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Sample records for legal problems nutrition

  1. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  2. Legal pre-event nutritional supplements to assist energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Lawrence L; Perry, Christopher G R; Talanian, Jason L

    2008-01-01

    Physical training and proper nutrition are paramount for success in sport. A key tissue is skeletal muscle, as the metabolic pathways that produce energy or ATP allow the muscles to complete the many activities critical to success in sport. The energy-producing pathways must rapidly respond to the need for ATP during sport and produce energy at a faster rate or for a longer duration through training and proper nutrition which should translate into improved performance in sport activities. There is also continual interest in the possibility that nutritional supplements could further improve muscle metabolism and the provision of energy during sport. Most legal sports supplements do not improve performance following oral ingestion. However, three legal supplements that have received significant attention over the years include creatine, carnitine and sodium bicarbonate. The ingestion of large amounts of creatine for 4-6 days increases skeletal muscle creatine and phosphocreatine contents. The majority of the experimental evidence suggests that creatine supplementation can improve short-term exercise performance, especially in sports that require repeated short-term sprints. It may also augment the accretion of skeletal muscle when taken in combination with a resistance-exercise training programme. Supplementary carnitine has been touted to increase the uptake and oxidation of fat in the mitochondria. However, muscle carnitine levels are not augmented following oral carnitine supplementation and the majority of well-controlled studies have reported no effect of carnitine on enhancing fat oxidation, Vo(2max) or prolonged endurance exercise performance. The ingestion of sodium bicarbonate before intense exercise decreases the blood [H+] to potentially assist the efflux of H+ from the muscle and temper the metabolic acidosis associated with intense exercise. Many studies have reported performance increases in laboratory-based cycling tests and simulated running races in

  3. Corporate environment protection as a legal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is discussed what legal instruments companies have for integrating environment protection into their corporate policy: Industrial self-monitoring; the environmental health officer as an instrument of corporate environment protection (environmental health officer, radiation protection officer); obligations to disclose information on corporate organisation pursuant to Article 52 a of the Federal Emmission Control Act; corporate environment protection as a general obligation of the operator. Possible ways of strengthening corporate environment protection are considered de lege ferende, e.g. the additional instruments of corporate self-monitoring laid down in the General Part of the Environmental Code, audits on environment protection, corporate environment protection through quality assurance systems. (orig.) [de

  4. Ethical and legal points of view in parenteral nutrition - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothaermel, S; Bischoff, S C; Bockenheimer-Lucius, G; Frewer, A; Wehkamp, K H; Zuercher, G

    2009-11-18

    Adequate nutrition is a part of medical treatment and is influenced by ethical and legal considerations. Patients, who cannot be sufficiently fed via the gastrointestinal tract, have the fundamental right to receive PN (parenteral nutrition) even so patients who are unable to give their consent. General objectives in nutrition support are to supply adequate nutrition with regards to the prevention of malnutrition and its consequences (increased morbidity and mortality), and thereby promoting improved outcome and/or quality of life for the patient considering always the patient's needs and wishes. The requests of the patient to renounce PN should be respected where a signed living will is helpful. During the course of a terminal illness the nutrition has to be adapted individually according to the needs and wishes of a patient in the corresponding phase. Capability of consent should be checked in each individual case and for each measure on an individual basis. Consent should only be accepted if the patient is capable of recognizing the nature, meaning and importance of the intervention as well as the consequences of relinquishment of such an intervention, and is capable to make a self-determined decision. If the patient is not capable of consenting, the patient's living will is the most important document when determining their assumed will and legally binding. Otherwise a guardian appointed by the patient, or the representative appointed by the court (if the patient has made no provisions) can make the decision.

  5. Ethical and legal points of view in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothaermel, S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is a part of medical treatment and is influenced by ethical and legal considerations. Patients, who cannot be sufficiently fed via the gastrointestinal tract, have the fundamental right to receive PN (parenteral nutrition even so patients who are unable to give their consent. General objectives in nutrition support are to supply adequate nutrition with regards to the prevention of malnutrition and its consequences (increased morbidity and mortality, and thereby promoting improved outcome and/or quality of life for the patient considering always the patient’s needs and wishes. The requests of the patient to renounce PN should be respected where a signed living will is helpful. During the course of a terminal illness the nutrition has to be adapted individually according to the needs and wishes of a patient in the corresponding phase. Capability of consent should be checked in each individual case and for each measure on an individual basis. Consent should only be accepted if the patient is capable of recognizing the nature, meaning and importance of the intervention as well as the consequences of relinquishment of such an intervention, and is capable to make a self-determined decision. If the patient is not capable of consenting, the patient’s living will is the most important document when determining their assumed will and legally binding. Otherwise a guardian appointed by the patient, or the representative appointed by the court (if the patient has made no provisions can make the decision.

  6. The Legal Problem of Humanitarian Assistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Ruiz Ruiz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The donating of assistance to those people in grave need presents the case for examining the contents of what is known as humanitarian assistance, for determining its field of application, for looking at those to whom it is addressed and at those who are able to offer it. Also, given that this assistance is capable of being offered in very different situations, of putting both peace and international security in danger or of dealing with events which have nothing to do with it, both the General Assembly of the UN as well as the SecurityCouncil have shown how they are related in determined circumstances. The assistance can be offered by governmental institutions or dependents of international organizations such as through Non-Governmental Organizations putting forward new questions aboutthe principle of non-intervention. Furthermore, in those cases in which assistance cannot be offered with the consent of the territorial State, or, in the case of armed conflict, of the contending sides, its very effectiveness necessarily involves the establishment of some system of protection for those who offer assistance, and to try and assure the arrival of help to those to whom it is destined.Conceived and shaped by the Resolutions of the General Assembly with respect to state sovereignty, the offering of humanitarian assistance does not mean that it does not imply limits to the sovereignty of the States and that the need to make it effective does not impose obligations upon them, which as they regard guaranteeing basic human rights such as the right to life or physical well-being can, for their connection with the latter, constitute obligations erga omnes. In any case, it is a developing institution, as well as with regard to its legal consequences, whose real effectiveness must advance by way of identifying rights which are harmed in the case of the offer for assistance being refused or impeded it and the consequences which such interference carries with it.

  7. Legal problems of energy supply within the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The report contains two articles; the first one is titled: The Directives on Transit of Gas and Electricity - Considerations regarding the juridical limits of the realisation of the Internal Market in the Energy Sector. It has basic considerations regarding the competences of the EC-legal nature of primary and secondary Community law; it analyzes the network of competences, the legality of the Commission's Proposals concerning the Internal Energy Market and further on the possibilities of legal recourse for enterprises in the Federal Republic of Germany in case the proposal directives are adopted. The second article deals with legal problems of energy supply within the EC-especially under the aspect of British coal mining. It incluses considerations regarding a proposed European Energy Charter, recent developments in EC-law regarding electricity and natural gas, third country imports: dumping, and privatisation. (HSCH)

  8. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  9. Total parenteral nutrition - Problems in compatibility and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroder, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Adding calcium, trace elements and vitamins could turn parenteral nutrition into a dangerous product, which could harm the patient. This article focuses on the major pharmaceutical problems of parenteral. nutrition when adding nutritional compounds Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Adding calcium, trace elements and vitamins could turn parenteral nutrition into a dangerous product, which could harm the patient. This article focuses on the major pharmaceutical problems of parenteral. nutrition when adding nutritional compounds Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. Environmental data quality problems: ''Technical'' vs. ''legal'' defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luker, R.S.; Brooks, M.C.; Stagg, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Two significant aspects of environmental data quality are currently being emphasized throughout the industry as critical precursors to environmental decision making: technical integrity and legal defensibility. Because audit findings and consequent perceptions by a client often pose more questions than answers--especially with respect to the ''systemic'' nature and significance of problems based on nonstatistical, ad hoc sampling of large programs--quality assurance in environmental restoration must do more than implement traditional administrative controls. A major problem persists in achieving a consensus opinion between quality assurance and technical staff on the significance of various data problems. This case study compares and contrasts ''technical integrity'' and ''legal defensibility'', and provides performance measures developed to optimize both components in a large, complex DOE environmental restoration program. Performance measures of both administrative and technical processes are being used to ensure that conclusions drawn concerning ''systematic'' problems are not premature, and are founded on thorough, representative aspects of the program. Improved methods to reach consensus opinions on environmental decision-making are imperative and environmental data quality, the cornerstone on which the decisions are built, must be not only scientifically solid, but perceived as solid, if stakeholders are to be satisfied

  11. Legal problems concerning the export of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierer, Heinrich von.

    1977-01-01

    The legal problems raised by the export of nuclear power plants may be divided into three main categories: nuclear operator's liability for nuclear damage, the consequences for the supplier of the licensing requirements in the national laws of the buyer country and finally, the constraints of applying non-proliferation safeguards on export of nuclear equipment. As regards the third party liability regime in particular, the difficulties lie essentially in the insufficiency of the definition of the nuclear operator and the lack of harmonization in, or even the absence of national laws in this field. (NEA) [fr

  12. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: ethical and legal issues in feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Baird Schwartz, Denise; Posthauer, Mary Ellen

    2013-06-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians (RDs) should work collaboratively as part of the interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. RDs have an active role in determining the nutrition and hydration requirements for individuals throughout the life span. When individuals choose to forgo any type of nutrition and hydration (natural or artificial), or when individuals lack decision-making capacity and others must decide whether or not to provide artificial nutrition and hydration, RDs have a professional role in the ethical deliberation around those decisions. Across the life span, there are multiple instances when nutrition and hydration issues create ethical dilemmas. There is strong clinical, ethical, and legal support both for and against the administration of food and water when issues arise regarding what is or is not wanted by the individual and what is or is not warranted by empirical clinical evidence. When a conflict arises, the decision requires ethical deliberation. RDs' understanding of nutrition and hydration within the context of nutritional requirements and cultural, social, psychological, and spiritual needs provide an essential basis for ethical deliberation. RDs, as health care team members, have the responsibility to promote use of advanced directives. RDs promote the rights of the individual and help the health care team implement appropriate therapy. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  14. The problem of a psychological definition of "Legally relevant situations"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the concept of "legally significant situation." Discusses the classification of situations from the point of view of criminology and forensic psychological assessment. Highlights the main features of this type of situations from the point of view of psychology: the nature of conflict, involving the participation of third parties, as well as the presence of certain psychological consequences. This allows to describe the Genesis of certain situations, and to identify the States generated at each stage. It is also noted that the specificity of the legally significant cases involving minors is its group nature (the child as part of a family or other group. Thus, it is possible to give the following definition of a legally relevant situation within legal psychology, children and adolescents: a situation involving minors, subjects who are in relationships, conflict is caused by interactions in the legal context, which leads not only to legally relevant, but also to the psychological consequences for its participants.

  15. Nutrition Problems of the Urban Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Macapinlac

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, there has been a surge of interest in the nutritional metabolic role of the "trace" mineral elements. Part of this interest is due to improved case in the quantitative analyses of these elements by the introduction of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. However, it has been the studies on zinc, in particular, that have fueled much of this interest when it was discovered that naturally-occurring zinc-deficiency could happen in man. It was reported that a syndrome consisting of dwarfism, iron-deficiency, anemia hepato-splenomegaly occurs in poor viIlages in Egypt and Iran. This syndrome was accompanied by low plasma and hair zinc levels, and decreased urinary excretion of zinc. Prior to this report, it has been tacitly assumed that since many of the "trace" elements occur in fairly abundant quantities in food, and because they are present in very small quantities in the tissues of man, dietary deficiency of the trace minerals was unlikely to occur in man. It has become obvious that difficulty in absorption or poor availability of the trace elements from the diet may prove to be an important etiologic mechanism in the causation of deficiencies of these elements. In the case of zinc, a study in the United States reported cases of children with low hair zinc concentration and with low taste acuity (hypogeusia. The condition responded to treatment with zinc supplementation. It was also reported that zinc-deficiency is secondary to intestinal malabsorption. The possibility that zinc-deficiency might accompany protein-calorie malnutritions had been suggested by some investigators who found low plasma zinc levels in children with kwashiorkor. Since protein-calorie malnutrition is a world-wide problem and is particularly common in developing countries, it appears important that in the nutrition research programs of such countries.

  16. Problems in Nutritional Status Among Homeless Populations: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Coppenrath, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status can be divided into four components: access to clean water, reliable and safe food sources, basic health care needs met, and nutritional literacy. Drawing from the beginnings of an original study and previous published studies, the problems related to each component were analyzed searching for possible policy actions that may improve the health outcomes of homeless people. The results suggest that declines in nutritional status parallel health status. Nutritional inputs are...

  17. A Brief Study of Legal Problems in the Music Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankman, Ned N.

    1977-01-01

    Individuals who go into music careers will find that they are affected and sometimes governed by particular laws and legal agreements. Provides, as an example of a legal concern of a music career, an examination of a songwriter' contract, particularly the question of sources. (Editor/RK)

  18. Nutritional problems in inflammatory bowel disease: the patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Alexis; Whelan, Kevin; Moosa, Arifa; Lomer, Miranda C E; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2011-10-01

    Crohn's Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which may result in nutrition problems that impact on patient health, nutritional status and quality of life. Subjective reports of how IBD patients experience these problems as part of their disease process, including comparisons between patient groups, or the need for tailored nutrition advice as perceived by these patients, have not been widely studied. This survey aimed to identify and explore nutritional problems that are important to CD and UC patients and to investigate their views on the IBD health services provided to help them with these. Eighty-seven IBD patients were invited to take part in a nutrition survey using face-to-face questionnaire interviews. The survey asked about food and nutrition problems that patients have experienced, identifying which were most significant and the extent to which they had been addressed by the clinical service. Seventy-two IBD patients completed the evaluation (47 CD, 25 UC). Of these, 45 (62.5%) felt that food and nutrition were either 'important' or 'extremely important' in their experience of IBD, and 59 (82%) reported problems with food and nutrition. Patients with CD and UC reported similar frequencies of most nutritional problems. However, 44 (94%) CD vs. 16 (64%) UC patients reported problems with weight (p=0.002). Less than half of patients had seen a dietitian for tailored nutritional advice to address these problems. Nutritional problems experienced and reported by IBD patients are numerous and varied. They are considered important by patients with CD and UC, both of whom would generally value specific dietary counselling, highlighting a need for further research in this area and adequate and equal provision of services for both groups. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Problems with Legal Positivism and Tax Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenschneider, Bret

    2017-01-01

    This essay is a reply to the famous paper by John Gardner: Legal Positivism: 5½ Myths and the more recent paper by John Prebble: Kelsen, the Principle of Exclusion of Contradictions, and General Anti-Avoidance Rules. The reply is developed from the perspective of tax law where the respective issues are of major significance. The “5½ problems” correspond to Gardner’s arguments and are as follows: (#1) Legal Positivism centers on determining whether a tax law is “legally valid” based on its sou...

  20. The problem of the legal nature of Green Certificates in the Italian legal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colcelli, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Green Certificates are usually described as negotiable instruments or commercial papers. The Italian legal system identifies Green Certificates as rights but, due to the ambiguity of the definition, their juridical nature remains uncertain. This reverberates on the functioning of the Green Certificates market and on the enforcement of the relevant norms. This paper discusses the actual legal nature of Green Certificates in Italy and concludes that they should be regarded as goods. This means that private law instruments apply in their market transactions, with consequent implications on the policy side. - Highlights: ► A definition of Green Certificates in the Italian legal system is provided. ► Green Certificates are not Credit Instruments. ► However, they may be negotiated separately from the energy they represent. ► Green Certificates are goods, which relate to new properties.

  1. The Mass Media and the Problem of Understanding Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of legal language use (LLU), especially in its historic perspectives and lexical methods, has become one of the most fundamentally popular and basically attractive areas of research that is generating a lot of special interest and drawing much greater attention to authors and readers alike in recent times. Apart from ...

  2. [The dignity of the patient: a legal problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, H

    1980-11-01

    Rules of medical ethic bid since the times of antiquity to respect the patients dignity. Today to respect the dignity of any man is a general legal rule. In the same way other rules of the traditional medical ethic became legal norms as for instance the command forbidding to do harm to someone. The law intends to limit the possibilities to exercise power. Therefore it does not compete to the doctor alone to decide that a medical treatment has to be applied. The legal base of a medical treatment lies in the consent of the patient who has been duly cleared up on his state, the necessary treatment and its risks. If it has to be decided if a doctor has given the right treatment in a special case it does not suffice to consult the general rules of the law; the circumstances of the case have to be considered as well. The doctor has to decide, according to the actual medical knowledge and the rules of his professional art what the appropriate proceeding is. Legal and medical considerations are closely connected if one judges a doctor handling a special case. If the patient consents, the doctor is not obliged to treat him, but he is entitled to do it, cases of emergency excepted. If and in what way he treats the patient has to be decided by the doctor according to medical criterias. If a patient, sound of mind, who is suffering heavily by an incurable illness asks the doctor to restrain treatment to alleviating the pains and to the absolute cares to preserve life, the doctor is bound by his patient's wish. In analogy the legal construct of "conducting business without mandate" allows the doctor to proceed in the same way if the patient who lost consciousness is not able to decide upon the treatment and whose death is inevitable and imminent if this is the only wise to respect the dignity of the patient.

  3. Legal Issues Affecting Libraries and Librarians: Employment Law, Liability and Insurance, Contracts, and Problem Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Joseph J.; Shuman, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This fourth lesson in a continuing education course on legal issues affecting libraries and librarians discusses the library's rights and legal responsibilities in the areas of censorship and intellectual freedom, the Freedom of Information Act and patron privacy, problem patrons, and ethical considerations of library services. (14 references)…

  4. Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Jennie; Nordgren, Anders; Perrudin, Maud; Ronteltap, Amber; Savigny, Jean; van Trijp, Hans; Nordström, Karin; Görman, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one's health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user's rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse.

  5. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  6. Legal problems of doing business with foreign energy cartels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on the uranium cartel - or marketing arrangement as its admitted participants styled it. The clash between US antitrust laws and cartels that fix prices is examined with particular emphasis on the uranium antitrust litigation and on a US antitrust lawsuit in which the courts rejected an attack on OPEC's price-fixing and output-limitation activities. Basic legal principles pertaining to this type of litigation are explained. Even more specialized defenses are available to complicate the litigation when foreign governments are involved with the cartel: sovereign immunity, act of state, and foreign governmental compulsion. It is concluded that antitrust litigation against a foreign cartel is not impossible, but it may be unwise in the long run if it precipitates an international reversion to protectionism. 35 references

  7. Reasonable risk as a problem of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitkovsky O. D.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the reasonable risk (article 41 of the Penal code of Russian Federation, as an important issue requiring the attention of specialists working in the field of legal psychology. Presented the psychological characteristics of the concept of «reasonable risk», describes the mechanisms of decision making in situations of risk and classifications of situations of risky behavior by the nature of activity and character that are significant to criminal law. Understand options for risk situations, which can take place of the circumstances excluding criminality of act. Deals the capabilities and competencies of psychological assessment, tasks, questions for expert-psychologist, as well as the opportunities, especially use of the court expert to address the issue of criminal responsibility. The conclusion is made about necessity of further development of the methodological basis of the application of forensic psychological examination of the reasonableness of risk.

