WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal process divorce

  1. Divorce in Ireland: Legal and Social Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binchy, William

    1978-01-01

    Ireland is one of the few countries where divorce is constitutionally prohibited. In this article, the author sets out the present legal position, explains the historical background, examines the relations between church and state on the question of marriage, and discusses the social effects of the prohibition on divorce. (Author)

  2. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    González Luna, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  3. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  4. "Only God decides": young children's perceptions of divorce and the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, K D; Pruett, M K

    1999-12-01

    To describe research on perceptions of children aged 6 and younger from 21 families of their parents' divorce, of its impact on their families, and of legal officials. Semistructured play interviews were conducted during home visits as parents were conjointly interviewed as part of a larger study on divorce in legal context. Children had much mis-information about divorce as an event and process. What they did know was often inappropriate, frightening, and confusing. They resented how the process "ruined their parents' being friends any more" and proposed reforms based on their wishes and observations. Greater awareness is needed of the child's desire to be heard during the process, to feel safe and less lonely, and to stay in touch with both parents and extended families. Age-appropriate explanations of psychological and legal aspects of the divorce process are likely to support children's positive adjustment and mental health.

  5. When Patients Divorce: The Family Physician's Legal Position

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbur, Ruth E.

    1983-01-01

    When divorce and family disintegration loom, the family physician is often the first outsider on the scene. The family physician may, indeed, have a critical role to play in handling the crisis; he may advise, refer to other professionals like therapists or lawyers, or appear in court as an expert witness. The physician must consider his legal position. Is reconciliation counselling confidential, privileged information? Can he recommend a lawyer for a patient? What is the physician's vulnerab...

  6. The effects of a Danish legal reform on divorce probabilities and pension savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how a recent Danish legal reform that changed how pension savings are shared upon divorce influenced divorce probabilities and pension savings. A simple theoretical model predicts that the reform should cause couples to either get divorced or sign postnuptial agreements....... Using a large panel of Danish register data, I find that the probability of getting divorced increased by between 0.1 and 0.3 % for couples that were affected by the reform, compared to couples that were not. Although these increases might appear small, given that the average divorce rates...... for the couples in the sample was less than 1 %, the relative increase in divorce probabilities caused by the reform was between 12 and 40 %. The effects are largest when the wife is the one gaining from getting divorced. Moreover, the reform influenced wives', but not husbands', pension savings and caused...

  7. Gifted Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  8. Power and control in the legal system: from marriage/relationship to divorce and custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B; Ancis, Julie R

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which abuse that occurred during marriage/relationship continued within divorce and custody-related legal proceedings. Twenty-seven women participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed utilizing a grounded theory approach in order to inductively arrive at a theory explaining how abuse dynamics may continue during legal proceedings. Participants identified child support litigation, custody and visitation battles, intimidation/harassment, deliberately prolonging the case, manipulating finances, and distortions of information as methods by which their exes sought to maintain power and control. Counseling implications are described.

  9. The Role of Sexual Disorder in FormingDivorce Process: a Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H enayat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: consequences resulting in the increase of the divorce rate in the Iranian society, which surrounded all individuals, families and society, has prepared the background of the present study. The main purpose of the present study was demonstrating a paradigm model of the role of sexual disorder in forming the divorce process among men in Iran. Method: The present study was conducted by applying a qualitative method using the grounded theory approach in Gachsaran, Iran, in 2014. The participants of the study were 15 divorced men who were selected using purposeful sampling. Data were gathered using depth interview, and were analyzed with coding paradigm. Results: according to the coding paradigm, men's sexual dysfunctional as a causal condition, physical disease, mind stress, and age difference between couples as a contextual condition, culture of drug abuse for satisfaction of sexual relation, and infidelity as an interventional condition, caused disorder in their sexual relationship. These men and their wives applied various strategies, such as drug abuse, disconnected sexual relation with each other, and latent violence in order to counteract this phenomenon. Conclusion: The narrative of participants of the present study revealed that disorder in their sexual relation led to other social problems, such as drug abuse, domestic violence, and infidelity in their families. Moreover, these problems led to other disorders in their sexual relationship with their wives, which eventually ended to emotional, sexual and legal divorce.

  10. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  11. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  12. Divorced, by Law: Discourses in Judicial Processes in Florianópolis (1977-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene de Fáveri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the first divorce processes (from 1977 to 1985, that were made possible by the Law 6.515, of 26.12.1977 (called the Law of Divorce, in Florianópolis, through the research made in the File and Memory Division, from the Judicial Bureau of Santa Catarina State. This research realizes how – in spite of the appellative speeches of the institutions to this juridical instance (principally the Catholic Church and the institutions connected to it, that cursed the danger of family dissolution and its traditional values – such law was created mostly to legalize already established familiar habits. It also analyzes how the couples, who had been separated for many years and had established a new union, asked for divorce with the objective of regularizing their civil situation, which had been, until that moment, at the edge of the law. Observing the juridical speeches, we noticed the reproduction of prescribed values to one and other gender, and the power relations underlying these statements.

  13. Attachment reorganization following divorce: normative processes and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Borelli, Jessica L

    2018-03-21

    This paper uses attachment theory as a lens for reviewing contemporary research on how adults cope with marital separation and loss. The first section of the paper discusses the process of normative attachment reorganization, or the psychology of adaptive grief responses following relationship transitions. We argue that changes two processes, in particular, can be uses to track changes in this normative reorganization process: narrative coherence and self-concept clarity. The second section of the paper suggest that individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance shape the variability in this normative reorganization process, largely as a result of the characteristic ways in which these styles organize emotion-regulatory tendencies. The paper closes with a series of integrative questions for future research, including a call for new studies aimed at understanding under what contexts anxiety and avoidance may be adaptive in promoting emotion recovery to separation and divorce experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Should divorce be easier or harder?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad

    2014-01-01

    Many countries have enacted legislation over the past few decades making divorce easier. Some countries have legalized divorce where it had previously been banned, and many have eased the conditions required for a divorce, such as allowing unilateral divorce (both spouses do not have to agree on the divorce). Divorce laws can regulate the grounds for divorce, division of property, child custody, and child support or maintenance payments. Reforms can have a range of social effects beyond incre...

  15. Did Unilateral Divorce Raise Divorce Rates? Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Friedberg

    1998-01-01

    This paper revisits the evidence on the impact of unilateral divorce laws on divorce rates in the United States. Most states switched from requiring mutual consent to allowing unilateral or no-fault divorce between 1970 and 1985, while the national divorce rate more than doubled after 1965. According to the Coase theorem, however, the legal shift should have had no effect on divorce rates. Recent papers using cross-sectional micro data have disputed the empirical importance of unilateral divo...

  16. The European Divorce (Applicable Law Council Regulation (EU No 1259/2010 of 20 December 2010 Implementing Enhanced Cooperation in the Area of the Law Applicable to Divorce and Legal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Alina Tagarta (DE SMET

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives with this paper are to give a brief overview of the Scope of application of the regulation; of the main conflict-of-law rules adopted by the regulation, in special those that are more relevant to the role that a notary might have in an international divorce situation. The regulation provides citizens with appropriate outcomes in terms of legal certainty, predictability and flexibility, protects weaker partners during divorce disputes and prevents 'forum shopping'. This also helps avoiding complicated, lengthy and painful proceedings. More specifically, it allows international couples to agree in advance which law would apply to their divorce or legal separation as long as the agreed law is the law of the Member State which they have a closer connection with. In case the couple cannot agree, the judges can use a common formula for deciding which country's law applies. This paper will bring to light some risks and coordination difficulties with the regulation and a few matters that the regulation does not apply to.

  17. Divorce: Helping Children Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)

  18. Divorce by consent in Roman law and contemporary law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is divorce by mutual consent in Roman law and contemporary law. In the first part of this article, the authors analyzes the key tenets of consensual divorce in Roman law, with specific reference to the impact of Christian religious teaching on the concepts of marriage and divorce as well as on the Roman rulers' constitutions, which marked the beginning of the process of restricting the right to divorce. In the central part of the paper, the authors examines the regulation on the consensual divorce in some contemporary legal systems. In addition, the authors provides a substantial analysis of the normative framework on the termination of marriage in the positive Serbian legislation. In the final part of the paper, the authors provides a comparative analysis and underscores the observed similarities and differenced in the regulation of the institute of consensual divorce in Roman law and in the contemporary legislation.

  19. The cause of divorce among men and women referred to marriage and legal office in Qazvin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Ebrahim, Sarichlow Mohamad; Navid, Mohammadi

    2012-08-27

    Marital separation and divorce can be the most unpleasant event in the adult's life, and families will be hurt by divorce event. The prevalence of divorce has been increased in last decades. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the divorce cause among the divorce seeking men and women in Qazvin, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 572 (400 women and 172 men) subjects who requested for divorce and were referred to divorce and marriage office of Qazvin province during 3 month in 2009. Data were collected by self - administered questionnaire, interviewing subjects and using Likert scale. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square test and Mann-Whitney (SPSS version 16). The participants of the study included 400 women (26.5 ± 7.4 years) and 172 men. In view points of women the primary wrong mate selection was main cause of divorce (59.8%), but the men believed that the families and relatives interference was the main reason for separation (43.7%). Among the respondents, mean score of "dependency to their families" and "unmet emotional needs" were 3.44 ± 1.6 and 3.86 ± 1.4 respectively. In addition mean score of infertility among men and women were 1.37 ± 1.0 and 1.29 ± 0.9 respectively. Wrong mate selection, unmet emotional needs, families' interference, and "dependency to families" are more important factors than traditional factors which are sexual or physical factors.

  20. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  1. 5 CFR 582.202 - Service of legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of legal process. 582.202 Section... GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.202 Service of legal process. (a) A person using this part shall serve interrogatories and legal process on the agent to receive process as...

  2. Relations of Parenting Quality, Interparental Conflict, and Overnights with Mental Health Problems of Children in Divorcing Families with High Legal Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Braver, Sanford L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors, quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study come from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When both parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high quality parenting. PMID:24098960

  3. Divorce in a rural north Indian area: evidence from Himachali villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M

    1996-09-01

    This study focuses on divorce patterns in 10 rural villages near Shimla town, the capital of Himachal Pradesh, India. Data were obtained from a survey conducted in 1988 among 338 ever married women. Most villagers are Hindus. Caste groups include Brahmins (13%), Rajputs (45%), and Sudras (42%). Indian divorce consists in a permanent separation without legal formalities or an informal process within the panchayat judicial system. Large national studies indicate low levels of divorce, while local anthropological studies indicate high levels in some areas. This study in 1988 indicates that over 17% of women (58 out of 338) in Himachal villages were divorced at least once. Evidence suggests that divorces by cohort were higher prior to 1960. About 30% of women who married during 1951-60, 13% of women who married during 1971-80, and 3% of women who married during 1981-88 were divorced at least once. The mean age of marriage for ever divorced women was much lower than for never divorced women. The mean age at divorce was also much lower than the mean age at marriage among never divorced women. The variables associated with divorce at the 0.05 level of significance were marriage age, level of female education, age difference of spouses, and level of education of spouse and caste. Women who married before the age of 13 years were three times more likely to divorce than women who married at ages 13-15 years. Women with at least 5 years of education were four times less likely to divorce than uneducated women. Brahmin women were less likely to divorce. Women with uneducated husbands had a 50% greater chance of being divorced than women with primary educated husbands. Women who were younger by 10 years than their spouse were six times more likely to divorce.

  4. Joint Parental Authority : A comparative legal study on the continuation of joint parental authority after divorce and the breakup of a relationship in Dutch and Danish law and the CEFL principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeppesen, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comparative legal study on the continuation of joint parental authority after divorce and the breakup of a relationship in Dutch and Danish law. In addition, the Principles regarding Parental Responsibilities which have been drafted by the Commission on European Family Law are

  5. Legal process, litigation, and judicial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, H Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethically salient issues in neurologic care may have important legal overtones. This chapter considers some of these, emphasizing how law may influence the outcome of controversies over how best to promote autonomy, beneficence, and justice in the care of individuals with neurologic disorders. Constitutional, statutory, and judicial dimensions are addressed. With respect to autonomy, discussion emphasizes legal dimensions of the doctrine of informed consent and the obligations of medical professionals to protect the privacy and confidentiality of their patients. The discussion of beneficence focuses on issues relating to actual or potential conflicts of interest in the care of patients and on the conduct of research involving human subjects. The section on justice considers how law aims to define protectable rights and interests of individuals and to provide a fair and efficient process for resolving disputes. Applications of legal principles and doctrines are illustrated primarily through the examples afforded by judicial decisions. These cases demonstrate how law both promotes ethical decision-making and protects the rights and interests of those affected. The cases also highlight some of the ethical quandaries that evoke resort to litigation and the limits of law in advancing ethically appropriate outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Decision-Making Processes of Early Childhood Teachers When Working with Children Experiencing Parental Separation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, L.; Lunn, J.; Petriwskyj, A.; Walsh, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pedagogical decision-making processes of 21 Australian early childhood teachers working with children experiencing parental separation and divorce were examined. Transcripts from interviews and a focus group with teachers were analysed using grounded theory methodology. The findings showed that as teachers interacted with young…

  7. Personal Data Processing for Behavioural Targeting: Which Legal Basis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Key Points •The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights only allows personal data processing if a data controller has a legal basis for the processing. •This paper argues that, in most circumstances, the only available legal basis for the processing of personal data for behavioural targeting is

  8. Risk Factors in Divorce: Perceptions by the Children Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Draws on children's divorce stories to examine how children cope with their parents' divorce. Focuses on how children experienced risk for divorce and the changes and continuities enduring during the divorce process. Argues that even if divorce is stressful and causes loss of capital for most children, what is crucial for children's well-being is…

  9. [Which women experience divorce?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manting, D

    1993-02-01

    "This study reports on the determinants of divorce of married Dutch women, born between 1950 and 1969.... The impact of several factors on the divorce process is examined.... The analyses show that the women who have the highest divorce rates grew up in a big city, cohabited before marriage (and are or were religious), married before age 21 in the period 1980-88 and had a child before, or within six months after, the wedding. On the basis of these results, it is estimated that 20% will experience divorce within the first five years of their marriage. The data for the analyses have been derived from The Netherlands Fertility Survey (1988)...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. The Divorce Culture and Picture Books for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weimin

    2007-01-01

    In the past thirty years or so, divorce has been widespread in many countries. Globally the percentage of marriages that end up in divorce has increased dramatically even in countries where religious and legal impediments are strong. Divorce occurs most often within the first ten years of marriage. That means children of most couples who are…

  11. Destructive Divorce in the Family Life Cycle and its Implications: Criticisms of Parental Alienation

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    Josimar Antônio de Alcântara Mendes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some difficulties may arise during the divorce process, taking the family into “destructive divorce”. In such cases, some authors can see the rising of Parental Alienation (PA. This article aims to criticize PA, reflecting about the Family Life Cycle and divorce. Regarding this, a qualitative study was conducted with legal actors (judges, prosecutors, psychologists, social workers, lawyers on the issues of divorce and PA and the results were built using the conceptions of Zones of Sense by Gonzalez Rey. The summary results are: (a PA does not contextualize the conflict; (b it does not consider the history of the relationships; (c it pathologizes, medicates and criminalizes the phenomena of post-divorce and (d PA underestimates the child in the conflict.

  12. Legal constraints on genetic data processing in European grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouw, Evert; van't Noordende, Guido; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Louter, Baas; Santcroos, Mark; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.

    2012-01-01

    European laws on privacy and data security are not explicit about the storage and processing of genetic data. Especially whole-genome data is identifying and contains a lot of personal information. Is processing of such data allowed in computing grids? To find out, we looked at legal precedents in

  13. Domestic violence survivors and their experiences during legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Yeşiltepe, Gözde; Karaman, Gökçe; Ergönen, Akça Toprak

    2016-05-01

    Many victims of domestic violence do not seek recourse to the needed medical and legal services. The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties faced by and experiences of female survivors of domestic violence during their medical and legal proceedings. We designed our study using a qualitative approach to understand the experiences of survivors during the legal process as well as their feelings and attitudes towards domestic violence through in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Most of our participants reported different types of domestic violence, citing feelings of fear and loneliness during these experiences. They reported feeling dissatisfied with their complaints being ignored by the police and the perpetrators remaining unpunished. They complained of the complex procedures and negligence of staff in health-care centers such as hospitals, and they reported being shifted to several different places. We believe that an assessment of such female survivors in terms of specific standards set by specialists will help make improvements to the legal process. Education programs should be organized for professionals dealing with survivors of domestic violence. Special health-care services with fast proceedings must be established in health-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Collaborative Divorce: An Effort to Reduce the Damage of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fisch, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Divorce has been trapped in the adversarial system of the courts, a system ill suited to the needs of a family attempting to reorganize itself and still safeguard the well-being of its members. Collaborative divorce (CD) is a relatively new approach comprising an interdisciplinary professional team trained to help the divorcing family arrive at a financial, legal, and emotional settlement. The CD approach is designed to assist both members of the couple and their children transition into a more constructive future wherein they can still be a family. The structure and adversarial approach of the courts have been replaced by collaborative structures and principles developed to encourage honesty and cooperation. The case presented illustrates how this actually works. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Kid's Guide to Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What Is a Divorce? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is a Divorce? What's ... to marry other people if they want to. Divorce Is Hard for Everyone It might sound simple, ...

  16. Dealing with Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Divorce KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Divorce What's in ... or trusted adult can really help. How Will Divorce Change My Life? Depending on what happens in ...

  17. Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Divorce and Children No. 1; Updated December 2013 One out of every two marriages today ends in divorce and many divorcing families include children. Parents who ...

  18. The temporal effects of parental divorce on youth substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    This article examines how the parental divorce process affects youth substance use at various stages relative to the divorce. With child-fixed-effect models and a baseline period that is long before the divorce, the estimates rely on within-child changes over time. Youth are more likely to use alcohol 2-4 years before a parental divorce. After the divorce, youth have an increased risk of using alcohol and marijuana, with the effect for marijuana being 12.1 percentage points in the two years right after the divorce (p = .010). The magnitudes of the effects persist as time passes from the divorce.

  19. Separation, Part II: Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the concept of divorce in history--it has existed since the earliest recorded times. Discusses also the portrayal of divorce in fiction and nonfiction books for young readers--it was not discussed before California's 1969 no-fault divorce law. Outlines characteristics of books about divorce. Gives 10 questions for stimulating student…

  20. The Risk of Divorce and Household Saving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Ozcan, Berkay

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the causal impact of an increase in the risk of marital dissolution on the saving behavior of married couples. We use the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous shock to the risk of divorce. We propose several comparison groups (unaffected by the law change) that allow us to use a difference-in-differences approach.…

  1. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  2. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  3. Unstabling in the legal Environment and Decision-Making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of change dimensions in the legal environment on the quality of each stage of the decision-making process of the senior managers of public institutions. The interest population of this study included all general managers, directors, administrative, financial and support assistants, financial controllers and managers and other executive directors and deputies of Zanjan province that were studied by census method. The data collection toll was a researcher-made questionnaire that its reliability and validity were confirmed (Cronbach's alpha coefficient: 0.87. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics techniques (Chi-square test and Friedman test by SPSS software. The results show that the dimensions of changes in the legal environment factors affect on the two first and third stages of the decision making process of managers (stages of data collection, decision-making and its implementation. However, it has no effect of the data and information analysis stage.

  4. Parenting Coordination: Applying Clinical Thinking to the Management and Resolution of Post-Divorce Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Steven L

    2016-05-01

    There is a small but significant number of parents who remain stuck in a high level of conflict with each other after the legal conclusion of their divorce. Exposure to chronically high levels of parental conflict is a strong risk factor negatively affecting both children's short- and long-term adjustment. Parenting coordination is a nonadversarial, child-focused dispute-resolution process designed to help divorced parents contain their conflict to protect children from its negative effect. Parenting coordination is a hybrid role combining different skills and conflict-resolution approaches. In high-conflict divorce, each parent's internalization of relationship patterns constructed from past experiences contributes to the intractable nature of the interparent conflict. A case presentation illustrates how this clinical perspective enhances the parenting coordinator's ability to work with parents to manage and contain their parenting conflicts with each other. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices.

  6. The Price of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynish, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of divorce on student's academic achievement. Whitehead (1997) states, at the beginning of the twentieth century, there were only three divorces for every 1,000 marriages. Through the years, the divorce rate in America has rapidly increased which has affected adults and children. The…

  7. The voice of the child in parental divorce: implications for clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Research on parental divorce suggests that the nature of the divorce process, as experienced by the child, is the most important factor in his or her post-divorce adjustment. Research regarding children's experiences of the divorce process has been limited and the adult perspective has dominated the discourse ...

  8. [Divorce and joint physical custody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, B

    2014-04-01

    This work first recalls the definition of joint physical custody, as well as the current legal procedure for obtaining it, its practical implementation, the financial implications for parents, and finally some statistics. Some psychological and psychopathological reflections on the impact of divorce on children are then presented before considering the question of joint physically custody with regard to attachment theory and depending on the age of the child (a great caution seems to be required before three years). The article concludes with a brief discussion of parental alienation syndrome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, C L

    2001-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature and demographics of divorce in United States within the past 30 years has spawned an epidemic that affects more than one half of the families in the United States. I performed a MEDLINE-assisted review of the medical literature searching with the key words "divorce" and "children." In addition, a Web search was conducted using Webferret with the same key words. The past view of divorce as a short-term family crisis must mature into a longitudinal view of the effects of divorce. Divorce affects children according to their coping mechanisms in their own stages of development. Many problems and concerns previously attributed to divorce have their roots in the period of family interaction before the divorce and in the ongoing conflicts in many families after the divorce itself. Because family physicians are objective observers with whom the family comes into regular contact, they must be able to assist families through the transitions of divorce and to intervene on behalf of the children to help them through this stressful life event with the fewest detrimental effects possible. Counseling, group therapy, and divorce mediation have been assessed as effective tools for intervention.

  10. Divorce as risky behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Audrey; Ahn, Taehyun

    2010-11-01

    Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men.

  11. Booms, Busts, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2013-01-01

    For almost a century, anecdotes have suggested that divorce rates decline during recessions. However, until very recently there has been surprisingly little formal empirical evidence on whether such a link exists, let alone its magnitude if it does. Moreover, the anticipated direction of the effect is ambiguous theoretically. Although previous studies have concluded that individual job loss destabilizes marriages, macroeconomic conditions may affect divorce probabilities even for those not directly experiencing a job shock. We add to the few existing contemporaneous studies of the effects of macroeconomic shocks on divorce by conducting an empirical analysis of the relationship between state-level unemployment rates and state-level divorce rates using vital statistics data on divorces in the United States from 1976–2009. We find a significant and robust negative relationship between the unemployment and divorce rates, whereby a one percentage point rise in the unemployment rate is associated with a decrease of 0.043 divorces per one thousand people, or about a one percent fall in the divorce rate. The result that divorce is pro-cyclical is robust to a host of alternative empirical specifications, to disaggregating by state characteristics and time period, to expanding the unemployment series back to 1970, and to using alternative measures of local economic conditions. PMID:25221634

  12. DIFFICULTIES AND STRATEGIES IN THE PROCESS OF LEGAL TEXTS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela-Elena, DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the difficulties and find approaches in translating legal texts which involve a lot of different types of translation problems. The translator has the task to discover proper strategies to render the translated text comprehensible for the reader in the target language simultaneously reflecting the unique character of the legal system from the source language country. Some of the necessary strategies which the translator should take into account are: the borrowing of original terms, the naturalization of specific terms into the target language, the language calques usage, or the introduction of descriptive translation. Even if a translator tries to solve any difficulty when he translates a legal text, he must maintain the source culture characteristics and do not deprive the texts of their specific character.

  13. Children, Divorce and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1981-01-01

    An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)

  14. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  15. Kids, Divorce, and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper investigates the influence of divorce on middle level students (grades 5 through 8) and how it relates to the students' performance (both academically and emotionally) in school. Also important to the discussion is what teachers should know about working with the children of divorce. The paper includes a review of the literature on…

  16. Divorces in the Russian Peasant Family: Traditions and the Realities of Post-Reform Period: Gender Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    З З Мухина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of divorce among the peasants in the second half of 19 – early 20 century. Particular attention is paid to historical and ethnographic data collected by the informants of the Ethnographic Bureau of Prince V.N. Tenishev, revealing statistics of divorce, description and analysis of the causes of divorce, views on divorce in peasant legal consciousness, the interpretation of the phenomenon in terms of gender-based approach to family history.

  17. Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates in Western Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The increase in European divorce rates over the past decades was accompanied by several changes in divorce laws. Yet for European countries, research on the effects of divorce law on the divorce rate is scarce. Most of the existing studies are based on data from North America and provide numerous, but inconsistent, results. We use fixed-effects…

  18. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.

  19. The legal process of environmental evaluation and examination in North America and in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpiano, V.

    1999-01-01

    The most important goal of the Environmental Law is to maximize the prevention approach. As so far, a scheme has been initiated since a few years to reach this objective: a legal environmental process with a lot of mechanisms whose the objective is to estimate the environmental impact of a project in order to control it. This legal environmental process including for example the Environmental Impact Assessment is more and more integrated in the environmental policies of the industrialized countries. It began in North America, first in the U.S.A. but also in Canada. A few years after, the countries of the Western Europe, particularly the European Unions, have introduced a similar legal process taking into account the specificities of these European countries. So if the goals of this legal environmental preventive approach are similar in North America and in Western Europe, the implementation is often different according to the legal, economic but also sociological structures of these two major regions. This Phd Thesis try to study the two major impacts of this legal evaluating process: it is implemented by the public authorities to reach with a best result a Sustainable Development. But also, it tries to combine the protection of the Environment and the utilisation of legal, economic and financial mechanisms of the Market to obtain a fair trade competition. (authors)

  20. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third person helps a couple explore common interests, generate options, and make decisions toward a full agreement. ... acceptable outcomes to a divorce dispute, may offer ideas and options to the couple. In the “therapeutic ...

  1. 5 CFR 582.203 - Information minimally required to accompany legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process... to the court, or other authority, with an explanation of the deficiency. However, prior to returning...

  2. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  3. Paradigms of forensic science and legal process: a critical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2015-08-05

    This article reconsiders the relationship between criminal adjudication and forensic expertise in the light of 'new paradigms' of forensic practice and recent law reform. It briefly summarizes conventional wisdom on the typical shortcomings of forensic science and other expert evidence, as a springboard for a more searching critical diagnosis of longstanding maladies. The fundamentally jurisdictional nature of law is emphasized, and some implications for expert testimony noted. English law's traditionally adversarial model of criminal procedure is then reassessed, taking account of a proper understanding of its normative structure and modern development, and drawing on comparative legal research and theorizing to obtain a more rounded second opinion. In conclusion, some avenues for intelligent prescription are canvassed, highlighting the importance of promoting and facilitating effective communication between experts, lawyers and courts, and prioritizing modest practical remedies over radical surgery. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The Changing Family in Northern Ireland: Young People and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Margaret I.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents in Northern Ireland to investigate their experiences with the divorce process and help provided by family, friends, and professionals. They considered the separation/divorce process long, frequently underpinned by acrimony and violence. Extended family and peers provided great support. Many teens used specialist counselors…

  5. Ready, willing, and able to divorce: an economic and cultural history of divorce in twentieth-century Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Per; Sandström, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the twentieth century. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.

