicals of grapefruit jam as affected by the obtention process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual, M; García-Martínez, E; Camacho, M M; Martínez-Navarrete, N

    2016-04-01

    Fruits are widely revered for their micronutrient properties. They serve as a primary source of vitamins and minerals as well as of natural phytonutrients with antioxidant properties. Jam constitutes an interesting way to preserve fruit. Traditionally, this product is obtained by intense heat treatment that may cause irreversible loss of these bioactive compounds responsible for the health-related properties of fruits. In this work, different grapefruit jams obtained by conventional, osmotic dehydration (OD) without thermal treatment and/or microwave (MW) techniques were compared in terms of their vitamin, organic acid and phytochemical content and their stability through three months of storage. If compared with heating, osmotic treatments lead to a greater loss of organic acids and vitamin C during both processing and storage. MW treatments permit jam to be obtained which has a similar nutritional and functional value than that obtained when using a conventional heating method, but in a much shorter time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Marcus; Berding, Georg; Voges, Jürgen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Galazky, Imke; Müller, Ulf; Baillot, Gunther; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc) on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2)[(15)O]-PET (positron emission tomography) in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control.

  1. Some processes affecting the mobility of thorium in natural ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesthols, E.

    1994-04-01

    Thorium is a useful model element for tetravalent actinides such as U(IV), Pu(IV) and Np(IV) which are important constituents of spent nuclear fuel. Thorium is also an important tracer element for particle pathways in natural environments. In order to correctly model the transport of Th in the environment, it is important to have quantitative models for processes that effect its mobility. Some of these processes have been experimentally investigated in laboratory studies, and interpreted with quantitative models where possible. The carbonate complexation in aqueous solution of Th has been investigated through solubility studies of ThO 2 in carbonate media. It is shown, that thorium carbonate complexes are likely to be predominant in many natural waters. They also increase solubility of the oxide significantly, and hence the mobility of Th. Carbonate also increases the dissolution rate of thorium oxide. This effect will only be important in environments with a pH and total carbonate alkalinity higher than those of most natural aquatic environments. Solubility studies of thorium oxide in phosphate media show that phosphate does not significantly increase the mobility of Th in aqueous media. The presence of phosphate may cause the precipitation of sparingly soluble thorium phosphates which will decrease the mobility of Th. The pentahydroxo complex for Th is shown to be significant up to pH 13. Potentiometric studies of Th sorption on amorphous colloidal silica indicate, that pure aluminosilicates will probably not be efficient scavengers of tetravalent actinides above pH values of approximately 6. In neutral to alkaline solutions, iron (hydr)oxides are likely to be the predominant sorbents. Th binds to the silica surface through corner-sharing bonds, where Th and Si share one, but not more oxygen atoms. 72 refs

  2. Factors affecting the use of social media in the learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison W. Lubua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was established based on the inherent challenges of traditional learning systems, which require to be addressed. Arguably, social media can address many challenges of traditional learning if used properly. On this basis, it was important for the study to determine factors associated with the adoption of social media in learning. Objectives: This study determines the relationship between the ease of use and the usefulness of social media to its adoption. Moreover, it shows whether the perceived security of social media relates to its adoption in the learning environment of higher learning students. The objectives were met through testing hypotheses. Methods: Overall, the study was objective and followed the positivism philosophical stance. It adopted the survey research design. Data were collected through the use of a closed-end questionnaire and was tested using descriptive statistics and the One-Way ANOVA model. The generalisation of the results of tested hypotheses is allowed to the population with characteristics similar to that of the study. Results: Social media offer a good platform for the learning process. Moreover, necessary efforts are required to enhance the perception of users on the usefulness of social media, and improve their awareness of security issues because they relate with the adoption of social media. Also, the complexity of social media relates with to adoption. An ease of use platform enhances the adoption. Conclusion: Social media offer a suitable platform for the extension of traditional classes. Their use would be more effective provided that users are aware of maintaining their safety, able to apply social media tools and able to share the content useful to their learning process. Moreover, the study recommends further studies in specific social media.