  8. [Withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration in severe stroke: medical, legal and ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannier, C; Crozier, S; Zuber, M; Constantinides, Y; Delezie, E; Gisquet, E; Grignoli, N; Lamy, C; Louvet, F; Pinel, J-F

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of cases, severe stroke is accompanied by difficulty in swallowing and an altered state of consciousness requiring artificial nutrition and hydration. Because of their artificial nature, nutrition and hydration are considered by law as treatment rather basic care. Withdrawal of these treatments is dictated by the refusal of unreasonable obstinacy enshrined in law and is justified by the risk of severe disability and very poor quality of life. It is usually the last among other withholding and withdrawal decisions which have already been made during the long course of the disease. Reaching a collegial consensus on a controversial decision such as artificial nutrition and hydration withdrawal is a difficult and complex process. The reluctance for such decisions is mainly due to the symbolic value of food and hydration, to the fear of "dying badly" while suffering from hunger and thirst, and to the difficult distinction between this medical act and euthanasia. The only way to overcome such reluctance is to ensure flawless accompaniment, associating sedation and appropriate comfort care with a clear explanation (with relatives but also caregivers) of the rationale and implications of this type of decision. All teams dealing with this type of situation must have thoroughly thought through the medical, legal and ethical considerations involved in making this difficult decision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Research of the Nutrition Problem: Methodological Approaches and Daily Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina V. Noskova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some scientific approaches to nutrition research and current nutrition practices for students of two Moscow Universities. The author notes that the necessity for scientific studying of food has been understood at the end of the XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries. In the article the social context of three directions of researches of a nutrition problem is analyzed: natural-scientific, ethnographic and sociological. The answer to a question why the healthy nutrition for modern society is an actual problem is given. It is shown that modern social transformations have changed sociocultural regulation of nutrition consumption. The variety of scientific approaches to food is revealed: a food as a factor of physical health, a food as an ethnocultural tradition, a food as a social habit and marker of the social status of the individual. The special emphasis is made on the European sociology of food. In the last thirty years in this area, some special sociological theories were formed: sociology of nutrition, sociology of food, sociology of menu, etc. Consumer abundance in modern western society changed a view of sociologists on essence and functions of food. New social factors give now more pressure on the nutrition practices. Based on food diaries and essays of 60 Moscow students, the author's project shows and analyzes the current nutrition practices of youth. The analysis of some peculiarities in the youth choice of food is made. The influence of social/dietary/religious norms on food behavior of students is shown. Value of "healthy food" in youth interpretation is shown. In the end of the article, the author notes the dialectics of freedom / social pressure for nutrition practices of modern youth.

  10. From the frying pan to the fire: The impact of businesses' legal problems

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, N. J.; Pleasence, P.

    2017-01-01

    Among LAW Survey respondents, 2,611 people (13%) described themselves as business owners. These business owners reported 984 business-related legal problems, 65 per cent of which resulted in adverse consequences (e.g. loss of income, illness or relationship breakdown). This not only impacted on business and the Australian economy, but also on business owners’ private lives and their families. Providing timely and integrated legal assistance services to business owners has the potential to mit...

  11. Legal problems inherent in the development of geopressured and geothermal resources in Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, T.A.; Pike, R.W.; Wilkins, B.; Hill, T.M.

    1978-03-01

    The legal framework within which the geopressured resource will have to be developed in Louisiana is discussed generally. Those problems which may be created by its development within that framework are identified. Where possible, solutions are offered to those problems or at least techniques or devices are indicated which might be considered in their resolution. Finally, a compendium is assembled of those statutory or regulatory provisions which may regulate or affect the resource to the end that it might serve as a handbook for the evaluation of the legal and institutional problems which will face a prospective developer, when and if the resource development is undertaken in Louisiana. (MHR)

  12. Problems of actuality in meal and nutrition care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Line Hesselvig; Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2018-01-01

    This study is based on an issue in nurses´ meal and nutrition care, relating to nurses´ perception of transfer of knowledge between different care settings. Through the notion ‘problems of actuality’, the aim is to identify how and why different methods in care, may complicate preventive effort...... related to undernutrition among older adults. It is a qualitative study that lends itself to ethnography and ethnomethodology, with data collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and insights into patients´ medical charts. Through explications of nurses’ methods in meal and nutrition care......, and how this work is accomplished within each setting, the study identifies that the different methods involved in meal and nutrition care (defined as respectively social-bodily care and text-based care), create problems in the transfer of knowledge between different care settings. Due to disconnection...

  13. Nutritional problems and blood dyscrasias in aging patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARLOW, A A

    1956-10-01

    Accurate solution of the problems of aging awaits better understanding and definition of senescence. However, adequate nutrition ranks high on the list of causes of increased longevity and happiness in old age. Optimum diets for aging people differ from other age groups only in some reduction in total calories. The digestive apparatus of older people is adequate except when influenced by pathological conditions. Hematologic standards are essentially unchanged in aging persons. Proper management of hematological problems in all age groups depends on accurate diagnosis. Aged patients tolerate diagnostic procedures very well under gentle management. Pure nutritional anemia is rare but poor nutrition is an important complicating factor in the management of blood dyscrasias in older people.

  14. Taking Tax Revenues Over Local Governments – Some Legal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The power of local government to take over the taxes can lead to conflicts between the local government and another local government (in whose area the property, the building, the plant, the residence and another taxable objects are located. These conflicts are not a matter of relation: the tax authority – the taxpayer. These problems concern the determination which of the local government has the power to take over the tax.

  15. Politico-Legal Views of A. V. Kolchak on the Problems of the Unity of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor S. Sosenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers political-legal views of A. V. Kolchak on problems of ensuring state unity of Russia. Some telegrams, letters, and other documents of A.V. Kolchak and his government, other leaders of the «white movement» are analyzed.

  16. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medico-legal problems in the United Kingdom involving diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.O.M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Factors involving litigation in the United Kingdom involving diagnostic radiology in cases where trauma was and was not involved are discussed. Various medico-legal problems in diagnostic radiology are considered including specific issues of responsibility in radiological practice, informed consent for radiological procedures, the necessity of radiologists to visit patients following a radiological examination, the medico-legal position for using low-osmolar contrast media, radiological examinations in pregnancy, the position of radiologists regarding requests from para-medical sources and finally the retention of records. (UK)

  18. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Acidosis: new insights into the persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Wertz-Lutz, A E

    2011-04-01

    The Ruminant Nutrition Symposium titled "Acidosis: New insights into the persistent problem" was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Western Section-ASAS, and the Canadian Society of Animal Science in Denver, Colorado, July 11 to 15, 2010. The objective of the symposium was to provide the ruminant nutrition community with new insights and perspectives from recent research findings on acidosis. Under modern production systems, ruminants are fed high-grain diets to maximize their energy intake and productivity. However, feeding highly fermentable diets often causes excess fermentation and results in accumulation of fermentation acids in the rumen, leading to a decrease in feed intake, poor feed efficiency, liver abscesses, and lameness in feedlot cattle or lactating dairy cows. Although our understanding of nutritional factors (i.e., effects of type and processing method of grains and importance of physically effective fiber) affecting rumen pH have increased substantially over the past few decades, rumen acidosis has continued to be a common problem in the ruminant livestock industry. The symposium program was organized to review recent research findings in acidosis with more emphasis on physiological aspects, and provide novel insights into the persistent problem.

  19. TO THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION: CIVILIZED APPROACH. TENDENCIES OF LEGAL FAMILIES APPROACHING IN THE CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses various criteria for the classification of legal systems. Special attention is drawn to the civilizational approach, which can be effectively used in the classification of legal systems. In accordance with the civilizational approach in the world there are many civilizations, developing according to its own laws (for example, the Scythian civilization, ancient Egyptian, etc.). In accordance with this approach the history of mankind is a history of the development of civi...

  20. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

  1. Legal Rights of Asbestos Exposure Victims. A Practical Legal Guide for People With Breathing and Other Medical Problems, Possibly Resulting from Exposure to Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberfeld, Roman M.; Hecht, Richard L.

    This practical legal guide for people with breathing and other medical problems, possibly resulting from exposure to asbestos, provides 19 questions and detailed answers about Asbestosis and other diseases resulting from asbestos exposure. Included is information concerning symptoms, difficulty of diagnosis, necessity of a detailed…

  2. Nutritional problems of native canadian mothers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, M E

    1989-02-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are still all too common in Native Canadian women and children. Protein-calorie malnutrition is rare, although the 1972 Nutrition Canada Survey found low intakes of these nutrients in many pregnant Native women, especially among the Inuit, who still have a high (8%) incidence of low-birth-weight infants. Clinically, we still see a great deal of iron deficiency and, although it is less common, of vitamin D-deficiency rickets in infants and toddlers. Breastfeeding rates are 50% or less at six months, and prolonged use of the nursing bottle contributes to iron deficiency and dental caries. Fluoride is not present in the water supply of most Native communities and must be given to combat dental caries, which is rampant in some areas. In adolescents we begin to see signs of overnutrition, with noticeable obesity that is highly prevalent in adults. The ultimate solution to these problems is improved economic circumstances and education. In the meantime, however, physicians treating Native patients must become familiar with the local circumstances.

  3. Problems of linguistic discrimination in the communicative space of Tajikistan: legal, sociolinguistic and educational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diloro Iskandarova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is disregarded and banned, a person can be discriminated in the society according to various attributes – due to the person's language, religion, nationality, social background. The problem touches upon not only individuals but minorities as well. Almost all states have one or several groups – minorities – that differ from the main population in ethnic, linguistic or religious lines. Most international treaties on human rights contain anti-discriminatory provisions. In addition to the main rights of the freedom of conscience, thought and associations, the principal legal guarantees for each representative of minorities consist in being treated equally by the law and courts and in equal protection of laws. The paper studies the problems of legal, sociolinguistic and educational basis of linguistic discrimination in the communicative space of Tajikistan. Linguistic discrimination and political correctness are closely connected with the language policy of the state. With exoglossic linguistic situation being characteristic for Tajikistan arises a need to study the questions related to linguistic discrimination. This will allow making certain adjustments to language building and harmonizing the ethnic and interethnic interests on the basis of a balanced and scientifically justified language policy.

  4. Biomedical waste management - problems and perspectives: legal, administrative and fiscal viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, S.; Philip, P.C.; Stephens, R.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, the costs for the disposal of low level radioactive wastes have escalated and the states in which commercial waste disposal sites are located have also been insisting on ''hold harmless'' and indemnity agreements from the users of such sites. Coupled with the above, the uncertainty associated with the sites being kept open, has created a significant problem for the generators of low level wastes, forcing them to look for alternatives such as incineration. This paper attempts to provide an insight into the problem of low level radioactive wastes disposal from the legal, administrative and fiscal viewpoint as it pertains to statesupported teaching medical institution. Some aspects of public relations are also covered

  5. International legal problems of topical interest concerning the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.; Rudolf, W.

    1975-01-01

    The lack of internationally accepted laws on the operation of nuclear ships has proved so far perhaps a more serious obstacle to further development than the problems of a technical-economic kind, although international law by no means that inadequate that it could not, at least basically, do justice to the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships. The unsatisfactory legal situation has been caused in the first place by the conduct of the majority of states which, out of fear of the risks of nuclear ships, also questioned those articles of international maritime law which had been undisputed up to then. This goes in particular for the SOLAS convention, the principles of the peaceful crossing of territorial waters and of calling at ports. On the other hand, it ought to be pointed out, too, that the states obviously do not assume that the operation of nuclear ships is using the sea inadmissably under international law. One could see this as a continuation of the strict Trail-Smelter-doctrine which forbids states to allow activities which might have harmful effects on other national territories. There is no doubt, that the uses of nuclear energy belong to these dangerous activites. At the same time, they are accepted under international law, provided that they are supervised legally and provided that appropriate liability arrangments under civil law are at hand. This is the starting point for over coming the legal difficulties in the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships: it is to be treated as a matter of urgency to elaborate and to put into force comprehensive international conventions for the licensing and supervision of nuclear ships and concerning liablilty under civil law of the operators of nuclear ships. The required freedom in the navigation of nuclaer ships can only be achieved by further reglementation under maritime law. (orig./LN) [de

  6. Contaminated nutritional supplements--legal protection for elite athletes who tested positive: a case report from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, H; Vollkommer, G; Horstmann, T; Niess, A M

    2005-07-01

    A significant proportion of nutritional supplements manufactured worldwide contain non-listed contaminations with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), whose ingestion may lead to positive doping test results. This will lead to the suspension of, and sanctions against, the athlete, since this group of active substances is prohibited by the anti-doping code of the World Anti-Doping Agency as well as by sports associations not connected with this agency. Considerable financial losses are often the consequence for a banned athlete. Based on an amendment to the law governing the manufacture and prescription of drugs (AMG) in Germany in 1997 and an increasingly extensive interpretation of the term "drug" by the Federal Supreme Court, preparations containing anabolic steroids or their precursors are to be classified as drugs and, therefore, are subject to compulsory declaration as stated by the AMG. If this obligation is not adhered to, the result may be a claim for damages by the athlete against the manufacturer of a preparation, if the athlete took the preparation thinking it was harmless as judged by the Anti-Doping regulations, but was then found to be positive in doping tests. The judges in the first case before the county court in Stuttgart decided in favour of the claim for damages with respect to lost bonuses, loss of earnings and accrued legal costs by a soccer player who tested positive and was therefore suspended. Based on the evidence presented, the court came to the decision that the soccer player's positive test result was due to the ingestion of nutritional supplements containing non-listed AAS. This procedure could set a precedent for other states to demonstrate that athletes who had tested positive due to contaminated nutritional supplements are not without legal protection.

  7. Problems and Tendencies of Development of Political and Legal Environment of Public-private Partnership in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альберт Илдусович Абдрахманов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study o/f political and legal terms for Public-Private Partnerships (PPP development while PPP becomes the issue of today for Russian political and social-economic life. The article covers particularly the analysis of the effective legislation of PPP at the federal and regional levels and appraisal of the current political trends regarding the development of legal partnership between the government and companies in the connection with the legislation. The author provides research especially of the prospects of the PPP federal Draft Law and reveals key specifics and problems of the legal environment of PPP in districts of the Russian Federation.

  8. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  9. The Russian oil industry and foreign investments: legal aspects and the problem of business risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyanik, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the considerable potential oil resources in Russia, oil production is currently falling to the extent where, if present trends continue, imports will be necessary in the next few years in order to meet domestic demand. Foreign investment could make an effective contribution to stabilizing the Russian oil industry. The large resource base, favourable production costs, highly skilled workers and the conversion potential of the former defence industries to oil and gas equipment, are considerable attractions for foreign investors. However, for the time being there are many obstacles and uncertainties for oil and gas investment. Among these are political instability, high taxation, export tariffs, the legal environment, bureaucratic difficulties over new project negotiation, and problems related to oil and gas transportation. Current legislative activities which may lead to a better investment environment are described. (UK)

  10. Considerations on Legal and Philosophical Problems in Experimental Botany: The case of plant in vitro cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kleszcz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper consists of two parts. In the first, some issues related to the character of biological experiments conducted under in vitro cultures are portrayed. The relevant aspects of these procedures are explicated from the viewpoint of the experimental botanist. It is a case study for the considerations in the second part, which presents selected philosophical and legal issues involved in biological experiments from the general perspective of philosophical investigations concerning the problem of plants’ axiology. Obviously, the nature of the considerations is limited; not all important questions from the perspective of biology and philosophy have been raised. Nevertheless, the authors hope that the analyzed issues may be interesting for both biologists and philosophers.

  11. Opportunities, Problems and Pitfalls of Nutrition and Health Claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of reliable food information, for instance by printing an authorised nutrition or health claim on a package of food, makes credence dimensions of a food transparent to the consumer. In Europe, prior-to-use authorisation of nutrition and health claims are mandatory and governed by

  12. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES OF LEGAL PERSONALITY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW. FACTUAL AND NORMATIVE PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    MATEJ SAVIĆ

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with current theoretical issues of international legal personality. Special attention is paid to the growing conflict between the factual and normative dimensions of general legal capacity of subjects of international law. Contemporary trends and respective theoretical concepts are analyzed, especially regarding actual processes and challenges that are imposed in the definition of legal personality in international law.

  13. Teaching and Assessing Problem Solving: An Example of an Incremental Approach to Using IRAC in Legal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Legal reasoning is a type of problem solving, and is situated within thinking skills, one of the six threshold learning outcomes established under the auspices of the Australian Learning and Teaching Council's Bachelor of Laws Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement. The threshold learning outcomes define what law graduates are…

  14. LEGAL PROTECTION OF AVIATION IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION, RISKS AND SOCIAL ENTROPY AS A SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM: APPROACHES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Chernaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue concerning the international legal problem of using armed forces to counter the threats posed by the misuse of civil aircraft, in particular, the use of civil aircraft as a weapon to kill people and destroy objects on the territory of States (the events of 11th September 2001 in the USA. It proves the need for universal international legal norms regulating the actions of States to prevent and suppress acts of the misuse of civil aircraft.

  15. Investigation on legal problems encountered by emergency medicine physicians in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsin Emre Kayipmaz

    Full Text Available Medicine is a profession that carries certain risks. One risky area of practice is the emergency department. Emergency physicians diagnose and treat a high volume of patients, and are also responsible for preparing reports for forensic cases. In this study, we aim to investigate emergency physicians' legal-administrative problems and reveal their level of understanding on forensic cases.An electronic questionnaire form was prepared after the approval of an ethical committee. This form was sent to the residents, specialists and academicians of emergency medicine by e-mail. The physicians were asked to fill out the form online. All the gathered data was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency percentages with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Correlation between number of complaint cases and age, sex, career, institution, and duration of service in emergency department were investigated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.294 physicians participated in the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, 170 of the physicians were reported to the patient communication units due to medical malpractice. Mean number of compliant reports was 3.20±3.5. 29 of the physicians received administrative penalties. 42 of the physicians were judged in the court for medical malpractice. 1 physician was fined 5000 Turkish Liras as a result of these judgments.We found that the number of complaint reports is negatively correlated with duration of service in emergency medicine and age. There was a significant difference between number of complaint reports and career (p<0.05. The physicians' level of awareness on forensic cases was found to be insufficient. Lack of legislation knowledge may be an important cause of complaint reports concerning emergency physicians, who have a high load of patients. Thus, we think that increasing the frequency of post-graduate education sessions and

  16. The Problem of Reflecting the Market in the Legal Principles of Real Estate Valuation in Poland. How to Eliminate the “Legal Footprint”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konowalczuk Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and subjects to criticism the current principles of real estate valuation, which were introduced in Poland in the 1990’s during the return to a market economy, under the conditions of an underdeveloped real estate market. Against the background of the hypothesis of institutional maladjustment of the methodology to the current level of real estate market development, the author assesses the imitative manner of creating the valuation methodology and its discontinuation in 1998, resulting from the introduction of rigid legal regulations, which have significantly limited the ability of ongoing adjustment of the methodology to the market needs. The paper deals with the problems of defining market value and classifying valuation. The author assumes that the appraisal regarding the market value should be based on a descriptive model of real estate valuation, which should make it possible to reflect the market. He draws attention to the negative effects of valuation methodology which prevents or hinders the mapping of the market in appraisal reports. He proposes a change in the order of the legal principles of property valuation, based on a hierarchical model consisting of three elements: the definition and interpretation of value, the market and the methods of valuation.