  6. Don't Divorce Us! Kids' Advice to Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers-Flanagan, Rita; Elander, Chelsea; Sommers-Flanagan, John

    This book examines the divorce experience firsthand-through the eyes and voices of children and adult children of divorce. People from various ages, ethnic groups, and backgrounds share artwork, essays, and their personal stories of divorce. The book contains practical suggestions for coping with the challenges of double-households, long-distance…

  7. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  8. PARENTAL DIVORCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCDERMOTT, JOHN V.

    THE BEHAVIOR OF 16 CHILDREN THREE TO FIVE YEARS OLD AT THE TIME THEIR PARENTS WERE BEING SEPARATED AND DIVORCED WAS OBSERVED IN A PRIVATE, INDEPENDENT NURSERY SCHOOL. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE TO DISCOVER--(1) IF THE DIVORCE PERIOD IS A TIME OF SIGNIFICANT STRESS FOR THE CHILDREN, (2) HOW THE DIVORCE AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN, (3) HOW…

  9. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  10. The Effects of Divorce on Children: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, James A.

    Divorce is a major life stressor and is a lengthy process which often results in long-term emotional and psychological damage to children. The effects of divorce on children are explored in this review of the literature. Some studies indicate that the preschool aged population is the most vulnerable to divorce, whereas others insist that no age…

  11. Dilemma of muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa | Gabru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...

  12. Legislative Process For National Atomic Energy Laws Various Legal Approaches And Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Legislative Process for National Atomic Energy Laws (NAELs) aim at establishing a legal base for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Various approaches (partial and comprehensive) to draft the NAELs are studied. The paper also studies some national nuclear energy laws through a comparative legal analysis and the important developments that have taken place in the legislative process for NAELs. There are lessons learned from the legislative process for NAELs. First, each state must develop its own legislative framework based on its own situation. Second, although the NAELs have common features, they vary considerably due to national legal traditions, social, economic circumstances and cultural values. Third, the NAELs have also evolved in time. Fourth, the technical standards, rules and guidelines should not be part of legislation issued by the Parliament because they would also facilitate quick adaption to new technical developments. Fifth, interface between legal and technical issues, requiring legal and technical experts to interact with each other. Sixth, continuing assessment that may lead to amendments to the law over time

  13. Divorce Rate in the Slovak Republic as a Social and Educational Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gežová Katarína Cimprichová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Divorce is considered an unwanted phenomenon in the society, although the divorce rate increases. There are many problems for both sides - parents and their children - coming along with divorce. The legal adjustment of divorce may violently strike not only the lives of children influenced by divorce but also the lives of other persons, whose existence is seriously endangered or complicated by establishing new life conditions. Family break-up and the loss of one parent leaves lifelong consequences on the child. The decision for divorce should be therefore thoroughly considered, because it is the point, where the source of loss of personal and family safety arises. Our aim is to point out the problems arising from divorce not only for the divorcing couple, but also for their children, above all, because divorce should not mean hostility for sensible people, particularly if they have children. It is necessary to find a way how to talk together before and during divorce and to do best in solving problems in the possibly shortest time.

  14. Correlates of Divorce Liberality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Johnson, Alberta C.

    1980-01-01

    Childless spouses were significantly more liberal toward divorce than were spouses with children, with childless wives being the most liberal of all. Husbands were more influenced by the perceived quality of the marital relationship, in support of cognitive dissonance theory. (Author)

  15. Divorce and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark J.

    The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)

  16. Divorce: A Child's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1979-01-01

    Much research has been done on the negative effects of divorce on children. Future research should focus on how positive family functioning and support systems can facilitate the development of social, emotional, and intellectual competence in children in single parent families. (Author/GC)

  17. Involving Divorced Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

    1993-01-01

    In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

  18. Reconsidering the "Good Divorce"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.; James, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the notion that a "good divorce" protects children from the potential negative consequences of marital dissolution. A cluster analysis of data on postdivorce parenting from 944 families resulted in three groups: cooperative coparenting, parallel parenting, and single parenting. Children in the cooperative coparenting…

  19. Impact of divorce on children: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Christy; Covitz, Lynne M

    2012-04-01

    Although divorce can have significant negative impact on children, a variety of protective factors can increase the likelihood of long-term positive psychological adjustment. • Exposure to high levels of parental conflict is predictive of poor emotional adjustment by the child regardless of the parents' marital status. • Epidemiologic data reveal that custody and parenting arrangements are evolving, with more emphasis on joint custody and access to both parents by the child. • Pediatricians' knowledge of childhood development is essential in providing anticipatory guidance to parents throughout the divorce process and beyond.

  20. The process of outsourcing applied to public administration - legal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Magera Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of outsourcing in the Brazilian Public Administration and the way it currently operates, initiating a process of reform, aiming to reduce the size of the administrative apparatus. Several doctrinal and jurisprudential concepts have been demonstrated in order to demonstrate in a concise way the applicability of outsourcing as a mechanism to reduce costs of the public machine, increase its efficiency and decrease its size. Some advantages of the use of outsourcing by the public administration by several jurists are presented, including the gains in competitiveness and ease of supervision by the citizens. The extension of the responsibility of the public administration by the outsourced company and the way in which it operates, in the light of the legislation, jurisprudence and the best doctrine, suggest efficient alternatives in the exercise of the administration, increasing its credibility and efficiency in the attainment of governmental objectives. The methodology used was through deductive. The achieved results demonstrate that the process of outsourcing after quality and a new dynamics in the public service.

  1. Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences.

  2. Separated and Divorced Women in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is not surprising, therefore, that many cases for divorce and maintenance get settled by the parties through official or unofficial mediation. Most family lawyers report that a majority of their cases get settled through negotiations between the parties/their representatives or via the court mediation process or through the ...

  3. The Effects of Personal Divorce Experience on Teacher Perceptions of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Virginia P.; Schaefer, Lyn

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether teachers with personal divorce experience differed from other teachers in their opinions on divorce, knowledge about divorce, and feelings about schools' role and responsibility to children of divorce. Those with personal divorce experience were more likely to encourage teacher and school involvement with children of divorce.…

  4. Divorce and separation in the Philippines: Trends and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeofrey Abalos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Philippines is the only country in the world, aside from the Vatican, where divorce is not legal. Despite the lack of divorce law in the country and the high costs of obtaining an annulment, recent data shows that a growing number of Filipinos dissolve their marital unions, either legally or informally. Objective: I document the rise of union dissolution cases in the Philippines, and investigate the different factors associated with Filipino women's experience of union dissolution. Methods: Data is drawn from the two most recent rounds of the Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, conducted in 2008 and 2013. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models are used in the analysis. Results: Results reveal that education, type of first union, and childhood place of residence are significantly associated with being divorced or separated among women in the Philippines. Filipino women with higher levels of education, those who were cohabiting without ever marrying in their first union, and those who were raised in urban settings have higher risks of experiencing union dissolution than their counterparts. Religion and ethnicity are also associated with union breakdown among Filipino women. Contribution: This paper demonstrates that the rise in union dissolution in the Philippines has not happened in isolation. It has to some extent been influenced by the changing character of union formation in the country, the prevailing legal system, a growing acceptance of divorce, increasing education for women, and increasing urbanization.

  5. Planetary protection, legal ambiguity and the decision making process for Mars sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M. S.

    As scientists and mission planners develop planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions, they must recognize the socio-political context in which decisions about the mission will be made and pay careful attention to public concerns about potential back contamination of Earth. To the extent that planetary protection questions are unresolved or unaddressed at the time of an actual mission, they offer convenient footholds for public challenges in both legal and decision making realms, over which NASA will have little direct control. In this paper, two particular non-scientific areas of special concern are discussed in detail: 1) legal issues and 2) the decision making process. Understanding these areas is critical for addressing legitimate public concerns as well as for fulfilling procedural requirements regardless whether sample return evokes public controversy. Legal issues with the potential to complicate future missions include: procedural review under NEPA; uncertainty about institutional control and authority; conflicting regulations and overlapping jurisdictions; questions about international treaty obligations and large scale impacts; uncertainties about the nature of the organism; and constitutional and regulatory concerns about quarantine, public health and safety. In light of these important legal issues, it is critical that NASA consider the role and timing of public involvement in the decision making process as a way of anticipating problem areas and preparing for legitimate public questions and challenges to sample return missions.

  6. Children of Divorce--A Forgotten Constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Eugene T.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the negative effects of divorce on children and suggests that a restructuring of marriage and divorce laws (which would prohibit divorce in marriages with dependent children) might be justified in addressing this injustice against children. (DB)

  7. Trading up: the fitness consequences of divorce in monogamous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culina, Antica; Radersma, Reinder; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Social and genetic mating systems play an important role in natural and sexual selection, as well as in the dynamics of populations. In socially monogamous species different genetic mating patterns appear when individuals mate outside the breeding pair within a breeding season (extra-pair mating) or when they change partners between two breeding seasons (widowing or divorce). Divorce can be defined as having occurred when two previously paired individuals are alive during the next breeding season and at least one of them has re-mated with a new partner. In socially monogamous birds divorce is widespread, but it is not clear whether it is a behavioural adaptation to improve the quality of a mating decision or whether, alternatively, it results as a non-selected consequence of other processes: existing studies suggest a heterogeneous set of results with respect to this central question. This heterogeneity could result from a number of factors, ranging from the methodological approaches used, to population- or species-specific characters. In this review we use phylogenetic meta-analyses to assess the evidence that divorce is adaptive (in terms of breeding success) across 64 species of socially monogamous birds. Second, we explore biological and methodological reasons for the heterogeneity in the results of previous studies. Results of our analyses supported the hypothesis that divorce is, in general, an adaptive behavioural strategy as: (1) divorce is triggered by relatively low breeding success; (2) there is a positive change in breeding success as a result of divorce. More specifically, while controlling for methodological moderators, we show that: (i) earlier stages of breeding are better predictors of divorce than later stages (r = 0.231; 95% CI: 0.061-0.391 for clutch size; similar for laying date); (ii) females benefited from divorce more than males in terms of increasing breeding success between successive breeding attempts, with different stages of the

  8. Helping Children and Families Deal With Divorce and Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, George J; Weitzman, Carol C

    2016-12-01

    For the past several years in the United States, there have been more than 800 000 divorces and parent separations annually, with over 1 million children affected. Children and their parents can experience emotional trauma before, during, and after a separation or divorce. Pediatricians can be aware of their patients' behavior and parental attitudes and behaviors that may indicate family dysfunction and that can indicate need for intervention. Age-appropriate explanation and counseling for the child and advice and guidance for the parents, as well as recommendation of reading material, may help reduce the potential negative effects of divorce. Often, referral to professionals with expertise in the social, emotional, and legal aspects of the separation and its aftermath may be helpful for these families. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Protecting Children from the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Clorinda E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive…

  10. The effect of divorce on infant mortality in a remote area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, N; Saha, S K; Razzaque, A; van Ginneken, J K

    2001-04-01

    The process of divorce is usually lengthy and hazardous, and can start quarrels that can lead to the abuse of women and their children. This study examines the effects of divorce on neonatal and postneonatal mortality of babies born before and after divorce in Teknaf, a remote area of Bangladesh. The longitudinal demographic surveillance system (DSS) followed 1,762 Muslim marriages in 1982-83 for 5 years to record divorce, deaths of spouse, emigration and births. It recorded 2,696 live births during the follow-up period, and their survival status during infancy. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of divorce on neonatal and postneonatal mortality, controlling for maternal age at birth, parity, sex of the child and household economic status. The odds of neonatal and postneonatal deaths among babies born after divorce or less than 12 months before mothers were divorced were more than double the odds of those born to mothers of intact marriages. The odds of postneonatal deaths were two times higher among babies born more than 12 months before divorce happens than their peers. The high mortality of infants born before and after mothers were divorced may reflect how abusive marriage and divorce increase the vulnerability of women and children in rural Bangladesh. Divorce and abuse of women are difficult and intractable social and health problems that must be addressed.

  11. Marriage divorce in the context of social transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is to present review how general social problems of social transition are reflecting within the problem of marriage divorce. This is realized in two parts. In the first part authors are giving a demographic pattern which points out the effects of social changes on partner relations and of divorce. In second part of article survey results are exposed, as being obtained on the sample of 32 couples in the divorce process, with the aim to scrutinize how problems of divorce during the past years of crisis are influential on partners and their families. Survey findings are manifold. Effects of social crisis on the partner relations could be recognized in the picture of "heavy" divorces, i. e. divorces with heavy emotional and communicative problems. Further, findings suggest that postponing of divorce reflect: (a concentration on adaptive conditions and thus diminishing of disfunctionality perception as for inner marriage relations of the partners; (b lucking in effective network of support; (c diminishing of gender differences of partners in reception of partner relations and bearing of everyday family problems.

  12. A BRIEF STUDY ABOUT THE LEGAL NATURE OF PRECAUTIONA RY PRISONS (? IN BRAZILIAN CRIMINAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paula Cruz de Siqueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, even if soon, the legal nature of prison said as precautionary, that occur during the police investigation or criminal process. Over this study, prison in the act, preventive prison, according to each of its assumptions and, lastly, temporary prison will bel analyzed. At the end, will be presented the measures, which are effectively considered precautionary, serving to the utility of the final provision, like security measures

  13. Divorciados, na forma da lei: discursos jurídicos nas ações judiciais de divórcio em Florianópolis (1977 a 1985 Divorced, by law: discourses in judicial processes in Florianópolis (1977-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene de Fáveri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende discorrer sobre os primeiros processos de divórcio (1977 a 1985, possibilitados pela Lei n. 6.515, de 26.12.1977 (a chamada Lei do Divórcio, em Florianópolis, através de pesquisa efetuada na Divisão de Arquivo e Memória do Poder Judiciário, em Santa Catarina. E, perceber como, apesar dos discursos apelativos das instituições a esse recurso jurídico (principalmente a Igreja Católica e as entidades a ela ligadas, que apregoavam o perigo da dissolução da família e dos valores tradicionais a ela agregados, tal lei veio, de modo geral, legalizar práticas familiares já estabelecidas. Também analisar como os casais, separados há muitos anos e vivendo uma segunda união, solicitavam o divórcio com o objetivo de regularizar sua situação civil, vivida, até aquele momento, à margem da lei. Observando os discursos jurídicos, nota-se a reprodução de valores prescritos a um e outro gênero e as relações de poder subjacentes nesses enunciados.This article intends to discuss the first divorce processes (from 1977 to 1985, that were made possible by the Law 6.515, of 26.12.1977 (called the Law of Divorce, in Florianópolis, through the research made in the File and Memory Division, from the Judicial Bureau of Santa Catarina State. This research realizes how - in spite of the appellative speeches of the institutions to this juridical instance (principally the Catholic Church and the institutions connected to it, that cursed the danger of family dissolution and its traditional values - such law was created mostly to legalize already established familiar habits. It also analyzes how the couples, who had been separated for many years and had established a new union, asked for divorce with the objective of regularizing their civil situation, which had been, until that moment, at the edge of the law. Observing the juridical speeches, we noticed the reproduction of prescribed values to one and other gender, and the power

  14. The Custodial Parent-Child Relationship as a Mediating Factor in the Effects of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Janis Carol

    Hess and Camara (1979) have shown that it is post-divorce family functioning, rather than family structure, that is most important in influencing the effects of divorce on children. A child's adjustment to divorce should be viewed as a developmental process rather than as a single event. Consequently, it is important to focus on the ways in which…

  15. Children’s experiences and meaning construction on parental divorce: A focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Sofie DJ; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce process: the ability to construct meaning about their parents' decision to divorce and their feeling to count in the process of family transition. Ch...

  16. Legality, legitimacy and formal and informal decision-making processes: when does a decision become legitimate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwetkoff, C.

    2004-01-01

    A few words on the purpose of this paper are given by way of introduction. A brief analysis will be made of the relationship between legality and legitimacy in relation to decision-making processes and within the context of the policies concerning the public management of technological risks. The aim is to raise questions and outline some reflections based on the theory of the state, from the perspective of the conditions of the institutionalization of power. I shall first clarify a few conceptual points. The notion of legality refers to the notion of compliance with legal standards, that is to say, with the law. Is the decision made by a person empowered by law so do to (legal competence)? Is it taken in compliance with legal procedure? And are the effects implicitly in keeping with the spirit of the law? The legitimacy of the power of those who govern, or the legitimacy of their decisions, is not determined solely by legal standards but rather, is a matter of individual and social representation or view. As Hobbes says, in essence, to govern is to convince: to convince people of the rightfulness of the source of the power of those who govern and of the action or public policies that they formulate. The paper is organised around three propositions: 1. The role of the legitimacy or social acceptability of public policies has always been an element of the way all political systems function. This role, however, occupies an increasingly important place on the political agenda in a societal decision-making context that has undergone irreversible changes. 2. Although the essence of the social legitimacy of public policies remains the same, the conditions, mechanisms and criteria evolve. 3. The critical centrality of social legitimacy, together with the evolution of the criteria for legitimate decision, today modify the decision-making mechanisms that were established in response to the requirements of classical democracy. We observe a political organisation i n the

  17. The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children's Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Verna M.; Finlay, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Examined combined sample of national data to determine impact of parental divorce on children. Found parental divorce associated with lower educational attainment and earlier age at marriage for sons and daughters. Daughters of divorced parents had higher probability of being divorced. For sons of divorced parents, probability of ever marrying and…

  18. Children's Reactions to Separation and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. Lakin

    This paper presents three aspects of children's reaction to divorce: a brief theory as to why parents become separated and/or divorced; factual research summaries on the influence of divorce on children; and some proposed remedies. Research is cited that shows the effects of divorce on children's sex role development, self concept, emotional…

  19. Myths and Realities for Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B.

    1980-01-01

    The author examines seven myths, such as: divorce is preferable to an unhappy home; children anticipate divorce; turmoil ends with separation; and divorce damages children. She concludes that divorce initiates a prolonged and often difficult transition for children, which may benefit or harm them depending on how parents handle it. (SJL)

  20. Children of Divorced Parents: A Perceptual Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangeland, Charlotte S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied the consistency between parent and child responses with respect to the way in which divorced parents reacted since the divorce. Results from self-report questionnaires suggest that a counselor can best assist the child by first assessing the divorce and parental reactions to the divorce. (Author/BH)

  1. The Marital Happiness of Remarried Divorced Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the reported marital happiness of ever-divorced and never-divorced white respondents to three recent U. S. national surveys reveals significantly greater marital happiness for never-divorced females but not for never-divorced males. Even among females, the difference in the percentage of "very happy" responses was less…

  2. Civilized Uncoupling: A Non-Adversarial Approach to Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylen Curtis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The word divorce can conjure images and expectations of ugly battles and emotional brutality involving parasitic attorneys profiting from the whole process. For many people the only hope for peace is to just walk away without a fight. There is another way for divorcing people. It is possible to get through a divorce and avoid the ugliness. This requires the willingness of the litigant and problem-solving skills of the attorney, as well as judges who demand compliance with court rules and accountability from both lawyers and litigants. Most of all, keeping divorce peaceful requires the viewpoint that it is possible to do so. This article advocates for this perspective.

  3. Effects of Divorce on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is now strong consensus in the research literature that children whose parents have divorced are at increased risk of displaying a variety of problem behaviors compared to children living in continuously intact families. Divorce can be a profound catalyst for psychological, social, and economic change. Also, many studies have documented short-term and long-term negative effects of parental marital conflict and divorce for offspring, including poorer academic, social, and psychological outcomes. Researches indicate that adult offspring of divorce were experiencing more problems lifelong and evaluate divorce their own marriages than do young adults from intact families. It has been suggested that the long-term consequences of parental divorce for adult attachment and quality of life may prove to be more serious than the short-term emotional and social problems noted in childhood. As a result, divorce may lead to further stressful experiences such as disruption in parent-child relationships, loss of emotional support, economic hardship, and as well as numerous other stressful life events.

  4. Public administration of processes for supporting of inner ecology safety in Ukraine: organizational and legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Romanenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the legal framework that regulates social relations in the field of internal environmental safety and provides a unified state policy and the exercise of powers by the authorities at all levels. Thus, in the legal field there are the gaps on many issues that are important in solving the tasks, including the powers and responsibilities of the various subjects of law in an extreme situation, as well as management and leadership of emergency rescue activity and other urgent works in disaster areas. It is established that to increase the state’s role in protecting the population from emergency situations of natural character, it is necessary to achieve a qualitative change in the legal status of government, the formation of relevant legislation and conduct regulation. In general, the process of regulation in addressing the problems of population protection from emergency situations of different nature must be carry out through the systematization of the national, regional and local levels regulations that are relevant to the issues of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations; also we must eliminate inconsistencies in current legislation and coordinate the national legislation with international. Based on analysis of existing and unresolved problems of internal environmental safety it is necessity to implement new mechanisms of state influence to prevent environmental degradation, the use of methods and means of protecting the population from current anthropogenic influences; reorganization of the territory, defining the boundaries of zones of sanitary, medical and sanitary survey of the population; ensuring internal environmental safety is realized with the help of legal, operational and rescue, functional and territorial public administration practices; the use of multi-state management controls that are able to simultaneously influence the situation in the sphere of nature.

  5. Stakeholders Analysis of Policy-Making Process: The Case of Timber Legality Policy on Private Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyaningrum Mulyaningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify and measure the relationships among stakeholders that influence the process of policy-making in defining legality of timber from private forests. The study focuses on the policy-making process of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation P.38/Menhut-II/2009 on Standard and Guidelines for Assessment of Sustainable Forest Management Performance and Timber Legality Verification of Concessionaire or of the Private Forest License Holder as the subject that has been implemented in several private forest management units as follow: Giri Mukti Wana Tirta in Lampung, Koperasi Serba Usaha APIK in Bali, Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari in South East Sulawesi, and Koperasi Wana Lestari Menoreh Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta. This research used a qualitative approach and the analysis method used in this research is a modified-stakeholder analysis that developed by ODA (1995, Reitbergen et al. (1998, and Mayer (2005. The stakeholder analysis shows that the interests and influences do not consider private forest farmers as primary stakeholder during  the process of policy formulation.  The strong national and international interests, supported by high authority could not be influnced by the role of the NGOs and academicians. The imbalance of responsibilities, rights, and revenues that was experienced by  farmers as the manager of private forest when started implementing the policy was more as burdens, it means implementation of the policy was more as burdens. Strong relationships between the Ministry of Forestry with the state as a core could not empower the relationship with private forest farmers. As result, policy assumptions cannot be implemented properly.Keywords: policy making process, timber legality, private forest, stakeholder.DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.156

  6. Divorce research: Lessons for family therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2001-01-01

    In this synthesis of the international literature on psychological aspects of divorce, the causes and consequences of divorce for parents and children are summarized. The majority of parents and children show no major long-term adverse psychological consequences to divorce. Personal and contextual factors that mediate the impact of divorce on parents and children and that may account of the negative impact of divorce on a minority of parents and children are also examined. The impact of media...

  7. Parental divorce and adult longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal

    2013-02-01

    Life course research has established associations between adverse childhood events and later life health. We examine the relationship of experiencing parental divorce before the age of 16 and survival across 34 years of adulthood. Analysis of panel data from a USA-based survey of 6,928 adults residing in Alameda County, California in 1965. Cox regression was used to examine associations between parental divorce and longevity. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and childhood socioeconomic position, respondents who recalled a parental divorce during childhood had increased risk of mortality compared to those with no separation. The association was stronger for premature mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Divorce in childhood was also associated with lowered adult education, fewer social network ties, more depression, and worse health practices. These factors appeared to explain the association with longevity. Parental divorce in childhood is associated with lowered well-being in adulthood and long-term survival. Early prevention and health promotion efforts may be warranted for children who experience parental divorce or discord as a means of supporting enhanced trajectories of health and well-being.

  8. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    Personnel within the Office of the Secretary of Defense, other DoD Components responsible for preparing the annual financial statements, and legal counsel who provide legal representations regarding...

  9. Legal Regulations Concerning Some Measures Taken To Accelerate The Settlement Of The Processes In Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Țuțuianu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe small reform represented a significant step in the dynamics of the Romanian legal life. The amendments of the civil and criminal law prefigured the long waited big reform of the national legislation, to identify the mechanisms needed to accelerate the settlement of the processes as an essential coordinate of the constitutional state. The Law no. 202 from October 25, 2010 concerning some measures to accelerate the settlement of the processes brought in actuality several problems the activity of interpretation and law enforcement, of bridging modifying provisions with the existing ones in the Code of Civil Procedure and the Code of Criminal Procedure, at that time, but also concerning the application in time.Keywords: reform, mediation, offense.

  10. NOTARY PROCEDURE AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE FOR THE DIVORCE WITH SPOUSES’ AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA DIANA PAPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the old divorce procedures, the dissolution of marriage analysed according to the provisions of the New Civil Code (art.373-404 and the New Code of Civil Procedure (914-934 represents a real legislative innovation. Taking into consideration the judicial procedure, the legislator settles the amicable divorce, referring to spouses’ consent on the divorce, as well as to the divorce caused by one of the spouses’ poor health, and the divorce through no fault of their own. According to the new legal matters, the dissolution of marriage does not come exclusively under court jurisdiction. Thus, as far as the amicable divorce is concerned, even if the spouses have minor children, either of their own or adopted, they have at their disposal not only the judicial procedure, but also the notarial one. If the spouses do not have minor children, they can go to court, but they can also go to the notary public or to the registrar in order to certify the dissolution of marriage of their own accord. The legislator’s preference of the amicable divorce is obvious, especially as the dissolution of marriage of spouses’ own accord does no longer depend on either the length of marriage, or on their not having minor children.

  11. His of her divorce? The gendered nature of divorce and its determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Poortman, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple's decision, we make a distinction between 'his', 'her', and 'their' divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife's employment,

  12. Permissiveness toward divorce : The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  13. His or Her Divorce? The Gendered Nature of Divorce and its Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple’s decision, we make a distinction between ‘his’, ‘her’, and ‘their’ divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife’s employment,

  14. Permissiveness toward divorce: The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  15. Divorce and Corruption: New Study, New Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.

  16. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... NCHS National Vital Statistics System. Provisional number of divorces and annulments and rate: United States, 2000-2014 ...

  17. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records, for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006, the authors calculated cumulative probabilities of divorce, by marriage cohort (N = 5,734,577) and educational attainment. The results indicated that the relationship between education and divorce was negative even in the earliest cohort and that this negative gradient has become more pronounced in more recent cohorts. Contrary to expectations, however, little evidence was found that the concentration of divorce at lower levels of education was exacerbated by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. The authors discuss these findings in light of conventional emphases on the costs of divorce and highlight the importance of better understanding this distinctive east Asia pattern of divorce. PMID:23440624

  18. Effects of Divorce on Children and Ways Schools Can Offer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Cheryl A.

    From 1990 to 1999, almost 15 million children in the United States experienced the divorce of their parents. Children experience varied effects from the divorce process, and they carry these effects with them into the classroom. By knowing what possible effects may occur, educators can be better equipped to effectively teach the children from…

  19. Professional Conversations with Children in Divorce-Related Child Welfare Inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; Jongen, Esli

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the role of children in conversations about post-divorce arrangements has become more prominent. Children are approached as active participants in the (post-)divorce process rather than just victims of matrimonial and post-matrimonial discord. In accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, children have…

  20. 5 CFR 581.306 - Lack of moneys due from, or payable by, a governmental entity served with legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of moneys due from, or payable by, a governmental entity served with legal process. 581.306 Section 581.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... ALIMONY Compliance With Process § 581.306 Lack of moneys due from, or payable by, a governmental entity...