  3. Does residence time affect responses of alien species richness to environmental and spatial processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Dainese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust emerging generalisations in invasion biology is that the probability of invasion increases with the time since introduction (residence time. We analysed the spatial distribution of alien vascular plant species in a region of north-eastern Italy to understand the influence of residence time on patterns of alien species richness. Neophytes were grouped according to three periods of arrival in the study region (1500–1800, 1800–1900, and > 1900. We applied multiple regression (spatial and non-spatial with hierarchical partitioning to determine the influence of climate and human pressure on species richness within the groups. We also applied variation partitioning to evaluate the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes. Temperature mainly influenced groups with speciesa longer residence time, while human pressure influenced the more recently introduced species, although its influence remained significant in all groups. Partial regression analyses showed that most of the variation explained by the models is attributable to spatially structured environmental variation, while environment and space had small independent effects. However, effects independent of environment decreased, and spatially independent effects increased, from older to the more recent neophytes. Our data illustrate that the distribution of alien species richness for species that arrived recently is related to propagule pressure, availability of novel niches created by human activity, and neutral-based (dispersal limitation processes, while climate filtering plays a key role in the distribution of species that arrived earlier. This study highlights the importance of residence time, spatial structure, and environmental conditions in the patterns of alien species richness and for a better understanding of its geographical variation.

  4. The role of DOM in nitrogen processing in streams across arctic regions affected by fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Schade, J. D.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Mann, P. J.; Wymore, A.; Coble, A. A.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Zito, P.; Podgorski, D. C.; Spencer, R. G.; McDowell, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    In stream ecosystems, inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have a strong influence on nitrogen (N) processing. Previous studies have demonstrated that increases in DOC concentrations can promote greater N removal in many stream ecosystems. Most of what we know about C and N coupling comes from studies of temperate streams; less is known about this relationship in the Arctic. Streams in Arctic ecosystems are facing rapid changes in climate and disturbance regimes, in particular increasing fire frequencies that are likely to alter biogeochemical cycles. Although fires can lead to increases in NO3 concentrations in streams, the effects of fire on DOC (concentration and composition) have been difficult to generalize. We studied the relationships between DOC and N in two locations; the Central Siberian Plateau, Russia and the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) River Delta, Alaska. Streams in both regions show increases in NO3 concentrations after fire, while DOC concentrations decrease in Siberia but increase in streams within the YK-Delta. These patterns in DOC and NO3 create a gradient in DOC and nutrient concentrations, allowing us to study this coupling in a wider Pan-Arctic scope. In order to assess the role of DOC in Arctic N processing, we conducted NO3 and NH4 additions to stream microcosms at the Alaskan site as well as whole-stream additions in Siberia. We hypothesized that nutrient uptake would be high in older burn sites of Siberia and recently burned sites in the YK-Delta, due to greater DOC concentrations and availability. Our results suggest that nitrogen dynamics in the Alaskan sites is strongly responsive to C availability, but is less so in Siberian sites. The potential impacts of permafrost thawing and fires on DOM and nutrient dynamics thus appear to not be consistent across the Arctic suggesting that different regions of the Arctic have unique biogeochemical controls.

  5. Nitrogen deposition in precipitation to a monsoon-affected eutrophic embayment: Fluxes, sources, and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunchao; Zhang, Jingping; Liu, Songlin; Jiang, Zhijian; Arbi, Iman; Huang, Xiaoping; Macreadie, Peter Ian