  17. To the problem of improving normative legal basis of organization of local self-government in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bazhenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The crisis of local self-government actualizes the problem of effectiveness oflegal regulation of the issues of its organization.The purpose of the paper is evaluation of the effectiveness of the regulatory framework forthe organization of local government.The methodology of research includes systematic analysis, formal legal method, interpretationof legislation.The results and scope of application. The crisis of local self-government actualizes the problemof effectiveness of legal regulation of the issues of its organization. Evaluation of theeffectiveness of the regulatory framework for the organization of local government is reducedto two questions: what are the limits of state legal regulation and what are the beginningof the division of powers on the organization of local government between the RussianFederation and the subjects of the Russian Federation.Recognizing the optimal legislative approach to the definition of the limits of state regulation,which assumes the creation at the federal level of a full-fledged legal mechanism for the implementationof local self-government, subject to its combination with the beginning of municipalself-regulation, the author criticizes the legislative approach to delineating the powersto organize local self-government between the Federation and the subjects of the Federation.Conclusions. Due to the legislative formula, according to which the scope of regional powersdepends on the discretion of the federal legislator, the local self-government turned out tobe "hostage" to the emerging federal relations.

  18. Social Reform Groups and the Legal System: Enforcement Problems. Discussion Paper No. 209-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Joel F.

    During the last two decades, there has been a great increase in the use of litigation by social reform groups. This activity has been stimulated by the hospitality of the courts to the demands of social reform groups and the availability of subsidized young, activist lawyers. The paper examines the uses of the legal system by social reform groups…

  19. Nutrition as a public health problem (1900-1947)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Sathyamala (Christina)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis working paper examines the construction of a ‘native’ diet in India by the British from the early 1900s to mid 1900s when the country gained Independence. It was not until the 1920s that malnutrition was ‘discovered’ and constructed as an imperial problem worthy of systematic

  20. The problems of correlation the life quality and interpersonal dialogue in legal practice of mining regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotukhin Vladimir; Stepantsova Evgenia; Kozyreva Marina; Tarasenko Anastasia; Stepantsov Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the impact of life quality at the level of interpersonal dialogue in legal practice of mining regions as the ratio of different subjects there characterizes social-and-cultural environment in general. The attention is given to the fact that the development of social-and-economic potential and independence of the subjects in mining regions in the Russian Federation and other countries makes important the social and cultural factor influencing the development o...

  1. Legal consequences and problems of the servitudes of right of way established by administrative acts in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to own a property is guaranteed by the Article 105 of the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia that in the same time stipulates that the said rights may be restricted only in accordance with law. This legitimate property right restriction is determined in Article 928 of the Civil Law: the ownership may be restricted both by private intent and by law. One of the restrictions of ownership rights is the servitude of right of way which is established by law, a contract, a court judgement, or a will. During the land reform, the State Forest Service, land commissions, and municipalities had the legal basis to establish the servitude of right of way also by an administrative act, taking a corresponding decision. However, many decisions were insufficient and legally incorrect. As a result, today the servitudes of right of way established by the administrative acts during the period of the land reform do not fulfil their purpose and cause a number of legal and practical problems both to owners of immovable property and to state institutions. In order to explore these problems, referring to the Article 7 of the Paragraph 105 of the protocol resolution No.56 of the Cabinet of Ministers from 29 October 2013, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development in cooperation with the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Justice, and the Ministry of Agriculture issued the Conceptual Report “On the Problems Occurring in Relation with the Servitudes of Right of Way Established during the Land Reform and Their Possible Solutions” (hereinafter – the Conceptual Report. In general there are 2 possible solutions, but for the second solution there are five courses of action, one of which – in cases when there is a road on private property that is needed for public use it is to be determined as an encumbrance of the immovable property “Public road”. The aim of the research is by analysis of the problems of the servitudes of

  2. Access technique and its problems in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischoff, S. C.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Catheter type, access technique, and the catheter position should be selected considering to the anticipated duration of PN aiming at the lowest complication risks (infectious and non-infectious. Long-term (>7–10 days parenteral nutrition (PN requires central venous access whereas for PN 3 weeks subcutaneous tunnelled catheters or port systems are appropriate. CVC (central venous catheter should be flushed with isotonic NaCl solution before and after PN application and during CVC occlusions. Strict indications are required for central venous access placement and the catheter should be removed as soon as possible if not required any more. Blood samples should not to be taken from the CVC. If catheter infection is suspected, peripheral blood-culture samples and culture samples from each catheter lumen should be taken simultaneously. Removal of the CVC should be carried out immediately if there are pronounced signs of local infection at the insertion site and/or clinical suspicion of catheter-induced sepsis. In case PN is indicated for a short period (max. 7–10 days, a peripheral venous access can be used if no hyperosmolar solutions (>800 mosm/L or solutions with a high titration acidity or alkalinity are used. A peripheral venous catheter (PVC can remain in situ for as long as it is clinically required unless there are signs of inflammation at the insertion site.

  3. Access technique and its problems in parenteral nutrition - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, K W; Schregel, W; Stanga, Z; Bischoff, S C; Brass, P; Hartl, W; Muehlebach, S; Pscheidl, E; Thul, P; Volk, O

    2009-11-18

    Catheter type, access technique, and the catheter position should be selected considering to the anticipated duration of PN aiming at the lowest complication risks (infectious and non-infectious). Long-term (>7-10 days) parenteral nutrition (PN) requires central venous access whereas for PN 3 weeks subcutaneous tunnelled catheters or port systems are appropriate. CVC (central venous catheter) should be flushed with isotonic NaCl solution before and after PN application and during CVC occlusions. Strict indications are required for central venous access placement and the catheter should be removed as soon as possible if not required any more. Blood samples should not to be taken from the CVC. If catheter infection is suspected, peripheral blood-culture samples and culture samples from each catheter lumen should be taken simultaneously. Removal of the CVC should be carried out immediately if there are pronounced signs of local infection at the insertion site and/or clinical suspicion of catheter-induced sepsis. In case PN is indicated for a short period (max. 7-10 days), a peripheral venous access can be used if no hyperosmolar solutions (>800 mosm/L) or solutions with a high titration acidity or alkalinity are used. A peripheral venous catheter (PVC) can remain in situ for as long as it is clinically required unless there are signs of inflammation at the insertion site.

  4. The legal, moral and ethical aspects and problems of perception of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Борисовна Денисова

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, when the profits from crimes by means of computer technologies, according to Interpol, in third place after the income of drugs traffickers and illegal arms suppliers, the company is aware that professionals in the field of information technology alone are not enough professional knowledge and skills. In order to prevent deviant behavior in cyberspace, and the correct address ethical issues that arise in their professional activities, legal and ethical regulation of social relations in the sphere of information technologies.

  5. The problems of the late implementation of the legal prevention measures for flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanseverino-Godfrin Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three main laws, 13th July 1982, 2nd February 1995 and 30th July 2003, have reformed the French legal framework and introduced special measures to prevent flood risks. Besides, completing these measures, the urban planning law have imposed since the 1987 Law that the urban planning documents have had to take into account the natural hazards to define the buildable areas. But, the late implementation of the prevention provisions and the lack of the urban planning documents concerning the natural hazards have led to a development of the urbanism in the flood prone areas. As consequences, most of the constructions are not flood proof, and many large damages are caused each time a flood occurs. We present this problematic through 8 municipalities in three departments (Aude, Gard, and Var.

  6. Nutritional problems in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease: Risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues LECHETA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Understand the nutritional problems and detect the presence of sarcopenia in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease receiving care at the Unidade de Saúde de Atenção ao Idoso (Elderly Care Unit in a capital city in Southern Brazil between November 2010 and July 2011. The Clinical Dementia Rating scale was used for the evaluation of staging severity of dementia. Participants’ nutritional status was classified using The Mini Nutritional Assessment. The following tests were used to diagnose sarcopenia: bioelectrical impedance, hand grip strength, and the Timed Up and Go test. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests (hemoglobin, lymphocytes, serum albumin, and total cholesterol were performed. Results Ninety-six older adults (mean age of 78 years were evaluated. It was observed prevalence of mild Alzheimer’s disease in 54.2% of the participants; 55.2% were at risk of malnutrition; unintentional weight loss was observed in 64.6%, 55.3% had lower number of lymphocytes, and 43.7% had severe sarcopenia. Conclusion The prevalence of risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia is high among older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Future studies should focus on the evaluation of nutritional interventions aimed at maintaining the nutritional status and muscle mass in these individuals.

  7. Legal problems in the concretisation of the fundamental requirements on radiation protection. 2. paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schattke, H.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to justice administered by the Higher Administrative Court of Lueneburg, the author is of the opinion that the individual third party complaing within the framework of the rule to minimize radiation exposure laid down in the Radiation Protection Ordinance cannot refer to risks the population might be exposed to. This is the imperative consequence of the legal system which protects the individual. The fact that - contrary to the position held by the Higher Administrative Court of Lueneburg - Sections 45 and 46 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance include emissions caused by accidents is demonstrated by giving a word-for-word, systematical and teleological interpretation, using painstaking methods. The same goes for the importance of accident doses planned in Sect. 28 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. To the extent to which it examines the import the basis of authorization would have for a radioecological ordinance, this contribution helps to understand the principles that govern radiation protection and the importance they have for licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law in general. (HP) [de

  8. A testable theory of problem solving courts: Avoiding past empirical and legal failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard L; Winick, Bruce J; Georges, Leah Skovran; Castro, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of problem solving courts designed to rehabilitate certain classes of offenders and thereby resolve the underlying problems that led to their court involvement in the first place. Some commentators have reacted positively to these courts, considering them an extension of the philosophy and logic of Therapeutic Jurisprudence, but others show concern that the discourse surrounding these specialty courts has not examined their process or outcomes critically enough. This paper examines that criticism from historical and social scientific perspectives. The analysis culminates in a model that describes how offenders are likely to respond to the process as they engage in problem solving court programs and the ways in which those courts might impact subsequent offender conduct. This Therapeutic Jurisprudence model of problem solving courts draws heavily on social cognitive psychology and more specifically on theories of procedural justice, motivation, and anticipated emotion to offer an explanation of how offenders respond to these programs. We offer this model as a lens through which social scientists can begin to address the concern that there is not enough critical analysis of the process and outcome of these courts. Applying this model to specialty courts constitutes an important step in critically examining the contribution of problem solving courts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding tube-related complications and problems in patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Alivizatos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term complications and problems related to gastrostomy and jejunostomy feeding tubes used for home enteral nutrition support and the effect these have on health care use. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 31 patients having gastrostomy (27 patients and jejunostomy (4 feeding tubes inserted in our Department were retrospectively studied. All were discharged on long-term (>3 months enteral nutrition and followed up at regular intervals by a dedicated nurse. Any problem or complication associated with tube feeding as well as the intervention, if any, that occurred, was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: All the patients were followed up for a mean of 17.5 months (4-78. The most frequent tube-related complications included inadvertent removal of the tube (broken tube, plugged tube; 45.1%, tube leakage (6.4%, dermatitis of the stoma (6.4%, and diarrhea (6.4%. There were 92 unscheduled health care contacts, with an average rate of such 2.9 contacts over the mean follow-up time of 17.5 months. Conclusion: In patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition, feeding tube-related complications and problems are frequent and result in significant health care use. Further studies are needed to address their optimal prevention modalities and management.

  10. Legal and administrative problems in regulating public participation in licensing of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    1981-10-01

    This general analysis of the question of public acceptance of nuclear activities focuses on the problems met by all governmental authorities in implementing their nuclear programmes. The author highlights the need for more specific regulations aimed at guaranteeing fuller information of the public and ensuring closer participation by it. (NEA) [fr

  11. The Legal Rights and Educational Problems of Homeless Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes the educational rights of homeless children and youth afforded by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act and describes the educational problems they confront, including academic underachievement and poor school attendance. Factors exacerbating the outcomes of homelessness are outlined. (SLD)

  12. [The Actual Legal and Organizational Problems of Licensing of Military Medical Expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogiiainen, A A; Schepin, V O; Telnova, E A; Chicherin, L P

    2017-09-01

    The article presents analysis of problems of organization of functioning of military medical commissions in the light of implementation of complex of activities related to licensing of military medical expertise as a type of medical activity. The conceptual definitions and main legislative acts regulating procedures of licensing of the given type of expertise are considered. The characteristics of functioning of military medical expertise in actual conditions of Russia, including experience of Moscow and the Moskovskaia oblast are established.

  13. Russian law: the legal framework for foreign investment in the Russian petroleum industry - problems and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmin, A.; Doeh, D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in Russian law relating to foreign investment in the petroleum industry are reviewed. The central piece of legislation regulating foreign investment is the Law on Foreign Investments of 1991. Its significance is that it is opened up to foreign investment that had been a closed society but it did not set out how and or what conditions investors' rights were to be acquired and exercised. The main problems that have had to be dealt with include: determining which government authorities (federal, republic, regional etc.) have the power to grant petroleum exploration and production rights; determining the methods by which these rights may be obtained and on what terms; determining export rights; establishing the basis for taxation; establishing the general framework for foreign investment in Russia. The extent to which these issues have been resolved is discussed and remaining areas of concern considered. (UK)

  14. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  15. Gastrointestinal and Nutritional Problems Occur Frequently Throughout Life in Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Caeg, Erwin; Barrish, Judy O.; Geerts, Suzanne; Lane, Jane B.; Percy, Alan K.; Annese, Fran; McNair, Lauren; Skinner, Steven A.; Lee, Hye-Seung; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the prevalence of common gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders in Rett syndrome (RTT) based on parental reporting and related the occurrence of these problems to age and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) status. Methods We designed a questionnaire that probed symptoms, diagnoses, diagnostic tests, and treatment interventions related to gastrointestinal and nutritional problems in RTT. The International Rett Syndrome Foundation distributed the questionnaire to 1666 family-based members and forwarded their responses for our review. We interrogated the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network database to supplement findings related to medications used to treat gastrointestinal problems in RTT. Results Parents of 983 RTT females (59%) responded and identified symptoms and diagnoses associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility (92%); chewing and swallowing difficulties (81%); weight deficits or excess (47%); growth deficits (45%); low bone mineral content or fractures (37%); biliary tract disorders (3%). Height, weight, and BMI z-scores decreased significantly with age; height and weight, but not BMI, z-scores were significantly lower in females with MECP2 mutations than those without. Vomiting, nighttime awakening, gastroesophageal reflux, chewing difficulty, and choking with feeding were significantly less likely to occur with increasing age. Short stature, low bone mineral content, fractures, and gastrostomy placement were significantly more likely to occur with increasing age. Chewing difficulty, choking with feeding, and nighttime awakening were significantly less likely to occur, whereas short stature was significantly more likely to occur, in females with MECP2 mutations than those without. Diagnostic evaluations and therapeutic interventions were utilized less frequently than the occurrence of symptoms or diagnoses in the RTT cohort. Conclusion Gastrointestinal and nutritional problems perceived by

  16. Legal Sentience and the Problem of the Instant: A Critical Assessment of the Temporal Structure of Precedent and its Implications for Legal Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Wargan, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the authority of precedent from a phenomenological standpoint. Phenomenology distinguishes between two temporal models. One describes time in an idealised form, as a divisible chain of instants or events. The other looks at lived temporality as fluid and indivisible duration. In the system of precedent, we witness an interaction of both models. The legal order is constructed from slices in time that become the building blocks of future judgments. Precedents are binding for...

  17. Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.; Guieze, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations [fr

  18. Problems of Russian construction education in an age of innovation: socio-cultural and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryadko Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate changes of Russian higher education, aimed to incorporate In this paper we estimate changes of Russian higher education, aimed to incorporate the latter in the Bologna process. The analysis of the reforms is given in terms of need in training specialists of the construction industry. The article analyzes the conclusions reached on the issue by some teachers of Russian universities of civil engineering. Among the reasons for concern from the part of the Russian education community, it is called the low level of knowledge about the tasks of re-forms and lack of information regarding measures to improve the educa-tion system. The investigation, in particular, points out that today the main issue of reforming is seen in creation of a single European intellectual space. At the same time, the questionnaire showed that the achievement of the stated purpose is prevented by the following factors: low level of stu-dent-builders in foreign languages and insufficient income. These circums-tances make education abroad almost impossible for most students from Russia and reduce the competitiveness of graduates from Russian universi-ties in labor market of the countries that joined to the Bologna system. The authors of the article pay special attention to the needs of executives of construction firms in qualified specialists. Most of the experts note the iso-lation of universities from solving problems of building practice, a notice-able lag of the national educational system from the western ones in train-ing specialists in construction logistics and organization of construction sites.

  19. Nuclear energy as a 'golden bridge'? Constitutional legal problems of the negotiation of the prolongation of the running time against skimming of profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhoff, Christian; Aswege, Hanka von

    2010-01-01

    The coalition agreement of Christian Demographic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU) and Free Democratic Party (FDP) from 26th October, 2009 characterizes the nuclear energy as a bridge technology. The coalition parties explain to prolong the running times of German nuclear power stations up to a reliable replacement by renewable energies. The conditions for the prolongation of the running times are to be regulated in agreement with energy supply companies. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the fiscal legal problems of the skimming of profits. Constitutional legal problems of the earmaking of a skimming of profits as well as a consensual agreement are discussed in this contribution. In the result, a financial constitutionally reliable way for the skimming of added profits due to prolongation of the running time is not evident. The legal earmaking of the duty advent for the promotion of renewable energies increases the constitutional doubts.

  20. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Rank Prize Lecture. Global nutrition challenges for optimal health and well-being.

    OpenAIRE

    Uauy, R; Corvalan, C; Dangour, AD

    2009-01-01

    Optimal health and well-being are now considered the true measures of human development. Integrated strategies for infant, child and adult nutrition are required that take a life-course perspective to achieve life-long health. The major nutrition challenges faced today include: (a) addressing the pending burden of undernutrition (low birth weight, severe wasting, stunting and Zn, retinol, Fe, iodine and folic acid deficits) affecting those individuals living in conditions of poverty and depri...

  1. Analysis of surveying and legal problems in granting right-of-way and expropriation for the purpose of locating technical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A condition which determines the location of technical infrastructure is an entrepreneur holding the right to use the property for construction purposes. Currently, there are parallel separate legal forms allowing the use of a real property for the purpose of locating transmission lines, i.e. transmission easement (right-of-way) established under the civil law and expropriation by limiting the rights to a property under the administrative law. The aim of the study is to compare these forms conferring the right to use real properties and to analyze the related surveying and legal problems occurring in practice. The research thesis of the article is ascertainment that the current legal provisions for establishing legal titles to a property in order to locate transmission lines need to be amended. The conducted study regarded legal conditions, extent of expropriation and granting right-of-way in the city of Krakow, as well as the problems associated with the ambiguous wording of the legal regulations. Part of the research was devoted to the form of rights to land in order to carry out similar projects in some European countries (France, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden). The justification for the analysis of these issues is dictated by the scale of practical use of the aforementioned forms of rights to land in order to locate technical infrastructure. Over the period of 2011-2014, 651 agreements were concluded on granting transmission right-of-way for 967 cadastral parcels owned by the city of Krakow, and 105 expropriation decisions were issued, limiting the use of real properties in Krakow.