  1. Divorce: Using Psychologists' Skills for Transformation and Conflict Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    The litigious divorce process often leaves children with parents who are at "war" and have little ability to coparent effectively. This article discusses some of the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) processes designed to lessen conflict both before and after divorce. It also addresses the important work of psychologists serving in the roles of child therapists and reunification clinicians doing the difficult work of helping to heal fractured child-parent relationships. Ethical challenges are addressed and future directions for applied research are suggested. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  3. The Teacher and the Child of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, L. JoAnne

    It is important for teachers to produce a comfortable learning climate for students whose parents are divorcing. Research has shown that divorce precipitates a major crisis in the lives of most children and that the stress which accompanies divorce often affects school behavior and academic performance. Children at different ages react differently…

  4. The Effects of Divorce on College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lisa Gabardi; And Others

    Statistics demonstrate that parental divorce is a compelling social issue affecting a large number of children. While investigations of the effects of divorce on children have grown rapidly in the last decade, there is a paucity of research on the effects of divorce on older adolescents and young adults. Given the developmental importance of…

  5. Helping Your Child through a Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of whether such troubles are related to the divorce, they are serious problems that affect a teen's well-being and indicate the need for outside ... 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids ... for a Move How Can I Help My Child Deal With My Dating After Divorce? Kids Talk About Marriage & Divorce How Can I ...

  6. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  7. 38 CFR 3.206 - Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Divorce. 3.206 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.206 Divorce. The validity of a divorce decree regular on its face, will be questioned by the Department of Veterans Affairs only...

  8. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  9. Do daughters really cause divorce? Stress, pregnancy, and family composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Nobles, Jenna

    2014-08-01

    Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers' son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth-a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.

  10. A post-divorce cohabitation never equals a remarriage in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the legal significance of the celebration of a (re)marriage as a decisive element in the conclusion and proof of the (re)marriage, the Cassation Division of the Federal Supreme Court decided a case in which the post-divorce non-marital cohabitation between ex-spouses was considered to constitute a remarriage.

  11. The life stories of motherhood among divorced women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ling

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to delineate life stories of motherhood among divorced women, and to answer the following research questions: (1) How does their motherhood develop? (2) How does divorce impact on motherhood? (3) How do mothers cope with divorce? (4) What does motherhood mean for these mothers? Through in-depth interviews, inter-subjective interaction and story writing, a total of six women's stories were collected. The following titles were found for stories of motherhood among these divorced women: (1) Walking in balanced steps. (2) Becoming a single mom is not a surprise. (3) Seeking reunion for the sake of the kids. (4) Grieving for the loss of an integrated family. (5) I found myself. (6) A diamond becomes a stone. Motherhood was found not to be a set of stable role expectations, but to be transforming and shaping through reflective thoughts on motherhood, which were impacted by interactions between the mothers and their children, and by the social contexts they encountered. The impact of divorce on motherhood was found to be both positive and negative. Some families even enjoyed life more after discontinuing their chaotic marriage. Still, motherhood of divorced women was full of challenges and disadvantages due to a concrete double burden and invisible social persecution. Invisible social persecution of divorce was performed through the mechanism of stigma. Stigma was transmitted through the value myths of motherhood, which are passed from generation to generation through parent-child interactions. Stigmatized divorce made these mothers feel more guilt and powerlessness. Divorced motherhood was therefore found to be intertwined with processes of caring and grieving. In this research, however, community resources were found to be very helpful in supporting these families, and were able to empower them to overcome the myths. Life story research was found to be an effective support, inspiring deeper reflection, and empowering the storyteller. The

  12. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  13. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge...

  14. Resilience and rejection sensitivity mediate long-term outcomes of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Violetta K; Vögele, Claus

    2016-11-01

    Increasing divorce rates leave more and more children to deal with the separation of their parents. Recent research suggests that children of divorced parents more often experience psychological and physical symptoms than children of non-divorced parents. The processes that mediate the relationship between parental divorce and ill-health, however, are still elusive. This study investigated the mediating role of psychological factors such as resilience and rejection sensitivity on the long-term consequences of parental divorce in young adults. One hundred and ninety-nine participants (mean age 22.3 years) completed an online survey, including measures of mental health, childhood trauma, resilience, and rejection sensitivity. Participants with divorced parents (33 %) reported increased levels of psychological symptoms, childhood trauma, rejection sensitivity, and lower levels of resilience. The association between parental divorce and mental health was fully mediated by resilience, rejection sensitivity, and childhood trauma. The mediation model explained up to 44 % of the total variance in mental health symptoms. Resilience and rejection sensitivity are crucial factors for successful coping with the experience of parental separation. Prevention programs that help to boost children's resilience might help to reduce the long-term effects of parental divorce on their attachment style (e.g., rejection sensitivity), thereby improving their mental health on the long run. Furthermore, the results call for parental awareness and counseling to target and reduce the observed increased level of childhood trauma. Limitations concern the cross-sectional and retrospective design of the study.

  15. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    .... The report is intended to convey systemic concerns across DoD and to provide DoD management and legal counsel the basis for developing policies and procedures for reporting and disclosing contingent...

  16. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    ... contingent liabilities should read this report. It identifies areas where DoD and its Components have not fully complied with Federal financial accounting standards and are not consistent in computing and disclosing contingent legal liabilities...

  17. Legal Regulation Of Citizens Of The Russian Federation Participation In The Electoral Process At The Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy O. Ezhevskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes features of the current legislation about elections in the Russian Federation with the latest changes. We consider legal regulation of Russian citizens participation in the electoral process, as well as the role and importance of the state and its agencies as participants in the electoral process. Legitimacy of free and fair elections at all levels requires that they relied on a solid legal basis, created in the democratic rule of law. Ongoing in the Russian Federation reforms of the political and economic systems are designed through the democratization of all aspects of life to connect the interests of the individual and society, in fact, to put people at the center of social development, to provide them decent living conditions, freedom and the opportunity to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their elected representatives. According to the author, in terms of democratization of state and society an important role is played by the polling relationships, based on the electoral law and the electoral process in the Russian Federation. In conclusion, author underlines that the distinguishing feature of the legal status of election commissions, government agencies, local governments, enterprises, organizations, institutions, media, as well as their officials is that they have the right to participate in the electoral legal relations strictly within their authority and cannot go beyond these powers, no matter what reasons motivated the necessity and expediency of actions that go beyond the law.

  18. Novel shifts in memory research and their impact on the legal process: introduction to the special issue on memory formation and suggestibility in the legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Petrila, John P

    2013-01-01

    The functioning and frailties of memory are frequently at the centerpiece of much expert testimony about the reliability of eyewitness accounts. Although we have much knowledge about how false memories and suggestibility can affect testimonies, the contributions in this special issue show that when using a sound theoretical framework, novel directions in this field can surface. The papers in this issue can broadly be divided into contributions that are related to: (1) the exact determinants of false memory and suggestibility; (2) new paradigms in legal psychology; (3) positive consequences of memory illusions; and (4) developmental false memory research. Collectively, these contributions have the potential to provide novel shifts in memory research and push this field beyond its current boundaries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Phenomenology of divorce in Kosovo for the period between 2004–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Kamberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Family is considered as a nucleus, cell of the society, which is created by the sexual union of two partners (heterosexual – marriage with the purpose of biological reproduction, approved by the society. Divorce is the opposite of marriage, it represents a social and legal problem, and is part of the society itself. This phenomenon is being considered as one of the oldest, old as humanity itself. In Kosovo, as in other parts of the world, divorce exists from very old times, and it was passed from a generation to another and still remains one of the social problems of Kosovo society. In the past this phenomenon was less present in our society because of political, economical social and cultural circumstances. After year 1999 we see that number of cases of divorce grow in comparison with previous years. The data taken from different researches and studies show that in year 2004, in Kosovo there were 16.989 marriages and 1.293 cases of divorce, so with 7.6% at national level, whereas the average age of divorced people is 29.5% women ans 31.8% men. Some of the factors that have influenced the growth/development of divorce are: transition period, crisis of the system of values, socio-economical factors, migration and immigration, emancipation of women, and other factors. The consequences of divorce are: individual, familial, economical, cultural and in general – social consequences. Therefore, this study does analyze the phenomenology of divorce in Kosovo in the period between 2004-2014 years, causes and consequences.

  20. 20 CFR 222.22 - Relationship as divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as divorced spouse. 222.22... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.22 Relationship as divorced spouse. A claimant will be considered to be the divorced spouse of an...

  1. 5 CFR 581.307 - Compliance with legal process requiring the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs. Before complying with legal process that requires... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with legal process requiring the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs. 581.307 Section 581.307 Administrative...

  2. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  3. Longevity following the experience of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leslie R; Friedman, Howard S; Clark, Kathleen M; Tucker, Joan S

    2005-11-01

    An archival prospective design was used to study mediating and moderating variables for the association between parental divorce and increased mortality risk, using a sub-group (n = 1183) of individuals from the US Terman Life Cycle Study covering the period 1921-2000. In childhood, both socioeconomic status (SES) and family psychosocial environment were related to parental divorce but did little to explain its effects. The higher mortality risk associated with experiencing parental divorce was ameliorated among individuals (especially men) who achieved a sense of personal satisfaction by mid-life. Behaviorally, smoking was the strongest mediator of the divorce-mortality link. This study extends previous work on the long-term effects of parental divorce and reveals some reasons why the stress of parental divorce in childhood need not necessarily lead to negative later-life outcomes.

  4. Transfers among divorced couples: evidence and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Y; Willis, R J

    1993-10-01

    An analysis of the economic impact of divorce settlements in the United States is presented using data for a white cohort taken from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. "The effects of spouses' incomes on the divorce transfer are estimated and used to simulate the welfare effects of divorce on husbands, wives, and children under alternative assumptions about marriage contracts and the ability of a couple to continue coordinating resources in the aftermath of divorce. We find a positive (negative) relationship between divorce transfers and the growth of husband's (wife's) earnings during marriage. The estimated expenditure on children in the divorce state is only half the accustomed level during marriage." excerpt

  5. Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    Most states in the U.S. allow for unilateral divorce, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Such regulations have come under fire for their perceived negative consequences for marital stability and resulting child outcomes, but there is no evidence to date to support the contention that easier divorce regulations are actually bad for children. I assess the long run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment...

  6. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, W.

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  7. The gray divorce revolution: rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lin, I-Fen

    2012-11-01

    Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today's middle-aged and older adults. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life.

  8. Divorce and the Divine: The Role of Spirituality in Adjustment to Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of three spiritual responses to divorce for psychological adjustment: appraising the event as a sacred loss/desecration, engaging in adaptive spiritual coping, and experiencing spiritual struggles. A sample of 100 adults (55% female) was recruited through public divorce records. Most appraised their divorce as a sacred…

  9. The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today’s middle-aged and older adults. Design and Method. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. Results. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. Implications. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life. PMID:23052366

  10. Children's Impact on the Parental Decision to Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoy, Korrel; Miller, Brent C.

    1980-01-01

    Although some couples avoid divorce for children's benefit, divorce may actually be a better solution than an unhappy home. Children's potential for creating stress between spouses may sometimes make divorce more likely. Counseling may provide alternatives. (JAC)

  11. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  12. Long-term psychosocial effects of parental divorce: a follow-up study from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurre, Taina; Junkkari, Hanna; Aro, Hillevi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this 16-year follow-up study was to investigate whether 32-year-old adults who had experienced parental divorce before 16 years of age (n = 317) differed in psychosocial well-being or life trajectories from those from non-divorced two-parent families (n = 1069). The data were obtained from a follow-up survey of a Finnish urban age cohort from the age of 16 till 32 years (n = 1471). The long-term impact of parental divorce on a variety of outcomes in adulthood, including psychological well-being, life situation, health behaviour, social networks and support, negative life events and interpersonal problems, was assessed. Females from divorced compared to non-divorced families reported more psychological problems (higher scores in the Beck Depression Inventory, General Health Questionnaire and Psychosomatic Symptoms Score) and more problems in their interpersonal relationships. These differences were not found among males. Shorter education,unemployment, divorce, negative life events and more risky health behaviour were more common among subjects of both genders with a background of parental divorce. The study revealed that parental divorce is an indicator of sufficient stress in childhood for its influences to persist well into adulthood, possibly with wider scope among females. It is important to recognise specific needs of children in the divorce process in order to prevent or minimize negative consequences and chain reactions during their subsequent life.

  13. Divorce and subsequent increase in uptake of antidepressant medication: a Finnish registry-based study on couple versus individual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Metsä-Simola, Niina; Saarioja, Saska; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-02-19

    There is an average negative mental health effect for individuals who experience divorce. Little is known whether the pattern of such divorce effects varies within couples. We study whether the husband and wife experience similar harmful effects of divorce, whether they experience opposite effects, or whether divorce effects are purely individual. We use Finnish registry data to compare changes over a period of 5 years in antidepressant use of husbands and wives from 4,558 divorcing couples to 108,637 continuously married pairs aged 40-64, all of whom were healthy at baseline. In the period three years before and after divorce antidepressant use increases substantially. However, the likelihood of uptake of antidepressant medication during this process of divorce by one partner appears to be independent of medication uptake in the other partner. In contrast, among continuously married couples there is a clear pattern of convergence: If one partner starts to use antidepressants this increases the likelihood of uptake of antidepressant medication in the other partner. Our findings suggest that divorce effects on antidepressant use are individual and show no pattern of either convergence or divergence at the level of the couple. The increased incidence of antidepressant use associated with divorce occurs in individuals independent of what happens to their ex-partner.

  14. What Are They Thinking? A National Study of Stability and Change in Divorce Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alan J; Galovan, Adam M; Harris, Steven M; Allen, Sage E; Allen, Sarah M; Roberts, Kelly M; Schramm, David G

    2017-12-01

    This study reports on a nationally representative sample of married individuals ages 25-50 (N = 3,000) surveyed twice (1 year apart) to investigate the phenomenon of divorce ideation, or what people are thinking when they are thinking about divorce. Twenty-eight percent of respondents had thought their marriage was in serious trouble in the past but not recently. Another 25% had thoughts about divorce in the last 6 months. Latent Class Analysis revealed three distinct groups among those thinking about divorce at Time 1: soft thinkers (49%), long-term-serious thinkers (45%), and conflicted thinkers (6%). Yet, divorce ideation was not static; 31% of Time 1 thinkers were not thinking about it 1 year later (and 36% of nonthinkers at Time 1 were thinking about it 1 year later). Also, Latent Transition Analysis revealed 49% of Time 1 long-term-serious thinkers, 56% of soft thinkers, and 51% of conflicted thinkers had shifted groups at Time 2, mostly in the direction of less and softer thinking about divorce. Overall, divorce ideation is common but dynamic, and it is not necessarily an indication of imminent marital dissolution. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  15. Participatory Metalegal and Legal Processes for the Coastal Development Plan of Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Asido Jr.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coastal Development Plan that was passed into law as the Municipal Fisheries Ordinance of Bolinao, Pangasinan, is a concrete example of community participation in policy development. Among the effective metalegal strategies used during the evolution of the plan into an ordinance were the lobbies staged by the federation of people’s organizations (KAISAKA, the Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council (MFARMC, and the Municipal Mayor. The capacity of various sectors to participate actively in the passage of the plan was enhanced through legal consultations and training provided by the Marine Fisheries Resources Management Project, in partnership with Tanggol Kalikasan, the legal arm of Haribon Foundation. The experience underscores the need for development projects to include the metalegal training of community constituents as a requisite for the latter to actively participate in the formulation of policies and laws for coastal resources management.

  16. Attitudes Toward Divorce, Commitment, and Divorce Proneness in First Marriages and Remarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Johnson, Christine A

    2013-04-01

    A random multistate sample of married individuals ( N = 1,931) was used to explore whether more positive attitudes toward divorce and weaker commitment to marriage may contribute to the greater instability of remarriages than first marriages. Remarried adults, whether or not they brought children from a previous union into the remarriage, reported marital quality (happiness and conflict) equal to those in first marriages. They also reported more positive attitudes toward divorce, which were associated with higher divorce proneness (i.e., thinking about and taking actions toward divorce). Marriage type interacted with marital quality to predict divorce proneness, such that the association between low marital quality and divorce proneness was stronger for remarried individuals than for those in first marriages. This suggests that remarried adults may be more likely than adults in first marriages to take steps toward divorce when experiencing marital distress, possibly reflecting a weaker commitment to marriage.

  17. Attitudes Toward Divorce, Commitment, and Divorce Proneness in First Marriages and Remarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    A random multistate sample of married individuals (N = 1,931) was used to explore whether more positive attitudes toward divorce and weaker commitment to marriage may contribute to the greater instability of remarriages than first marriages. Remarried adults, whether or not they brought children from a previous union into the remarriage, reported marital quality (happiness and conflict) equal to those in first marriages. They also reported more positive attitudes toward divorce, which were associated with higher divorce proneness (i.e., thinking about and taking actions toward divorce). Marriage type interacted with marital quality to predict divorce proneness, such that the association between low marital quality and divorce proneness was stronger for remarried individuals than for those in first marriages. This suggests that remarried adults may be more likely than adults in first marriages to take steps toward divorce when experiencing marital distress, possibly reflecting a weaker commitment to marriage. PMID:23630405

  18. Seeking to Adopt in Florida: Lesbian and Gay Parents Navigate the Legal Process

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Weber, Elizabeth R; Moyer, April M; Shapiro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing interview data from 22 lesbian and gay parents in Florida, the current exploratory study examined participants’ experiences navigating the legal and social service systems after the repeal of the Florida ban on gay adoption. Participants reported both positive and negative experiences in seeking out lawyers (e.g., some attorneys were accommodating and knowledgeable about gay adoption; others demonstrated discomfort about working with same-sex couples), working with social service ag...

  19. The impact of divorce on teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J C

    1983-10-01

    Divorce is common in the contemporary way of life and deserves objective study. It may have redeeming features, but from the point of view of children, divorce is a stressful experience because of the disruption of the home and its financial, emotional, and social costs. The adverse impact, however, can be minimized by realistic and sensitive attention to its effects on children. Although divorce alters the living arrangements of affected families, it does not end family relationships. For this reason, marriage and divorce counseling should deal with the perspectives of both adults and children. Most teenagers and their parents adjust to divorce and later regard it as having been a constructive action; but one-third do not. In those instances the turbulence of the post-divorce phase plays a crucial role in influencing pathological reactions in affected teenagers. The physician is in a strategic position to act as diagnostician, a clarifier of values, an educator in the facts of family life and divorce, a counselor in working through feelings about and attitudes toward divorce, and a source of support for teenagers.

  20. Children of Divorce: Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1979-01-01

    School counselors may be the most appropriate people to provide assistance for children whose parents are divorced and to the school staff. Study suggests that school counselors become aware of recent research of the impact of divorce on children. (Author/CMG)

  1. Children of Divorce: Facilitating Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Roger L.; Spangler, Sharon L.

    Both the increased frequency of divorce and the resultant increase in single-parent households have experienced dramatic increases since World War II. In many instances, divorce is a major disruptive experience that imposes primary impact upon all family members. Characteristically, various levels of adjustment are required of family members amid…

  2. Children and Divorce: Overview and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Richard E.; Quinn, Linda Sandham

    1994-01-01

    About 26% of all children under age 18 live with a divorced or separated parent or with a stepparent. Since divorce is a crucial factor in the lives of millions of children in this country, this issue is devoted to its social, economic, and psychological impacts. (SLD)

  3. Building a Network for Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, John; Strauss, Jane

    Divorce is a complicated situation, requiring multifaceted interventions and supports. This paper describes a program designed to enhance the ability of social structures to support children experiencing the impact of parental separation and divorce. The program is a four-part, school-based intervention aimed at educating significant adults…

  4. Trends in Divorce and Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Oliver C.

    In this paper an attempt is made to present a comprehensive picture of the effects of separation and divorce on children. After information on trends in divorce is presented to indicate how many families and children are involved, three comprehensive reviews of one-parent families are discussed. Because some detrimental effects are associated with…

  5. Adult Children's Divorce and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, Glenna; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effects of adult children's divorce on their relationships with parents, using local probability sample of 905 parents. In general, divorced daughters with child custody had more contact than married daughters and received more help from parents. Sons received more babysitting help when they were married than in other situations. Divorce…

  6. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  7. Children of Divorce on the College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhan, Gary W.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the effects of current divorce trends on the college-age population. Being informed of impending divorce is traumatic for college students and is often followed by shock, depression, anger and low self-esteem. Parental dating behavior, the loyalty dilemma, role reversal and remarriage represent problem areas in adjustment. (RC)

  8. Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

  9. Teenage Daughters as a Cause of Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan; Ribar, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from the U.S. that couples with daughters are more likely to divorce than couples with sons has not been found for other Western countries. Using 1995-2015 Dutch marriage registry data, we show that daughters are associated with higher divorce risks, but only when they are 13 to 18 years

  10. The Dynamics of Marriage and Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram

    We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using 27 years of panel data for the entire Danish cohort born in 1960. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce, and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter...

  11. Daycare Children of Divorce and Their Helpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Klara; Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad

    2013-01-01

    Caring for children of divorce may prevent emotional and behavioural problems. This study investigates daycare staff's beliefs about caring for young children who have experienced parental divorce. Q methodology was applied for this purpose, and 33 participants sorted 40 subjective statements. The Q factor analyses resulted in four factors or…

  12. The rise and fall of divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    Despite its popularity, Gary Becker’s model of the marriage market does not fully predict empirical correlations between married women’s labor market participation and aggregate divorce rates. In this article, we show how a simple extension of Becker’s model inspired by sociological theory improves...... of explaining empirical trends in divorce rates....

  13. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  14. Making Immigrants into Criminals: Legal Processes of Criminalization in the Post-IIRIRA Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisy Abrego

    2017-09-01

    our quantitative and qualitative research to underscore ways immigrants experience criminalization in their family, school, and work lives. The first half of our analysis is focused on immigrant criminalization from the late 1980s through the Obama administration, with an emphasis on immigration enforcement practices first engineered in the 1990s. Most significant, we argue, are the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (IIRIRA and the 1996 Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA. The second section of our analysis explores the social impacts of immigrant criminalization, as people’s experiences bring the consequences of immigrant criminalization most clearly into focus. We approach our analysis of the production of criminality of immigrants through the lens of legal violence (Menjivar and Abrego 2012, a concept designed to understand the immediate and long-term harmful effects that the immigration regime makes possible. Instead of narrowly focusing only on the physical injury of intentional acts to cause harm, this concept broadens the lens to include less visible sources of violence that reside in institutions and structures and without identifiable perpetrators or incidents to be tabulated. This violence comes from structures, laws, institutions, and practices that, similar to acts of physical violence, leave indelible marks on individuals and produce social suffering. In examining the effects of today’s ramped up immigration enforcement, we turn to this concept to capture the violence that this regime produces in the lives of immigrants. Immigrant criminalization has underpinned US immigration policy over the last several decades. The year 1996, in particular, was a signal year in the process of criminalizing immigrants. Having 20 years to trace the connections, it becomes evident that the policies of 1996 used the term “criminal alien” as a strategic sleight of hand. These laws established the concept of

  15. Protection of children of divorced parents who are victims of emotional abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is said and written about the problem of emotional abuse of children, as a result of parental divorce and separation, probably because it is a very sophisticated type of emotional abuse, which unfortunately sometimes experts do not recognize. This phenomenon is rarely explored and researched in general and especially in the Republic of Macedonia. It is not disputed that there is a solid legal framework for a government response to this type of child abuse in Republic of Macedonia. Given the impact on children, this problem requires much more attention, education and cooperation between the competent institutions. This paper tries to explore the concept of emotional abuse of children, as a result of divorce and separation of the parents, as a very specific form of domestic violence from a psychological point of view, as well as to analyze the legal norm of this form of domestic violence in the Republic of Macedonia.

  16. A Multimodal Intervention for Group Counseling with Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; Newcomer, Laurel L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a two-tiered developmental guidance classroom unit on parental divorce which acquaints children with the idea of divorce as a family change. Focuses on the needs of the children coping with parental divorce. Discusses results which appear to have a positive effect on child's depression, attitudes and belief about parental divorce and…

  17. Research on Divorce: Continuing Trends and New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative…

  18. Health Insurance and Risk of Divorce: Does Having Your Own Insurance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Heeju

    2015-08-01

    Most American adults under 65 obtain health insurance through their employers or their spouses' employers. The absence of a universal healthcare system in the United States puts Americans at considerable risk for losing their coverage when transitioning out of jobs or marriages. Scholars have found evidence of reduced job mobility among individuals who are dependent on their employers for healthcare coverage. This paper finds similar relationships between insurance and divorce. I apply the hazard model to married individuals in the longitudinal Survey of Income Program Participation (N=17,388) and find lower divorce rates among people who are insured through their partners' plans without alternative sources of their own. Furthermore, I find gender differences in the relationship between healthcare coverage and divorce rates: insurance dependent women have lower rates of divorce than men in similar situations. These findings draw attention to the importance of considering family processes when debating and evaluating health policies.

  19. Health Insurance and Risk of Divorce: Does Having Your Own Insurance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Heeju

    2016-01-01

    Most American adults under 65 obtain health insurance through their employers or their spouses’ employers. The absence of a universal healthcare system in the United States puts Americans at considerable risk for losing their coverage when transitioning out of jobs or marriages. Scholars have found evidence of reduced job mobility among individuals who are dependent on their employers for healthcare coverage. This paper finds similar relationships between insurance and divorce. I apply the hazard model to married individuals in the longitudinal Survey of Income Program Participation (N=17,388) and find lower divorce rates among people who are insured through their partners’ plans without alternative sources of their own. Furthermore, I find gender differences in the relationship between healthcare coverage and divorce rates: insurance dependent women have lower rates of divorce than men in similar situations. These findings draw attention to the importance of considering family processes when debating and evaluating health policies. PMID:26949269

  20. Lifestyle and cancer: effect of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-12-01

    According to previous studies, divorced individuals have increased risks of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and sexual habits, but the increases are balanced with decreased risks of many common cancers. In the present study, cancer risks were analyzed for 0-70-year-old offspring of divorced parents, on the basis the Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancer data from the years 1958 to 2002. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for cancer among offspring of divorced parents (19,000 cancer patients) and compared them with offspring of stably married parents (121,000 cancer patients). Standardized incidence ratios were adjusted for many factors, including socio-economic status. Offspring of divorced parents were divided into groups depending on whether their mothers, fathers or both had had children with different partners. Offspring of divorced parents had an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, anal, pancreatic, lung and cervical cancers. Decreased risks were noted for Hodgkin's disease and bone cancer. For Hodgkin's disease, the data suggest protective effects through early exposure to childhood pathogens but for bone cancer mechanisms remain to be established. The overall cancer risk for offspring of divorced parents was at or above unity. The results show that offspring of divorced parents have increased cancer risks at tobacco-related, alcohol-related and sex-related sites, in analogy to their parent, but they lack decreased risks at common sites, experienced by their parents. Divorce is becoming increasingly common in many countries and any deviant cancer patterns among offspring of divorced parents will have an impact on the population risk.