    2018-06-01

    Daya Bay in the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced rapid nitrogen pollution and intensified eutrophication in the past decade due to economic development. Here, we estimated the deposition fluxes of nitrogenous species, clarified the contribution of nitrogen from precipitation and measured ions and isotopic composition (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in precipitation in one year period to trace its sources and formation processes among different seasons. We found that the deposition fluxes of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to Daya Bay were 132.5, 64.4 17.5, 1.0, 49.6 mmol m-2•yr-1, respectively. DON was a significant contributor to nitrogen deposition (37% of TDN), and NO3- accounted for 78% of the DIN in precipitation. The nitrogen deposition fluxes were higher in spring and summer, and lower in winter. Nitrogen from precipitation contributed nearly 38% of the total input of nitrogen (point sources input and dry and wet deposition) in Daya Bay. The δ15N-NO3- abundance, ion compositions, and air mass backward trajectories implicated that coal combustion, vehicle exhausts, and dust from mainland China delivered by northeast monsoon were the main sources in winter, while fossil fuel combustion (coal combustion and vehicle exhausts) and dust from PRD and southeast Asia transported by southwest monsoon were the main sources in spring; marine sources, vehicle exhausts and lightning could be the potential sources in summer. δ18O results showed that OH pathway was dominant in the chemical formation process of nitrate in summer, while N2O5+ DMS/HC pathways in winter and spring.

  6. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  7. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk eBeyenal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA. We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl (cathodic mat system and +300 mVAg/AgCl (anodic mat system and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both anodic and cathodic mat systems. Interestingly, the cathodic mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the anodic mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the cathodic mats than in the anodic mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the cathodic mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that

  8. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  9. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  10. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  11. Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sauvage

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate the consistency of satellite measurements of lightning flashes and ozone precursors with in situ measurements of tropical tropospheric ozone. The measurements are tropospheric O3, NO2, and HCHO columns from the GOME satellite instrument, lightning flashes from the OTD and LIS satellite instruments, profiles of O3, CO, and relative humidity from the MOZAIC aircraft program, and profiles of O3 from the SHADOZ ozonesonde network. We interpret these multiple data sources with our model to better understand what controls tropical tropospheric ozone. Tropical tropospheric ozone is mainly affected by lightning NOx and convection in the upper troposphere and by surface emissions in the lower troposphere. Scaling the spatial distribution of lightning in the model to the observed flashes improves the simulation of O3 in the upper troposphere by 5–20 ppbv versus in situ observations and by 1–4 Dobson Units versus GOME retrievals of tropospheric O3 columns. A lightning source strength of 6±2 Tg N/yr best represents in situ observations from aircraft and ozonesonde. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns from GOME are applied to provide top-down constraints on emission inventories of NOx (biomass burning and soils and VOCs (biomass burning. The top-down biomass burning inventory is larger than the bottom-up inventory by a factor of 2 for HCHO and alkenes, and by a factor of 2.6 for NOx over northern equatorial Africa. These emissions increase lower tropospheric O3 by 5–20 ppbv, improving the simulation versus aircraft observations, and by 4 Dobson Units versus GOME observations of tropospheric O3 columns. Emission factors in the a posteriori inventory are more consistent with a recent compilation from in situ measurements. The ozone simulation using two different dynamical schemes (GEOS-3 and GEOS-4 is evaluated versus observations; GEOS-4 better represents O3 observations by 5–15 ppbv

  12. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  13. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...

  14. Physical processes affecting turbidity in a tidal marsh across a range of time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Poindexter, C.