  2. Some technical and legal problems relating to the storage of high-level radioactive waste and the use of nuclear power sources on space satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, E.; Wollenschlaeger, M.

    1985-04-01

    A brief survey is presented summarizing the main characteristics of radioactive wastes and the various waste management strategies. Subsequently, the technical and legal problems encountered with the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste and with the use of nuclear power sources on space satellites are reviewed. It is shown that both in terms of technology and law, a sound basis is already available upon which the problem of HAW disposal in space can be tackled. On the legal level, however, existing norms and regulations need to be supplemented and improved by more concrete provisions, and this task should be started now. An international agreement concerning HAW management in space is said to be indispensable.

  3. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings toGlobal Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Ooms, Gorik

    2017-05-20

    Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  4. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  5. Actual legal questions and problems of the free access to information, especially in the environmental protection; Aktuelle Rechtsfragen und Probleme des freien Informationszugangs, insbesondere im Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Meinhard (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 26th Trier colloquium on the law governing environmental protection and technology at 5th to 7th September, 2010 in Trier (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The environmental law in the light of federalism and Europeanization (Hans-Juergen Papier); (2) Information rights in the EU (Astrid Epiney); (3) Environmental policy by freedom of information (Friedrich Schoch); (4) The legal framework for the opening of the access to information as well as the appearance of accessible information under special consideration of the environmental information Directive 2003/4/EG and its implementation in the German Law (Joern Axel Kaemmerer); (5) The utilization of electronic media: REACh data bases, publication of authorizing procedures in the Internet and geo data mediation such as google maps (Indra Spiecker); (6) Protection position of companies in the right of access to information. The protection of business secrets and commercial confidentialities as well as application dossiers in the European and German law (Matthias Rossi); (7) Limited protection of business secrets and commercial confidentialities as a part of genetic engineering legal approval procedures (Hartwig Stiebler); (8) The NRW pipeline cadastre (Alexander Schink); (9) Legal protection by European and national courts under consideration of the European Ombudsman in his function in securing the access of information (Sabine Schlacke).

  6. Errors and myths in feeding and nutrition: impact on the problems of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora Navarro, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-09-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence cannot be explained by a sudden and generalized change in human genome. It is certainly due to the modification of lifestyle habits and especially of the diet, as well as a lack of physical activity and sedentary living. Changes in the feeding pattern and the subsequent unbalance in the caloric profile of the diet may have had great importance in the occurrence of obesity. The social pressure in relation to the body image, the desire to have a slim body, and the fear to gain weight present in the current society have given way to the proliferation of myths and errors regarding pretentiously weight-losing foods and the appearance of miracle diets and dietary complements with magic results on weight loss. Weight-losing foods such as grapefruit, pineapple, apple, cucumber, wholemeal bread or drinking water while fasting are among the most popular and with less scientific evidence errors and myths. On the other hand, miracle diets cause more harm than good and their success is based on weight loss, but not fat loss, since they initially induce dehydration and a decrease in the muscle mass. The intervention study described here shows, once again, that when someone takes a hypocaloric diet he/she will lose weight and that the supplements tried with a satia - ting, lipolytic and supposedly weight-losing effect do not modify the weight loss produced by the hypocaloric diet. The main therapeutic tools available to fight against obesity are dietary therapy, which is a must in the pro - gram, education and behaviour modification, increased physical activity, to fight against sedendarism, and some pharmacological therapy available. The best solution to all these problems that have a great repercussion on the society surely is the development of wide and prolonged informational and educational campaigns in the field of nutrition. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. The Explanation of the Problems of Middle-distance Race Athletes' Nutritional Meals

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhou Peng; Sizhe Sun

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the negative effects of high strength and speed endurance training, when training with monitoring, the nutrition of the athletes should also be paid attention to. Middle-distance race takes speed endurance as the predominantly physical ability project; the requirements of speed and speed endurance of athletes are relatively high. Nutrition and diet are the most important found for athletes to intake nutrients and maintain their physical fitness, which play an important ro...

  8. Hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving total parenteral nutrition: a multicenter study. (Study group on the problem of hyperglycemia in parenteral nutrition; Nutrition area of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Maria Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; Del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among hospitalized patients. Treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin is potentially associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypoglycemia (capillary blood glucose nutrition (TPN). This prospective multicenter study involved 19 Spanish hospitals. Noncritically ill adults who were prescribed TPN were included, thus enabling us to collect data on capillary blood glucose and insulin dosage. The study included 605 patients of whom 6.8% (n = 41) had at least one capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL and 2.6% (n = 16) had symptomatic hypoglycemia. The total number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 d of TPN was 0.82. In univariate analysis, hypoglycemia was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes, a lower body mass index (BMI), and treatment with intravenous (IV) insulin. Patients with hypoglycemia also had a significantly longer hospital length of stay, PN duration, higher blood glucose variability, and a higher insulin dose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a lower BMI, high blood glucose variability, and TPN duration were risk factors for hypoglycemia. Use of IV insulin and blood glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. The occurrence of hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving PN is low. A lower BMI and a greater blood glucose variability and TPN duration are factors associated with the risk for hypoglycemia. IV insulin and glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of mental health problems in adolescents skipping meals: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Hyunju

    Adolescents frequently skip meals, doing so even more than once per day. This is associated with more mental health problems. This study identified mental health problems' associations with skipping meals and the frequency thereof among adolescents. This cross-sectional population-based study used a data set of 1,413 adolescents from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the risk of mental health problems, including stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in relation to skipping meals and the frequency thereof per day. Breakfast skipping significantly increased the risks of stress and depressive mood. Stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly prevalent as the daily frequency of skipping meals increased. Specific strategies should be developed at government or school level to decrease the frequency of skipping meals per day, associated with serious mental health problems in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Legal protection of the right to work and employment for persons with mental health problems: a review of legislation across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardodkar, Renuka; Pathare, Soumitra; Ventriglio, Antonio; Castaldelli-Maia, João; Javate, Kenneth R; Torales, Julio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    The right to work and employment is indispensable for social integration of persons with mental health problems. This study examined whether existing laws pose structural barriers in the realization of right to work and employment of persons with mental health problems across the world. It reviewed disability-specific, human rights legislation, and labour laws of all UN Member States in the context of Article 27 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It wes found that laws in 62% of countries explicitly mention mental disability/impairment/illness in the definition of disability. In 64% of countries, laws prohibit discrimination against persons with mental health during recruitment; in one-third of countries laws prohibit discontinuation of employment. More than half (56%) the countries have laws in place which offer access to reasonable accommodation in the workplace. In 59% of countries laws promote employment of persons with mental health problems through different affirmative actions. Nearly 50 years after the adoption of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and 10 years after the adoption of CRPD by the UN General Assembly, legal discrimination against persons with mental health problems continues to exist globally. Countries and policy-makers need to implement legislative measures to ensure non-discrimination of persons with mental health problems during employment.

  11. Drug-Induced Thrombophilic or Prothrombotic States: An Underestimated Clinical Problem That Involves Both Legal and Illegal Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, A; Cosi, E; Tasinato, V; Santarossa, C; Ferrari, S; Girolami, B

    2017-10-01

    Vascular thrombosis, both arterial and venous, is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are multiple risk factors for thrombosis, both congenital and acquired, and in the majority of cases, these risk factors are not modifiable. Over the past 2 decades, multiple drugs (both illegal and legal) have been associated with increased risk of thrombosis. However, due to limited scientific literature regarding the prothrombotic tendencies of these drugs, there is a concomitant limited understanding of the pathophysiology of drug-induced thrombosis. As drugs are one of the few modifiable risk factors for thrombosis, further study and dissemination of knowledge regarding drug-associated and drug-induced thrombosis are essential and have the potential to lead to decreased future incidence of thrombosis. The mechanisms at the basis of the thrombophilic activity of these drugs are variable and sometimes still ill recognized. Increased levels of clotting factors, reduction in coagulation natural inhibitors, decreased fibrinolysis, activated clotting factors, increased blood viscosity, endothelial damage, and increased platelet number and activation are the most frequent causes. Arterial steal or coronary arteries no flow has also been implicated. In some cases due to the intake of several drugs, more than one mechanism is present in a given patient. The purpose of the present review is to analyze all the drugs demonstrated to be potentially thrombotic. It is hoped that a prudent use or nonuse of these drugs might result in a reduction of thrombosis-associated diseases.

  12. Nutrition guidance by family doctors in a changing world: Problems, opportunities and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truswell, A.S.; Hiddink, G.J.; Blom, J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Third Heelsum International Workshop, Nutrition Guidance of Family Doctors Towards Best Practice, December 10-12, 2001, Heelsum, the Netherlands, 17 papers were presented. Each paper was discussed by all the participants at the workshop. These discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed,

  13. Indigenous Nutrition: Using Traditional Food Knowledge to Solve Contemporary Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the need to change current dietary patterns and of the value of traditional foodways. The Center for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, based at McGill University in Montreal, is a research and education resource for Indigenous Peoples created by Canada's Aboriginal Leaders to support traditional…

  14. The Analysis of Prospects for Derivatives Market Development in Ukraine in View of Solving the Problems of its Normative Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizev Oleg M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased uncertainty in the country’s economy, impossibility of raising capital only by standard financial instruments substantiated the need for such financial innovations as derivatives. The relevance of the suggested topic is justified by the lack of strong legislative framework regulating the market of derivative financial instruments, as well as by significant demand for them in Ukraine. The aim of the article is to analyze the development level of the normative and legal field of trade in the derivatives market as well as the quality of the formed system of main indicators for derivatives trading in Ukraine. The paper identifies the problem, which could be neutralized through the use of derivative financial instruments. The volume and structure of the world and domestic derivatives markets have been analyzed. Based on the analysis of the legal field of regulating the market of derivative financial instruments as well as statistical analysis of its volume and structure, the reasons for the low activity in the considered market have been justified and recommendations to improve the current situation proposed.

  15. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  16. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  17. Relations of Parenting Quality, Interparental Conflict, and Overnights with Mental Health Problems of Children in Divorcing Families with High Legal Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Braver, Sanford L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors, quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study come from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When both parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high quality parenting. PMID:24098960

  18. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  19. Evaluation of Health Profession Student Attitudes toward an Online Nutrition Education Problem-Based Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kathleen; Sadera, William

    2015-01-01

    The intent of problem-based learning (PBL) is to increase student motivation to learn, to promote critical thinking and to teach students to learn with complexity. PBL encourages students to understand that there are no straightforward answers and that problem solutions depend on context. This paper discusses the experience of undergraduate health…

  20. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems; Comment on “The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Walls

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments.

  1. The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, B.

    1992-01-01

    The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court? The article examines questions of recourse to the competent court, problems concerning the admissibility of legal proceedings before the Federal Admininstrative Court, the competence of the Laender in performing administrative acts on behalf of the Federation, the effectiveness of legal protection and the relationship between the Laender and the Federation in terms of responsibility for constitutional rights. The legal protection offered by administrative law, against a directive of the Federal Government is wholly ineffective, as there is no legal position a Land could bring into play to defened itself against a directive leading to unlawful action. Inequites which thus occur can however be met via a dispute between the Federation and the Laender as provided by the constitution, as the content of a directive becomes relevant in attempts to exert influence on the competence issue. Ultimately the rulings of the Basic Law on competence serve to protect the citizen and the community against excesses. In this connection the constitutional rights in their capacity as negative competence rulings disqualify executive acts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. [Medico-social legislation of Ukraine: organizational-legal aspects of management in the sphere of community health care (current state, problems and perspectives)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliachenko, Iu V; Dynnik, O B; Kishinets, E D; Zalesskiĭ, V N

    2004-12-01

    The authors analyzed organizational-legal aspects of management in the sphere of community health care. The foundation of medical-legal base of public health is substantiated in the article. It enables to form new mechanisms aimed at improvement of medical care, creation of data-analytical system, unification of health care and diagnostics standards.

  3. Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

  4. Legal Problems of the Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D.; And Others

    The three talks included here treat aspects of the law--tort liability, student records, and the age of majority--as they relate to the principal. Specifically, the talk on torts deals with the consequences of principal negligence in the event of injuries to students. Assurance is given that a reasonable and prudent principal will have a minimum…

  5. Front-of-pack nutrition labelling: are multiple formats a problem for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Alizon K; Adamson, Ashley J; Clegg, Sue; Malam, Sally; Rigg, Malcolm; Duncan, Sue

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labels are a potentially valuable tool to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. Front-of-pack labels are a relatively new format and are now widely used across many European countries, but it is unclear which of the many formats in use are best understood by consumers. It is also unclear whether the existence of multiple formats impedes understanding and use. This article addresses this question with findings from a study commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to provide evidence to inform policy decisions in this area. In-depth qualitative interviews were used to explore consumers' decision-making processes when using two different front-of-pack label formats to judge the relative healthiness of a pair of products. Participants were presented with product pairs differently labelled and a series of structured prompts were used to access their internal dialogues and to identify any difficulties encountered. The interviews revealed that making product comparisons using different label formats was challenging for participants and particularly for those product pairs where there was not an obvious answer. When the label formats on the product pairs lacked a common element, such as text, this also caused difficulties and misinterpretation. The comparisons also took time and effort that would be a deterrent in real-life situations. These findings indicate that the existence of multiple front-of-pack label formats in the marketplace may impede consumer comprehension and discourage use. They suggest that a single format may encourage consumers to use front-of-pack labels in making healthy food choices.

  6. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  7. THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE OPERATION OF THE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC CURRENCY MARKET (FOREX IN UKRAINE AND THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Podorozhnyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the state of legal institutionalization of the OTC foreign exchange market in Ukraine, as well as its comparison with the foreign experience of legal regulation of OTC currency relations in Ukraine and EU countries. The subject of the study is the legal and administrative framework for the functioning of the OTC currency market (Forex in Ukraine and in the EU countries. The methodology of the study consists of: historical and legal method, which allowed determining the preconditions for the emergence of OTC markets in Ukraine and the world and the principles of their functioning; system and structural method, which was used to analyse the world monetary system as an institutional and functional form of organization of international monetary and financial relations; a formal legal method that allowed us to comprehensively investigate a condition of regulation of the functioning of Forex in Ukraine, to identify its shortcomings, gaps, contradictions, and miscalculations, as well as to develop recommendations aimed at their elimination; a comparative and legal method that provided a deeper study of the specifics of the legal regulation of the functioning of Forex in the EU and to define ways of implementing a positive foreign experience in the national legal system. The results of the conducted legal study have shown that in Ukraine, the Forex market operates in legal vacuum conditions that negatively affect either the protection of the rights of forex clients or the amount of tax revenues to the state budget. The most acceptable way to eliminate this shortcoming is to implement the main principles and requirements of the MiFID in the national legislation. Practical impact. The research of experience of EU countries regarding the legal regulation of Forex companies activity and also regarding the creation of legal bases for implementation by the specified companies of self-regulation – it is a necessary

  8. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  9. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  10. Responsive Legal Approach to Law of Human Trafficking in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana

    2018-01-01

    Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…

  11. Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Shugurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss major trends in the area of reforming of copyright in the light of full exercise of internationally recognized human right to expression regarding the digital environment, especially the Internet, and demonstrate the significant situation when intellectual property rights, mainly author’s exclusive rights, build a lot of troubles for the information human rights. The article also looks at the changes in the understanding the relation between copyright and the human right to freedom of expression and information on the Internet. Much attention is paid to new moments in the modern doctrine of intellectual property that is inspired by process of digitization of author’s rights. There is conducted the approach to addressing copyright as one of the digital human rights resulted from property rights and right of creators to protection of their moral and economic interests. However, authors of the article departure from postulate that copyright is the human rights to a certain degree only. Moreover, this article examines the international legal approach to seeking the balance between the human right to freedom of expression, opinion and information, on the one hand, and copyright, especially as regards the Internet, on the other hand. There has been argued that key role in elaborating and adopting the principled standards in this sphere belongs to international law, including international law of human rights. In addition, the latter, as authors have ascertained, must correspond to international law of intellectual property rights, international information law, and international competition law. The study focus on various aspects of solving the problem of adapting copyright to the digital environment.

  12. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  13. THE LEGAL PROBLEMS OF ESTABLISHING THE ADDITIONAL GUARANTEES OF REALIZATION OF CONSTITUTIONAL HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS BY THE CONSTITUENT ENTITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Chuklin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article focuses on the need to improve legislative and law enforcement activities related to the consolidation of constituent entities of the Russian Federation additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms.The purpose of the article is to identify main ways of improvement the legal regulation additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.The methodology. The author uses a dialectical method, a method of analysis and synthesis, a formal legal method.The results and scope of application. The lack of unity in understanding the essence of additional guarantees of realization of rights and freedoms requires not only theoretical analysis of this legal category, but a consistent system of the legislation, and corresponding to the system of law enforcement practice. The legal establishment of the additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms, due solely to the will of the legislator of a constituent entitiy of the Russian Federation aimed at the concretization of constitutional rights and freedoms as well as of the security mechanisms (legal conditions, means of the implementation of these rights. Features of development of the corresponding constituent entitiy of the Russian Federation should be taken into account.One of the main directions of improvement of legal regulation in this field is legislative recognition of additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms established by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. This concept should be reflected in the Federal law of October 6, 1999 No. 184-FZ "On General principles of organization of legislative (representative and executive bodies of state power of constituent entities of the Russian Federation", as well as in the constitutions (charters

  14. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  15. The problem of identification of foreign public officials in combating the legalization (laundering of the proceeds of crime and the financing of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmanova A.K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available this article discusses the issues of optimization organization of identification of foreign public officials with the aim of countering legalization (laundering of criminal proceeds as well as the ways to improve identification of foreign public officials on the territory of the Russian Federation taking into account the Russian legislation.

  16. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  17. SURGICAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurniawan Darianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  18. The Emerging Nutritional Problems of School Adolescents: Overweight/Obesity and Associated Factors in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Nurezeman; Tamiru, Dessalegn; Tamrat, Meseret

    Globally, overweight is rapidly becoming one of the most important medical and public health problems. Adolescent obesity is a multisystem disease with potentially devastating consequences that persist into adulthood. However, there is a paucity of available information regarding the adolescent overweight and obesity in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April/2015 among 546 adolescents. Study participants were selected using a multi-stage, stratified random sampling method. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of overweight and obesity at 95% confidence intervals. The mean dietary diversity score of school adolescents was 6.97±1.15. Cereal based diets (99.6%) and vegetables (73.9%) are the two common foods of adolescents. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 13.3%. Overweight/Obesity was significantly associated with being a female (AOR=3.57 [95% CI:1.28-9.9]), attending private schools (AOR=7.53 [2.51-22.3]), lack of paternal education (AOR=5.57 [95% CI:1.53-20.26]), wealthy households (AOR=3 [95% CI:1.09-8.26]) and not being a vegetarian (AOR=9.23 [95% CI:1.68-50.8]). Adolescents who are physically inactive (AOR=3.7 [95% CI:1.06-13.02]) and those with sedentary lifestyles (AOR=3.64 [95% CI:1.39-9.5]) were more obese compared to their counter peers. The proportion of overweight/obesity among school adolescent was considerably high. Being a female, learning in private school, high household economic status, not being a vegetarian and having a sedentary life were significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Findings of this study can be used to guide the development of programs aimed at preventing overweight/obesity in Ethiopia by informing policymakers and other stakeholders about this emerging nutrition-related problem among school adolescents. Copyright © 2017

  19. Legal Care as Part of Health Care: The Benefits of Medical-Legal Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing Legal Terminology in African Languages as Aid to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with legal language, the bridging of communication problems in a legal setting by especially court interpreters, and difficulties these legal linguists may experience in this endeavour. Some word-forming principles are discussed and examples are given of typical multilingual coinages in the legal profession.