  1. The Dynamics of Marriage and Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using panel data on two cohorts of Danish men and women. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter marriage. We find...... that the educations of husbands and wives are complements. Education raises the share of the marital surplus for men but not for women. As men and women get older, husbands receive a larger share of the marital surplus. The estimated costs of divorce are high both early and late in marriage....

  2. Fathers, divorce, and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, M K; Pruett, K D

    1998-04-01

    To minimize many of the negative consequences of divorce, it is beneficial to support a father's ongoing involvement in his child's life. Although the research literature isn't unequivocal on this point, it does strongly suggest that men who are "visitors" do not have as much impact on their children and that visits are a poor substitute for having a parental figure. The answer lies in creating meaningful roles for noncustodial fathers that elevate men's opportunities to contribute to their children's overall development. One of the most important messages parents can impart to children is that some commitments outlive change and that working together in the child's best interests is one of them.

  3. The psychology of divorce: A synthesis of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    In this synthesis of the international literature on psychological aspects of divorce, the causes and consequences of divorce for parents and children are summarized. The majority of parents and children show no major long-term adverse psychological consequences to divorce. Personal and contextual factors that mediate the impact of divorce on parents and children and that may account of the negative impact of divorce on a minority of parents and children are also examined. The impact of media...

  4. His or Her Divorce? The Gendered Nature of Divorce and its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple’s decision, we make a distinction between ‘his’, ‘her’, and ‘their’ divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife’s employment, (ii) the financial situation of the household, (iii) the presence of children, and (iv) the quality of the match. Because existing arguments on the underlying mechanisms focus on the relative costs an...

  5. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological well-being of individuals after divorce: the role of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kołodziej-Zaleska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.

  7. Adjustment to Divorce Through Transactional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James D.; Prescott, Mary R.

    1976-01-01

    Transactional Analysis in a group facilitates adjustment to divorce. Two case histories highlight the value of TA in conceptualizing the problem areas of each individual and the changes during group therapy. (Author)

  8. Development and Psychometric Properties of Social Exclusion Questionnaire for Iranian Divorced Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Solhi, Mahnaz; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Taket, Ann Rosemary; Masoomi, Razieh; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-05-01

    Divorce, especially in women, could be assessed from socio-cultural perspective as well as psychological viewpoint. This assessment requires cultural adopted as well as valid and reliable questionnaire. This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a questionnaire in order to address social consequences in Iranian divorced women. This was an exploratory mixed method study conducted during 2012 to 2014. According to the grounded theory approach in the first phase, social exclusion was extracted as a core of understanding process in participants. Based on, 47 preliminary generated items reliability and validity were assessed. In the second phase, the divorced women were recruited from a safe community center in Tehran through convenience sampling. Exploratory factor analysis conducted on the questionnaires of 150 divorced women with mean age 41.76±8.49 yr, in that, indicated five dimensions, discriminative marital status, economic dependence on marital status, exclusionary marital status, and traumatic marital status health risks and, frightening marital status that jointly accounted for the 64% of the variance observed. An expert panel approved the face and content validity of the developed tool. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient were found to be 0.70 and 0.85, respectively. The present study provided a valid and reliable measure as Social Exclusion Questionnaire in Iranian divorced women (SEQ-IDW) to address social post-divorce consequences, which might help to improve women's social health.

  9. SELF-IMAGE IN CHILDREN OF DIVORCED PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slagjana Angjelkoska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The family and its important role in the development of the child is the inspiration for many types of research that have the intention to emphasize certain aspects of family life and the consequences of the family relations in the development of the children. The issue of this research is to find out if there is a connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and self-concept in the children of early school age. The research is conducted on 30 children of single-parent families. The children of these single-parent families are children who have lived in families with conflicts and they have been direct or indirect participants in the conflict of the divorced parents. In the process of research, we applied projective techniques: Machover which consists of drawing a person’s figure, as well as a drawing a house and a tree-HTP (House-Tree-Person.The results are obtained through qualitative analysis and interpretation of each drawing particularly. During the investigation the relation between the variables, it is confirmed that there is a considerable connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and the self-concept in children. It is confirmed, during the process that the children of divorced parents from negative self-concept. In children of single-parent families it is indicated that this group of children in relation to the psychological picture for themselves presented the following characteristics: lowered EGO, mechanisms for defense, feeling of insecurity, low self-confidence, aggressiveness, great virility, and caution.

  10. Remarriage after divorce and depression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, A; Fall, K; Netuveli, G; Montgomery, S

    2015-09-01

    As marriage is associated with lower depression rates compared with being single in men, we aimed to examine if remarriage compared with remaining divorced is also associated with a reduced depression risk. Swedish register data were used to define a cohort of men who were born between 1952 and 1956 and underwent a compulsory military conscription assessment in adolescence. This study population comprised men who were divorced in 1985 (n = 72,246). The risk of pharmaceutically treated depression from 2005 to 2009 was compared for those who remarried or remained divorced between 1986 and 2004. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the risk of depression identified by pharmaceutical treatment, with adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors including childhood and adulthood socioeconomic circumstances, cognitive, physical, psychological and medical characteristics at the conscription assessment. The results showed that, even though divorced men who remarried had markers of lower depression risk in earlier life such as higher cognitive and physical function, higher stress resilience and socioeconomic advantages than men who remained divorced, remarriage was associated with a statistically significant elevated risk of depression with an adjusted hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 1.27(1.03 1.55), compared with men who remained divorced. Remarriage following divorce is not associated with a reduced risk of depression identified by pharmaceutical treatment, compared with remaining divorced. Interpersonal or financial difficulties resulting from remarriage may outweigh the benefits of marriage in terms of depression risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. More education, fewer divorces? Shifting education differentials of divorce in Taiwan from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-hsin Alice Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While social gradient in divorce has been explored in many Western societies, this issue has received less attention in Asia. Objective: Few existing studies offer evidence for how educational gradient in divorce shift from positive to negative in Asia. This study explores the changing divorce patterns by education for both sexes over the past four decades in Taiwan. Methods: Vital statistics of divorce since 1975 were used. Divorce rates were calculated and a synthetic cohort life table was also constructed to estimate the proportions of unions that remain intact with the duration-specific divorce rates observed in 2010. A separate life table estimating the actual marriage survivorship for the 1998 marriage cohort was also presented. Results: As Taiwan went through industrialization, the period findings show that a reversal in educational differential in divorce from positive to negative is observed for both sexes. Now the least educated men and women have become more vulnerable to union instability. Finally, synthetic cohort life table estimates indicate substantial educational differences in the proportions of recent marriages ending in divorce. Conclusions: The drastic increase in period divorce rates is accompanied by a reversal of educational gradient and expanding social inequality. Social gap in divorce rates expanded much faster among men than women across years. Given that remarriage rates for the disadvantaged are lower than the better educated, these patterns indicate that the disadvantaged is likely to spend an increasingly large proportion of their lives outside a marital union. Contribution: The divorce patterns revealed have critical implications for single-parent families, as well as family policies and social assistance.

  12. DIVORCE FOR SUBJECTIVE REASONS: THE SURVEY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sinelnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to sociological telephone survey, conducted by the research centre Discourse in may 2016, half of young women with children believe that his wife has the moral right to divorce her husband, whom she doesn’t love, even if he is not guilty in front of her and they have children. In this situation, even perfect behavior of one of the spouses makes no warranties from divorce at the demand of the other spouse. According to the author, the divorce laws in Russia are too liberal. Spouses with no children from this marriage, mutual consent to divorce can get a divorce without a trial. If they have children under 18 years of age or if one of the spouses doesn’t agree to divorce, the marriage is dissolved in court. But the judge may not refuse to divorce even when only one spouse demands it, and the other spouse is innocent and doesn’t want to divorce. The author suggests in this situation to recognize the initiator of the divorce is guilty if he (or she doesn’t prove that the other spouse has violated the rules of family life. The innocent spouse should have the benefit, in dividing property and establishing child custody. Opponents of stricter divorce laws claim that it can reduce the number of marriages. Many people refuse to marry. They are afraid of losing the apartment after divorce. Divorce is always possible, even without guilt on their part. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, all property of the spouses jointly acquired during marriage is shared. After the divorce, it is divided equally, even if one of the spouses had no personal income all the time of marital life. This rule is valid if there is no marriage contract about joint or separate ownership. But if the groom will offer the bride to sign an agreement for waiver of claims to the apartment in case of divorce, she may be offended by such distrust, and to refuse to marry him. The number of marriage contracts in Russia is very

  13. Analysis of geodetic and legal documentation in the process of expropriation for roads. Krakow case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Amendment to the Act on special rules of preparation and implementation of investment in public roads resulted in an accelerated mode of acquisition of land for the development of roads. The decision to authorize the execution of road investment issued on its basis has several effects, i.e. determines the location of a road, approves surveying division, approves construction design and also results in acquisition of a real property by virtue of law by the State Treasury or local government unit, among others. The conducted study revealed that over 3 years, in this mode, the city of Krakow has acquired 31 hectares of land intended for the implementation of road investments. Compensation is determined in separate proceedings based on an appraisal study estimating property value, often at a distant time after the loss of land by the owner. One reason for the lengthy compensation proceedings is challenging the proposed amount of compensation, unregulated legal status of the property as well as imprecise legislation. It is important to properly develop geodetic and legal documentation which accompanies the application for issuance of the decision and is also used in compensation proceedings. Zmiana ustawy o szczególnych zasadach przygotowywania i realizacji inwestycji w zakresie dróg publicznych spowodowała przyspieszony tryb pozyskiwania gruntów przeznaczonych pod budowę dróg. Wydawana na jej podstawie decyzja o zezwoleniu na realizację inwestycji drogowej wywołuje szereg skutków, tj. m.in. ustala lokalizację drogi, zatwierdza podziały geodezyjne, zatwierdza projekt budowlany a także powoduje nabycie nieruchomości z mocy prawa, przez Skarb Państwa lub jednostki samorządu terytorialnego. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały iż w powyższym trybie miasto Kraków nabyło w okresie 3 lat ponad 31 ha gruntów przeznaczonych na realizację inwestycji drogowych. Odszkodowanie ustalane jest w drodze odrębnego postępowania w oparciu o operat szacunkowy okre

  14. Parents’ Expectations About Childrearing After Divorce : Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children’s economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N ¼ 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher

  15. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  16. When Parents Divorce: A Protocol Suggestion in Cases of Adversial Divorces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Bernardelli

    2011-01-01

    The experience of divorce influences life of children involved and there could be short- and long- term consequences (Dykeman, 2003). Researches showed that divorce can negatively change quality of attachment between children and parents, especially if maternal depression and high percentage of chronic conflict between parents attend (Fabbro,…

  17. Divorce Motives in a Period of Rising Divorce: Evidence from a Dutch Life-History Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Paul M.; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Using survey data on 1,718 ever-divorced men and women in the Netherlands, the authors describe the motives people give for their divorce. The authors distinguish motives regarding three types of issues: relational issues, behavioral problems, and problems about work and the division of labor. They observe three important trends: the normalization…

  18. Divorce Motives in a Period of Rising Divorce Evidence From a Dutch Life-History Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Paul M. de; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Using survey data on 1,718 ever-divorced men and women in the Netherlands, the authors describe the motives people give for their divorce. The authors distinguish motives regarding three types of issues: relational issues, behavioral problems, and problems about work and the division of labor. They

  19. Parents' Expectations about Childrearing after Divorce: Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children's economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher economic costs than fathers, whereas fathers expect…

  20. Mimicry of the Legal: Translating de jure Land Formalization Processes Into de facto Local Action in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Kunz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, as in many other countries of the global South, processes to formalize rights over land have been implemented with the intention to reduce deforestation, decrease poverty and increase tenure security. Literature on de jure processes of land formalization is widely available. There is a gap, however, on the discrepancy of de jure land titling procedures and de facto strategies to legitimize land claims. Led by the theoretical concepts of “law as process” and “politics of scale”, this study closes this gap by analyzing the impact of national tenure formalization processes on de facto local patterns of land titling. Using empirical material from 16 villages in Jambi province, we show that the outcomes of the state-led land reforms and land tenure formalization processes are imitated and translated into locally feasible actions. We refer to these translation processes as “mimicry of the legal”. The land formalization endeavors fostering mimicry of the legal allow for resource exploitation and rent-seeking behavior.

  1. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part II--Help in the dying process, direct and indirect active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, physician-assisted euthanasia involves numerous risks for the attending physician under criminal and professional law. In the absence of clear legal provisions, four different categories of euthanasia have been developed in legal practice and the relevant literature: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The so-called "help during the dying process" by administering medically indicated analgesic drugs without a life-shortening effect is exempt from punishment if it corresponds to the will of the patient. If the physician omits to give such analgesic drugs although the patient demands them, this is deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The same applies if the physician administers analgesics against the will of the patient. Medically indicated pain treatment which has a potential or certain life-shortening effect (indirect active euthanasia) is permitted under certain conditions: if there are no alternative and equally suitable treatment options without the risk of shortening the patient's life, if the patient has given his consent to the treatment and if the physician does not act with the intention to kill. The deliberate killing of a dying or terminally ill patient for the purpose of ending his suffering (direct active euthanasia) is prohibited. This includes both deliberately killing a patient against or without his will (by so-called "angels of death") and the killing of a patient who expressly and earnestly demands such an act from his physician (killing on request/on demand). Physician-assisted suicide is generally not liable to punishment in Germany. Nevertheless, the action may be subject to punishment if the physician omits to rescue the life of an unconscious suicide victim. "Palliative sedation" is regarded as a special case. It may become necessary if certain symptoms in the terminal stage of a fatal disease unbearable for the patient cannot be controlled by any other

  2. Divorce and social class during the early stages of the divorce revolution: evidence from Flanders and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Vanassche, Sofie; Matthijs, Koenraad

    2011-01-01

    In times of low divorce rates (such as the nineteenth century and early twentieth century), the authors expect higher social strata to have the highest divorce chances as they are better equipped to break existing barriers to divorce. In this article, the authors analyze data from marriage certificates to assess whether there was a positive effect of occupational class on divorce in Belgium (Flanders) and the Netherlands. Their results for the Netherlands show a positive association between social class and divorce, particularly among the higher cultural groups. In Flanders, the authors do not find this, but they observe a negative association between illiteracy and divorce, an observation pointing in the same direction.

  3. Children's adjustment to their divorced parents' new relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ar

    2002-08-01

    With new relationships common after divorce, researchers have tried to determine the factors that predict how well children adjust to their stepfamily. The many potential factors are often grouped into the categories of family process, individual risk and vulnerability, and ecological variables. Family process is concentrated on the impact of disrupted family relationships; positive outcomes are associated with low conflict and authoritative parenting. Individual risk and vulnerability includes attributes of the child and the adults; positive outcomes are associated with children who have an easy temperament. Adolescents and girls may have particular difficulty adjusting. Ecological perspectives include the larger social environment such as peers and school.

  4. Pragmatic tradition or romantic aspiration? The causes of impulsive marriage and early divorce among women in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais Bertrand-Dansereau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increased attention to shifting union-formation processes, there is little consensus as to which is more stable, modern unions or traditional marriages. This is especially relevant in Malawi, where divorce is common. Objective: We investigate what individual, family, and relationship characteristics are associated with early divorce, and how unions with these characteristics make sense in the lives of young women. Methods: We draw on the 2006 wave of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH and on qualitative peer interviews by young people. We first investigate the prevalence of divorce by time since first union and then estimate a logistic discrete-time hazard model to test the association between individual, family, and relationship characteristics and early divorce. Finally, we use a thematic analysis of qualitative data to understand the social context of fragile relationships. Results: The first three years of marriage exhibit the highest rates of divorce. Women who marry someone they have known for a short time and whose relationship is not embedded in family ties are more likely to divorce early. These impulsive marriages reflect characteristics that are borrowed from both modern and traditional cultural repertoires. Their fragility stems from the absence of both family involvement and a strong emotional bond between spouses. Contribution: This research bridges the demographic literature on divorce in sub-Saharan Africa with anthropological inquiry into the globalization of romantic courtship and companionate marriage. We show that hybrid impulsive unions are more fragile than either modern or traditional unions.

  5. Perceptions of legally mandated public involvement processes in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Andrew Predmore; Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    Results from an agency-wide survey of U.S. Forest Service personnel indicate that respondents in our sample engage in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) public involvement processes primarily to accomplish two goals. The most commonly supported goal was to inform and disclose as mandated by the act. The other goal reflected interests in managing agency...

  6. When Children Face Divorce: Issues and Implications of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies how divorce affect's children's classroom performance and offers suggestions and resource list for teachers. Particulary discussed are four most common characteristics of children experiencing divorce and teacher's role in promoting an empathetic teacher-student relationship. (DST)

  7. "An absolutely necessary piece": A qualitative study of legal perspectives on medical affidavits in the asylum process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Elizabeth; Guetterman, Timothy C; Meyer, Anna C; VanArtsdalen, Jamie; Heisler, Michele

    2016-11-01

    A key challenge for asylum seekers in the United States is being able to provide evidence of prior persecution in their home countries. Medical/psychological affidavits corroborating applicants' accounts often make the difference between successful and unsuccessful applications. The purpose of this study was to identify the unmet demand for and features of effective medical/psychological affidavits in the asylum process, as well as the personal and systemic barriers for asylum seekers. This is a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with legal professionals who work in asylum law. Sixteen asylum lawyers and one Board of Immigration Appeals accredited representative practicing in the state of Michigan, United States, participated in this study. All participants noted that a vast majority of their asylum cases would benefit from a medical affidavit but that they have difficulty finding qualified physicians with experience writing such affidavits and testifying as expert witnesses. The major barriers to obtaining medical/psychological evaluations included inability to pay for services, lack of practitioner availability, and lack of practitioner training. The participants reported that features of a strong medical affidavit included clear, concise, and corroborative accounts that supported the applicant's story from a diagnostic perspective and forensic descriptions that reinforced the credibility of the applicant. Several also noted that medical/psychological evaluations frequently would reveal additional details and incidents of trauma beyond those stated in the applicant's preliminary statement. The study results suggest substantial unmet need for trained physicians to perform medical and psychological evaluations on a pro bono basis. Lawyers' recommendations regarding effective medical affidavits and necessary ongoing support for asylum applicants should inform current efforts to improve physician and lawyer collaborations on asylum cases. Copyright

  8. Is Divorce More Painful When Couples Have Children? Evidence From Long-Term Panel Data on Multiple Domains of Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, T.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models of the divorce process suggest that marital breakup is more painful in the presence of children, yet little is known about the role of children as a moderator of divorce effects on adult well-being. The present study addresses this gap of research based on long-term panel data

  9. Is Divorce More Painful When Couples Have Children? : Evidence From Long-Term Panel Data on Multiple Domains of Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, T.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models of the divorce process suggest that marital breakup is more painful in the presence of children, yet little is known about the role of children as a moderator of divorce effects on adult well-being. The present study addresses this gap of research based on long-term panel data

  10. Family Disruption and Intergenerational Reproduction: Comparing the Influences of Married Parents, Divorced Parents, and Stepparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of individual characteristics and behaviors across generations has frequently been studied in the social sciences. For a growing number of children, however, the biological father was present in the household for only part of the time; and for many children, stepfathers were present. What are the implications of these changes for the process of intergenerational transmission? To answer this question, this article compares intergenerational transmission among married, divorced, and stepparents. Two forms of reproduction are studied: educational attainment and church attendance. For education, divorced fathers were as influential as married fathers, whereas stepfathers were less influential. For church attendance, married fathers were most influential, divorced fathers were least influential, and stepfathers were in between. Divorced mothers, in contrast, appeared to be more influential than married mothers. These findings lend negative support for the social capital hypothesis and positive support for notions of value socialization. The strong role of the divorced father for educational transmission is consistent with genetic processes and hypotheses about early advantages.

  11. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  12. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  13. Divorce and the Onset of Alcohol Use Disorders: A Swedish Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-Relative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Objective To clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Method In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (n=942,366), we examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Results Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (HR=5.98, 95% CI, 5.65–6.33) and women (HR=7.29, 6.72–7.91). We estimated the HR for AUD onset given divorce in discordant monozygotic twins to equal 3.45 and 3.62 in men and women, respectively. Divorce was also associated with an AUD recurrence in those with AUD registrations before marriage. Furthermore, widowhood increased risk for AUD in men (HR=3.85, 2.81–5.28) and women (HR=4.10, 2.98–5.64). Among divorced individuals, remarriage was associated with a large decline in AUD in both sexes: males 0.56, 0.62–0.64 and females 0.61, 0.55–0.69. Divorce produced a greater increase in first AUD onset in those with a family history of AUD or with prior externalizing behaviors. Conclusions Spousal loss through divorce or bereavement is associated with a large enduring increased AUD risk. This association likely reflects both causal and non-causal processes. That the AUD status of the spouse alters this association highlights the importance of spouse characteristics for the behavioral health consequences of spousal loss. The pronounced elevation in AUD risk following divorce or widowhood, and the protective effect of remarriage against subsequent AUD, speaks to the profound impact of marriage on problematic alcohol use. PMID:28103713

  14. Divorce and the Onset of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Swedish Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-Relative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (N=942,366), the authors examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (hazard ratio=5.98, 95% CI=5.65-6.33) and women (hazard ratio=7.29, 95% CI=6.72-7.91). The hazard ratio was estimated for AUD onset given divorce among discordant monozygotic twins to equal 3.45 and 3.62 in men and women, respectively. Divorce was also associated with an AUD recurrence in those with AUD registrations before marriage. Furthermore, widowhood increased risk for AUD in men (hazard ratio=3.85, 95% CI=2.81-5.28) and women (hazard ratio=4.10, 95% CI=2.98-5.64). Among divorced individuals, remarriage was associated with a large decline in AUD in both sexes (men: hazard ratio=0.56, 95% CI=0.52-0.64; women: hazard ratio=0.61, 95% CI=0.55-0.69). Divorce produced a greater increase in first AUD onset in those with a family history of AUD or with prior externalizing behaviors. Spousal loss through divorce or bereavement is associated with a large enduring increased AUD risk. This association likely reflects both causal and noncausal processes. That the AUD status of the spouse alters this association highlights the importance of spouse characteristics for the behavioral health consequences of spousal loss. The pronounced elevation in AUD risk following divorce or widowhood, and the protective effect of remarriage against subsequent AUD, speaks to the profound impact of marriage on problematic alcohol use.

  15. Effectiveness of Children of Divorce Intervention Program on Children's Adjustment with their Parental Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    محمدرضا عبدی; تقي پورابراهيم; علی محمد نظری

    2016-01-01

    Divorce is one of the most important phenomenons of human life that not only undermines the psychological balance of the couple but also to change the psychological balance of the children, relatives, and friends. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP). A sample of 26 children of divorce (11 boys and 15 girls) between 7 to 9 years old was selected through an available sampling of community. CODIP was conducted on the e...

  16. The Right to Internal Self-Determination in Peacebuilding Processes: A Reinterpretation of the Concept of Local Ownership from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU DEMIR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to internal self-determination offers a legal ‘checklist’ for the UN to provide both legitimacy and sustainability to peacebuilding processes. The right both clarifies the actors of post-conflict reconstruction and also concretises to what extent these actors should be incorporated into peacebuilding processes. Although the concept of local ownership has become an often-cited concept in peacebuilding literature, the legal ground of the concept (i.e. the right to internal self-determination has been disregarded. This paper aims to reveal the legal aspect of the concept of local ownership and thus, attaches the right to internal self-determination with local ownership.

  17. Stratified patterns of divorce: Earnings, education, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaplan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite evidence that divorce has become more prevalent among weaker socioeconomic groups, knowledge about the stratification aspects of divorce in Israel is lacking. Moreover, although scholarly debate recognizes the importance of stratificational positions with respect to divorce, less attention has been given to the interactions between them. Objective: Our aim is to examine the relationship between social inequality and divorce, focusing on how household income, education, employment stability, relative earnings, and the intersection between them affect the risk of divorce in Israel. Methods: The data is derived from combined census files for 1995-2008, annual administrative employment records from the National Insurance Institute and the Tax Authority, and data from the Civil Registry of Divorce. We used a series of discrete-time event-history analysis models for marital dissolution. Results: Couples in lower socioeconomic positions had a higher risk of divorce in Israel. Higher education in general, and homogamy in terms of higher education (both spouses have degrees in particular, decreased the risk of divorce. The wife's relative earnings had a differential effect on the likelihood of divorce, depending on household income: a wife who outearned her husband increased the log odds of divorce more in the upper tertiles than in the lower tertile. Conclusions: Our study shows that divorce indeed has a stratified pattern and that weaker socioeconomic groups experience the highest levels of divorce. Gender inequality within couples intersects with the household's economic and educational resources.

  18. Parental Reports of Children's Post-Divorce Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Julie A.

    1979-01-01

    Two years after the final decree, 560 divorced parents were asked to assess the impact of the divorce on their children. Factors associated with fathers' responses differed from those associated with mothers', but the majority of each group felt that their children had been negatively affected by the divorce. (Author/GC)

  19. The Teacher's Role in Facilitating a Child's Adjustment to Divorce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Patsy; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information enabling teachers to support children and families during divorce. Research and theory concerning the effects of divorce on children, parenting through divorce, and the role of the school are summarized. Practical suggestions for the teacher are presented, and relevant books for children, teachers, and parents are identified.…

  20. Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Richard H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined substance use in adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood, during adolescence, or who were from intact families. Adolescence divorce group had greater overall drug involvement. Divorce had negative effect on boys but not on girls. Custodial parents' remarriage led to increased substance use among girls, decreased…

  1. Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Compares children who experience divorce in childhood with those who were young adults when their parents divorced using data on British children (N=11,409) who participated in the National Child Development Study. Children's long-term welfare appears to be linked both to conditions preceding and following the divorce event. Results suggest…

  2. Experience of young adults from divorced families | Spalding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the way in which the effects of parental divorce surface during the developmental period of young adulthood. The aim of the study was to offer some insight into the long-term effects of parental divorce. Of particular interest was how the parent-child relationships in divorced homes ...

  3. Cross-sibling effects on divorce in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vuijst, Elise; Poortman, A.; Das, Marjolijn; van Gaalen, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Parental divorce has repeatedly been shown to increase the risk of divorce for offspring, but research on the influence of other social ties is scarce. This study examines the association of divorce between siblings and whether such an association varies under specific sibship characteristics.

  4. Narrative Theory: A Career Counseling Approach for Adolescents of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Denis A.; Gibbons, Melinda M.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents whose parents divorce face academic and vocational impediments that challenge their career options. Although divorce does not affect all children uniformly, research confirms that, overall, divorce negatively influences academic performance and behavioral adjustment (Peris & Emery, 2004; Ruschena, Prior, Sanson, & Smart, 2005), access…

  5. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  6. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXTENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROCESS MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND THE LEGAL FORM OF THE BUSINESS AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Maříková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, enterprises are challenged with continuously changing environment and they have to react quickly to these changes. Process management can be a tool that greatly helps businesses in this difficult time to survive (Hora, 2010. Process Management brings a relatively new perspective on corporate governance. According to McCoy et al. (2007 enterprises which implemented rules of process management have a competitive advantage over others. The paper presents the application of the principles of process management in relation to the legal form of business enterprise and business activity. For determining the level of principles of process management the indicator MPP was used (Rolśnek, 2012; Truneček, 2005. Based on statistical analysis, it can be argued that there is a relationship between the application of the principles of process management, business legal forms and also business activities.