    2016-12-01

    The direction of net suspended sediment flux, whether into or out of a tidal marsh, can determine whether a marsh is aggrading or eroding. Measuring net suspended sediment fluxes or attributing trends in these fluxes to a particular physical processes is challenging because suspended sediment concentrations are highly variable in time. We used singular spectrum analysis for time series with missing data (SSAM) to observe the relative effects on turbidity of physical processes occurring on different time scales at the Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve. This Preserve covers the largest contiguous area of full-tidal marsh remaining within Suisun Bay, the eastern most subembayment of San Francisco Bay. A long-term monitoring station at First Mallard Slough within the Preserve measures turbidity. Our analysis of of this turbidity record isolated the contribution to total variance from different tides and from annual cycles of San Francisco Bay freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and wind-driven sediment resuspension. Surprisingly, the contribution from diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents (30%) was smaller than the contribution from annual cycles of freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and resuspension (38%). This result contrasts with the original implementation of SSAM to suspended sediment concentration, which was conducted in the central San Francisco Bay. This previous work indicated a significant yet smaller contribution (13%) to total suspended sediment concentration variance from annual cycles (Schoellhamer, D. H., 2002, Continental Shelf Research., 22, 1857-1866). The reason for the contrast relates in part to the location of the First Mallard Slough more than 10 km along the tidal channel network from Suisun Bay. At this location, the lowest frequency variation in suspended sediment is accentuated. Annual peaks in turbidity at First Mallard depend not only on spring and summer wind-driven resuspension of sediment in San Pablo Bay but also its co

  15. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  16. Acrylamide in Japanese processed foods and factors affecting acrylamide level in potato chips and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Yada, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Ohara-Takada, Akiko; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Mori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods sold in Japanese markets were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. Most potato chips and whole potato-based fried snacks showed acrylamide concentration higher than 1000 microg/kg. The concentrations in non-whole potato based Japanese snacks, including rice crackers and candied sweet potatoes, were less tha. 350 microg/kg. Those in instant precooked noodles were less than 100 microg/kg with only one exception. The effect of storage condition of potato tubers on acrylamide concentration in potato chips after frying was also investigated. Sugar content in the tubers increased during cold storage, and the acrylamide concentration increased accordingly. The concentrations of asparagine and other amino acids, however, did not change during the cold storage. High correlations were observed between the acrylamide content in the chips and glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. This fact indicated that the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in potato chips is reducing sugar, not asparagine content in the tubers. Effects of roasting time and temperature on acrylamide concentration in roasted green tea are also described.

  17. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-08-07

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  18. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman, which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA. Higher zeatin riboside (ZR content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  19. Parameters Affecting the Extraction Process of Jatropha curcas Oil Using a Single Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nurrakhmad Siregar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used technique to separate oil and cake from J. curcas seeds is mechanical extraction. It uses simple tools such as a piston and a screw extruder to produce high pressure, driven by hand or by engine. A single screw extruder has one screw rotating inside the barrel and materials simultaneously flow from the feed to the die zone. The highest oil yield can be obtained by a well-designed oil press as well as finding the optimum conditions for all parameters involved during the extraction process. The influence of the parameters in a single screw extruder was studied using finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics simulation with ANSYS POLYFLOW. The research focused on predicting the velocity, pressure and shear rate in the metering section that influenced the screw rotational speed and mass flow rate. The obtained results revealed that increasing the screw rotational speed will increase the pressure, velocity and shear rate. Meanwhile, increasing the mass flow rate results in decreasing the pressure while the velocity and shear rate remain constant.

  20. Rare earth elements mobility processes in an AMD-affected estuary: Huelva Estuary (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, K L; Sarmiento, A M; Borrego, J; Nieto, J M

    2017-08-15

    Huelva Estuary is a transition zone where REE-rich acidic waters interact with saline-alkaline seawater. This mixing process influences the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of particulate and dissolved fractions. The Tinto River has >11,000μgL -1 dissolved REE (pH=1.66), whereas seawater only reaches 8.75·10 -2 μgL -1 dissolved REE (pH=7.87). REE-normalized patterns in "pH<6 solutions" are parallel and show similarities, diminishing their concentration as pH increases. Sequential extraction performed on the generated precipitates of mixed solutions indicates that most REE are associated to the residual phase. In a second order, REE are associated with soluble salts at pH3 and 3.5 whereas in sediments generated at pH4 and 5, they are distributed in salts (1° extraction), poorly crystallized Fe-bearing minerals (schwertmannite, 3° extraction) and well crystallized Fe-bearing minerals (goethite - hematite, 4° extraction). Finally, precipitated REE are highest at pH6 newly formed minerals with a release to solution in higher pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.