  1. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  2. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  3. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  4. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts

  5. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  6. [Legal aspects of geriatric rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, T

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.

  7. ANALYSIS OF NORMATIVE-LEGAL BASE OF REGULATION THE RUSSIAN ADVERTISING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina F. Devochkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains analysis of normative-legal base of Russian advertisingcompanies business. Also the problem of absence the legal system is consecrated.The author mentioned comparative characteristics of advertising legal system ofdifferent years.

  8. Legal training of students in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Kablukov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.

  9. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  10. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  11. Algunos problemas filosóficos de la nutrición: la ética en la atención nutricional del paciente Some philosophical problems of nutrition: ethics in the patient's nutritional care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bolet Astoviza

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se refiere a algunos problemas filosóficos de la nutrición, principalmente de la ética en la atención nutricional de los pacientes, y hace hincapié en la realización de la evaluación nutricional de ellos a través de la historia clínica y dietética, las mediciones antropométricas y las pruebas bioquímicas que se indicaron. Hace una revisión de la desnutrición y la obesidad, cuadro clínico, clasificación, del tratamiento nutricional de estas y del apoyo psicológico en estos casos para lograr cambios en el estilo de vida de dichos enfermos. Tiene siempre presente la ética en su trato, hace énfasis en la relación médico paciente, así como en la valoración del contexto psíquico y social. Se concluye que el hombre es un sistema biosicosocial. Se hacen recomendaciones al insistir en los aspectos bioéticos en el tratamiento con los pacientes, y la promoción de estilos y patrones de vida más saludables.This paper deals with some philosophical problems of nutrition, mainly with the ethics in the nutritional attention given to the patients. Emphasis is made on their nutritional evaluation through the medical and dietetic history, the anthropometric measures and the biochemical tests indicated. A review of malnutrition and obesity, clinical picture, staging, nutritional treatment and of the psychological support given in these cases in order to attain changes in the life style of these patients is made. Ethics is always present in their treatment. The physician-patient relation as well as the assessment of the psychical and social context are emphasized. It is concluded that man is a biopsychosocial system. Recommendations are made on insisting on the bioethical aspects in the treatment with the patients and on the promotion of healthy life styles and patterns.

  12. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  13. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  14. The Legal Regime of Nuclear Power Satellites-A Problem at the Cross-Roads of Nuclear Law and Space Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteix, S.

    1992-01-01

    The number of nuclear-powered satellites rises constantly and, recalling the fear generated by the crash of the Cosmos 954 satellite, the author points out that radioactive debris falling on earth could represent as great a hazard as accidental releases of radioactive material from land-based nuclear installations. Such satellites, therefore, can be governed by both space law and nuclear law. On the basis of international conventions applicable in the two fields and also with reference to the Law of the Sea and environmental law, the article analyses preventive and radiation protection measures as well as emergency plans and also raises the problem of liability and compensation for damage. (NEA)

  15. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  16. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  17. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  18. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  19. Maternal Knowledge of Nutrition, Problem-Solving Abilities and the Introduction of Complementary Foods into Infants' Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Chantelle Nobile; Drotar, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables (maternal knowledge and problem-solving ability) associated with the early introduction of complementary foods (i.e. foods other than breastmilk or formula) into infants diets. Ninety-eight primarily African-American mothers who presented to an urban, ambulatory care clinic in the Midwest…

  20. Towards enhanced public access to legal information : A proposal for official networked one-stop legal information websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitee, Leesi Ebenezer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This article identifies the publishing of fragments of legal information on multiple, isolated official legal information websites (OLIWs) as the major factor underlying the existing problems in locating the available official online legal information of all levels of government (national,

  1. Legal aspects and conflicts in the context of offshore wind power plant licensing in the exclusive economic zone; Rechtliche Probleme der Zulassung von Windkraftanlagen in der ausschliesslichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [Rechtsanwaltskanzlei Schmidt-Wottrich, Jungnickel und Partner, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The analysis presented discusses in depth the existing German laws, regulations and legal instruments, including constitutional case law, as well as European Directives and rulings of the European Court of Justice, which are to be observed in the context of planning and licensing of offshore wind power plants, in particular in the exclusive economic zone. The author elaborates on deficits in the system of applicable German law, incompatibility aspects with European law, and resulting problems. The conclusions to be considered by the German legislator are explained, and the author presents his recommendations in a list of ten items, addressing aspects of amendment and consolidation of existing German law, and harmonisation with European law. (orig./CB) [German] Diese Analyse untersucht alle nationalen und internationalen Rechtsgrundlagen und Instrumentarien, sowie Anforderungen und Bedingungen, die sich aus Gerichtsentscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts und des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes ergeben, die bei der Genehmigung von Windkraftanlagen in Kuestengewaessern und in der ausschliesslichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ) beachtet werden muessen. Der rechtlich wichtigste Bereich ist die AWZ, der ausfuehrlich behandelt wird. Es werden Defizite im deutschen Recht aufgezeigt, Unvereinbarkeiten mit europaeischem Recht und daraus resultierende Probleme. In der Schlussfolgerung wird empfohlen, die deutschen rechtlichen Bestimmungen neu zu ordnen. Eine entsprechende Ausgestaltung wird anhand von 10 konkreten Ansatzpunkten erlaeutert. (orig./CB)

  2. Practical Problems of Legal Regulation of Customs Duties Developing an International Trade Between the Republic of Lithuania And East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valantiejus Gediminas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than ten years (since 2004 the Republic of Lithuania is a member of the EU and is realizing its economic and trade relations with other foreign countries, and regulating customs duties according to the requirements of the EU Common Commercial Policy. However, in the recent years foreign trade (in particular - exports of goods remained one of the main factors which increased an economic growth (recovery in the Republic of Lithuania after the global economic crisis of the world, which began in 2008. In this context, the search for new markets and expansion of trade relations with new trade partners in Asia became essential in order to diversify the structure of the national economy and avoid dependence on traditional trade partners, such as Russia. Taking into account this strategic goal, the article seeks to answer a question whether an existing foreign trade regulation system ensures the status of Lithuania as an attractive partner of foreign trade with East Asian countries (Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore and what regulatory instruments (customs duty rules and procedures should be used on the national level to ensure cooperation with these countries. In order to answer this problematic question, the first chapter of the article overviews general tendencies in Lithuanian foreign trade with the countries of East Asia, while the second chapter is dedicated to describe regulatory regime for import customs duties on the national level (in line with the major provisions of the EU Common Commercial Policy. The practical problems and obstacles to international trade are presented in the third chapter and are illustrated by the examples of case law, which was formed in disputes relating to the decisions and actions of Lithuanian national customs authorities for the period from 1 May, 2004 (since entry to the EU.

  3. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  4. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Nutrition Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & ... specialize in the care of people with kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? ...

  5. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  6. Examining impacts of allergic diseases on psychological problems and tobacco use in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hong Chun

    Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.

  7. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  8. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  9. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  10. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  11. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  12. Agency Problems, Legal Strategies, and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, Reinier H.; Armour, John; Hansmann, Henry

    2009-01-01

    This article is the second chapter of the second edition of "The Anatomy of Corporate Law: A Comparative and Functional Approach," by Reinier Kraakman, John Armour, Paul Davies, Luca Enriques, Henry Hansmann, Gerard Hertig, Klaus Hopt, Hideki Kanda and Edward Rock (Oxford University Press 2009). The book as a whole provides a functional analysis of corporate (or company) law in Europe, the U.S., and Japan. Its organization reflects the structure of corporate law across all jurisdictions, whil...

  13. Medico-legal problems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1979-01-01

    The obligation of the pysician to inform the patient - which he has to prove in case of a suit - is based on the patient's right of selfdetermination. This self-dicision information was subject of the panel discussion. Not discussed in detail were the information concerning diagnosis and prognosis, and the instruction of the patient regarding his conduct postoperatively and during medical treatment. Not considered was the so-called malpractice and negligence respectively. Medical liability suits are increasing for various reasons and are frequently directed at a failure to inform the patient because the patient is often unable to prove a negligence of the physician ('surrogate liability'). The dimension of the duty of disclosure (complete information - no information at all) is discussed in general and with special regard to the radiological field. (orig.) [de

  14. Gambaran Masalah Gizi pada 1000 HPK di Kota dan Kabupaten Malang (Illustration of Nutritional Problem in the First 1000 Days of Life in Both City and District of Malang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Rahmawati

    2016-07-01

    The first 1000 day of life is the most important period in human life. Nutritional status during this period highly influences the quality of health, cognitive and productivity in the future. This research aims to assess the nutritional status of the first 1000 days in City and District of Malang. This research analyses the database and report of nutritional survey (Pre Dietetics Internship, Nutritional Study Program University of Brawijaya in area of City and District Malang from February 2012-February 2016. The research subjects included pregnant women (n 777, lactating mother (n 718, infant (n 638 and children under two year (n 554. Nutritional status was measured by using anthropometry method, with indicators for pregnant women: BMI pre pregnancy, MUAC and pregnancy weight gain; for lactating mother: BMI and MUAC; infant and under two year children: z-score weight-for-length, length-for-age dan weight-for-age. Nutrient intake was obtained by using 24h recall. Breastfeeding pattern, complementary feeding practice, and factors associated with nutritional status were collected by using structured questionnaire. All data was presented using descriptive statistics. Result shows that nutritional problem among pregnant women, lactating mother, infant and children under two year children was categorized into high and medium. There were 18,9% and 30,3% of pregnant women entering their pregnancy with underweight and overweight problem; and 49,3% low pregnancy weight gain. The percentage of underweight in lactating mother was  8,4%. Wasting and stunting in infant and children under two year were categorized as “medium problem” (wasting: 7,5% vs. 7,8%; stunting: 21,0% vs. 21.2%. There was 94,4% of infant receiving breastmilk. However exclussive breastfeeding practice only accounted for  28,8%, since there were 52,8% dan 66,5% of them received prelacteal and early complementary food. Nutritional problems in City and District Malang are still a challange and need to

  15. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  16. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  17. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  18. The holistic management of consequences of cancer treatment by a gastrointestinal and nutrition team: a financially viable approach to an enormous problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muls, Ann C; Lalji, Amyn; Marshall, Christopher; Butler, Lewis; Shaw, Clare; Vyoral, Susan; Mohammed, Kabir; Andreyev, H Jervoise N

    2016-06-01

    There is no national NHS tariff to fund services for patients experiencing long-term bowel and nutritional problems after cancer treatment. In this paper, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients referred to our service and the estimated cost of a completed episode of care. Patient characteristics, symptom severity, investigations, diagnoses, number of clinic visits and referrals elsewhere were recorded in a prospective cohort study. During 2013-14, 325 patients completed assessment and treatment. The majority of original cancer diagnoses were urological (43%) and gynaecological (21%). A median of six investigations were requested. 62% were found to have three or more new diagnoses including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (46%), vitamin D deficiency (38%), bile acid malabsorption (28%), gastritis (22%), radiation-induced bleeding (20%), vitamin B12 deficiency (17%), pelvic floor weakness (17%), colorectal polyps (13%) and pancreatic insufficiency (5%). A median of three visits were required and all commonly reported gastrointestinal symptoms improved by discharge. The mean episode of care per patient was costed at £1,563. Effective amelioration of chronic gastrointestinal toxicity after cancer treatment costs substantially less than treating the cancer in the first place and requires an NHS tariff. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  19. Personalised nutrition: status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Gorman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.A.; Ommen, van B.; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing

  20. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  1. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  2. Establishment and issues of new educational system by nutrition teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Nobuko; Kaneda, Masayo; Namikawa, Shintaro; Nakajima, Tomoko; Tamon, Takako; Murai, Yoko

    2005-08-01

    The Japanese school lunch system, which has over 100 y of history, has gained world attention for its well-developed and steady system, healthy Japanese-style menus including rice, and educational programs utilizing the school lunch system. Meanwhile, risk factors of health among students have been continuously worsening for the past dozen years or so. Therefore, Japan had hastened to develop better educational programs utilizing the school lunch and nutritional teachers. Under such circumstances, the Japanese Diet passed a bill to amend the School Education Law (hereinafter called the Amendment) which includes the establishment of an educational system by nutrition teachers in May, 2004. This system will be enforced in April, 2005. This system by nutrition teachers in Japan is well organized in both the legal and administrative senses and is attracting domestic and international attention as an example of an educational measure to improve the dietary life of students. The reason for this article in English is the additional intention of enlightening other countries by showing the political promotion problems of educational administration agencies, educational contents of nutrition teachers and some issues of the new educational system by nutrition teachers.

  3. Gerenciamento de riscos na prática ortodôntica: como se proteger de eventuais problemas legais Risk management in orthodontic practice: how to avoid legal problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado Cruz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A relação profissional-paciente na área de Ortodontia e Ortopedia facial é bastante desgastante face à longa duração dos tratamentos e, por causa disso, muitas vezes essa relação pode se deteriorar trazendo prejuízos a ambas as partes. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho visa informar o leitor, em linguagem acessível, sobre os principais problemas jurídicos que podem envolver o ortodontista em sua prática profissional, nas esferas cíveis, criminais e trabalhistas, bem como dos Conselhos Regionais de Odontologia. METODOLOGIA: Traça um perfil da atividade profissional em Ortodontia, analisa deveres e direitos do profissional e do paciente e estabelece alguns conceitos de gerenciamento de riscos a serem incorporados à clínica diária. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: Além de trabalhar bem tecnicamente e com bom embasamento científico, o ortodontista atual deve saber como se prevenir de eventuais problemas legais. Este trabalho poderá servir como ferramenta de consulta para o estabelecimento de uma nova rotina clínica, administrativa e de relacionamento que seja mais segura do ponto de vista jurídico.INTRODUCTION: The professional relationship between the orthodontist and his patient is very consuming due to the long duration of clinical treatments. Frequently this relationship can be deteriorated causing damages to both sides. AIM: This paper aims to inform the reader, in an accessible language, about the main juridical problems that can involve the orthodontist in his practice, in the field of civil, criminal and labor law. METHODOLOGY: This paper draws the outline of professional activity in orthodontics, analyses obligations and rights of both orthodontists and patients and establishes some concepts of risk management that should be incorporated to the clinical practice. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Besides technically good and scientifically based work, orthodontists should know how to avoid legal problems. This paper can be an

  4. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  5. Legal culture: characteristics and specifics (on the example of contemporary Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Absattarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the legal culture as an ‘ideal phenomenon’ providing value meanings for the outlook of the Kazakhs and the basis for the development of the population legal consciousness. The author focuses on the national significance of the legal, civil society and the development of new legal social ideals, norms and rules, examines key problems and contradictions in the legal culture of today’s Kazakhstan.

  6. On the obstacles and solutions in the application of Chinese criminal legal aid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sh.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available the article discovers the problem of application of Chinese legal aid system, which is very low. The problem should be solved as below. The author suggests strengthening the education to investigators, changing the way of employing legal aid lawyers and clarify the content of the right informing and applying for legal aid system. These actions application might well improve the situation.

  7. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  8. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  9. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  10. The international legal status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia

    OpenAIRE

    Dursunov, Ramil

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the international legal status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It examines the legal doctrines of Georgia, the Russian Federation, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia on this matter and how they correlate to the treaties, resolutions and declarations of international law. This article sets out to examine this problem and define the actual international legal status of these territories, which is the key to understanding how international law addresses the recognition of st...

  11. Legal liability and claims for the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dimcho Todorov

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a review of various aspects of legal liability and claims to hotel management arising in the hotel industry in the context of the legal framework and possible legal consequences for hotels and other types of commercial accommodation establishments. The main reasons for accidents' occurrence in the hotel industry are chronologically traced. Possible claims to the hotel management are also presented in detail. The problem with workplace discrimination, which is considered as ...

  12. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  13. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  14. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  15. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.

  16. The legal status of engineering companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    It is assumed that the carrying out of research, also in the nuclear field should be entrusted to engineering companies, especially when dealing with the setting up of technological structures. This paper considers the problems of the legal status of such companies under Italian legislation. (NEA) [fr

  17. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. User interaction with legal knowledge-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.; Winkels, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of my PhD study into the persuasiveness of (legal) knowledge-based systems'. The results of three experiments show the possible problems that may arise when computerised legal decision aids are put into practice. The users in the experiments had great difficulties with

  19. 32 CFR 727.6 - Functions of legal assistance officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with good legal practice and the policies and guidance provided by the Judge Advocate General. (6... other matters requiring an educated ability to relate the general body and philosophy of law to a specified legal problem of a client. Guidance in this matter may be had from various official sources...

  20. A Transformative Approach to Work Integrated Learning in Legal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption transformative pedagogies in WIL which is offered in legal education can foster personal and social transformation in addition to enhancing lawyering skills. The paper…

  1. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  2. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  3. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  4. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  5. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  6. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  7. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  8. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  9. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  10. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  11. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Nutrition Research: Its Place in Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alleyne

    1984-01-01

    Examines the current role of nutrition research as a component of home economics, predicts a greater importance for nutrition research, and offers remedies for problems arising from conflicts between the two disciplines. (JB)

  13. Improving nutrition through nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Good nutrition is essential to health and quality of life. As a United Nations agency dedicated to helping Member States achieve their social and economic goals, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognizes the importance of good nutrition and is working to address the problems underlying poor nutrition. In fact, many Agency activities serve basic human needs, by applying nuclear science to increase food production, improve health care, improve management of water resources, and assess sources of environmental pollution. Global progress in reducing malnutrition throughout the human life cycle has been slow and patchy. In its 2000 Report on the World Nutrition Situation, the United Nations Sub Committee on Nutrition estimated that in developing countries 182 million children under five years of age are chronically undernourished and 150 million are underweight. An estimated 30 million infants are born each year with impaired growth due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Worldwide, renewed international commitments have been made to address this situation, and the IAEA is a vital partner in these efforts. Nuclear science provides valuable tools for monitoring factors that influence nutrition, such as micronutrients, body composition, and breast milk uptake. Through its sub-programme on nutrition, the Agency is helping countries to use isotope applications and other nuclear techniques to their nutritional problems and is supporting leading-edge research on the interaction between nutrition and environmental pollution and infection with the ultimate goal of improving human nutrition

  14. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  15. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  16. SCALE--A Conceptual and Transactional Method of Legal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Darrell B.