  8. Comparison of Social Skills, Mental Health and Academic Performance in Children with Divorced, Divorcing and Intact Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسین قمری گیوی

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare social skills, mental health and academic performance in children with divorced, divorcing and intact parents. The study sample included 481 children with divorced parents and 419 children with divorcing parents, who were matched to 500 children with normal parents. The participants responded to the Matson's Social Skills Scale and Goldenberg's Mental Health Questionnaire. To assess the academic performance GPA was used. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. The Findings showed that children with divorced and divorcing parents had more average scores of the components of physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than those of children with normal parents. Also children with divorcing parents had more scores in components of social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than children with divorced parents had. Social skills scores and academic performance in children with normal parents were higher than those of divorced parents’ children and children with divorced parents had higher scores than children with divorcing parents. Hence, due to the harm and the conesquences of divorce on children, strategies for minimalizing these conesquences should be planed.

  9. [Alienation of a child from one parent in divorce situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    Alienation of a child from one parent refers to the behavior of the parent in a divorce situation in a manner essentially complicating or in some cases completely breaking the interrelationship between the child and the other parent. The process occurs in situations where the separation was preceded by a normal and positively affective relationship between the alienated parent and the child without any indication of the parent being prejudicial to the child. This behavior in usually motivated by hatred and animosity felt by the alienator against the other part.

  10. Divorce and risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  12. 5 CFR 582.306 - Lack of entitlement by the employee-obligor to pay from the agency served with legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY... procedures are set forth therein, the agency shall return the legal process to the court, or other authority from which it was issued, and advise the court, or other authority, that the identified employee...

  13. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  14. The Impact of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Irmgard

    1993-01-01

    The degree of emotional trauma that children may face during or after their parents' divorce is related to the personality profiles of both parents; quality of parent-child bonding; quality of parent-child attachment; parenting styles; and resilience of the child. Courts and child care workers should look more closely at parent personality…

  15. Support Groups for Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Sherry; Galaris, Diana

    1993-01-01

    Describes model for support groups for children of divorce developed at Marriage Council of Philadelphia. Gives details about group organization, illustrative case material, and typical concerns that group members work with throughout group sessions. Summarizes reported effects of support group involvement and considers ways of intervening in…

  16. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  17. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  18. Children Facing Divorce: A Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Kenneth M.

    1977-01-01

    The children facing divorce program began last year and was built on the talents of an interdisciplinary staff. Included are experts in client-centered counseling, sociometry and psychodrama, Gestalt and TA, behavior modification, and various eclectic approaches to family therapy. (Author)

  19. Effectiveness of Children of Divorce Intervention Program on Children's Adjustment with their Parental Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمدرضا عبدی

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Divorce is one of the most important phenomenons of human life that not only undermines the psychological balance of the couple but also to change the psychological balance of the children, relatives, and friends. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP. A sample of 26 children of divorce (11 boys and 15 girls between 7 to 9 years old was selected through an available sampling of community. CODIP was conducted on the experimental group over 15 sessions (two sessions per week once the subjects were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups and completed three questionnaires including Children’s Ideas about Divorce scale (CIAD, Parent Evaluation Form (PEF and Group Leader Evaluation Form (GLEF. Study results based on ANOVA show a significant difference between experimental and control groups (P<0/001. These results indicate that CODIP was effective to increase children's positive feelings and attitudes towards their parental divorce, reduced children's negative feelings toward their parental divorce, improved children's relationships with their parents and peers, and increased problem solving skills of children.

  20. How I remember my parents' divorce: a phenomenological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Suzanne E; Hector, Mark A; Carr, Austin R

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the experience of parental divorce for adult women, a phenomenological method was used. Ten women were interviewed and the interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematized. The themes that came from the texts of the interviews transcripts and the researchers' reflections on the phenomenological research group analysis were: Before the Divorce, During the Divorce, and After the Divorce. These themes were centered on a contextual ground of Time Frame of the Divorce. The results of this study can provide individuals with a context for understanding their own experiences of parental divorce. These results could also be helpful for mental health clinicians in anticipating the themes that clients will discuss relative to the stages of their parents' divorce.

  1. ظاهرة الطــــــلاق بين القانون والشريعة الاسلامية والواقع الاجتماعي في مجتمع ومحاكم الحلة " دراسة ميدانية " The phenomenon of divorce Between law, Islamic law and social reality In the community and courts of Hilla " A field study "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Star Nuri Al-aboudi أ. د ستار نوري العبودي

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Divorce between law. Islamic law and social reality in society in Hilla courts. The aim of research try to study the subject from three faces. Legal law and social. The first explained arbitrary divorce. The second clarified the totality in the cases of judicial differentiation. The third discuss residence of divorce in the house of husband.it appear from research the number of divorces in Hilla city in 2014 about half of Marriages 3686 status and the divorce status1642. The causes of these cases are economic causes about 70% social causes20% .family dispute and family intervention 10%

  2. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development.

  3. “An Absolutely Necessary Piece”: A qualitative study of legal perspectives on medical affidavits in the asylum process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Elizabeth; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Meyer, Anna C.; VanArtsdalen, Jamie; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge for asylum seekers in the United States is being able to provide evidence of prior persecution in their home countries. Medical/psychological affidavits corroborating applicants’ accounts often make the difference between successful and unsuccessful applications. The purpose of this study was to identify the unmet demand for and features of effective medical/psychological affidavits in the asylum process, as well as the personal and systemic barriers for asylum seekers. This is a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with legal professionals who work in asylum law. Sixteen asylum lawyers and one Board of Immigration Appeals accredited representative practicing in the state of Michigan, United States, participated in this study. All participants noted that a vast majority of their asylum cases would benefit from a medical affidavit but that they have difficulty finding qualified physicians with experience writing such affidavits and testifying as expert witnesses. The major barriers to obtaining medical/psychological evaluations included inability to pay for services, lack of practitioner availability, and lack of practitioner training. The participants reported that features of a strong medical affidavit included clear, concise, and corroborative accounts that supported the applicant’s story from a diagnostic perspective and forensic descriptions that reinforced the credibility of the applicant. Several also noted that medical/psychological evaluations frequently would reveal additional details and incidents of trauma beyond those stated in the applicant’s preliminary statement. The study results suggest substantial unmet need for trained physicians to perform medical and psychological evaluations on a pro bono basis. Lawyers’ recommendations regarding effective medical affidavits and necessary ongoing support for asylum applicants should inform current efforts to improve physician and lawyer collaborations on asylum cases. PMID

  4. Recession and Divorce in the United States, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Recession may increase divorce through a stress mechanism, or reduce divorce by exacerbating cost barriers or strengthening family bonds. After establishing an individual-level model predicting U.S. women's divorce, the paper tests period effects, and whether unemployment and foreclosures are associated with the odds of divorce using the 2008-2011 American Community Survey. Results show a downward spike in the divorce rate after 2008, almost recovering to the expected level by 2011, which suggests a negative recession effect. On the other hand, state foreclosure rates are positively associated with the odds of divorce with individual controls, although this effect is not significant when state fixed effects are introduced. State unemployment rates show no effect on odds of divorce. Future research will have to determine why national divorce odds fell during the recession while state-level economic indicators were not strongly associated with divorce. Exploratory analysis which shows unemployment decreasing divorce odds for those with college degrees, while foreclosures have the opposite effect, provides one possible avenue for such research. PMID:26023246

  5. Determinants of divorce in a traditional Muslim community in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of spouses' prior marital status and socio-demographic characteristics on the risk of divorce of 1762 Muslim marriages recorded in 1982-83 in Teknaf, Bangladesh. Grooms' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced, widowed or polygynous (already cohabiting with one or more wives and brides' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced or widowed. Divorce was recorded by following the marriages prospectively for five years. Due to the fact that a longitudinal study design was used, the quality of the information presented here is considered to be high. A discrete-time hazard logistic model was used to estimate the effects of spouses' prior marital status and a number of socio-demographic variables on risk of divorce. Polygynous marriage, remarriage and divorce were found to be common in this traditional Muslim community. The odds of divorce were 2.5 times higher for grooms' polygynous marriages and 1.6 times higher for brides' remarriages compared to their peers' first marriages. The odds of divorce decreased with marriage duration. The groom's and bride's low socio-economic status, illiteracy, and early age at marriage increased the odds of divorce. The odds of divorce were much higher if there was no birth in the preceding six months.

  6. No Trend in the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, JUI-CHUNG ALLEN; WU, LAWRENCE L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies on trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce have produced mixed findings, with two studies (McLanahan and Bumpass 1988; Teachman 2002) reporting no trend in divorce transmission and one study (Wolfinger 1999) finding that divorce transmission has weakened substantially. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model, we analyze data from the National Survey of Families and Households and find no evidence for any trend in divorce transmission. To reconcile apparent differences in results, we note that the General Social Survey data used by Wolfinger lack information on marital duration, permitting analysis only for whether respondents have divorced by interview. As a result, an apparent decline in divorce transmission could be due to inadequate adjustments for the longer exposures to risk by earlier marriage cohorts, yielding a higher probability of divorce by interview for earlier cohorts relative to more recent cohorts even if divorce risks are identical across all marriage cohorts. We confirm this possibility by using a series of discrete-time hazard logistic regressions to investigate the sensitivity of estimates of trends in divorce transmission to different adjustments for exposure to risk. We conclude that there has been no trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce. PMID:19110902

  7. Divorce and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: A Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Al-kaabi, Salem; Lotfi, Amir; Al-Faifi, Salem M.; Alqahtani, Saleh; Stewart, James; Heavey, Jon; Hurley, William T.; Alama, Mohamed N.; Faden, Mazen; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; Youssef, Ali; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.

    2017-01-01

    The association between marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD) is supported by numerous epidemiological studies. While divorce may have an adverse effect on cardiac outcomes, the relationship between divorce and severe CAD is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period between April 1, 2013, and March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 patients, 124 (12%) were divorced. Divorce was more frequent among women (27%) compared to men (6%). Most divorced patients had been divorced only once (49%), but a subset had been divorced 2 (38%) or ≥3 (12%) times. After adjusting for baseline differences, there was no significant association between divorce and severe CAD in men. In women, there was a significant adjusted association between divorce and severe MVD (OR 2.31 [1.16, 4.59]) or LMD (OR 5.91 [2.19, 15.99]). The modification of the association between divorce and severe CAD by gender was statistically significant for severe LMD (Pinteraction 0.0008) and marginally significant for CAD (Pinteraction 0.05). Among women, there was a significant adjusted association between number of divorces and severe CAD (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.2, 4.5]), MVD (OR 2.0 [95% CI 1.4, 3.0]), and LMD (OR 3.4 [95% CI 1.9, 5.9]). In conclusion, divorce, particularly multiple divorces, is associated with severe CAD, MVD, and LMD in women but not in men. PMID:28811952

  8. Divorce and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Daoulah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD is supported by numerous epidemiological studies. While divorce may have an adverse effect on cardiac outcomes, the relationship between divorce and severe CAD is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period between April 1, 2013, and March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 patients, 124 (12% were divorced. Divorce was more frequent among women (27% compared to men (6%. Most divorced patients had been divorced only once (49%, but a subset had been divorced 2 (38% or ≥3 (12% times. After adjusting for baseline differences, there was no significant association between divorce and severe CAD in men. In women, there was a significant adjusted association between divorce and severe MVD (OR 2.31 [1.16, 4.59] or LMD (OR 5.91 [2.19, 15.99]. The modification of the association between divorce and severe CAD by gender was statistically significant for severe LMD (Pinteraction 0.0008 and marginally significant for CAD (Pinteraction 0.05. Among women, there was a significant adjusted association between number of divorces and severe CAD (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.2, 4.5], MVD (OR 2.0 [95% CI 1.4, 3.0], and LMD (OR 3.4 [95% CI 1.9, 5.9]. In conclusion, divorce, particularly multiple divorces, is associated with severe CAD, MVD, and LMD in women but not in men.

  9. 31 CFR 360.22 - Payment or reissue pursuant to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... divorce. 360.22 Section 360.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... divorce. (a) Divorce. (1) The Department of the Treasury will recognize a divorce decree that ratifies or.... (2) The evidence required under § 360.23 must be submitted in every case. When the divorce decree...

  10. Barriers and Supports to Divorce for Victimised British-Indian Mothers and Consequences of Divorce: Narratives of British-Indian Adult Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chaitali

    2012-01-01

    Divorce or separation is one route towards addressing high conflict in marriages and may be a key route out of situations of significant domestic violence for women and children. However, divorce has been associated with feminisation of poverty and other negative outcomes which can be further exacerbated for victimised women. While there has been…

  11. What causes the unrestricted right to divorce?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sinelnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to changes of the Russian family legislation in the XX century. Laws of the Russian Empire provided very few reasons for divorce. At the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries the part of the intellectuals demanded liberalization of the legislation. The reforms which happened after October revolution of 1917 considerably changed all system of family values that led to strengthening of crisis of a family.

  12. More mental health problems after divorce in couples with high pre-divorce alcohol consumption than in other divorced couples: results from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognmo, Kamilla; Torvik, Fartein A; Idstad, Mariann; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-09-17

    Divorce is associated with mental health problems, and heavy drinking is related to higher risk of divorce. Less is known about the effects of divorce in couples where one or both drinks heavily. There are, however, reasons to expect different consequences of divorce in heavy risk using couples compared to other couples. Spouses of abusers may experience the divorce as a relief, whereas abusers may find it extra difficult to be left single. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of divorce on mental health in heavy drinking couples to the effect in couples who drink less. Registry data were matched with data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1 (T1) and 2 (T2)), enabling longitudinal analyses of approximately 11,000 couples. Interaction terms between 1) alcohol use on T1 and divorce between T1 and T2 (11 year time lag), and 2) alcohol use on T1 and time since divorce at T2 for all divorced couples were tested to examine changes in mental health between T1 and T2 for a) spouses of high-risk compared to low-risk users, and b) high-risk compared to low-risk users themselves. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. There was a general effect of divorce on change in mental health between T1 and T2. We observed a significantly stronger worsening in mental health in female high-risk users and their spouses than in divorced low-risk users and their spouses. The results also suggest that the strain after divorce lasts longer in women with a high alcohol consumption and their spouses. Divorce seems to affect couples where one or both drink heavily more than couples with a low consumption. Also there was some evidence of a slower healing of mental health problems after divorce in alcohol exposed couples than in other couples. The results only reached significance for female high consumers and their spouses, but due to limited statistical power, safe conclusions about gender specific effects cannot be drawn.

  13. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  14. Psychological aspects of widowhood and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, J K; Sareen, Himanshu; Dhyani, Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Despite advances in standard of living of the population, the condition of widows and divorced women remains deplorable in society. The situation is worse in developing nations with their unique social, cultural and economic milieu, which at times ignores the basic human rights of this vulnerable section of society. A gap exists in life expectancies of men and women in both developing and developed nations. This, coupled with greater remarriage rates in men, ensures that the number of widows continues to exceed that of widowers. Moreover, with women becoming more educated, economically independent and aware of their rights, divorce rates are increasing along with associated psychological ramifications. The fact that widowed/divorced women suffer from varying psychological stressors is often ignored. It has been concluded in various studies that such stressors could be harbingers of psychiatric illnesses (e.g., depression, anxiety, substance dependence), and hence should be taken into account by treating physicians, social workers and others who come to the aid of such women. A change in mindset of the society is required before these women get their rightful place, for which a strong will is needed in the minds of the people, and in law-governing bodies.

  15. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  16. DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

  17. Divorce and women's risk of health insurance loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce.

  18. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  19. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  20. Legal Recognition of the Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nancy Rainey

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the parental alienation syndrome, which is the process by which one parent overtly or covertly speaks or acts in a derogatory manner to or about the other parent during or subsequent to a divorce proceeding, in an attempt to alienate the child or children from that other parent. (Author)

  1. Effects of Divorce on children / Matlhodi Elizabeth Matsafu

    OpenAIRE

    Matsafu, Matlhodi Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    South African society may have erased the stigma that once accompanied divorce, but its massive effects cannot be ignored. Hence. the purpose of this research was to determine the causes, nature and impact of divorce on children. From the literature, it became evident that social scientists tracked successive generations of South African children whose parents have ended their marriages. Literature further indicates that divorce is a traumatic experience, characterized by...

  2. Divorce risk factors and their variation over time in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bernardi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the determinants of marriage dissolution in Spain and their variation over time for women married between 1949 and 2006. Data are drawn from the Survey of Fertility, Family and Values of 2006. The article analyses the transition from first marriage to marital dissolution for couples who married in two eras: one prior to the Divorce Law of 1981, during which social and legal barriers to dissolution were many, and one in the period after the law was introduced, during which barriers to marriage dissolution were far fewer. Analyses are conducted using a continuous time event history model. The results indicate some similarities between Spain and other countries, such as the positive relationship between the typical features of unconventional families and marital dissolution, but also some specific differences, such as an increase in the importance of premarital pregnancy and/or not having children. It is also important to stress the declining importance of socio-economic variables, such as education and the labour market situation of women.

  3. Parental divorce and subsequent disadvantage: a cross-cohort comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigle-Rushton, Wendy; Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    2005-08-01

    Although many studies have examined the link between parental divorce and subsequent well-being, some theories of the effects of divorce suggest that the negative associations should have declined over time. However, few studies have examined the extent to which the associations have remained stable over time. Using data from two British cohorts, we analyzed both shorter- and longer-term outcomes of children who experienced parental divorce and the extent to which the associations have changed over time. Estimating similar models for both cohorts, we found little evidence of any change in the size of the relationship as divorce became more commonplace.

  4. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children’s health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are mor...

  5. Aspects of Implementation of European Law in the Legal System of the Republic of Moldova within the European Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Mamaliga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author researches in this paper the political, economic and legal trends, concerning the integration of Moldova into the European Union. The greet The researcher pays attention to the principles of freedom and pluralistic democracy, supremacy of national European law over the law, in the non-discrimination and equality before the law, reflected in the European and national acts, as well as the principles of the market economy.

  6. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic and attitudinal correlates of the tempo of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, C J; Woods, A Y

    1991-01-01

    The association between sociodemographic, demographic, and attitudinal measures and the timing or tempo of marital dissolution over a 14-year time span is examined. Separation is considered equivalent to divorce. Early and late divorce are differentiated by whether the event occurred before or after the average number of years married prior to divorce. Data were obtained on husbands and wives within childbearing years (up to 39 years) in the 1st years of the 1st marriage. A random stratified sample of 610 couples was drawn from records of marriages in a midwestern county between 1972-77. Reinterviews were conducted on 544 couples in April 1985. socioeconomic variables included educational attainment, occupational prestige, wife's employment status, wife's future work plans, husband's attitude to wife's future work plans, total family income, and level of satisfaction with current financial status. Demographic variables are age at marriage, number of children in 1985, marital duration, and desired family size. Attitudinal items were religiosity and gender role orientations (traditionalism, modernism, egalitarianism). Exposure to divorce was not equitably distributed for the 108 who divorced, but this was not statistically significant. The results indicate that those divorced earlier were wives who worked outside the home, worked at more prestigious jobs, planned to be employed throughout married life, and whose father had a higher level of educational attainment. This finding is not consistent with prior research which has shown that favorable socioeconomic conditions lower the probability of divorce. The timing of divorce was affected by the presence of children. Those married at younger ages divorced earlier and couples with children delayed divorcing longer than couples without children. These findings were consistent with earlier research. Catholic wives delayed divorce longer than non-Catholic wives. Males lower in sexual satisfaction divorced earlier. Divorce

  7. Sharing Child Custody: Coparenting After Divorce in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Fernandez-Rasines

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative parenting after separation and divorce in Spain has been introduced with claimed gender neutrality although its application seems to invoke the two-parent heterosexual family ideal that requires genetic truth, surname and residence to be preserved. Legislative developments and legal ordering revolving around joint physical custody and shared residence in this Mediterranean country have taken place within a context of relevant social changes. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate that divorce law reform has assumed that father and mother share parental responsibility equally, without raising the practical issue of gender role prevalence in physical day-to-day care. Literature on family studies has been reviewed from disciplines such as social anthropology, sociology, political science and law, providing socioeconomic data from primary and secondary sources.La coparentalidad tras separación o ruptura conyugal en España se ha introducido desde la demanda de una neutralidad de género aunque su puesta en práctica parece invocar al ideal de la familia biparental heterosexual que requiere mantener la verdad genética, el apellido y la residencia. Los desarrollos legislativos y el ordenamiento jurídico en torno a la custodia compartida en este país mediterráneo han tenido lugar en un contexto de cambios sociales muy importantes. El propósito de esta contribución es demostrar que la reforma de la ley del divorcio asume que padre y madre comparten responsabilidades parentales de modo equitativo, sin haber considerado la prevalencia de los roles de género en la práctica del cuidado físico y la atención cotidiana. Se ha revisado la literatura sobre estudios de familia desde disciplinas como la antropología social, la sociología, la ciencia política y el derecho y se han tenido en cuenta datos socioeconómicos de fuentes primarias y secundarias.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3059523

  8. The experiences of divorced professional nurses in the workplace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considerable research has been done on the impact of divorce on married persons, their children and families but little has been done on its impact on professional nurses work performance. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of divorced female professional nurses at East London ...

  9. Student Counsellors' Perceived Causes of Divorce among Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in the rate of divorce in Nigeria and it‟s attendant negative consequences should be of concern to all especially counsellors and student counsellors It is imperative to find out student counsellors‟ perceived causes of divorce among couples in Lagos metropolis. Their perception will affect their judgment in ...

  10. Differences in Family Policies and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of the risk of divorce is a well-known long-term effect of divorce that has been found in many Western societies. Less known is what effect different family policies and divorce laws have on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In this paper, the division of Germany into two separate states from 1949 until 1990, with the consequent development of two very different family policies, is regarded as a natural experiment that enables us to investigate the effect of family policy on the mechanisms underlying the social inheritance of divorce. Data from respondents from the former East and West Germany participating in the German Life History Study are analyzed using multivariate event-history methods. The results indicate that the strength of the intergenerational divorce transmission, when adjusted for differences in divorce level, was lower in the East than in the West. Differences in religion, marriage age and timing of first birth, which are partial indicators of family policy, could explain this effect. Furthermore, we did find a tendency towards a reduction in the dynamics of divorce transmission over time, both in East Germany and in West Germany.

  11. Divorce and Special Education. PHP-c103

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Every year the parents of a million American children are newly divorced. While divorce is difficult for all parties involved, children are often the most affected. If the children have disabilities and are involved with the special education system, the situation can be even more complex. The information in this document may help parents think…

  12. Divorce and Special Education in Minnesota. PHP-c104

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When parents divorce, they sometimes have questions about which parent has rights in special education. The federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Minnesota state special education laws and regulations clearly describe parental rights and the school district's duty to meet them. Most rights are unchanged by divorce. The…

  13. Socialization of Young Children in the Divorced Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Martha J.; Cox, Roger D.

    1979-01-01

    Reported is a longitudinal study in which families with preschool children were observed, interviewed, and tested over two years following the parents' divorce and compared with a sample of intact families. Findings on the impact of divorce on individuals, on family interactions, and on children's social and intellectual development are presented.…

  14. Late-Life Divorce: Its Impact on Family Rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined perceived changes in specific family celebrations, traditions, important life cycle events, and day-to-day family contact that occurred for 115 adult children whose parents had divorced after long-term marriage. Found strong positive correlation between perceived disruptiveness of parental divorce and changes in family rituals,…

  15. Family Stress Theory and the Impact of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents a middle-range theory that describes the potential impact of divorce on children, based on concepts from family stress theory. The proposed theoretical model is concerned especially with variations in the definition of the situation assigned to the crisis of divorce by children and custodial parents. (JAC)

  16. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  17. Children and Divorce: An Overview of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford, Ed.

    The effects of divorce on children are the subject of this collection of eight papers by authors from several disciplines. The central theme of Albert Solnit's paper is that divorce means dissolution of the family as well as the marriage. The role of the courts in custody and visitation issues and the effects of conflicts on the children are…

  18. The Effects of Divorce on Children's Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael E.

    1977-01-01

    Major effects of divorce identified are age and sex of the child, relative willingness and ability of parents to care for the child, and nature of the parent-child relationships. There is little support for assumptions that divorce is necessarily harmful and custody should always be awarded to mothers. (Author)

  19. Parental Divorce in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Studied effects of childhood parental separation and divorce on adult loneliness among 87 college students who, when they were between the ages of 3 and 16, had experienced the divorce of their parents. Data analysis revealed that there were significant relationships between reported mourning behaviors, as well as respondents, ages at time of…

  20. Parental Divorce, Life-Course Disruption, and Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a national sample of adults (N=2,592) surveyed on the association between adult depression and childhood parental divorce. Results suggest that parental divorce may disrupt a person's life course and create lifelong consequences for their well being, by lowering socioeconomic status and increasing problems in interpersonal…

  1. What Schools Are Doing To Help the Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, William A. H.; Lewis, Jennifer M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how teachers' observations of children can help behavioral pediatricians identify family situations contributing to marked changes in children's behavior related to divorce. Discusses ways teachers can support children of divorce, including maintaining consistency and discipline, making children feel competent, listening to the child's…

  2. Divorce: An Unreliable Predictor of Children's Emotional Predispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Janine M.; Nesbitt, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Used the Children's Emotion Projection Instrument to investigate the emotional predispositions of children from divorce or disruption and children from intact families. Results indicated that children of divorce or disruption are not more hampered emotionally than children from intact families. Discusses implications for family therapists.…

  3. Easing the Pain of Divorce through Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Pamela A.; Smith, Gail G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes children's typical reactions to divorce and practical techniques that teachers and caregivers can use in helping children deal with divorce. The use of bibliotherapy is described as a means to help children. An annotated bibliography of select literature is provided, along with descriptions of developmentally appropriate activities that…

  4. Exploring living arrangements of divorced families in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.; Mulder, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    We aim to gain more insight into the characteristics of divorced families with different types of post-divorce living arrangements, and in particular with co-parenting arrangements in which the child alternates between the parents’ residences. Empirical evidence comes from a mixed- method research,

  5. Feelings of Loss in Response to Divorce: Assessment and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cognitively based model, founded on rational emotive therapy, as a basis for assessment and intervention strategies for assisting individuals to cope with feelings of loss in response to divorce. The model is seen as a four-pane window through which persons might see their divorce. (Author/JAC)

  6. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  7. Divorced, separated and widowed female workers in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sender, J.; Oya, C.

    2007-01-01

    Compared to other rural women, a high proportion of female wageworkers in rural Mozambique are divorced, separated or widowed. The paper explores the factors underlying this difference and establishes a significant relationship between labour market participation and female divorce or widowhood. The

  8. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees. ...

  9. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  10. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Fitness consequences of divorce in the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Ens, Bruno J.

    We investigated the fitness consequences of divorce in oystercatchers. We made a distinction between two types of divorce: in desertions the disruption of the pair bond is initiated by one of the pair members, and in usurpations by a conspecific individual. Survival and reproduction prospects for

  12. Parental Divorce and Children’s Schooling in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children’s schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children’s schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children’s schooling. PMID:27822897

  13. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  14. Separated and Divorced Women in India : Economic Rights and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-14

    Separated and Divorced Women in India : Economic Rights and Entitlements. Couverture du livre Separated and Divorced Women in India. Author(s):. Kirti Singh. Publisher(s):. SAGE, CRDI. March 14, 2013. ISBN: 9788132109525. 278 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552505519. Download PDF · Read the e-book · Order the book.