    1985-01-01

    Southwestern University School of Law's two-year, intensive, year-round program, the Southwestern Conceptual Approach to Legal Education, which emphasizes hypothetical problems as teaching tools rather than the case-book method, is described. (MSE)

  17. Ethical or legal perceptions by dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, T K; Lange, B; Bower, C F; Purtilo, R B

    1988-03-01

    Perplexing ethical and legal concerns cross health professions and reach into many professions and vocations. Confidentiality is crucial not only to the health professional and the patient, but also to the lawyer and client, and the investigative reporter and the source. Reporting poor work or whistleblowing is a dilemma not only for dentists and other health care professionals, but also for the engineer, architect, and federal employee, among others. This survey of the ethical or legal perceptions of the dental practitioner supports two conclusions: perplexing situations are perceived as predominantly ethical rather than legal problems and the factor of age (number of years in practice) might affect this trend toward the ethical consideration of complicated issues. Understanding the nature of these and other perplexing situations requires that dental practitioners step beyond the confines of their practice and the boundaries of the dental profession to search for more effective ways of dealing with, and therefore living with, the realities of their practice.

  18. Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Athletic Performance 71% Nutrition and Coronary Heart Disease 68% Weight Control 67% Nutrition and Cancer 61% Sugar and Fiber in the Diet 46% Vegetarianism ...interested 4 0 .9% D. Not interested E. Don’t know 20. Diet , Nutrition and Athletic Performance 20 .9%A. Fairly interested 29 .3% B. Moderately interested...identify by block number) The objectives of this research centered in two major areas. A computerized nutritional analysis of the diet offered to USAFA

  19. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  20. What are the Ethical Problems Raised by the Increase of Cognitive Capabilities in the Defence Structure: The French Legal Structure, the Ethical Position of the French Military Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    nutrition intervenes on cognitive performance in a wider sense. Tea and polyphenols could reduce anxiety, coffee slows up the on set of Alzheimer’s, etc...We have evoked effects of certain amino acids found in proteins on the modulation of the synthesis of neuromediators (tyrosine and cerebral

  1. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  2. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  3. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  4. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  5. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  7. Legal nature of affatomia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...

  8. Psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals: Exploring roles in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Treesa Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental health and legal problems are interlinked in many ways. People facing legal issues may develop mental health problems, and people with mental illness and family also face legal issues. In India, Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 gives provision for free legal aid services for the poor sections of society. Authors explain the roles of psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals. Social case work as a method of social work is suitable in legal aid services. Counseling, referrals, collateral contacts, advocacy and networking are major services from the social work perspective. Knowledge about laws and mental illness is essential for social workers to work in legal aid clinics (LACs.

  9. Llama medicine. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L W

    1989-03-01

    The NWC are capable of assimilating a much lower plane of nutrition than we are accustomed to offer conventional domestic herbivores. Their unique gastric anatomy and physiology no doubt contribute to this apparent superiority, which is most evident when compared with sheep under lesser planes of nutrition. Llamas tend to be "cafeteria style" eaters, with some preference being given to taller, coarser forages. Absolute maintenance requirements for caloric, protein, fiber, and mineral content of NWC rations are yet to be finalized using North American feedstuffs, but some guidelines are offered. Proper assessment of body condition, acknowledgment of any nutritional problems, ration analysis, and assessment of management procedures likely will keep NWC nutrition on an even plane here in their new-found environment.

  10. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  11. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...

  12. The principle of state sovereignty in the Agreement on the Guarani Aquifer and legal problems specific to Argentina; El principio de la soberania estatal en el Acuerdo sobre el Acuifero Guarani. Problemas juridicos particulares de la Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apesteguia, G. J.

    2012-11-01

    The Agreement on the Guarani Aquifer (AGA) devotes its first three articles specifically to the state sovereignty of the parties with regard to the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The AGA reveals its intention to establish two inherent points concerning dominion over the water resource in question: the first refers to the ownership of the GAS by the parties involved (without the Agreements expressly alluding in its Art. 1 to the territorial scope of this dominion, as it does in the following point), and the second refers to the implementation of the law, which, according to Art. 2, subordinates it to constitutional and legal requirements and pursuant to the rules of applicable international law, a passage which leaves us with two questions: Does it entail an order of regulatory precedence? is international law reduced to the observance of legal precedents? For Argentina, the ruling in Art. 2 of the AGA will require great efforts to reconcile its legislative and judicial criteria on the two points mentioned: ownership and the environmental aspects of the different activities allowed on the surface above the GAS. In my opinion, Argentina must tackle the following legal issues: a) To amend the Civil Code (resolving the matter of the extent of the private dominion belonging to the owner of the ground above the groundwater); b) To legislate on aquifers at the federal level, bearing in mind the existing state norms; c) To restrict the access to and use of the GAS to the local people, being as it is the only resource of water for many communities. (Author)

  13. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  14. THE ELITISM OF LEGAL LANGUAGE AND THE NEED OF SIMPLIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Escandiel de Souza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research project entitled “Simplification of legal language: a study on the view of the academic community of the University of Cruz Alta”. It is a qualitative nature study on simplifying the legal language as a means of democratizing/pluralize access to justice, in the view of scholars and Law Course teachers. There is great difficulty by society in the understanding of legal terms, which hinders access to justice. Similarly, the legal field is not far, of their traditional formalities, which indicates the existence of a parallel where, on one hand, is society, with its problems of understanding, and the other the law, its inherent and intrinsic procedures. However, the company may not have access to the judiciary hampered on account of formalities arising from the law and its flowery language. Preliminary results indicate simplification of legal language as essential to real democratization of access to Law/Justice.

  15. Addressing Social Determinants Of Health Through Medical-Legal Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenstein, Marsha; Trott, Jennifer; Williamson, Alanna; Theiss, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    The US health care system needs effective tools to address complex social and environmental issues that perpetuate health inequities, such as food insecurity, education and employment barriers, and substandard housing conditions. The medical-legal partnership is a collaborative intervention that embeds civil legal aid professionals in health care settings to address seemingly intractable social problems that contribute to poor health outcomes and health disparities. More than three hundred health care organizations are home to medical-legal partnerships. This article draws upon national survey data and field research to identify three models of the medical-legal partnership that health care organizations have adopted and the core elements of infrastructure that they share. Financing and commitment from health care organizations are key considerations for sustaining and scaling up the medical-legal partnership as a health equity intervention.

  16. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  17. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  18. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  19. The legal system of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1983-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents solutions to some of the legal problems encountered in the interpretation of the various laws and regulations governing nuclear waste disposal, and reveals the legal system supporting the variety of individual regulations. Proposals are made relating to modifications of problematic or not well defined provisions, in order to contribute to improved juridical security, or inambiguity in terms of law. The author also discusses the question of the constitutionality of the laws for nuclear waste disposal. Apart from the responsibility of private enterprise to contribute to safe treatment or recycling, within the framework of the integrated waste management concept, and apart from the Government's responsibility for interim or final storage of radioactive waste, there is a third possibility included in the legal system for waste management, namely voluntary measures taken by private enterprise for radioactive waste disposal. The licence to be applied for in accordance with section 3, sub-section (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance is interpreted to pertain to all measures of radioactive waste disposal, thus including final storage of radioactive waste by private companies. Although the terminology and systematic concept of nuclear waste disposal are difficult to understand, there is a functionable system of legal provisions contained therein. This system fits into the overall concept of laws governing technical safety and safety engineering. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Nutrition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlich, M; Lochs, H

    2001-12-01

    Malnutrition is more common in elderly persons than in younger adults. Ageing itself, however, neither leads to malabsorption nor to malnutrition with the exception of a higher frequency of atrophic gastritis in older persons. Malnutrition in elderly people is therefore a consequence of somatic, psychic or social problems. Typical causes are chewing or swallowing disorders, cardiac insufficiency, depression, social deprivation and loneliness. Undernutrition is associated with a worse prognosis and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Awareness of this problem is therefore important. For the evaluation of nutritional status, it must be remembered that most normal values are derived from younger adults and may not necessarily be suitable for elderly persons. Suitable tools for evaluating the nutritional status of elderly persons are e.g. the body mass index, weight loss within the last 6 months, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) or the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). An improvement in the nutritional status can be achieved by simple methods such as the preparation of an adequate diet, hand feeding, additional sip feeding or enteral nutrition. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  1. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  2. Transformando o problema da fome em questão alimentar e nutricional: uma crônica desigualdade social Transforming the hunger problem into food and nutritional approach: a continuous social inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo de surgimento das políticas (públicas sociais relacionadas à alimentação e nutrição no Brasil tem um curso descontínuo e negligenciado pelo Estado brasileiro ao longo de sua história. Este artigo tem como objetivo resgatar este processo e identificar elementos que dificultam a inserção da questão alimentar e nutricional na agenda política brasileira. Assim, faz um breve resgate histórico sobre o conjunto de políticas e programas sociais formulados desde a década de quarenta com vistas ao enfrentamento do problema de fome no Brasil, sinalizando a mudança dos perfis epidemiológico e nutricional da população brasileira. É necessário avançar no entendimento de que as manifestações biológicas da fome - desnutrição ou obesidade (má nutrição - são reflexos de um modelo de desenvolvimento social que privilegia o capital em detrimento do bem-estar social. A questão social também se manifesta perante o contexto alimentar e nutricional, pois a submissão da sociedade aos ditames do capital produz reflexos nos modos de comer, viver, adoecer e morrer das populações.The origin of the social (public politics related to food and nutrition in Brazil has a discontinuous and neglected course by the Brazilian State throughout its history. The objective of this article is to rescue this process and to identify elements that interfere in the insertion of the food and nutrition question in the Brazilian politics agenda. Thus, it reviews thepolitics and social programs formulated since the decade of 40s aimed to solve the problem of hunger in Brazil, identifying the changes of an epidemiological and nutritional transition of the local population. It is necessary to progress in the agreement of the biological manifestations of the hunger: malnutrition or obesity (bad nutrition is reflected on a social development model that privileges the capital in detriment of the welfare state. Also it reflects the alimentary and

  3. Legal problems in the licensing of installations for recycling of solid wastes from municipal waste incineration. Rechtsprobleme bei der Genehmigung von Anlagen zur Verwertung fester Verbrennungsrueckstaende aus der Hausmuellverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, E.; Kressel, E.; Wollenschlaeger, M.

    1989-07-01

    The article mentions the solid wastes from municipal waste incineration and discusses in particular the treatment and use of raw ashes. The existing legal provisions governing the treatment and use of such solid waste are reviewed, including an examination of the applicability of the federal waste management law (AbfG) and the federal law on prevention of immissions (BImSchG). The conclusion is that solid residues from waste incineration may for the most part be recycled, but pollutant concentration limits provided by the law must be observed and thus may prevent recycling. The recycling facilities are subject to licensing in compliance with section 4, sub-sec. (1) of the BImSchG, but the categories given in column 2 (item 8.4) of the annex to the 4th Ordinance on Prevention of Immissions require only a simplified licensing procedure according to section 19. (orig./RST).

  4. [Nutritional depletion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yao, Wan-zhen

    2004-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major diseases worldwide. Nutritional depletion is a common problem in COPD patients and also an independant predictor of survival in these patients. Many data are helpful for determining nutritional depletion, including anthropometric measurement, laboratory markers, body composition analysis (fat-free mass and lean mass), and body weight. The mechanism of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD is still uncertain. It may be associated with energy/metabolism imbalance, tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammation, and leptin/orexin disorders. In patients with nutritional depletion, growth hormone and testosterone can be used for nutritional therapy in addition to nutrition supplementation.

  5. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  6. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  7. THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON CERTAIN TYPES OF LEGAL LIABILITY IN CRYPTOCURRENCY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Drozd

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the theoretical, methodological, and legal possibilities of application of certain types of legal responsibility to the relations, which are connected with cryptocurrency (bitcoin. Some types of liability in the field of cryptocurrency relations make the subject of the study. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of legal regulation of the sphere of cryptocurrency in Ukraine and in foreign countries. Advantages and disadvantages of different modes of cryptocurrency turnover are determined: from direct prohibition to granting the status of the official payment system. It is made on the basis of the analysis of peculiarities of the circulation of virtual money in Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, China, the Russian Federation, Bolivia, Ecuador, Thailand, Vietnam, the USA, Japan, Spain, and some other countries. On the basis of the comparative legal study of certain provisions of the civil, administrative, tort, and criminal legislation of Ukraine, the possibilities and limits of the application of certain types of legal responsibility to violations in the field of cryptocurrency are determined. The results of the comparative legal study have shown that, unlike most foreign countries, in Ukraine, there is no legislative consolidation of the legal status of the virtual currency. In this regard, today in the national legislation, there are no direct rules that would predict the occurrence of administrative, criminal or civil liability for the offenses in the field of cryptocurrency relations. Practical impact. Since guarantees of compulsory restoration or protection of violated law play an important role in the legal regulation of any social relations, the proper legislative regulation of public relations in the sphere of crypto currency circulation is an urgent problem today, including with the help of establishing liability for the offenses in this field

  8. Contemporary Legal Issues in Electronic Commerce in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TI Akomolede

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has no doubt added a great deal to the quality of human life today. It has knitted the world together as a global village. Many difficulties which hampered international and even national commercial transactions in the past have now been consigned to the dust-bin of history. The emergence of electronic commerce is as a result of the creation of the internet, through which commercial transactions are conducted between parties from different parts of the world and who may never see themselves in their lifetimes. However, the emergence of electronic commerce has also brought with it a number of legal and socio-economic problems, especially in the developing nations such as Nigeria – problems which pose significance challenges to the legal regime of electronic commerce in those countries. This paper examines these legal issues within the context of the current legal and regulatory framework for electronic commerce in Nigeria.

  9. Radiographic investigations during medico-legal autopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzke, H.; Schneider, V.; Dietz, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the last 13 years (1968-1980), 427 radiographic examinations were carried out during the course of medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the Free University of Berlin. Important problems were the demonstration of retained foreign bodies resulting from shooting, stabbing or blunt trauma, bone injuries, identification, and the question of life in neonates. An historical survey is given and 12 cases with special forensic problems are illustrated and discussed, and further means of investigations are described. (orig.) [de

  10. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  11. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  12. General characteristics and types of subjective duties in corporate legal relations

    OpenAIRE

    Надьон, Вікторія Валентинівна

    2017-01-01

    The processes of reforming social relations in the conditions of integration ofUkraine's economic system into the European community call for the improvement of domestic legislation in this area and the scientific substantiation of the legal problems that arise there. One of these problems is the essence of subjective responsibility in corporate legal relations.Legislative regulation of corporate legal relations takes place through the establishment of certain rights and responsibilities for ...

  13. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is followed by a discussion of the problems confronting impact evaluation. Firstly, methodological difficulties often weaken the power of the evaluation or restrict its scope. Secondly, the effects of most...

  14. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  15. Representation and Non-representation of Knowledge Mediation in Legal Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    In this paper, focus is on mediation of legal knowledge between expert and layman in connection with German legal contracts. Focus is not, however, on the role of a classical mediator (e.g. a translator), but on knowledge mediation performed by the expert himself. This mediation of legal knowledge...... takes place in different ways. A survey among lawyers (Larsen 2009) showed that, concerning legal contracts, mediation of knowledge is largely performed by legal experts, i.e. lawyers, to their clients during personal consultations before the contract is signed. Many lawyers prefer to explain difficult...... legal terms or other contents to their clients orally, instead of doing it in writing within the frames of the legal contract. The lawyers who choose to explain the legal contents orally have several reasons for doing so, but in my paper, I will argue that this form of mediation causes certain problems...

  16. Eldercare at Home: Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Related Topics Advance Directives Caregiver Health Cataracts Dementia Glaucoma Guardianship Hearing Loss Managing Multiple Health Problems Nutrition Prevention Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at ...

  17. Legal control scenario applied to embedded software in measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, C.G. de; Brandao, P.C.; Leitao, F.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a scenario of legal control of software in measuring instruments. Such control is hampered by intrinsic problems related to software analysis and verification. To circumvent these difficulties, several projects are being developed to attack different stages of legal control, such as the model type approval, periodic verifications and metrological expertise. The proposals that will arise from these projects will be discussed among the parts and may be incorporated into the measuring instruments. (author)

  18. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  19. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  20. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  1. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  2. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  3. Legal Challenges to Teacher Evaluation: Pitfalls and Possibilities in the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazi, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    This article forecasts potential legal problems emerging from the use of new teacher evaluation systems in the states. This research was a policy analysis that combined three types of data to forecast the states and the legal challenges they might encounter: state policy data, selected case law, and problems from the literature of teacher…

  4. Comparative legal aspects of pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansweevelt, T

    2008-12-01

    Administering pain medication to terminal patients can cause legal problems when it has a life-shortening effect, because according to some authors it equates with manslaughter. The legal basis of the acceptance of pain alleviation with life-shortening effect can be found on the grounds of necessity. In different countries physicians have been prosecuted because of their pain management, which to the public prosecutor was in fact a sort of euthanasia. On the other hand, it is not unknown that physicians administer opioids to mask euthanasia. Pain management needs some rules, which can reassure the physician who alleviates pain. The physician who alleviates pain with life-shortening effect will have to act with due care to avoid a liability risk. This implies at least an informed consent, to observe the proportionality rule, and to keep a medical record.

  5. [Bioethics in Latin America: legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.

  6. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Akiko Kamikado Pivi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

  7. A problemática atinente às limitações do mero reconhecimento legal dos direitos humanos: a dignidade humana, para além do individualismo liberal, enquanto discurso legitimador sobre os fundamentos morais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suélen Farenzena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem por objetivo analisar os limites do mero reconhecimento legal dos direitos humanos, demonstrando que a fundamentação desses constitui sua chave de proteção, efetivação e realização. O estudo propõe-se a demonstrar que o sistema positivo do direito, dissociado de valores morais, não é suficiente para proteção dos direitos humanos, evidenciando, em conseqüência, que para se efetivar a proteção desses direitos há de se encontrar um marco, um fundamento teórico-racional que a justifique, construído a partir da constatação de que os direitos humanos remetem a exigências imprescindíveis para a vida da pessoa humana, que, tento em vista a pretensão de universalidade, não pode restringir-se ao contexto ideológico do liberalismo.

  8. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PGreece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary

  9. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  10. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  11. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  12. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  13. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  14. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  15. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  16. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  17. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.

  18. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  19. Problem Solving in the Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackling, Noel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that algorithms and heuristics are useful in improving professional problem-solving abilities when contextualized within the academic discipline. A basic algorithm applied to problem solving in undergraduate engineering education and a similar algorithm applicable to legal problems are used as examples. Problem complexity and…

  20. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  1. Legal liability and claims for the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimcho Todorov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of various aspects of legal liability and claims to hotel management arising in the hotel industry in the context of the legal framework and possible legal consequences for hotels and other types of commercial accommodation establishments. The main reasons for accidents' occurrence in the hotel industry are chronologically traced. Possible claims to the hotel management are also presented in detail. The problem with workplace discrimination, which is considered as unrightfully actions from administration towards hospitably industry personnel and the connected consequences, is discussed. A definition is given of the various forms of discrimination and the obligations of management to provide a healthy work environment without problems for the personnel are stated, as well. Regulative measures and documents are also presented, regarding measures following possible labour law violations. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated and ways to prevent and overcome problems and accidents in various accommodation establishments and the hotel industry as a whole are shown

  2. Physicians' attitudes toward the legalization of marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, L S; Yager, J; Leake, B

    1989-01-01

    We asked 303 practicing physicians in general internal medicine, family medicine, gastroenterology, or psychiatry to indicate whether possessing or using marijuana should be considered a felony, a misdemeanor, warrant the issuance of a citation, or be legalized. The position physicians advocated was unrelated to their specialty, experience diagnosing or treating substance abuse problems, their attitudes toward the efficacy of the treatment of drug abuse, or any other work role or habit we measured. Legalization or citation as compared with harsher penalties, however, was more likely favored by physicians who were younger, less religious, politically more liberal, and those less likely to perceive a serious drug problem in society. Legalization was also more likely favored by physicians who themselves had used marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines but was unrelated to the use of alcohol, cigarettes, or tranquilizers. Although physician opinion should be sought as society deals with the drug problem, this study suggests how physicians' characteristics may influence the opinions that are rendered. PMID:2750164

  3. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  4. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.

  5. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  6. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  7. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  8. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  9. [Supplemental parenteral nutrition for intensive care patients: a logical combination with enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Thibault, Ronan; Berger, Mette M; Pichard, Claude

    2009-12-09

    Undernutrition is a widespread problem in the intensive care and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Enteral nutrition is the recommended nutritional support in ICU patients. However, enteral nutrition is frequently insufficient to cover protein-energy needs. The initiation of supplemental parenteral nutrition, when enteral nutrition is insufficient, could optimize the nutritional therapy. Such a combination could allow reducing morbidity, length of stay and recovery, as well as improving quality of life and health care costs. Prospective studies are currently underway to test this hypothesis.

  10. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  12. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  13. Legal aspects of some internet marketing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet and sophisticated search engines such as e.g. Google together with the spread of social networks have introduced new marketing possibilities of addressing potential clients with offer of goods and services. Unlike most traditional marketing procedures, these instruments allow for targeting the business information directly at concrete individuals, taking into consideration their age, sex, education, hobbies. All this is based on their choice of words keyed into the search engines. This is the targeted advertising where consumer response can be accurately measured, e.i. the so called context advertising.The purpose of this paper is to analyse the legal aspects of some of the above mentioned internet marketing instruments, as even in this sphere legal regulation clearly lags behind the dynamically developing possibilities of the Internet as a means of communication. These marketing methods being viewed from the perspective of valid laws, several problem areas may be detected, which concern the right of privacy protection of natural person, intellectual property, or legal regulation of implied or unsolicited advertising.This paper concentrates on the summary of rules of law which regulate internet users privacy protection with respect to the Czech and Community laws, assessment of their efficiency and de lege ferenda discretion.

  14. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author conceptualized and revealed basic historical patterns of formation and development of Latin American countries during the War of Independence (1810-1826 period. Author conducted comprehensive analysis of the draft constitution which was developed by Simon Bolivar for the newly independent states of Latin America and reveals theoretical and practical problem of choosing Simon Bolivar republican form of government, such as a peculiar institution in the form of principle of the separation of powers, containing the fourth power. Author focuses on the questions of Simon Bolivar’s relationship to the constitutional institute of human rights, idea of relationship between state and church. Article also researches many other political, legal and constitutional ideas of Simon Bolivar, present views of historians, lawyers, political scientists, statesmen and public activists.

  15. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  16. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

    2012-01-01

    An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of...

  17. Child nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to reduce malnutrition, particularly in densely populated, peri-urban areas, is considered a priority among governments around the world. The problem is especially acute in Africa due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency. The International Atomic Energy Agency is providing technical support to a community nutrition programme in Senegal where nuclear techniques help to monitor the programme's effectiveness in order to ensure that it produces maximum benefits on vulnerable groups (women and children). (IAEA)

  18. Legal culture as a factor of social stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Akulich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.

  19. Effective environmental protection by the reform of the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    The 52nd German Lawyers Meeting will be concerned in its legal department with the question of whether, from the points of view of the guaranteeing of the necessary environmental protection, additional regulations in the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights should be recommended. Here one is concerned, above all, with the problem of whether an administrative legal associations sueing or associations participation in administrative legal procedures is desirable in the interests of environmental protection. A negative answer must be given to this question. Discussion should concentrate on the problematical administrative legal interests, on the strengthening of administrative participation of popular opinion or interests in legal processes, on other improvements in administrative processes and on the legal control by Parliament of environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  20. PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pr...

  1. Dust and radon: the legal implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sittert, J.M.O.

    1990-01-01

    It is known that radon gas is not generally considered to be a major problem when encountered in the working environment. However, in its process of decay, a series of four short lived daughter products are formed. In a dust-laden atmosphere these daughter products, which are ionized readily, attach to the particulate material and when inhaled are deposited in the alveoli of the lungs. Therefore, if respirable dust is controlled, the effects of radon daughters will also be minimized. The legal requirements for dust control in South Africa and their implications are discussed. 1 ill

  2. Testamental inheritance: Just a legal osmosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bequeath, a dispose of personal property by the last will is an example of intervention of legislation within the complex of customary law. This influence is not unusual but certainly is less frequent than the influence of customary into civil law, especially so in their interaction within inheritance. This paper therefore tries to explain this example of legal osmosis in practice. In addition, the practice in testament inheritance shows also an influence of customary law into legislation. Hence, the paper will also try to discuss a relationship between customary and civil laws and succeeding problems in inheritance at the levels of individual and that of the society.

  3. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine...... strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...... handling, this thesis also deals with biological interpretation of postprandial metabolism and trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. Two nutritional issues were objects of investigation: 1) metabolic states as a function of time since the last meal and 2) markers related to intakes of cis- and trans-fat. Plasma...

  4. [Medico-legal aspects of hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Branislava; Segedi, Dimitrije; Mujović-Zornić, Hajrija

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the lawful implementations of surgical procedures, such as hysterectomy, raises practical questions concerning legal relations between a doctor and his patient, and consequences of this relationship, which may be legally relevant. The modern legal theory and practice consider doctors and patients to be partners. Medical practitioners performing surgical procedures are obliged to obtain informed consent. They are also required to inform their patients about indications, course of the operative procedure, postoperative treatment, possible complications during and after the procedure, and quality of life after the operation. Informed conversation should take into account the age, mental status and patient's intellectual abilities. Legal consequences ofsurgical procedures Malpractice litigation mostly concers medical error and negligence. Medical errors should not be confused with ineffective outcome, or complicated postoperative course. Even if the surgical procedure was followed correctly and uneventful outcome took place, there might be some problems. A patient has a right to receive complete information from a physician about the specific nature of a proposed treatment. A physician has an obligation to elucidate and justify, treatment he proposes. Certain codification of all operative procedures may facilitate this task. Codification instructions about procedures, in this case hysterectomy, must include indications for a certain type of hysterectomy (subtotal, total, radical), as well as for the operative technique (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic). Patient information brochures should be available in print, and include information about indications and potential risks associated with the proposed surgical procedure. In this way, it is possible to prevent the inconveniences which may arise from insufficient knowledge and information about surgical procedures.

  5. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  6. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  7. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  8. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ["How goes it, Awa?" Nutritional deficiency, emotional deprivation, severe depressive state in an child under 2 years of age. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Y; Mazet, P

    1983-12-15

    The authors report a very illustrative case of analytic depression in an infant under two years of age. The significance of this observation is in the overwhelming nature of symptoms with a characteristic marasmus syndrome fitting classic descriptions, and in the deliberate approach which led a pedo-psychiatric team to an understanding of the problems and to a rapid and dramatic reparation. By the ascription of a significant role to the impact of mother-child, mother-family and social circle relationships, involved members were able to determine their place and reassume their role and function. This approach also draws attention to the susceptibility and vulnerability of children to separation and severance of bonds.

  10. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  11. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  12. Facts about food irradiation: Nutritional quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly considers the nutritional value of irradiated foods. Micronutrients, especially vitamins, are sensitive to any food processing method, but irradiation does not cause any special nutritional problems in food. 4 refs

  13. The legacy of legal culture and Serbia's European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Slaviša

    2014-01-01

    the public interest is defined and normatively framed in line with these interests, there are diverse quasi-techniques which reflect the arbitrary application of law. The recent state-building legal history is characterized by a prominent legal discontinuity, which has two forms of expression: first, legal discontinuity is a result of frequent changes of different and often conflicting socio-political systems of government, which are necessarily accompanied by respective changes in the positive legislation; second, discontinuity may also be a result of frequent legislative changes within a specific type of legal system. Such practices give rise to contradictions and polarizations in the legal culture and legal socialization. The common feature of all legal systems (thus far is the problem of applying the law, or the applicability of the normative framework. The normative legal tradition is not accompanied by the consistent factual application of the envisaged norms. Frequently, there is a prominent incongruity between the norm and the actual state of affairs. In addition to undermining the important function of law, this phenomenon shows the prevalence of traditional legal heritage in Serbian social relations. In comparison to transition countries which have meanwhile been integrated into the European Union, the Serbian society is poverty-stricken, economically devastated, inadequately structured in terms of public/private interests, normatively underdeveloped and value-barren; as such, it is difficult to administer and hard to change. The heritage of socio-economic relations slows down the reception of the liberal-democratic system and the adjustment to the model of competitive market economy. The former model of irrational authority of a powerful leader and a single-party system has been transformed into the party-state system (partocracy involving the dominant role of the authoritarian party leadership, which slows down the development of independent, autonomous

  14. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  15. [Nutrition genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedová, L; Seda, O

    2004-01-01

    The importance of nutrition for human health and its influence on the onset and course of many diseases are nowadays considered as proven. Only the recent development of molecular biology and biochemical methods allows the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of diet constituent actions and their subsequent effect on homeostatic mechanisms in health and disease states. The availability of the draft human genome sequence as well as the genome sequences of model organisms, combined with the functional and integrative genomics approaches of systems biology, bring about the possibility to identify alleles and haplotypes responsible for specific reaction to the dietary challenge in susceptible individuals. Such complex interactions are studied within the newly conceived field, the nutrition genomics (nutrigenomics). Using the tools of highly parallel analyses of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, the nutrition genomics pursues its ultimate goal, i.e. the individualized diet, respecting not only quantitative and qualitative nutritional needs and the actual health status, but also the genetic predispositions of an individual. This approach should lead to prevention of the onset of such diseases as obesity, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, or enhance the efficiency of their therapy.

  16. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...

  17. [European nutrition policy: regulatory dynamics and trajectories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the relationship between health and nutrition, this paper focuses on the policy strategy designed by the European institutions with regard to nutrition. Starting from the analysis of the World Declaration for Nutrition adopted by FAO and WHO in 1992, the main European regulatory measures adopted on the issue are analysed and some reflections are offered about their normative status (hard and soft law), as well as on some problematic aspects and implications. Moreover, the contribution focuses on two major European strategies in regulating nutrition, namely the health-in-all-policies and whole-of-government approaches, characterized by the combination of heterogeneous legal instruments together with the coexistence of actions undertaken by public and private actors. The framework thus conceived - though noteworthy and commendable for several reasons - turns out to be problematic in achieving the desired goals: health protection and citizens' well-being.

  18. On the technique of legal expertise of the essence of changes in legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Polyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to create algorithms for the study of normative legal acts and their drafts in order to solve the problem in favor of which legal subjects the changes in the legal regulation of the relations are implemented. Methods universal dialecticmaterialistic formal dogmatic comparative analysis and synthesis. Results the method of legal expertise of changes in the legislation is proposed. The method is used to obtain an objective and verifiable conclusions about what social groups associations state agencies and their officials legal entities benefit from the changes introduced into the legal regulation of relations with their participation. Comments to the method are given. The analysis is described of the legal expertise of the Law of the Perm region of March 5 2013 № 173PK quotOn amendments to the Law of the Perm region quotOn additional measures of social support of certain categories of people awarded with the degree of Doctor of sciencequot of November 11 2009 № 538PK law edition of 29.11.2011 № 873PK. Scientific novelty a new type of legal examination of normative legal acts and their drafts is proposed. Practical value the technique allows to make objective and verifiable conclusions about in whose favour the legal regulation of social relations is changed as well as to to reveal the real objectives of the authors of normative legal acts drafts.

  19. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  20. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  1. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Metz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified.

  2. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martina; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified. PMID:22254037

  3. LEGAL REGULATION IN THE SPHERE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA (HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yashchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of article is to analyze the evolution of legal regulation of higher education in Russia since the beginning up to the beginning of reform in modern conditions.Characteristics of the problem field. Higher education is studied in various aspects (sociological, cultural, historical, economic. An independent institute of educational law is distinguished in the legal science. Serious transformations of higher education in the Russian Federation have actualized the need for understanding the domestic experience of legal regu-lation. The state policy in the sphere of higher education and the evolution of educational legislation are studied in historical and legal studies.The methodology. The narrative method is the method of description. It is necessary for the reconstruction of past events and phenomena. The narrative method is supplemented by a chronological method. The formal legal method is applied to the interpretation of norms. The sociological method establishes the links between state policy, regulatory legal regulations and the social result achieved. The comparative method is used fragmentarily.Results. Higher education is a relatively new social institution. In the European tradition it took shape during the Middle Ages. The completed model was formed in the XIX century in Germany.The Russian Empire used the German model. Higher education was regulated by the state. The main regulations governing educational relations at the university were the General Charters. These Charters reflected the autonomy of universities.Three stages are identified in the legal and regulatory framework of higher education in the Soviet period: 1917 – the first floor 1930s; second floor 1930s – the first floor 1950s; second floor 1950s – 1980s.At the first stage the state regulated only politically and ideologically important educational relations. Many questions were not regulated centrally. In the 1930s the state impact on higher education was

  4. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  5. What Really Drives Advice Seeking Behaviour? Looking Beyond the Subject of Legal Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Reimers

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available When faced with a broad range of justiciable problems, people seek advice for around half of them, and advice from lawyers on around 13% of occasions. Various factors have been found to link to advice seeking behaviour, but it is commonly recognized that problem type ‘swamps’ other factors. This study draws on an Internet survey of 1,031 respondents, aged between 16 and 66, in which respondents were presented with a range of problem scenarios and asked to place them on a severity scale, characterize them (as legal or otherwise and suggest an appropriate source of advice. The study assesses the impact of problem severity and legal characterization on the likelihood of identifying legal advice, advice sector advice or other advice as being appropriate. Even having controlled for problem type, both problem severity and characterization have a highly significant impact on adviser choice. As severity increases, so does the likelihood of suggesting legal advice is appropriate. Where problems are characterized as legal, there is a significant increase in the likelihood of suggesting a lawyer across problem types. However, choice of advice sector advice was relatively unaffected by characterization. The findings move us beyond problem type being the primary explanation of advice seeking behaviour, and are discussed in the context of legal service delivery as well as with reference to Felstiner et al’s model of disputing behaviour.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1934140

  6. Examining the ethico-legal aspects of the right to refuse treatment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Gurkan; Guven, Tolga

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines the ethico-legal problems regarding the right to refuse treatment in Turkey's healthcare system. We discuss these problems in the light of a recent case that was directly reported to us. We first summarise the experience of a chronically dependent patient (as recounted by her daughter) and her family during their efforts to refuse treatment and receive palliative care only. This is followed by a summary of the legal framework governing the limits of the right to refuse treatment in Turkey. With the help of this background information on the legal framework, we re-examine the ethico-legal aspects of the case and explain the underlying reasons for the problems the family and the patient experienced. Finally, we conclude that Turkey's legal framework relating to the right to refuse treatment needs to be clarified and amended in accordance with international conventions and fundamental human rights.

  7. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  8. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  9. Legal Order Founded on Human Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2015-07-01

    justified to re-establish the disturbed order and grant appropriate compensation. In this way, the rules of law which underlies the broken legal order are restored to their social role and functions. And the mission of law, to regulate and direct human behaviour, in the required way of solving necessary social problems can find fulfilment.

  10. Nutrition research agenda in the context of nutrition problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate control of infectious diseases is a major factor limiting nutrient utilization and causing poor development of the immune system in young children. The role of mycotoxins in poor immune system development and poor growth is becoming increasingly apparent, but additional research is needed in this area.

  11. Nutrition Research Agenda in the Context of Nutrition Problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-02

    Apr 2, 2010 ... poor development of the immune system in young children. The role of mycotoxins in poor immune system development and poor growth is becoming increasingly apparent, but additional research is needed in this area. A number of key research agendas have been identified, which include the need to ...

  12. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  13. Negligence--When Is the Principal Liable? A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D., Ed.

    Negligence, a tort liability, is defined, discussed, and reviewed in relation to several court decisions involving school principals. The history of liability suits against school principals suggests that a reasonable, prudent principal can avoid legal problems. Ten guidelines are presented to assist principals in avoiding charges of negligence.…

  14. The legal status of sustainable development in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a moral or ...

  15. Legal aspects and international implications of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Alain.

    1977-11-01

    This paper reports on the status of work on food irradiation at international level, namely the IAEA/FAO/WHO Vienna recommendations, the proposed EEC directive, and the Codex alimentarius draft standards. It then deals with the legal aspects of the subject, in particular the problems concerning definitions, controls and instructions, and finally reviews the regulations for international trade in irradiated foodstuffs. (NEA) [fr

  16. the legal status of sustainable development in the nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    ABSTRACT. Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a ...

  17. Electronic Signatures: They're Legal, Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Martha A.; Gibson, Virginia R.; Tarasewich, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, electronic signatures recently became as legally binding as printed signatures. Reviews the status of electronic signatures in the United States, and compares it to work done by the United Nations. Summarizes the technology that can be used to implement electronic signatures. Discusses problems and open issues surrounding the…

  18. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL MECHANISMS TO COUNTER TERRORIST THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Startsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.

  19. The Great Drug Debate: I. The Case for Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelmann, Ethan A.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that current drug control policies are failing and that new proposals are even more costly and repressive. Contends that legalization would eliminate many drug-related problems and allow the government to redirect its efforts toward assistance and positive inducements. (FMW)

  20. Cluster strategies in the regional economy development: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Mikheeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the state of legal support of the cluster strategies implementation to identify the problems and possible directions for improving the legal support of cluster development in the regions. Methods systemic structuralfunctional induction and deduction analysis and synthesis formal legal. Results the paper formulates the definition of cluster as a form of cooperative interaction of organizations interacting in some economic sphere due to functional dependence complementing each other and reinforcing the competitive advantages of individual companies. The hypothesis is proposed that the organizational and management structure of clusters should be unified and obtain normative fixation so that the same type of bodies including executive bodies and the structure of the different clusters deliberative specialized organizations organizationcoordinator etc. had similar competence and position in the management hierarchy. Scientific novelty following the most general conception of a cluster as interacting institutions in a specific area one can see that the lack of clarity in the legal support of the clusters functioning does not allow to determine the status of authoritative and nonauthoritative subjects of economic activities their organizationallegal forms and the procedure of their interaction. Practical significance the identified problems of legal support of the cluster strategies implementation can help in the improvement of state regulation of cluster relations in the regions and their implementation.

  1. The current legal situation relating to food irradiation as assessed by the Land Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frede, W.