  15. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would impact (different-sex) family formation. In this paper, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980–2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution......) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including...

  16. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Temporary Life Changes and the Timing of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Breen, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Marriage is a risky undertaking that people enter with incomplete information about their partner and their future life circumstances. A large literature has shown how new information gained from unforeseen but long-lasting or permanent changes in life circumstances may trigger a divorce. We extend this literature by considering how information gained from a temporary change in life circumstances-in our case, a couple having a child with infantile colic-may affect divorce behavior. Although persistent life changes are known to induce divorce, we argue that a temporary stressful situation allows couples more quickly to discern the quality of their relationship, in some cases leading them to divorce sooner than they otherwise would have. We formalize this argument in a model of Bayesian updating and test it using data from Denmark. We find that the incidence of infantile colic shortens the time to divorce or disruption among couples who would have split up anyway.

  18. Legal capacity of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia: The need to reform existing legal frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishet, Mohammed Hamza

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E; George, Linda K; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-05-01

    Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in US adults. We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 years (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one third of the cohort had ≥1 divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced compared with those who were continuously married (Pdivorce (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.55), ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.66) compared with continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The Impact of Divorce on the Lives of Children: Alleviating the Trauma of the Divorce Experience Through Adult Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denise

    This paper reviews current literature pertaining to the effects of divorce on children and makes suggestions regarding general ways in which parents and other adults may assist children in coping with divorce. The population of children towards which this study is directed includes preschool through latency age children. All inferences made in…

  1. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children's health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley

    2017-12-01

    Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent's diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level.

  2. The Role of Familial Stress in Personality Development of Older Adolescents from Divorced and Non-Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Bailey, Patricia; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    This study examined the relationship of overall family conflict and stress to adult personality development in young adult college students from intact families, as compared to young adults who had experienced childhood parental divorce. Seventy-five students from divorced families and 78 students from intact families completed a screening…

  3. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children’s health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Smith-Greenaway

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level.

  4. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  5. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  6. Effects of Divorce on Children of Different Ages: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The impact of divorce on children seems to vary according to the child's age. Previous studies on the impact of divorce on children have generally focused on pre-schoolers and elementary-age children. Since more long-term marriages are ending in divorce, attention should also be given to adolescent and adult children of divorce. Subjects (N=26)…

  7. 20 CFR 222.21 - When marriage is terminated by final divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When marriage is terminated by final divorce... Widow(er) § 222.21 When marriage is terminated by final divorce. A final divorce, often referred to as an absolute divorce, completely dissolves the marriage relationship and restores the parties to the...

  8. Are Divorce Studies Trustworthy? The Effects of Survey Nonresponse and Response Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter

    2010-01-01

    Researchers rely on relationship data to measure the multifaceted nature of families. This article speaks to relationship data quality by examining the ramifications of different types of error on divorce estimates, models predicting divorce behavior, and models employing divorce as a predictor. Comparing matched survey and divorce certificate…

  9. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  10. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  11. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Costa, Rui A; Lamela, Diogo J P V; Figueiredo, Bárbara F C

    2009-01-01

    To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children's physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articles on the subject. Special attention was paid to contributions by internationally renowned investigators on the subject. Divorce may be responsible for a decline of physical and psychological health in children. The developmental maladjustment of children is not triggered by divorce itself, but rather by other risk factors associated with it, such as interparental conflict, parental psychopathology, decline in socio-economic level, inconsistency in parenting styles, a parallel and conflicting co-parenting relationship between parents and low levels of social support. Such risk factors trigger maladjusted developmental pathways, marked by psychopathological symptoms, poor academic performance, worst levels of physical health, risk behavior, exacerbated psychophysiological responses to stress and weakening of the immune system. Clear links were observed between experiencing parental divorce and facing problems of physical and psychological maladjustment in children. Divorce is a stressor that should be considered by health professionals as potentially responsible for maladjusted neuropsychobiological responses and for decline in children's physical health.

  12. Behavioural development in children of divorce and remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, L; Boulerice, B; Tremblay, R E; Vitaro, F

    1997-10-01

    We employed an autoregressive modelling technique with data from the Québec Longitudinal Study to prospectively examine the developmental impact of family transition on behaviour while controlling for predivorce and preremarriage effects. Teachers rated children's anxious, hyperactive, physically aggressive, oppositional, and prosocial behaviour every 2 years from kindergarten through to the end of elementary school. Once individual and parental characteristics and antecedent family events were controlled, children who experienced parental divorce before age 6 exhibited comparatively more behavioural disturbance than their peers whose parents divorced later. With the exception of a protective effect on hyperactive behaviour, remarriage did not have a significant impact on children's behaviour when the legacy of divorce was controlled. Although the results suggest that children of divorced parents show difficulty in many areas of functioning, the effects of family transition on behavioural development were dependent on the child's age and the specific behavioural dimension assessed. Compared to other points in development, early childhood divorce was associated with long-term increases in anxious, hyperactive, and oppositional behaviour during later childhood. The effects of divorce on children's fighting were short-lived. Unlike previous prospective studies that suggest predivorce effects, we did not observe behavioural disturbance prior to divorce or remarriage.

  13. Transition to Parenthood and Susceptibility to Divorce: qualitative research of divorced young parents in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Rijavec Klobučar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood is a vulnerable period for spouses and can consequently lead to the disintegration of their relationship. The purpose of this research was to examine the experience of this transition, circumstances and risk factors for divorce from the perspective of divorcees in Slovenia who divorced in the first year of their child’s life. On the basis of semi -structured interviews with 15 divorcees, the findings of studies examining changes after the birth of a child were confirmed. The results pointed to risk factors for marriage, such as uncertain relationship between spouses prior to the childbirth, permeable boundaries in relations with families of origin, lack of practical and emotional support, and unreal expectations. The child’s arrival accentuates unsolved issues from the past and brings additional vulnerability to the relationship. The findings of this research are a contribution to the development of preventive, educative and therapeutic programmes for couples in transition to parenthood.

  14. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  15. Divorce and its effects on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, L D; Price, J H

    1979-12-01

    In any given case, the developmental stage of the child, the parental attitude, the financial situation, the custody battle, the visitation policies, the interactions between parents prior to and after divorce and the openness with which the subject is approached will interact to produce some effect, positive or negative, on the child. The question is, as professionals, what can we do to reduce the negative effects for this population at risk? It is comforting to note that the suffering caused by family disruptions, in general, are temporary. But there is no reason why school personnel, armed with appropriate information and understanding, cannot help to make the transition a little easier for the children. "For the sake of the children" should not be just a phrase associated with keeping unhappy marriages intact.

  16. Effect of couple’s schema therapy in decreasing couples’ tendency to divorce among divorce-applicant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Berdi Ozouni-Davaji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to survey the effect of couple’s schema therapy in reducing the tendency to divorce among divorce applicant couples. An experimental study was carried out in the form of single-subject design. The population study consisted of self-referential or referring couples to counseling centers as well as the counseling center of justice department. Three couples (wife and husband were selected using purposive sampling method. Couple’s schema therapy was conducted during 20 sessions with two-month follow-up. To collect data, demographic checklist and Rusbult tendency to divorce questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using visual analysis, improvement percentage, reliable change index, and Cohen index. The findings showed that couple’s schema therapy decreased tendency to divorce among divorcing couples and this reduction was clinically meaningful and statistically reliable (Reliable Change Index, RCI>1.96, The reduction in the tendency to divorce remained after two months and changes were clinically meaningful and statistically reliable (RCI>1.96, indicating the efficacy of couple’s schema therapy in decreasing the tendency to divorce among couples

  17. Red states, blue states, and divorce: understanding the impact of conservative Protestantism on regional variation in divorce rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Why do states with larger proportions of religious conservatives have higher divorce rates than states with lower proportions of religious conservatives? This project examines whether earlier transitions to marriage and parenthood among conservative Protestants (known risk factors for divorce) contribute to this paradox while attending to other plausible explanations. County-level demographic information from all 50 states is combined from a variety of public data sources and merged with individual records from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate both aggregated county and multilevel individual models of divorce. Results show that individual religious conservatism is positively related to individual divorce risk, solely through the earlier transitions to adulthood and lower incomes of conservative Protestants. However, the proportion of conservative Protestants in a county is also independently and positively associated with both the divorce rate in that county and an individual's likelihood of divorcing. The earlier family formation and lower levels of educational attainment and income in counties with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants can explain a substantial portion of this association. Little support is found for alternative explanations of the association between religious conservatism and divorce rates, including the relative popularity of marriage versus cohabitation across counties.

  18. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  19. Evidence-based process for decision-making in the analysis of legal demands for medicines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aragão Figueiredo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal actions have been playing a significant role as an alternative pathway to access to medicines in Brazil. These lawsuits demand medicines used in Primary Health Care as well as medicines that are still in clinical research and have not been market approved by the Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA. The goal was to analyze medicines demanded through lawsuits brought to the judicial district which includes the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July/2007 to June/2008. The medicines in 281 lawsuits were examined for their respective indications, classified according to their presence in publicly-funded lists, market approval by ANVISA, compliance with national clinical guidelines, existence of alternative therapies in lists and support of indication by scientific evidence. Six different categories were described, which are deemed useful to managers and the Judiciary in decision-making. The support of evidence is of utmost importance for medicines that are not included in public funding lists and also for those with no available therapeutic alternatives.

  20. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  1. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  2. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  3. Socioeconomic differentials in divorce risk by duration of marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.

  4. A Qualitative Study for Investigating the Reasons of Sexual Infidelity of Couples who have Asked for Divorce in Family Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مجتبی حبیبی عسگرآباد

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the reasons of couples’ sexual infidelity in family courts. As such, 42 participants were selected with a purposive sampling method and were interviewed through a semi-structured interview, juridical testimonies, and also interviewed by judges in charge for the case in order to find out why they had had extra marital sexual relationships. Finally, data were analyzed with conventional content analysis. Results illustrated that the three main factors of sexual infidelity were interpersonal, spousal, and social relationships. It was hard to infer that real sexual intimacy solely could explain application for divorce. In addition, findings indicated that men react to the sexual infidelity aggressively and sued for divorce but women had intertwined behaviors. Meanwhile, women apply for divorce after 6 months, providing evidence that the sexual infidelity has repeated. This underlines the fact that providing marital consultation before marriage help couples in order to avoid marriage break up later. So, is seems necessary in legal proceedings to take steps to understand the phenomenon in a social context and provide better social health services.

  5. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression ...

  6. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to well-child clinics. A total of 2600 children participated (response rate: 70%). Before the visit, parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist and a questionnaire with questions about divorce or separation. We assessed the associations of children's EBP with a divorce either in the previous year or at any time in the past after adjustment for other child and family factors. Four percent of the children had parents who had divorced before the child reached the age of 2-4 years, and 3.4% of these parents had divorced in the previous year. EBP (and particularly behavioural problems) were more likely in children aged 2-4 years old in cases of lifetime divorce or separation. This association was weaker after adjustment for relevant child and family characteristics: it may be partly due to confounding factors such as paternal education level, ethnicity and family size. A divorce in the previous year was not linked to child EBP. These findings show the importance of identifying care needs and providing care for pre-school children whose parents have divorced since they suggest that there may be negative effects in the longer term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-02-01

    Although divorce typically follows an extended period of unhappiness that begins early in marriage, some couples who are very happy throughout the first several years of marriage will also go on to divorce. This study aimed to identify risk factors early in marriage that distinguish initially satisfied couples who eventually divorce from those who remain married. We identified 136 couples reporting stably high levels of relationship satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. We compared the couples who went on to divorce by the 10-year follow-up with the couples who remained married on initial measures of commitment, observed communication, stress, and personality. Divorcing couples displayed more negative communication, emotion, and social support as newlyweds compared with couples who did not divorce. No significant differences were found in the other domains, in relationship satisfaction, or in positive behaviors. Overall, results indicate that even couples who are very successful at navigating the early years of marriage can be vulnerable to later dissolution if their interpersonal exchanges are poorly regulated. We speculate that, paradoxically, the many strengths possessed by these couples may mask their potent interpersonal liabilities, posing challenges for educational interventions designed to help these couples.

  9. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  10. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  11. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  12. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos.

  13. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Araszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  14. Emotionality and self-regulation, threat appraisal, and coping in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, L J; Sandler, I N; West, S G; Wolchik, S A; Curran, P J

    1999-01-01

    A model of the effects of children's temperament (negative and positive emotionality, impulsivity and attention focusing) on post-divorce threat appraisals, coping (active and avoidant), and psychological symptoms (depression and conduct problems) was investigated. The study utilized a sample of 223 mothers and children (ages 9 to 12 years) who had experienced divorce within the last two years. Evidence was found of direct effects of child-report negative emotionality on children's threat perceptions and of child-report positive emotionality and impulsivity on children's coping. Indirect effects of negative emotionality on active and avoidant coping through threat appraisal were found. Direct effects of the temperament variables on symptoms were also found. Cross group analyses indicated that the models were robust to age differences, but gender differences were found in the relation between negative emotionality and depression. The results of this study indicate that temperament and threat appraisals are important predictors of children's post-divorce symptoms, and that temperament is a predictor of children's appraisal and coping process.

  15. Who gets custody now? Dramatic changes in children's living arrangements after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Brown, Patricia R; Cook, Steven T

    2014-08-01

    This article reexamines the living arrangements of children following their parents' divorce, using Wisconsin Court Records, updating an analysis that showed relatively small but significant increases in shared custody in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These changes have accelerated markedly in the intervening years: between 1988 and 2008, the proportion of mothers granted sole physical custody fell substantially, the proportion of parents sharing custody increased dramatically, and father-sole custody remained relatively stable. We explore changes in the correlates of alternative custody outcomes, showing that some results from the earlier analysis still hold (for example, cases with higher total family income are more likely to have shared custody), but other differences have lessened (shared-custody cases have become less distinctive as they have become more common). Despite the considerable changes in marriage and divorce patterns over this period, we do not find strong evidence that the changes in custody are related to changes in the characteristics of families experiencing a divorce; rather, changes in custody may be the result of changes in social norms and the process by which custody is determined.

  16. Legal developments and problems of the Bologna process within the European higher education area and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) for the transfer of period of study abroad; joint degrees; and quality assurance aspects among others. Guidelines for Quality...

  17. Domestic violence: legal issues for health care practitioners and institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, A

    1996-01-01

    If health care practitioners and institutions became familiar with legal options available to survivors of domestic violence, they could better facilitate their patients' access to potentially life-saving recourses. Such options include calling the police and obtaining civil protection orders and bringing custody, divorce, and support actions. Provider awareness of legal obligations and other legal considerations that arise when handling domestic violence cases is important for patient care and the practice of good risk management. Examples of such issues include domestic violence protocol requirements, documentation of abuse, and repercussions of mandatory reporting laws. Health care providers should work in collaboration with community domestic violence programs in educating staff on issues pertaining to domestic violence and in crafting policies that promote patient safety and autonomy.

  18. The role of the father after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R A

    1994-01-01

    Fathers figure prominently in a child's postdivorce life whether they are involved or disinterested, but concerns about inadequate child support, noncustodial fathers who fail to visit, and the economic plight of single mothers have together raised policy questions about how better to enfranchise fathers with the rights and responsibilities of parenting and ensure them a continuing and meaningful role in the lives of their offspring. This article focuses on obstacles and avenues to ensuring a meaningful postdivorce parenting role for fathers by examining the effects on them of custody standards, visitation policies, child support guidelines and their enforcement, and the other economic arrangements surrounding contemporary divorce. In the end, public policies that foster the child's unconflicted relationships with each parent in the context of reliable and adequate economic support will require new ways of structuring relations between ex-spouses in the interests of offspring (for example, new approaches to custody and visitation), nonadversarial modes of assisted dispute resolution to accommodate postdivorce changes in family life, child support policies which guarantee that a child's economic needs will be met when parents are unable to provide adequately (and that assist parents who are unable to provide), and that recognize and ensure both the relational and the economic contributions of each parent to a child's well-being.

  19. Change and Stability in the Social Determinants of Divorce : A Comparison of Marriage Cohorts in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Paul M. de; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses historical developments in the effects of five social determinants of divorce in the Netherlands: parental socioeconomic status, educational attainment, religion, parental divorce, and having children. Employing a national survey with information about 1,356 divorces, from

  20. Mental distress predicts divorce over 16 years: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idstad, Mariann; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Borren, Ingrid; Rognmo, Kamilla; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    The association between mental distress and divorce is well established in the literature. Explanations are commonly classified within two different frameworks; social selection (mentally distressed people are selected out of marriage) and social causation (divorce causes mental distress). Despite a relatively large body of literature on this subject, selection effects are somewhat less studied, and research based on data from both spouses is scarce. The purpose of the present study is to investigate selection effects both at the individual level and the couple level. The current study is based on couple-level data from a Norwegian representative sample including 20,233 couples. Long-term selection effects were tested for by means of Cox proportional hazard models, using mental distress in both partners at baseline as predictors of divorce the next 16 years. Three identical sets of analyses were run. The first included the total sample, whereas the second and third excluded couples who divorced within the first 4 or 8 years after baseline, respectively. An interaction term between mental distress in husband and in wife was specified and tested. Hazard of divorce was significantly higher in couples with one mentally distressed partner than in couples with no mental distress in all analyses. There was also a significant interaction effect showing that the hazard of divorce for couples with two mentally distressed partners was higher than for couples with one mentally distressed partner, but lower than what could be expected from the combined main effects of two mentally distressed partners. Our results suggest that mentally distressed individuals are selected out of marriage. We also found support for a couple-level effect in which spouse similarity in mental distress to a certain degree seems to protect against divorce.

  1. MEANING OF PROPOSING DIVORCE IN TUBAN REGENCY OF EAST JAVA (Matrilocal Residence in Proposing Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulin Na`mah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of nafkah (money given by husband to his wife for household expenses in family life often becomes a source of conflict. Moreover, nafkah often becomes a reason for husband and wife for divorce. This is due to the obligation for providing nafkah is relied on husband (man rather than wife (woman. Yet, on the one hand, “nafkah relied on husband” is often used by husband to powerfully control over his wife. On the other hand, in a culture of matrilocal residence (in wife’s home with her parents, “nafkah relied on husband” can be also used by wife to powerfully control her husband  and this becomes a means for woman to subordinate and oppress her husband. Furthemore, for both husband or wife, “nafkah relied on husband” may often becomes a trigger to divorce. Therefore, it is important to redefine such strict division of gender role and contextually give more priority to equality in gender role in households life.Copyright (c 2015 by Al-Ihkam. All right reserved DOI : 10.19105/al-ihkam.v10i2.715

  2. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  3. The documental management of the Educational Secretary as guarantee of legality in the control of the university processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Armenteros Arencibia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogic professional formation aspires to obtain superior results in the documental management in order to guarantee the required confidence in the norms and p rocedures. The present article deal the theoretical bases that should be took into account for such aspiration, making emphasis in the characteristics of this process in the faculty of Infantile Education of the U CP the Pinar del Río.

  4. Divorced eutectic in a HPDC magnesium-aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbagallo, S.; Laukli, H.I.; Lohne, O.; Cerri, E.

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of the eutectic in a thin-wall high pressure die cast (HPDC) U-shape AM60 magnesium box was investigated by light microscope, SEM, TEM and EPMA. The extremely fast cooling rate taking place in the solidification process produces a highly segregated zone near the boundaries of small grains and a fine distribution of β particles, which is typical of a completely divorced eutectic. It was shown that the segregated zone is coherent with the primary α-Mg grain core even if the increased aluminium content produces a deformation of the hexagonal crystal lattice, which was estimated through diffraction patterns (SADP). The variation of the alloying elements content through the grain boundaries was shown by means of EPMA line scanning. The β particle composition was quantitatively investigated and the results show that, in comparison with the equilibrium phase diagram, the non-equilibrium phase boundary of the Mg 17 Al 12 region is moved some percent towards the lower aluminium content, at the high cooling rate that occurs in high pressure die castings. The cubic structure of the β phase was revealed by diffraction pattern. The presence of small Al-Mn particles both inside the grain and in the boundary region was also put in evidence by TEM

  5. Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culina, Antica; Hinde, Camilla A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-10-22

    Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unstudied. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred. Using detailed data on the winter social networks of great tits, we tested whether the probability of subsequent divorce, a year later, could be predicted by measures of the social environment at the time of pairing. We found that males that had a lower proportion of female associates, and whose partner ranked lower among these, as well as inexperienced breeders, were more likely to divorce after breeding. We found no evidence that a female's social environment influenced the probability of divorce. Our findings highlight the importance of the social environment that individuals experience during initial pair formation on later pairing outcomes, and demonstrate that such effects can be delayed. Exploring these extended effects of the social environment can yield valuable insights into processes and selective pressures acting upon the mating strategies that individuals adopt. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Predictors of Involvement and Warmth of Custodial Fathers in Israel: Comparison with Married and Noncustodial Divorced Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the levels and predictors of paternal warmth and involvement of 218 custodial fathers to 222 married fathers and 105 noncustodial (NC) divorced fathers in Israel. The examined predictors were fathers' perceptions of their own fathers; their own caregiving behaviors and parental self-efficacy; and child characteristics and coparental coordination. Results indicated that being a custodial father was associated with more involvement than being a married or NC divorced father. Regression analyses revealed that experience of care with own father predicted fathers' involvement, whereas own father control was related to lower paternal warmth. Lower avoidant caregiving and high paternal self-efficacy predicted both paternal involvement and warmth, whereas perceiving the child as more difficult predicted lower paternal warmth. Higher levels of coparental coordination were associated with more paternal involvement, whereas low coparental coordination was associated with less involvement, primarily among NC divorced fathers. These interactions highlight the distinct paternal behavior of custodial fathers. Unlike married and NC divorced fathers, they showed more warmth, regardless of their avoidant caregiving. Results are discussed in light of the different roles played by fathers in the three groups. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  8. Family ties after divorce: long-term implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R

    2007-03-01

    Drawing on the data from the longitudinal Binuclear Family Study, 173 grown children were interviewed 20 years after their parents' divorce. This article addresses two basic questions: (1) What impact does the relationship between parents have on their children 20 years after the divorce? and (2) When a parent remarries or cohabits, how does it impact a child's sense of family? The findings show that the parental subsystem continues to impact the binuclear family 20 years after marital disruption by exerting a strong influence on the quality of relationships within the family system. Children who reported that their parents were cooperative also reported better relationships with their parents, grandparents, stepparents, and siblings. Over the course of 20 years, most of the children experienced the remarriage of one or both parents, and one third of this sample remembered the remarriage as more stressful than the divorce. Of those who experienced the remarriage of both of their parents, two thirds reported that their father's remarriage was more stressful than their mother's. When children's relationships with their fathers deteriorated after divorce, their relationships with their paternal grandparents, stepmother, and stepsiblings were distant, negative, or nonexistent. Whether family relationships remain stable, improve, or get worse is dependent on a complex interweaving of many factors. Considering the long-term implications of divorce, the need to emphasize life course and family system perspectives is underscored.

  9. All God's children: religion, divorce, and child custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzband, M G

    2000-01-01

    Many young Americans, married and marriageable, are turning to more traditional or fundamentalist religions. Religiosity and ultra-strict morality often leads to attitudes that alter decision-making in marriage, divorce, and the disposition of the children of divorce. Judgmental pastoral counseling may affect these decisions even more. This paper discusses these issues, emphasizing the need for forensic psychiatrists involved in the custody arena to be aware of the religious, spiritual, irreligious, or even anti-religious feelings of the battling partners. It also presents detailed information about the four major American religions (Roman Catholicism, traditional Judaism, Mormonism, and Islam) that have specific doctrine, protocols, or customs affecting decisions in marriage, divorce, and child custody and visitation. This information is presented from the viewpoint of a child advocate. Mental health experts consulting in child custody must understand the backgrounds of the battling parents, including the religious pressures that well may adversely affect their interspousal disputes, particularly those over child custody. The experts must also recognize the attitudes of the religious communities in which the custodial parent may reside after divorce. Those attitudes may be rejecting of the children as well as of the divorced parent(s). Mental health experts may have a better chance to reach agreement between the battling parents if the experts reverse the historic reluctance of psychiatrists to evaluate and discuss the religious feelings and beliefs of their forensic evaluatees.

  10. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936

  11. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C

    2011-12-01

    Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. 20 CFR 218.43 - When a surviving divorced spouse annuity ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Act that is equal to or larger than the amount of the full surviving divorced spouse annuity before... which the surviving divorced spouse remarries unless the marriage is to an individual entitled to a...

  13. Stigma of Mental Illness as Cause of Divorce in Byzantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassia Nestor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Byzantium mentally ill persons were stigmatized, despite the fact that they could live normally. This stigma consisted a very serious problem not only for the patients themselves, but also for their families.Through the legislation of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and also the Leo's VI the Wise (9th – 10th A.C. legislation, mental illness was a main health cause of divorce and it concerned both males and females.During these years men were treated different than women, which had to wait five years in order to get a divorce. On the opposite men had to wait only three years to get a divorce for the cause of mentally retarded wife.

  14. Effects of parental divorce and youth unemployment on adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, M; Spruijt, E

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into the effects of two important events on adolescent health in the life course of youngsters, namely parental divorce and being unemployed. We made use of the dataset of the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development, a longitudinal panel study, based on a representative sample of young people in the Netherlands (12-24 years old). We used the data of non-school-going youngsters who are at least 18 years old. Parental divorce does indeed have negative effects on adolescent health: however, this applies only for girls. Being unemployed or having been unemployed has negative effects on psychological health, especially for boys. But this experience does not have negative effects on physical health, either for boys or girls. Any conclusions on the consequences of parental divorce and youth unemployment for adolescent health have to be specified, at least for sex.

  15. Parental divorce, sibship size, family resources, and children's academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-09-01

    Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.

  16. Conflits et divorce dans les couples mixtes italo-marocains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Parisi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available  Nowday, mixed couples, in Italy, as well as elsewhere in Europe, are a growing phenomenon, directly related to the migration and to the globalization of human mobility. Despite the tendency to choose a foreign spouse, the Italian society continues to look at this marriage ambivalently. Based on ethnographic research on the Italian-Moroccan families, the article specifically address the issues related to the divorce. Thanks to research data it will be possible to highlight how the different positions of the subjects in the conflict produces a different narrative and reconstruction of family and couples crisis and of divorce also we will see how the gender difference produces a different conceptualization of conflict and of divorce.

  17. The Effects of Near and Actual Parental Divorce on Student Achievement and Misbehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mark L. Hoekstra

    2007-01-01

    It is well-documented that children whose parents divorced experience worse outcomes than children from two-parent families. However, data and methodological limitations have made it difficult to know whether declines were evident prior to the divorce or whether the declines were due to the unobserved time-varying factors that caused the parents to file for divorce. This paper addresses these questions by linking public records on divorce to child-level data on reading and mathematics composi...

  18. Does Culture Affect Divorce Decisions? Evidence from European Immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla-Sanz, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of culture in determining divorce decisions by examining country of origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of US laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home country variables including average church at...

  19. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  20. Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment / Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  1. Predictors of Attachment Security in Preschool Children from Intact and Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Hira; Murray, Ann D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors selected 58 mother-child dyads from divorced and intact families to participate in a study on the impact of divorce on preschoolers' attachment security. The authors explored pathways that lead to security of attachment. They found that mothers from divorced families were younger, had lower income levels, and had lower levels of…

  2. [The impact of parental divorce on the relationships of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, A

    1996-08-01

    "The 1993 Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey shows that parental divorce has an impact on (the attitudes towards) relationships of young adults. Children of divorced parents leave home at an earlier age and have a stronger preference for cohabitation. Once a relationship (cohabitation or marriage) has started, it is more likely to end in separation or divorce." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  3. Consequences of Divorce in Infancy: Three Case Studies of Growth Faltering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solchany, JoAnne

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is difficult for any child to deal with, but for our youngest children it presents a host of risks and challenges. Attachment has often been at the forefront of many divorce and visitation discussions, particularly in relation to overnight visitation. The case studies presented here address another dimension of the impact of divorce on…

  4. Children in Divorce, Custody and Access Situations: The Contribution of the Mental Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    Reviews literature concerned with the contribution of mental health professionals to the well-being of children of divorce. Topics include effects of divorce on children, divorce prevention, predivorce counseling, custody conflicts, postdivorce counseling, and changes in social and educational practices. (Author/DB)

  5. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  6. Relationship between Therapists' Knowledge about Divorce Effects and Marital Therapy Intervention Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jan; And Others

    The effects of divorce on children have been greatly disputed among therapists. Since the perceived harmfulness of divorce may affect how marital counseling is done, this study examined how therapists' beliefs about divorce consequences are related to their intervention preferences. A two-part questionnaire was devised to be administered to…

  7. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used…

  8. Adult Children of Divorce and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…

  9. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…

  10. Divorce Transitions: Identifying Risk and Promoting Resilience for Children and Their Parental Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gill Gorrell

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. Describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and post-divorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. Some interactions that may promote resilience in…

  11. Effects of Divorce on Children: Differential Impact of Custody and Visitation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Carol R.; Settle, Shirley A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the research literature on children's experience of the restructuring of the family following divorce. The effects of divorce are organized according to differences observed as a function of the child's age and gender, parental conflict, post-divorce family stability, and parent-child relationships. Conflict reducing custody arrangements…

  12. Gender Differences in Remarriage after Divorce in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Laurel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in the likelihood of remarriage after divorce in Japan and the United States. Compared the sex ratio of the currently divorced with the sex ratio of the currently married to suggest that Japanese women are disproportionately disadvantaged by divorce, relative to American White women of the same age. (TE)

  13. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  14. Evidence-Based Counseling Interventions with Children of Divorce: Implications for Elementary School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Marianne E.; Green, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Parental divorce has become increasingly common for large numbers of families in schools (Lamden, King, & Goldman, 2002). This article addresses the effects of divorce on children and protective factors supporting their adjustment. Evidence-based interventions for children of divorce in elementary school counseling programs are discussed.…

  15. 22 CFR 19.10-4 - Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage after retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage...-4 Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage after retirement. (a) If the marriage of an annuitant... spouse is dissolved by divorce or by death of the spouse, the retiree's annuity shall be recomputed, if...

  16. The Complex Relationship between Parental Divorce and the Sense of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2011-01-01

    How does parental divorce influence the sense of control in adult offspring? Numerous studies have examined the implications of parental divorce on adult psychological well-being. However, little attention has been paid to the long-term consequences of parental divorce for adult sense of control. Using data from the Survey of Aging, Status, and…

  17. 22 CFR 52.2 - Authentication of marriage and divorce documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication of marriage and divorce....2 Authentication of marriage and divorce documents. (a) Whenver a consular officer is requested to... divorce. [31 FR 13546, Oct. 20, 1966. Redesignated at 51 FR 26247, July 22, 1986] ...

  18. Deciding Not to Un-Do the "I Do:" Therapy Experiences of Women Who Consider Divorce But Decide to Remain Married.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewischer, Erica J W; Harris, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    This study explores women's experience of marital therapy while they navigated decision making around divorce. A qualitative method was used to gain a deeper understanding of the participants' therapy and relationship decision-making experiences. How are women's decisions whether or not to exit their marriage affected by therapy? The researchers interviewed 15 women who had considered initiating divorce before they turned 40 and had attended at least five marital therapy sessions but ultimately decided not to divorce. In general, participants reported that the therapy was helpful to them, their decision-making process and their marriages. Five main themes emerged from the interviews: Women Initiated Therapy, Therapist Was Experienced as Unbiased, Therapy was Helpful, Importance of Extra-therapeutic Factors, and Gradual Process. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. Family and legal indicators of child adjustment to divorce among families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Marsha Kline; Williams, Tamra Y; Insabella, Glendessa; Little, Todd D

    2003-06-01

    This research used structural equation modeling to examine relations among family dynamics, attorney involvement, and the adjustment of young children (0-6 years) at the time of parental separation. The article presents baseline data (N = 102 nonresidential fathers and N = 110 primary caretaking mothers) from a larger longitudinal study. Results showed that the effects of parental conflict on child outcomes were mediated by paternal involvement, the parent-child relationship, and attorney involvement. A scale assessing parental gatekeeping yielded two significant factors: Spouse's Influence on Parenting and Positive View of Spouse. Paternal involvement was related to children's adaptive behavior, whereas negative changes in parent-child relationships predicted behavior problems. Mothers who experienced greater psychological symptomatology were less likely to utilize an attorney, which in turn predicted greater internalizing problems in their children.

  20. POST-DIVORCE PATERNAL CUSTODIAL RIGHTS OF UNDERAGE CHILDREN: LEGAL ANTHROPOLOGY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Triratnawati

    2016-06-01

    Tulisan ini membahas tren hak asuh anak di bawah umur pasca perceraian jatuh di tangan bapak. Studi Antropologi Hukum dilakukan dengan mewawancara 15 pasangan cerai dengan hak pengasuhan jatuh ke tangan bapak. Kecenderungan pengasuhan anak ke tangan bapak dilatarbelakangi faktor istri: selingkuh, tabiat buruk, penelantaran anak, bermusuhan pada mertua perempuan, ingin cepat bercerai tanpa beban mengasuh anak. Bapak menerima tanggung jawab sebagai pengasuh anak karena ingin menunjukkan bahwa ia mampu secara ekonomi; agar mudah mengawasi tumbuh kembang anak; memudahkan saat anak perempuannya nanti membutuhkan dirinya sebagai wali nikah serta ingin mencurahkan kasih sayang. Bapak mengasuh anak dengan bantuan kerabatnya.

  1. Technology Transfer in Digital Era: Legal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Anatol’yevich Bliznets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of disruptive technology in the digital era is the ruling condition of modern sustainable development. The authors proceed from the fact that legal tools for the creation and use, protection of advanced technologies provide the technology transfer process from the owner to interested parties for further practical, commercial application or further improvement. The article analyzes the legal positions of the concept of technology, legal ways to use modern technologies, stages of their implementation and practical application. In the innovation process legal mechanism in combination with the modern means of innovative development stimulates the creation and transfer of new technologies and at the same time it is a key factor for sustainable development in the context of modern digital technology revolution. In the modern digital revolution, the technology transfer acquires new features and ways for the dissemination of technical innovation, which creates new challenges for legal theory and practice, and legal tools should meet the challenges of the time.

  2. Some considerations on the legal regulation of the process for public licitation, contracts and agreements on the establishment of educational partnerships between the government and the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Dragone Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the joint between the public administration and the private sector assumes new contours in function of the of the Brazilian State reform, configuring itself as a trend that if it has accented in the educational area, in the São Paulo’s cities, from the municipalization (municipal ownership of elementary school education, with the consolidation of partnerships and agreements involving the purchase of educational private system’s for municipal education net’s, the vacant subvention in private entities and the hiring of private institutions, aiming at the elaboration of educational politics for the management municipal. (ADRIÃO, BORGHI, 2008. Thus being, this article to look for introduce and to analyze, from the national legislation, the procedures for the establishment of these different partnership’s modalities between the municipal government and private institutions, physical or corporation body, discussing the rules for the licitation process for the services and works hiring, property and consumer goods acquisition, for the contracts celebration and the accords establishment with social organizations to transfer it of public resources, to look for understand the legal possibilities for the introduction of the privatizations mechanisms in the education.

  3. Is Divorce More Painful When Couples Have Children? Evidence From Long-Term Panel Data on Multiple Domains of Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2016-12-01

    Theoretical models of the divorce process suggest that marital breakup is more painful in the presence of children, yet little is known about the role of children as a moderator of divorce effects on adult well-being. The present study addresses this gap of research based on long-term panel data from Germany (SOEP). Following individuals over several years before and after divorce, we investigated whether the impact of divorce on multiple measures of well-being varied by the presence and age of children before marital breakup. Three central findings emerged from the analysis. First, declines in well-being were sharper in the presence of children, and these moderator effects were larger if children were younger. Second, domain-specific measures of well-being revealed gender differences in the moderating role of children. Mothers sustained deeper drops in economic well-being than did fathers; the reverse was true for family well-being. Third, most of these disproportionate declines in the well-being of divorced parents did not persist in the long term given that higher rates of adaptation leveled out the gaps compared with childless divorcees.

  4. COMPLEX OF METHODICAL MEANS OF FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND LEGAL COMPETENCE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF NATURAL SCIENCES EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey B. Ignatov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to present the ways and a technique of formation of students’ ecological and legal competence at humanities departments of high schools in the course of studying of natural sciences. Methods and results. Having applied the methods of pedagogical modelling and using resources of natural-science disciplines, the author has developed a new complex based on structure and maintenance of the methodical tools that is directed at ecological and legal competence of high...

  5. Pre-divorce problems in 3-year-olds: a prospective study in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana C C; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, C E M Toos; Verhulst, Frank C; Huizink, Anja C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-04-01

    We examined to what extent internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 preceded and predicted parental divorce, and if divorce and the time lapse since divorce were related to internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12. Parental ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a large sample (N = 6,426) of 3-year-old children. All these children were followed through the age of 12 years, at which parents completed the CBCL again, while teachers completed the Teacher's Report Form. Children whose parents divorced between age 3 and age 12 were compared with children whose families remained intact. Girls whose parents divorced between ages 3 and 12 already showed more externalizing problems at age 3 than girls whose parents stayed married. Higher levels of externalizing problems in girls at age 3 predicted later parental divorce. Parental reports indicated that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents. Levels of teacher-reported problems were not different between children with married versus divorced parents. However, children whose parents divorced between ages 3 and 12 showed more teacher-rated internalizing problems at age 12 when the divorce was more recent than when the divorce was less recent. Parental ratings of both internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12 were not associated with the time lapse since divorce. Externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. Post-divorce problems in children vary by raters, and may depend on the time lapse since divorce.

  6. Legislative provisions related to marriage and divorce of persons with mental health problems: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.

  7. Age at first marriage, education and divorce: the case of the U.S.A..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, P T

    1991-01-01

    "This paper presents an analysis of the determinants of the age of marriage and the probability of divorce among women in the United States." The author hypothesizes that the possibility of divorce enters into women's decision to marry. "As expected, empirical results indicate that in the United States, where it is easier to obtain divorce, women tend to marry earlier. Furthermore, Catholic women tend to marry later....Results seem to indicate the age at marriage and education should not be considered to be exogenous in the study of the probability of divorce. Another important result is that women who marry earlier...show a lower probability of divorce...." excerpt

  8. Children of divorce-coping with divorce: A randomized control trial of an online prevention program for youth experiencing parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Jesse L; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Horan, John J; Vélez, Clorinda E

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate an online coping skills program to prevent mental health problems in children and adolescents from divorced or separated families. Children ages 11-16 (N = 147) whose families had filed for divorce were recruited using public court records. Participants were blocked by risk-score and randomly assigned to either a control (Internet self-study condition, Best of the Net (BTN) or the experimental intervention, Children of Divorce-Coping With Divorce (CoD-CoD), a 5-module highly interactive online program to promote effective coping skills. Program effects were tested on measures of children's self-reported coping and parent and youth reports of children's mental health problems. Significant main effects indicated that youth in CoD-CoD improved more on self-reported emotional problems relative to BTN youth (d = .37) and had a lower rate of clinically significant self-reported mental health problems (OR = .58, p = .04). A significant Baseline × Treatment interaction indicated that the 55% of youth with highest baseline problems improved more than those in BTN on their self-report of total mental health problems. A significant interaction effect indicated that CoD-CoD improved youth coping efficacy for the 30% of those with the lowest baseline coping efficacy. For the 10% of youth with lowest parent-reported risk at baseline, those who received BTN had lower problems than CoD-CoD participants. CoD-CoD was effective in reducing youth-reported mental health problems and coping efficacy particularly for high risk youth. Parent-report indicated that, relative to BTN, CoD-CoD had a negative effect on mental health problems for a small group with the lowest risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  10. Experience of young adults from divorced families | Spalding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of particular interest was how the parent-child relationships in divorced homes foster personal identifications and how this affects the individual's ability to separate from the family of origin as well as the young adult's patterns of relating to others in intimate relationships. The design of the study was qualitative and data was ...

  11. Parental Divorce, Adolescents' Feelings toward Parents and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3,

  12. Separated and Divorced Women in India: Economic Rights and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... Based on a survey of more than 400 women, this book exposes the miserable financial conditions endured by India's separated and divorced women. The law does not provide them with the right to any of the property and assets that they have helped to acquire during the marital relationship. The book ...

  13. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study of the impact of marital separation/divorce on children aged 3-17 during the 12-month period following the parental separation. Results suggests that a child's adjustment is directly related to the amount of interparent hostility to which the child has been exposed. (Author)

  14. When Death or Divorce Occur: Helping Children Cope with Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Suzy Yehl

    Parental death or divorce can have serious effects on children. It is important for adults and teachers to provide support and to be available to listen to the child on an age appropriate level. This paper describes the emotional impact of loss on children both when a marriage is ending and when a parent is seriously ill or is recently deceased.…

  15. Book Review: Everyone's guide to divorce and separation | Strong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Everyone's guide to divorce and separation. Book Author: Bertus Preller. 2013, Zebra Press, Cape Town. 205 pages. ISBN number: 978 1 77022 5299 (Paperback). Price: ZAR 257.00. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Psychological Maltreatment in the Context of Separation and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Gunther

    1993-01-01

    This article examines effects of separation and divorce on children in the context of possible psychological maltreatment. Common behavior patterns of children in this situation are discussed in terms of those that are acceptable and those that must be considered harmful. (Author/DB)

  17. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Klein Velderman, M.; Cloostermans, A.P.G.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2–4 years. Methods: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2–4 years within the setting of the national system

  18. Children's health and their mothers' risk of divorce or separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesch, J M; Smith, K R

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how children's health conditions are related to their mothers' risk of divorce or separation. The study is based on data from over 7,000 children born to once-married mothers identified in the 1988 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey. The effects of 15 childhood health conditions on the mothers' risk of divorce are estimated with Cox's proportional hazard models. Controlling for demographic, marital, and reproductive measures, we find that mothers' prospects for divorce are affected both positively or negatively by their children's health status, depending on the type of childhood condition and, in the case of low birth weight children, timing within the marriage. Women whose children have congenital heart disease, cerebral palsy, are blind, or had low birth weight appear to have higher risks of marital disruption than mothers of healthy children. In contrast, mothers whose children have migraines, learning disabilities, respiratory allergies, missing/deformed digits or limbs, or asthma have somewhat lower rates of divorce.

  19. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  20. Mid-Life Divorce Counseling. Family Psychology and Counseling Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer, Ed.

    At mid-life, almost every marriage undergoes a crisis, but most people are looking for a way to get through this crisis, and not for a way out of the marriage. This monograph examines the basic issues surrounding mid-life divorce. Several different perspectives are represented in this collection of articles as various clinicians discuss the…

  1. Participation of divorced single parents and their children in outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Divorce is one of the most stressful events a child or adult might ever experience. Enhancing family functioning is a key intended outcome in designing family leisure programmes aimed at developing life-enhancing attitudes and relationships. Nonetheless, the actual effects on families participating in such programmes, ...

  2. What do Dutch lawyers actually do in divorce cases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, John

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a four-pronged research project concerning the behavior of Dutch divorce lawyers, in which lawyers, judges, and clients were interviewed and lawyer-client interaction directly observed. In the first part, some preliminary remarks are made on the practical and

  3. Examining the Relationship between Financial Issues and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Jeffrey; Britt, Sonya; Huston, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the National Survey of Families and Households and both wife- and husband-reported data (N = 4,574 couples), this study examined how financial well-being, financial disagreements, and perceptions of financial inequity were associated with the likelihood of divorce. When financial disagreements were in the model,…

  4. Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…

  5. De facto Divorce / 'Saifatu Fichi' (Amharic) | Aynalem | Mizan Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De facto Divorce / 'Saifatu Fichi' (Amharic). F Aynalem. Abstract. (No Abstract). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  6. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  7. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce. Copnall, James 2017. London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the.

  8. Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…

  9. Parental divorce and sibling relationships : a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of

  10. Bouncing Back: Erikson, Maslow and Recovery from Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnofsky, Stan

    Counseling for recovery from divorce may be significantly enhanced if a general model of emotional health/deficiency can be applied. This article introduces an amalgam of Erik Erikson's developmental stages and Abraham Maslow's motivational hierarchy as a means of understanding the rigors of marital dissolution. The paradigm promotes client…

  11. Where Did it Go Wrong? Marriage and Divorce in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); B. de Rock (Bram); S. Walther (Selma); F. Vermeulen (Frederic)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDo individuals divorce for economic reasons? Can we measure the attractiveness of new matches in the marriage market? We answer these questions using a structural model of the household and a rich panel dataset from Malawi. We propose a model of the household with consumption, production

  12. Halos vs. Stigmas: Long-Term Effects of Parent's Death or Divorce on College Students' Concepts of the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendal, Frederick G.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effect of parental death or divorce on 351 college students. Results showed children of divorce rated father less favorably and rated divorce more favorably than other students. Results suggested long-term stigmas attached to family among children of divorce but no halo effect for children of deceased parents. (JAC)

  13. The short-term and decade-long effects of divorce on women's midlife health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Frederick O; Wickrama, K A S; Conger, Rand D; Elder, Glen H

    2006-06-01

    We hypothesize that divorce immediately increases psychological distress and has long-term negative consequences for the physical health of divorced people. In addition, we hypothesize that divorce indirectly causes long-term increases in distress through stressful midlife events. The hypotheses are tested using data from 416 rural Iowa women who were interviewed repeatedly in the early 1990s when they were mothers of adolescent children; the women were interviewed again in 2001. The data support the hypotheses. In the years immediately after their divorce (1991-1994), divorced women reported significantly higher levels ofpsychological distress than married women but no differences in physical illness. A decade later (in 2001), the divorced women reported significantly higher levels of illness, even after controlling for age, remarriage, education, income, and prior health. Compared to their married counterparts, divorced women reported higher levels of stressful life events between 1994 and 2000, which led to higher levels of depressive symptoms in 2001.

  14. Divorce, approaches to learning, and children's academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis of mediated and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Legal training of students in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Kablukov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.

  16. Divorce and health: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A

    2015-04-01

    Social relationships play a vital role in health and well-being, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This article reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce, and health outcomes. Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the article integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10%-15%) struggle quite substantially, and it seems that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation are discussed. To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes, (b) better studies of objective social behavior after separation, and (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high-risk adults.

  17. The clash of legal cultures over the ‘best interests of the child’ principle in cases of international parental child abduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, Wibo van

    2010-01-01

    Because of the increase in international love traffic, transnational problems in divorce, maintenance issues, visitation rights, custody over children, and cases of child abduction are here to stay. A clash of cultures is obvious in international child abduction cases in which Islamic legal cultures

  18. Divorce Is a Part of My Life . . . Resilience, Survival, and Vulnerability: Young Adults' Perception of the Implications of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar-Avidan, Dorit; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study among 22 young adults (20-25 years old) whose parents divorced during their childhood was conducted in Israel, using semi-structured, in-depth, open-ended interviews. Qualitative data analysis led to identification of three profiles, aiming at a grounded theoretical conceptualization. Three core themes were identified: the…

  19. Adam Nash: legally speaking, a happy ending or slippery slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockin, Susan

    2001-01-01

    The birth of Adam Nash, following IVF and then preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on the resulting 15 embryos to find which would be a potential bone marrow match for his older sibling, suffering from Fanconi's anaemia, is the first reported case of genetic selection of an embryo to save the life of an existing person. The case has stirred debates worldwide over the appropriateness and implications of using the technique for this and related purposes. Legally, it is suggested that embryos are indeed entitled to special respect because of their potential for life, but certain principles must not be overlooked, and the Nash case was wholly within acceptable legal principles. The legal perspective offered here concludes: (i) while embryos are entitled to certain protections, the mere fact that they are extracorporeal raises the danger that the rights and protections assigned to them will be wrongly elevated over the legally protected procreation rights of the adults who create them; (ii) divorce litigation involving "custody" of embryos is not a direct parallel and legal analogies must be distinguished; (iii) the status of embryos must be carefully defined; and (iv) a national or international, multi-disciplinary body should be created to grapple with the developing issues and uses that are sure to follow.

  20. Legal Education, Liberal Education, and the Trivial "Artes."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the influence of liberal education upon legal education, studying the historical process according to which changes of emphasis within liberal education (from rhetoric to dialectic or the reverse) have been reflected in related changes in legal education. (AYC)

  1. Changing roles of legal : on the impact of innovations on the role of legal professionals and legal departments in contracting practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Legal departments play a pivotal role in the quality of contracts and contracting processes within an organization. This article reflects on current developments and innovations in contracting practice and their impact on the role of legal professionals and legal departments within organizations.

  2. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  3. Using Comics to Communicate Legal Contract Cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Botes

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...

  4. European views of divorce among parents of young children: Understanding cross-national variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieke Rijken

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also expect that divorce involving young children is more accepted in countries where enrolment in child care is high. METHODS Our sample consists of 37,975 individuals from 22 countries, obtained from the European Social Survey (2006. We conduct multilevel regression analyses including individual-level and country-level variables. RESULTS Findings confirm our main hypotheses: the lower the poverty rate among single parents and the higher enrolment in childcare, the lower the disapproval of divorce when young children are involved. These findings remain when taking into account the crude divorce rate and secularisation at the country level, and when controlling for differences in the composition of populations with regard to individual characteristics that are associated with divorce attitudes. Additionally, cross-level interactions indicate that poverty among single parents has the strongest impact on mothers' divorce attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Divorce attitudes appear to be related to people's assessment of the consequences of divorce for the children involved. Cross-European differences in attitudes towards divorce involving young children are associated with two aspects of welfare states that are indicative of the consequences of divorce for children and the parent that takes care of them: poverty among single parents and child care.

  5. Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    2000-08-01

    To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.

  6. Mediation and Moderation of Divorce Effects on Children’s Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer; Schofield, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to age 15 in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity score-matched sample of children from intact families according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents’ separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 for teacher reports, or age 15 for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of pre-divorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their post-divorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PMID:25419913

  7. The Comparison of Self-differentiation and Self-concept in Divorced and Non-divorced Women Who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Fatemeh; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Rahmati Zadeh, Masoumeh

    2013-09-01

    A number of researches indicate that domestic violence (DV) causes abuse and vulnerability of women and children. Two components that can decrease violence and divorce are self-concept and self-differentiation. In this research, we compare self-differentiation and self-concept in divorced and non-divorced women that experience domestic violence. To achieve the goal of the research, 80 divorced women with domestic violence were chosen through available sampling and equalized with 80 non divorced women with domestic violence in aspect of age and education. They respond to instrument of self-differentiation (Skowron) and self-concept (Rodgers). Data was analyzed between the two groups using independent t-test. The significant level was (P concept than non-divorced women. In addition, there is a significant difference with respect to self-differentiation and self-concept in divorced and non-divorced women with domestic violence. These results emphasize that self-differentiation and self-concept can be considered in premarital education (therapeutic interventions) to protective conditions against the occurrence of DV.

  8. An investigation on the effectiveness of group psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality dimensions in divorced and non-divorce woman with low marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mehryar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality characteristics of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods: This clinical research conducted in the clients referred to Khane Roshan-e-Doost Psychological Studies Institute. They are evaluated clinically through interviews and questionnaires. So, 45 patients selected and divided in three equal groups of divorced women, non-divorced women (married with low marital satisfaction, and control group. Then, the groups of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction participated in 24 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy. To collect data, Cattel’s 16-item questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire were used. Data analyzed through multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of this study indicated that training of psychodynamic psychotherapy caused a significant change in personality traits in divorced women and in married women with low marital satisfaction. Only in factor B (intelligent - low intelligence and factor Q1 (conservatism there was no significant difference between experimental and control groups. The results of correlation between personality factors and low marital satisfaction pointed that there is a significant relationship between all factors of personality except the factor of conservatism.  Conclusion: Based on the results, psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in significant improvement of most of personality traits. Therefore, applying this method can be useful in improving marital personality traits, reducing divorce and maintaining mental health.

  9. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  10. Parental Divorce and Attitudes and Feelings toward Marriage and Divorce in Emerging Adulthood: New Insights from a Multiway-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie Collardeau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing parental divorce can exert long-term consequences on children’s attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Participants’ opinions on marriage and divorce were qualitatively coded and two themes selected based on Willoughby’s theoretical framework. Multiway frequency analyses (MFA were used to investigate associations between empirically based factors (derived from previous empirical studies and participants’ endorsement of the two themes. Four hundred and forty six participants between 18 and 25 years-old, including 217 participants from divorced households, were interviewed. Young adults’ optimism toward marital relationships was related to more proximal factors and a lesser number of factors than young adults’ positive attitude toward divorce. Religious affiliation and parental conflict stood out as important factors. Recommendations are offered for future research.

  11. Divorce and remarriage in a 65-year-old male following transphenoidal surgery and bromocriptine of hyperprolactinemic impotence: a dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, G; Bertrand, G; Pinter, E

    1979-12-01

    Hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotropinism, and subnormal plasma testosterone were found in a 65-year-old patient who had an enlarged sella turcica, complained of fatigue, and addmitted to decreased sexual interest and potency. Selective nontotal tumorectomy followed by bromocriptine therapy resulted in normoprolactinemia, increased plasma testosterone, and "rejuvenation difficult to follow" according to his wife. This patient described his sexual status as comparable to that of age 24 when he fathered his only child. Both wife and husband attributed the changes to bromocriptine and requested discontinuation (wife) and continuation (husband) of the treatment; because of the clinical indications, treatment was continued. Legally, a medical certification of a normal state of health was required before divorce--and subsequent marriage to a young woman--were permitted.

  12. [The impact of divorced parents on women's demographic behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, A

    1991-08-01

    "This article examines whether women who experienced parental divorce behave differently with respect to leaving the parental home, cohabitation, marriage and birth than women who grew up in families with both natural parents.... Data are used from the Netherlands Fertility Survey conducted in February 1988....[Results show that] women who [lived] with one of the natural parents were more likely to have left home than women who [lived] with both natural parents. Women from one-parent families also cohabited more than women from two-parent families....For the divorce-rates no significant difference between the two categories of women was found.... Married women aged 18-37 who grew up in one-parent families have fewer children than other women." An English-language version of this article is available from the publisher. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  13. A Confidant Support and Problem Solving Model of Divorced Fathers’ Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, David S.; Forgatch, Marion S.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesized social interaction learning (SIL) model of confidant support and paternal parenting. The latent growth curve analysis employed 230 recently divorced fathers, of which 177 enrolled support confidants, to test confidant support as a predictor of problem solving outcomes and problem solving outcomes as predictors of change in fathers’ parenting. Fathers’ parenting was hypothesized to predict growth in child behavior. Observational measures of support behaviors and problem solving outcomes were obtained from structured discussions of personal and parenting issues faced by the fathers. Findings replicated and extended prior cross-sectional studies with divorced mothers and their confidants. Confidant support predicted better problem solving outcomes, problem solving predicted more effective parenting, and parenting in turn predicted growth in children’s reduced total problem behavior T scores over 18 months. Supporting a homophily perspective, fathers’ antisociality was associated with confidant antisociality but only fathers’ antisociality influenced the support process model. Intervention implications are discussed regarding SIL parent training and social support. PMID:21541814

  14. A confidant support and problem solving model of divorced fathers' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarmo, David S; Forgatch, Marion S

    2012-03-01

    This study tested a hypothesized social interaction learning (SIL) model of confidant support and paternal parenting. The latent growth curve analysis employed 230 recently divorced fathers, of which 177 enrolled support confidants, to test confidant support as a predictor of problem solving outcomes and problem solving outcomes as predictors of change in fathers' parenting. Fathers' parenting was hypothesized to predict growth in child behavior. Observational measures of support behaviors and problem solving outcomes were obtained from structured discussions of personal and parenting issues faced by the fathers. Findings replicated and extended prior cross-sectional studies with divorced mothers and their confidants. Confidant support predicted better problem solving outcomes, problem solving predicted more effective parenting, and parenting in turn predicted growth in children's reduced total problem behavior T scores over 18 months. Supporting a homophily perspective, fathers' antisociality was associated with confidant antisociality but only fathers' antisociality influenced the support process model. Intervention implications are discussed regarding SIL parent training and social support.

  15. Relative resources and moving from the joint home around divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, C.H.; ten Hengel, B.; Latten, J.; Das, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of relative resources on who moves from the marital home around divorce: the man, the woman, or both ex-partners. The likelihood of moving was expected to be smaller with greater relative resources. The study used register data from the Social Statistical Database for the Netherlands and multinomial logistic regression models. We found an asymmetrical effect of relative income: all else being equal, the woman was more likely to move out if her share of the couple...

  16. Marriage and divorce among young adult cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Yi, Jaehee; Wright, Jennifer; Warner, Echo L; Smith, Ken R

    2012-12-01

    We examined marital outcomes among cancer survivors diagnosed during early adulthood from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System dataset. Eligible participants were ages 20-39 years. Of the 74,433 eligible, N = 1,198 self-reported a cancer diagnosis between the ages of 18 and 37, were ≥2 years past diagnosis, and did not have non-melanoma skin cancer. The remaining N = 67,063 were controls. Using generalized linear models adjusted for age, gender, race, and education, we generated relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) to examine survivor status on indicators of ever married, currently married, and divorced/separated. Survivors were slightly older than controls [33.0 (SD = 3.8) vs. 30.0 (SD = 4.0); p divorce/separation than controls (18 % vs. 10 %; RR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.43-2.19). Divorce/separation risk persisted for female survivors (RR 1.83, 95 % CI 1.49-2.25), survivors ages 20-29 (RR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.53-4.34), and survivors ages 30-39 (RR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.29-2.04). The emotional and financial burdens of cancer may lead to marital stress for younger cancer survivors. Young survivors may face a higher risk of divorce; support systems are needed to assist them in the years following diagnosis.

  17. Separated and Divorced Women in India : Economic Rights and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 mars 2013 ... La loi n'accorde à la femme le droit à aucune propriété et à aucun bien acquis au cours de l'union maritale. Separated and Divorced Women in India recommande des changements aux lois indiennes afin que soient reconnus la communauté de biens, la nature du travail productif et le droit de recouvrer la ...

  18. Relational conflict and outcomes from an online divorce education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Sarah; Becher, Emily H; McCann, Ellie; McGuire, Jenifer; Powell, Sharon

    2017-06-01

    The impact of conflict on co-parenting outcomes of divorce education programs is not widely explored in the literature despite the prevalence of conflict in divorce. This study used outcome data from a sample of participants (N=272) who took the online Parents Forever™ course between 2012 and 2014. Participants were asked questions about positive and negative co-parenting behaviors as well their levels of conflict before and after the divorce or separation. There was on average a slight increase in conflict from post to follow-up (M=-0.397, SD=1.54). Simple linear regression analyses indicated that change in conflict explained a significant proportion of the variance in positive co-parenting scores, R 2 =0.07, F(1, 270)=19.98, p<0.001 and negative co-parenting scores, R 2 =0.08, F(1, 270)=23.78, p<0.001. Results suggest that conflict significantly impacts co-parenting behaviors targeted in the Parents Forever ™ course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spousal similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Jessica; Lucas, Richard E

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has explored possible origins of individual differences in subjective well-being, focusing largely on stable, internal characteristics of traits as predictors of life satisfaction (Diener & Lucas, 1999). Although past work has demonstrated that life satisfaction is largely stable over the life span, other evidence has also demonstrated the lasting impact of life events. In this study, we use married couples as a test of the impact of life circumstances on life satisfaction, focusing on similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce. If life satisfaction is impacted by shared life circumstances, married couples (who share life circumstances) should show greater similarity in life satisfaction before divorce than after. We tested this possibility using a dyadic latent-state-trait model that examined cross-spouse similarity in the stable and changing components of life satisfaction. Using a nationally representative panel study from Germany (Wagner, Frick & Schupp, 2007), we showed that similarity declined substantially following divorce. This suggests that life satisfaction is related to shared life circumstances. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce.

  1. Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R; Anthony, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children's outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce.

  2. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason R; Högnäs, Robin S

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family's socioeconomic status, parental involvement, cognitive test scores, behavioural problems, smoking, and the offspring's own experience with divorce. The analyses use data from the National Child Development Study, which includes nine waves of data beginning at birth in 1958 and continuing through age 50. Results from a structural equation model suggest that a parental divorce experienced before age 7 does influence adult health by operating primarily through family socioeconomic status and smoking in adulthood.

  3. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  4. Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Anthony, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children’s outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce. PMID:24659827

  5. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason R.; Högnäs, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family’s socioeconomic status, parental involvement, cognitive test scores, behavioural problems, smoking, and the offspring’s own experience with divorce. The analyses use data from the National Child Development Study, which includes nine waves of data beginning at birth in 1958 and continuing through age 50. Results from a structural equation model suggest that a parental divorce experienced before age 7 does influence adult health by operating primarily through family socioeconomic status and smoking in adulthood. PMID:26594245

  6. The impact of mixed, hope and forgiveness-focused marital counselling on interpersonal cognitive distortions of couples filing for divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, A; Bahari, F

    2014-09-01

    Divorce and conflict are overlapping processes. Previous findings suggest that spirituality-related interventions in mental health nursing may play a significant role in reducing the level and amount of conflict. We examined the effects of hope and forgiveness-focused marital counselling and a combination of the two intervention types on interpersonal cognitive distortions of couples filing for divorce in Isfahan, Iran. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design. Of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center undergoing pre-divorce counselling, 60 were randomly assigned to four groups: hope-focused, forgiveness-focused, mixed and control. Data were gathered using the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale and analysed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney's U and Wilcoxon tests. Hope- and forgiveness-focused interventions did not have a significant effect on the total number of interpersonal cognitive distortions in comparison with the control group. However, the mixed intervention significantly reduced irrational expectations and interpersonal rejection among couples. Combining hope- and forgiveness-focused interventions can be used to decrease irrational marital beliefs among couples. In addition, rating the level of conflict among couples is important for determining the type of intervention that should be used by mental health nurses (psycho-educational or therapeutic). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Traceability and change in legal requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Winkels, R.

    2010-01-01

    While isomorphism of knowledge representation has been recognized as important, particularly to maintenance in legal knowledge representation, the requirements of the maintenance process in general get less attention. Traceability from knowledge resources used in the organization to the sources of

  8. 78 FR 25795 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... litigation management procedures and cost guidelines. DEAR 931.205-33 requires litigation and other legal... commonplace among businesses. The Legal Management Plan assists Department Counsel in understanding the contractor's internal procedures, litigation protocols and processes to manage costs. Legal Management Plans...

  9. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent jurisdiction...

  10. Association of Divorce with Socio-Demographic Covariates in China, 1955-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a unique data set on the event history of marriage and divorce collected in the In-Depth Fertility Surveys conducted in Shanghai, Shaanxi, and Hebei in 1985 and a multivariate hazards model, this paper investigates the association between divorce risk and socio-demographic factors in China. Controlling for several other socio-demographic factors, we demonstrate that the risk of divorce for women who married before age 18 is twice as high as that of those married after age 20; the risk of divorce of arranged marriages is about 2.6 times as high as that of not-arranged ones. The number of children is highly and negatively correlated with risk of divorce; the traditional son preference does not seem having substantial effects on divorce among women who have one or two children; but the risk of divorce of women who have three or more daughters without a son was 2.2 times as high as that of those women who have three or more children with at least one son. The divorce level in urban areas is higher than that in rural areas. The greater proportion of arranged and early marriages plus some other special factors in a less developed region (Shaanxi contributes to its higher general divorce rate before 1985, in comparison with the advanced region (Shanghai. The divorce level in Shanghai after 1985 has become higher than that in Shaanxi. It seems that education level is positively related to divorce and labor force participation is negatively related to divorce, but the estimates are not statistically significant. Some explanations of these findings are also discussed in this paper.

  11. Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vousoura, Eleni; Verdeli, Helen; Warner, Virginia; Wickramaratne, Priya; Baily, Charles David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests a link between parental divorce and negative child outcomes; however, the presence of parental depression may confound this relationship. Studies exploring the simultaneous effects of depression and parents’ divorce on the adjustment of their children are scarce and rarely have a longitudinal design. This is the first three-generation study of the relative effects of depression and divorce on offspring psychopathology, based on data from a 25-year longitudinal study with fam...

  12. United but (Un-)Equal: Human Capital, Probability of Divorce and the Marriage Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Pestieau, Pierre; Roeder, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies how the risk of divorce affects the human capital decisions of a young couple. We consider a setting where complete specialization (one of the spouses uses up all the education resources) is optimal with no divorce risk. Symmetry in education (both spouses receive an equal amount of education) then acts like an insurance device in case of divorce particularly when the institutions do not compensate for differences in earnings. But, at the same time symmetry in education is ...

  13. Psychiatric and somatic health in relation to expereince of parental divorce in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: The outcome of studies about experience of parental divorce and effects on mental and physical health differs in result possibly caused by the use of different questionnaires and instruments, varying length of time since the divorce and divergent drop-off of participants. Aims: To study the presence of psychiatric records and number of diagnosed somatic and mental health care visits in a group of young adults with childhood experience of parental divorce in comparison to a group ...

  14. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  15. The Right of the Accused in Saudi in Criminal Procedure during Investigation Process and Arbitrary Dentation and Prohibits Torture and Protects the Rights of Suspects to Obtain Legal Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmed Alqahtani Faten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has recent in years pass several important legislations to ensure a fair and balanced justice system, including: 1 The Law of Procedure Before Sharia Courts of September 2001, which grants defendants the right to legal representation and outlines the process by which please, evidence and experts are heard by the courts. 2 The Code of Law Practice of January 2001, which outlines requirements necessary to become an attorney and defines the duties and right of lawyers, including the right of attorney-client privilege. 3 The Law of Criminal Procedure of May 2001, which protects a defendant right with the regard to interrogation, investigation, and incarceration; outlines a series of regulations that justice and law enforcement authorities must follow during all stages of legal process, from arrest and interrogation to trial and sentencing; prohibits torture and protects the right of suspects to obtain legal counsel; and limits the period of arbitrary detention. The main objective of this study is to examine the operation of the criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia in light of the international human rights standards pertaining to the administration of justice. It involves the international human rights treaties and focuses mainly on the instruments in which the right to a fair trail in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  17. Getting ready for the marriage market? The association between divorce risks and investments in attractive body mass among married Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, Petter; Nystedt, Paul; Lindgren, Björn

    2007-07-01

    This article explores to what extent married middle-aged individuals in Europe are governed by the risk of experiencing divorce, when shaping their physical appearance. The main result is that divorce risks, proxied by national divorce rates, are negatively connected to body mass index (BMI) among married individuals but unrelated to BMI among singles. Hence, it seems that married people in societies where divorce risks are high are more inclined to invest in their outer appearance. One interpretation is that high divorce rates make married people prepare for a potential divorce and future return to the marriage market.

  18. [Sex-specific effects in the intergenerational transmission of divorce risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, A; Engelhardt, H

    1995-06-01

    "In an empirical analysis the article investigates the intergenerational transmission of divorce risk with multivariate event-history techniques using data on the 10,000 respondents of the German Family Survey. In both younger and older cohorts the transmission effect is confirmed. Surprisingly, however, there are huge sex differences in the impact of parents' divorces on their children. Sons of divorced parents have a much higher risk of divorce than girls.... The transmission effect cannot be explained by the decreased standard of living typically observed in all types of single-parent families. The data suggest, however, that differences in intervening variables may partially explain the transmission effect." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  19. Impact of divorce and loss of parental contact on health complaints among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Simone Frizell; Hjörleifsson, Stefán; Breidablik, Hans-Johan; Meland, Eivind

    2013-06-01

    Mental health consequences related to divorce have been documented, but might be caused by concomitant factors such as conflicts and loss of parental contact (PC). We investigated these relationships and mental health among adolescents. The study was based on data from four cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1997 and 2009 among tertiary school students in Førde, Norway. We established two groups according to divorce experience (DE) with or without loss of PC. Frequencies of DEs were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. The group with no DE was used as reference group in all the analyses. The divorce rate increased by 34% (6.8% absolute increase) between 1997 and 2009, but no sign of attenuated effects on emotional health was observed. Mental complaints were not attenuated as time since divorce increased. A majority of those losing contact with parents had no contact with their fathers. The study revealed only a modest increase of health complaints if PC was preserved, but a marked increase when the adolescents experienced loss of PC following the divorce. Interaction analyses showed no gender differences, and parental support and confidence in parent(s) did not mediate the associations between divorce and distress. Emotional distress after divorce is not attenuated as divorce prevalence increases, but the deleterious effects of divorce on the well-being of adolescents seem to be confined to those experiencing a concomitant loss of PC. Efforts aiming at reducing parental hostility and improving mutual parental responsibility and care therefore seem important.

  20. Divorce among physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States: analysis of census survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Dan P; Seabury, Seth A; Jena, Anupam B

    2015-02-18

    To estimate the prevalence and incidence of divorce among US physicians compared with other healthcare professionals, lawyers, and non-healthcare professionals, and to analyze factors associated with divorce among physicians. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative surveys conducted by the US census, 2008-13. United States. 48,881 physicians, 10,086 dentists, 13,883 pharmacists, 159,044 nurses, 18,920 healthcare executives, 59,284 lawyers, and 6,339,310 other non-healthcare professionals. Logistic models of divorce adjusted for age, sex, race, annual income, weekly hours worked, number of years since marriage, calendar year, and state of residence. Divorce outcomes included whether an individual had ever been divorced (divorce prevalence) or became divorced in the past year (divorce incidence). After adjustment for covariates, the probability of being ever divorced (or divorce prevalence) among physicians evaluated at the mean value of other covariates was 24.3% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 24.8%); dentists, 25.2% (24.1% to 26.3%); pharmacists, 22.9% (22.0% to 23.8%); nurses, 33.0% (32.6% to 33.3%); healthcare executives, 30.9% (30.1% to 31.8%); lawyers, 26.9% (26.4% to 27.4%); and other non-healthcare professionals, 35.0% (34.9% to 35.1%). Similarly, physicians were less likely than those in most other occupations to divorce in the past year. In multivariable analysis among physicians, divorce prevalence was greater among women (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.63). In analyses stratified by physician sex, greater weekly work hours were associated with increased divorce prevalence only for female physicians. Divorce among physicians is less common than among non-healthcare workers and several health professions. Female physicians have a substantially higher prevalence of divorce than male physicians, which may be partly attributable to a differential effect of hours worked on divorce. © Ly et al 2015.

  1. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-08-01

    Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21-45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤0.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤0.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=0.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  3. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

  4. Long-term effects of a parenting preventive intervention on young adults' painful feelings about divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Caroline; Wolchik, Sharlene; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Carr, Colleen; Mahrer, Nicole E; Sandler, Irwin

    2017-10-01

    This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parenting preventive intervention for divorced mothers that was designed to reduce children's postdivorce mental health problems, reduced painful feelings about divorce in young adults whose families had participated 15 years earlier. This study also explored whether NBP participation reduced the relations between young adults' painful feelings about divorce and their concurrent internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems. Participants (M = 25.6 years; 50% female; 88% Caucasian) were from 240 families that had been recruited into a randomized experimental trial (NBP vs. literature control). Data from the pretest and 15-year follow-up were used. NBP participants reported less feelings of seeing life through a filter of divorce (e.g., thinking about how the divorce causes continued struggles for them) than those in the control condition. Program effects on maternal blame and acceptance of the divorce were moderated by pretest risk, a composite of divorce-related stressors and externalizing problems. NBP participants with elevated risk at program entry had lower levels of maternal blame. Program participation was associated with higher acceptance for those with elevated risk at program entry but lower acceptance for those with low risk at program entry. Program participation decreased the relations between maternal blame, acceptance of the divorce and filter of divorce and some, but not all, of the adjustment outcomes. These findings suggest that programs designed to help families after divorce have benefits in terms of long-term feelings about parental divorce as well as their relations with adjustment problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Breaking Up Is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce in the United States, 1980–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sheela; Ruggles, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This article critically evaluates the available data on trends in divorce in the United States. We find that both vital statistics and retrospective survey data on divorce after 1990 underestimate recent marital instability. These flawed data have led some analysts to conclude that divorce has been stable or declining for the past three decades. Using new data from the American Community Survey and controlling for changes in the age composition of the married population, we conclude that there was actually a substantial increase in age-standardized divorce rates between 1990 and 2008. Divorce rates have doubled over the past two decades among persons over age 35. Among the youngest couples, however, divorce rates are stable or declining. If current trends continue, overall age-standardized divorce rates could level off or even decline over the next few decades. We argue that the leveling of divorce among persons born since 1980 probably reflects the increasing selectivity of marriage. PMID:24399141

  6. Breaking up is hard to count: the rise of divorce in the United States, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sheela; Ruggles, Steven

    2014-04-01

    This article critically evaluates the available data on trends in divorce in the United States. We find that both vital statistics and retrospective survey data on divorce after 1990 underestimate recent marital instability. These flawed data have led some analysts to conclude that divorce has been stable or declining for the past three decades. Using new data from the American Community Survey and controlling for changes in the age composition of the married population, we conclude that there was actually a substantial increase in age-standardized divorce rates between 1990 and 2008. Divorce rates have doubled over the past two decades among persons over age 35. Among the youngest couples, however, divorce rates are stable or declining. If current trends continue, overall age-standardized divorce rates could level off or even decline over the next few decades. We argue that the leveling of divorce among persons born since 1980 probably reflects the increasing selectivity of marriage.

  7. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  8. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  9. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  10. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  11. The legal mentality and the succession of the law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rybakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law. 

  12. Understanding the Effects of Marriage and Divorce on Financial Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how changes in marital status affect financial investments and how these effects vary with background risk. We use detailed register-based panel data and difference-in-differences estimators to benchmark common unobserved influences on financial investments. Women increase...... is important for financial risk taking and investment responses to marital transitions....... the fraction of wealth invested in stocks after marriage and decrease it after divorce, whereas men show the opposite behavior. Households whose joint labor income risk is reduced more by marriage have a higher increase in their exposure to risky assets in marriage. Thus income risk sharing in the household...

  13. How Work Affects Divorce: The Mediating Role of Financial and Time Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether the financial and time pressures associated with spouses' working lives play a role in the relation between work and divorce during the first years of marriage. Using retrospective data from the Netherlands, the results show that divorce is more likely when the husband works on average fewer hours and the wife more…

  14. Divorce in the context of domestic violence against women in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, H.S.; Schuler, S.; Hoang, T.A.; Quach, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines obstacles for women who face domestic violence in making decisions about divorce and in seeking and securing support for a divorce. The research was undertaken in the context of a project in one district of a coastal province in Vietnam that sought to reduce gender based-violence

  15. The Longitudinal Effects of Divorce and Maternal Employment on the Home Environments of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Carol E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined home environments of children whose mothers were married/working, married/nonworking, or divorced/working across an 18-month period. Home environments of children from divorced/working homes were found to be less cognitive and socially stimulating than those of married homes. Home environments of the married families with and without…

  16. School-Based Intervention for Social Skills in Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angacian, Sevan; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Byer-Alcorace, Gabriel; Theodore, Lea A.; Cross, Karen; DeBiase, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Divorce is an increasingly prevalent occurrence in society that has the potential to result in many adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and their parents. Social skills, such as those with peers, are one of the problems that may emerge for children of divorce. Despite this growing problem, there is a paucity of research…

  17. Listening to Children and Parents : Seven Dimensions to Untangle High-Conflict Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Sietske Dijkstra

    2016-01-01

    Divorce is a common and complex phenomenon with high social impact, especially when it involves pervasive conflict. This chapter discusses an analytic content-based framework for gaining an in-depth understanding of divorce. It considers seven inter- related dimensions: time, conflict,

  18. An Annotated Bibliography Concerning Children of Divorce: Meeting Their Needs in the Elementary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Elaine M.

    Entries in this annotated bibliography are divided into three sections: (1) an overview of information about the effect of divorce on the parent and child; (2) a review of studies and literature pertaining to the impact of divorce on elementary school students; and (3) a review of literature suggesting guidelines, activities, and techniques for…

  19. The effects of parental divorce: experiences of the child in later latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, J S; Kelly, J B

    1976-04-01

    This paper discusses the impact of divorce on 31 children in later latency, as observed shortly after the initial parental separation and one year later. The material is part of an on-going clinical study, begun in 1970, of 131 children and adolescents from 60 divorcing families in Northern California.

  20. The Impact of Childrens' Divorce on Parents: And Some Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Ralph; Kaslow, Florence

    1985-01-01

    Considers the impact of an adult child's divorce on his or her parents. Within the context of a cybernetic circular systems model of conceptualization about family relations, it is posited that older parents' reactions impact upon their childrens' post-divorce readjustment. (Author/NRB)

  1. Is Your Love in Vain? Another Look at Premarital Cohabitation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide an empirical investigation of the association between premarital cohabitation and subsequent risk of divorce. Theoretically couples who cohabit before marriage should have a lower subsequent risk of divorce since cohabitation enables you to gather information about the match quality, and only good matches evolve into…

  2. Reconciling Divergent Perspectives: Judith Wallerstein, Quantitative Family Research, and Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Although Judith Wallerstein's research on children with divorced parents has been influential, many quantitative family scholars have criticized her methods and conclusions. This article provides examples from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study to illustrate the magnitude of divorce effects and concludes with a call for a…

  3. Effects of Divorce on Children, Traits of Resiliency and School Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Betty J.

    Gaining an awareness of the needs of children of divorce and how children achieve resilience should help students become well-adjusted and productive. This paper explores ways in which school systems and school counselors can meet the needs of these children. It portrays the effects of divorce on children by drawing on the literature, observations…

  4. Paper Bag Books: A Creative Intervention with Elementary School Children Experiencing High-Conflict Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somody, Catherine; Hobbs, Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Research has found that school-based interventions for children of divorce help counter the adverse effects. Studies of school-based interventions have identified effective means for helping children of divorce cope with their situation and produce a significant reduction in clinical symptoms. Those components include activities that: (a) help…

  5. The Effects of Divorce on Children and Implications for Court Custody Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoe, Lynn

    In the last decade, the rising number of divorces has resulted in large numbers of children lviing in one-parent homes. A review of the literature on the impact of divorce on children's psychosocial adjustment, cognitive development, school peformance, and sex role development revealed several interesting findings. Age of children at time of…

  6. Children's divorce and parent-child contact: A within-family analysis of older European parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children’s divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the

  7. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  8. Torn apart by Divorce: When a Family Is Shattered to Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Gigi; Kamps, Brian; Lopez, Kate; McAlister, Christine; Wright, Cheri

    This brief handout set begins with a scenario that has a teacher discover that one of the best students in the class is facing the breakup of her parent's marriage. The student thinks it is "all my fault." A fact sheet on divorce and its effects on children follows. Psychological and economic effects of divorce on children are listed. Facts about…

  9. Relationships between fathers and adult children: The cumulative effects of divorce and repartnering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2015-01-01

    New data from a national Dutch survey are used to examine the effects of divorce and repartnering on the relationships that fathers have with their adult children. Compared with divorced fathers who live alone, repartnered fathers have less frequent contact with their children, they exchange less

  10. Relationships between fathers and adult children: the cumulative effects of divorce and repartnering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2015-01-01

    New data from a national Dutch survey are used to examine the effects of divorce and repartnering on the relationships that fathers have with their adult children. Compared with divorced fathers who live alone, repartnered fathers have less frequent contact with their children, they exchange less

  11. Parenting of Divorced Fathers and the Association with Children's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Kim; Ponnet, Koen; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that high parental support and control improves children's well-being. However, a large part of these studies have focused on the parenting of married parents. Research on parenting after a divorce, mainly has focused on parenting of divorced mothers, with few exceptions concentrating primarily on non-residential fathers.…

  12. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee

    2017-01-01

    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  13. Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental Divorce: A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on parental divorce and early childhood development, using developmental psychopathology as an organizing framework. Because this review is unique in its focus on divorce-related issues specific to young children, limitations of existing research are noted and directions for future research are suggested. (Contains 63…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Children of Divorced Families and Relations to Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Oliver, Mallory I.; Brosi, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are well-positioned to play a critical role in fostering resiliency in children of divorce and to assist in reducing the risk for adjustment problems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preservice early childhood teachers have the awareness of the stress responses and effects of parental divorce on their students. Early…

  15. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  16. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  17. Children of Divorce and Their Intimate Relationships with Parents and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the degree of intimacy in the relationships of children of divorce with their parents and peers. Utilizes a study of 208 urban, Israeli elementary school children. Findings indicate that divorce may hurt object relations with the father and decrease intimacy with mother and friends. (FMW)

  18. Alternative Routes in the Remarriage Market : Competing-Risk Analyses of Union Formation after Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Paul M. de; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2003-01-01

    We examine the social, economic, and cultural determinants of “repartnering” after a divorce. Our analysis improves upon earlier research in three ways: (1) our study includes more direct measures of theoretical concepts; (2) we study both marriage and cohabitation after divorce and analyze them as

  19. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence : The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested

  20. The Effects of Teacher's Selected Educational Experiences on Perceptions of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Virginia P.; Schaefer, Lyn

    Teachers' beliefs about the probable classroom performances of children from broken homes were explored. The investigation had three purposes: (1) to obtain data on teachers' opinions and knowledge about children of divorce; (2) to investigate teachers' feelings about the school's role regarding children of divorce; and (3) to determine how two…