    1994-01-01

    Discussed is the current legal situation of food irradiation procedures as assessed by the Government of Northrhine-Westfalia. The topics highest on the agenda are the unrestrained exchange of merchandise within the Internal Market and the problems arising from deviating legal stipulations in the individual EU member states. (vhe) [de

  2. Legal Steps Outside the Climate Convention: Litigation as a Tool to Address Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the recent academic interest in litigation as a tool to address climate change, as well as the surge of legal actions worldwide to bring the problem to the attention of judiciaries. This new interest reveals the frustration of legal scholars and activists at the slow rate at

  3. The Social and Legal Status of Gay and Lesbian Students: An Update for Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Debora L.; Douvanis, Costas J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes current social and legal status of gay students. Examines scope of the problem; defines legal issues; and cites relevant cases regarding students' rights of association, access to university services/facilities, and privacy. Discusses homosexuality as "illegal act" and notes differences between private and public institutions. Discusses…

  4. Weighing the Evidence: Legal Discourse in the 19th-Century Spanish Feminist Concepcion Arenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1995-01-01

    Utilizes a computer program to search for legal terminology in Concepcion Arenal's 1861 treatise "The Woman of the Future." Arenal appropriated two different types of legal discourse in her work. Discusses the problems this presented for linguistic analyses. Includes fascinating details on Arenal and her work. (MJP)

  5. Design and development of a manual pump for bolus enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-García, Judit; Fernández-Morera, Juan Luis

    2018-02-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is based on administration of liquid solutions into the gastrointestinal tract using a tube. After identifying unsolved practical difficulties in administration of EN using volume syringes, a new device to overcome such technical difficulties was proposed. Specific technologies (CAD, 3D printing) were used in collaboration with the PRODINTEC Foundation (Gijón, Asturias). Clarke Modet, a law firm specialized in intellectual property, provided legal advice on formulas for legal protection of the invention. The resulting device is a manual pump for infusion of EN to patients that solves previously identified problems and is highly functional and compact. It would allow for comfortable and safe administration of solutions. Integration of a bottle into the device itself and pump dimensions facilitate transport and patient mobility. According to the described configuration, this invention has many advantages over the previously known procedures, such as a simpler administration within the field of intermittent EN, improving the standard nutritional support technique, which in this case is use of volume syringes. This would facilitate the work of caregivers while promoting patient self-care and autonomy. The pump was accredited novelty of design, inventive activity and industrial exploitation potential by the European Patent Office (EPO), to which a patent has been requested. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas, Jose M; Corella, Dolores

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional genomics has tremendous potential to change the future of dietary guidelines and personal recommendations. Nutrigenetics will provide the basis for personalized dietary recommendations based on the individual's genetic make up. This approach has been used for decades for certain monogenic diseases; however, the challenge is to implement a similar concept for common multifactorial disorders and to develop tools to detect genetic predisposition and to prevent common disorders decades before their manifestation. The preliminary results involving gene-diet interactions for cardiovascular diseases and cancer are promising, but mostly inconclusive. Success in this area will require the integration of different disciplines and investigators working on large population studies designed to adequately investigate gene-environment interactions. Despite the current difficulties, preliminary evidence strongly suggests that the concept should work and that we will be able to harness the information contained in our genomes to achieve successful aging using behavioral changes; nutrition will be the cornerstone of this endeavor.

  7. Problematização como estratégia de educação nutricional com adolescentes obesos Problem-posing as a nutritional education strategy with obese teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Marafon Rodrigues

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesidade é um problema de saúde pública em cuja etiologia determinantes sociais têm relevância, sendo que intervenções com adolescentes encontram condição biopsicossocial complexa. A pesquisa avaliou intervenção de educação nutricional, empregando o método da problematização, com 22 adolescentes obesos, atendidos coletiva e individualmente, durante oito meses. Falas foram coletadas mediante emprego de tarjetas, registro por observador e gravação. O método foi qualitativo e a técnica, a análise de conteúdo. A problematização mostrou-se instrumento facilitador para mudança de comportamento alimentar, fazendo emergir reflexões sobre: práticas alimentares, contexto familiar, estigma social, relacionamento com profissionais de saúde, religiosidade. Os adolescentes em atendimento individual problematizaram com mais efetividade práticas alimentares, enquanto no coletivo houve maior problematização dos aspectos familiares e psicológicos, com efetivas mudanças qualitativas na alimentação de ambos os grupos. Concluiu-se que a intervenção foi eficaz para ajudar os adolescentes a compreenderem sua história de vida e determinantes do comportamento alimentar, efetivarem mudanças na sua alimentação espontaneamente, conscientizarem-se das possibilidades de perpetuação da mudança das práticas alimentares e exercerem com autonomia o papel de sujeitos no cuidado à saúde.Obesity is a public health issue with relevant social determinants in its etiology and where interventions with teenagers encounter complex biopsychological conditions. This study evaluated intervention in nutritional education through a problem-posing approach with 22 obese teenagers, treated collectively and individually for eight months. Speech acts were collected through the use of word cards, observer recording, and tape-recording. The study adopted a qualitative methodology, and the approach involved content analysis. Problem-posing facilitated

  8. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  9. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  10. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  11. Legal Language – a Cultural Ambassador. A Language for Various Purposes, not only a Language for Specific Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    no knowledge of Spanish law and the Spanish legal system. In this paper I will discuss some of the problems/possibilities the students meet when trying to ‘translate’ from one legal language/culture to another also in the case of culture-bound terms with little or no equivalence. The examples are taken from my......KONFERENCE SINGAPORE Culture-related competence Courses in comparative Spanish -Danish legal language: A cultural Kinder egg? Learning comparative legal language is not only a question of linguistic competence, but it is also cultural training in which the students achieve culture......-related competences as culture is implicitly embedded in many legal terms in the shape of historical, societal and legal knowledge from two different worlds. Students need to understand these legal terms, fixed expressions, metaphors, collocations, etc. in order to be able to translate from one legal language/culture...

  12. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1. The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2. How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3. How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4. General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5. An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  13. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  14. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  15. The Legal Junction: the complex promise of modern legal professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Kwak

    2005-01-01

    textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted

  16. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  17. A legal primer for the obesity prevention movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, Seth E; Graff, Samantha K

    2009-10-01

    Public health advocates and scientists working on obesity prevention policy face challenges in balancing legal rights, individual freedom, and societal health goals. In particular, the US Constitution and the 50 state constitutions place limits on the ability of government to act, even in the best interests of the public. To help policymakers avoid crossing constitutional boundaries, we distilled the legal concepts most relevant to formulating policies aimed at preventing obesity: police power; allocation of power among federal, state, and local governments; freedom of speech; property rights; privacy; equal protection; and contract rights. The goal is to allow policymakers to avoid potential constitutional problems in the formation of obesity prevention policy.

  18. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Araszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  19. The role of advocacy in occasioning community and organizational change in a medical-legal partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Cronin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities among low-income individuals remain a significant problem. A number of social determinants are associated with adverse health outcomes. Medical-legal partnerships address legal concerns of low-income individuals to improve health and wellness in adults and children. The Medical-Legal Partnership at Legal Aid of Western Missouri provides free direct legal services for patients with legal concerns affecting health. There is limited evidence regarding the association between advocacy-related efforts and changes within both the medical-legal partnership structure and in health-care facilities. Three health-care organizations in Kansas City, MO participated in implementing the medical-legal partnership model between 2007 and 2010. Advocacy efforts conducted by key medical-legal partnership personnel were strongly associated with changes in health-care organizations and within the medical-legal partnership structure. This study extends the current evidence base by examining the types of advocacy efforts required to bring about community and organizational changes.

  20. Community nutrition: a panacea for grassroots nutrition development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the nation It identified some problems that can hinder the programme and suggested methods for enhancements and the importance of the programme for the rural women in rural community, recommendation were made. Keywords: community nutrition, rural women. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol.

  1. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  2. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  3. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  4. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  5. Legal Handbook on School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…

  6. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  7. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  8. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  9. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  10. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  11. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems

  12. Modeling the legal field of formation of socially responsible conduct among pharmacy specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Tkachenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Observation of legal and legislative standards of the company activities is the fundamental principle of social responsibility (SR. The results of the literature analysis show the lack of fundamental research of regulatory and legal support of formation of socially responsible conduct of pharmacists (SRCPh. AIM: modeling the legal framework and determining the completeness and content of the current regulatory and legal framework on formation of a system of SRCPh throughout the professional lifespan development. Materials and methods. The materials of the study were national and international regulatory legal acts, regulating SR, the activities of pharmaceutical organizations (PhO and getting a pharmaceutical education. During the work, such methods as searching information, systematization, content analysis, comparison and generalization were used. During the investigation, we summarized the legal framework that in various aspects forms the socially responsible conduct of the pharmacists throughout the lifespan professional development; and a model of the legal field of this process was formed. A content analysis of this regulatory framework in aspect of responsibility of the PhO and pharmacists with a description of the problem legal questions in the context of SR was carried out. In this article, attention is paid to the basic level of the legal field, within which general principles of social relations are formed in all spheres of the economy. Conclusions. We have formed a model of the legal field formation of a SRCPh system throughout the professional lifespan development. The model is a complex, multilevel system. The regulatory framework in the model is distributed according to two criteria (hierarchical and regulating relations in the system of socially responsible conduct of the pharmacists and includes 27 basic normative legal acts. We have identified problems in the legal field of the basic level of SRCPh formation: the indistinctness

  13. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...

  14. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  15. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  16. DIFFICULTIES AND STRATEGIES IN THE PROCESS OF LEGAL TEXTS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela-Elena, DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the difficulties and find approaches in translating legal texts which involve a lot of different types of translation problems. The translator has the task to discover proper strategies to render the translated text comprehensible for the reader in the target language simultaneously reflecting the unique character of the legal system from the source language country. Some of the necessary strategies which the translator should take into account are: the borrowing of original terms, the naturalization of specific terms into the target language, the language calques usage, or the introduction of descriptive translation. Even if a translator tries to solve any difficulty when he translates a legal text, he must maintain the source culture characteristics and do not deprive the texts of their specific character.

  17. Do organizational and political-legal arrangements explain financial wrongdoing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2016-12-01

    The 2008 financial crisis was a systemic problem with deep-rooted structural causes that created opportunities to engage in financial malfeasance, a form of corporate wrongdoing. However, few quantitative studies exist on the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements on financial malfeasance. In this paper, we examine the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements that emerged in the 1990s in the FIRE sector (i.e., financial, insurance, and real estate) on financial malfeasance. Our historical contextualization demonstrates how changes in the political-legal arrangements facilitate the emergence of new corporate structures and opportunities for financial malfeasance. Our longitudinal quantitative analysis demonstrates that US FIRE sector corporations with a more complex organizational structure, larger size, lower dividend payment, and higher executive compensation are more prone to commit financial malfeasance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  18. International Legal Concept of Environmentally Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Kopylov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with a comparative legal analyses of the concept of environmentally sustainable cities elaborated by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP and the UN–Habitat Program, on the one hand, and in the subregion of East Africa, wider Caribbean region and in the South-East Asian region, presented by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN - on the other. The competence of the ASEAN working group on environmentally sustainable cities, the criteria of sustainability, established in the ASEAN and conditions of nomination on environmentally sustainable city title are disclosed. The problems of wastes in the Southeast Asian region are analyzed and different possible ways of their solution are suggested separately. Several examples of environmental problems settlement in different cities of different parts of the Earth are suggested. Special attention is paid to different criteria, which are used in the framework of ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable Cities Program with concern to the air, water, soil and energy supply. In connection with the latest problem the problem of alternative energy sources in ASEAN Member States is raised and the task of possible transition to alternative sources of energy of all Southeast Asia states is discussed.

  19. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  20. Nutritional management in Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamon Chaiyasit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a viral infection causing a major health problem worldwide. In this short article, the authors briefly review and discuss on the nutritional management (energy, protein, fat and micronutrient in management of Ebola infection.

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things ...

  2. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  4. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.

  5. Killing us softly: the dangers of legalizing assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Marilyn; Zoanni, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    This article is an overview of the problems with the legalization of assisted suicide as public policy. The disability community's opposition to assisted suicide stems in part from factors that directly impact the disability community as well as all of society. These factors include the secrecy in which assisted suicide operates today, in states where it is legal; the lack of robust oversight and the absence of investigation of abuse; the reality of who uses it; the dangerous potential of legalization to further erode the quality of the U.S. health care system; and its potential for other significant harms. Legalizing assisted suicide would augment real dangers that negate genuine choice and self-determination. In view of this reality, we explore many of the disability-related effects of assisted suicide, while also addressing the larger social context that inseparably impacts people with disabilities and the broader public. First, after addressing common misunderstandings, we examine fear and bias toward disability, and the deadly interaction of assisted suicide and our profit-driven health care system. Second, we review the practice of assisted suicide in Oregon, the first U.S. state to legalize it, and debunk the merits of the so-called Oregon model. Third and finally, we explore the ways that so-called "narrow" assisted suicide proposals threaten inevitable expansion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Geriatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Knowledge Concerning Healthy Nutrition and Nutrition Science on the Knowledge Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in

  9. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are

  10. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age physiological needs of children and teenagers for nutrient materials and energy. In this situation, the available experience of using vitaminbenriched products as well as vitamin and mineral complexes in children will permit to quickly resolve the existing problems of the improper, and sometimes, insufficient, nutrition.Key words: school nutrition, organization, international experience.

  11. 14 The Mass Media and the Problem of Understanding Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ); the radio (including cable radio broadcasting stations, e.g. the. BBC, VOA, and VON); documentary films, .... Here, the clause structure is subject + verb (past imperfect tense) + adverbial. This is an effective model or structure because the ...

  12. General Introduction to Administrative/Legal Problems of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of health institutions, like many other endeavours, is regulated by law. There is therefore the need for health managers to familiarise themselves with the laws affecting their institutions. The health manager must know the functions, powers and limitations of different statutory or established organs within his ...

  13. The rhetorical structure of students' legal problem essays: Towards a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The media in South Africa continue to report criticisms about the quality of writing skills of university law (LLB) graduates. But, while recent research in South Africa has focused mainly on the students' vocabulary and wording, the research has not taken a comprehensive view of texts or made use of a systematic functional ...

  14. Legal problems of waste treatment in German atomic energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The execution of the strategies of waste treatment and disposal calls for the laws and regulations on the obligations of the owners of equipments and facilities and of the state for securing safety and the final elimination of radioactive wastes, which are defined mainly in Article 9 of Atomgesetz and Section 2 (Article 44 - 48) of the order on protection from radiation. The owners of equipments and facilities of atomic energy technology shall limit the emission of radiation to about 6% of internationally permissible values, avoid uncontrolled emission without fail, inspect emission and submit reports yearly to government offices. The owners have attention obligations to utilize harmlessly produced radioactive residues and the expanded or dismantled parts of radioactive equipments or to eliminate orderly such things as radioactive wastes, only when such utilization is unable technically or economically, or not adequate under the protection aims of Atomgesetz. The possessors of radioactive wastes shall deliver the wastes to the accumulation places of provinces for intermediate storage, to the facilities of the Federal Republic for securing safety or final storage, or the facilities authorized by government offices for the elimination of radioactive wastes. Provinces shall install the accumulation places for the intermediate storage of radioactive wastes produced in their territories, and the Federal Republic shall set up the facilities for securing safety and the final elimination of radioactive wastes (Article 9, Atomgesetz). (Okada, K.)

  15. Problems on the legal status of the Church of Scientology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Carobene

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, è destinato alla pubblicazione nel volume Scientology in scholary perspective, Atti del Convegno, Antwerpen (Belgio, 24-25 gennaio 2014, a cura di R. Dericquebourg,Equinox Publishing.SUMMARY: 1. Preliminary observations. The recent English case law about Scientology - 2. The long Italian process - 3. The condemnation of the religious movement in France - 4. Conclusion.

  16. Legal Field and Social Representations : Analysis of Damage of The Grounds of Failure in Moral Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Neves de Jesus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to analyze the problem of the failure of judicial decisions, from the observation of the interference of social representations the lack of real motivation of judgments, from the statement of denaturation of the institute moral damage caused by internalized reproduction of concepts and meanings anchored and objectified in the collective unconscious of the various authorities and actors in the legal field. Seeks to understand the social representations reproduced in the legal and social field of the institute, which confirms the problem of inadequate statement of reasons and not resolving legal conflicts social damage morale.

  17. Development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist, a Screening Tool for Nutrition Risk and Swallowing Risk in People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses nutrition problems in people with intellectual disabilities, the need for nutrition risk screening, and the development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist in New South Wales. The checklist ensures carer involvement in identifying risks and an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of nutrition and…

  18. Nutritional support and parenteral nutrition in cancer patients: An expert consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocón Bretón, María Julia; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Virizuela, Juan Antonio; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Jiménez Fonseca, Paula; Cervera Peris, Mercedes; Sendrós Madroño, María José; Grande, Enrique; Camblor Álvarez, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Malnutrition is a common medical problem in cancer patients with a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to address different issues related to nutritional management of cancer patients in clinical practice. A multidisciplinary group of experts in Medical Oncology, Pharmacy, and Endocrinology and Nutrition prepared a list of topics related to the nutritional status of cancer patients and grouped them into three blocks: nutritional support, parenteral nutrition (PN), and home PN (HPN). A literature review was made of articles published in Spanish, English and French until April 2017. This consensus emphasizes several key elements that help physicians standardize management of the nutritional status of cancer patients in clinical practice, and establishes common guidelines for indication, monitoring, nutritional requirements, and access routes to PN. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Sense and sensibility in a legal argument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  1. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  2. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  3. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  4. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 35 grams of insoluble and soluble fiber. Important Plant Sources for Good Health lant Family Examples Grains ... orange/green vegetables and fruits The Department of Nutrition can provide nutritional counseling at the Nutrition Clinic ...

  5. [International legal framework of elderly rights protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashidze, A Kh; Malichenko, V S

    2014-01-01

    Aging of the population is one of the dominant trends in the XXI century. It is expected that by 2050, more than a quarter of the world's population (27%) will be 65 years or older. Increase of older persons' proportion in the population of most countries entails a change in the scale and structure of morbidity requiring higher costs for medical care, social security, including pensions. Ageing appears on the international agenda for more than 30 years. The Human Rights treaty bodies rank the elderly as a vulnerable group, who are more susceptible to various forms of discrimination. However, there is currently no any international legal instrument specifically dedicated to the problems of protection of the elderly at a time when their discrimination and stigmatization is a very common phenomenon.

  6. Legal considerations in cosmetic laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David J

    2006-06-01

    Cosmetic laser surgery is a continuously evolving field of medicine. According to the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, over 100 million laser and light source cosmetic procedures were performed by its members. Procedures including hair removal, nonablative treatments, as well as removal of pigmented lesions, tattoos, and unwanted vascular lesions have revolutionized this field. With an increasing number of physicians and nonphysicians performing these procedures, and with the availability of increasingly powerful laser technologies, the potential for problems and their legal consequences continue to increase. This chapter will deal with the concept of negligence and the potential for a resultant medical malpractice that may arise in such a setting. An understanding of the basic principles of a cause of action in medical malpractice will likely protect a physician from losing such a case in a court of law.

  7. Legal regulation of the Commercial Register

    OpenAIRE

    Hanková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...

  8. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Codruta BADEA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  9. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  10. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  11. Legal framework for a nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. de los; Corretjer, L.

    1977-01-01

    Introduction of a nuclear program requires the establishment of an adequate legal framework as solutions to the problems posed by the use of nuclear energy are not included in Common Law. As far as Spain is concerned, legislation is capable of dealing with the main problems posed in this field. Spain is a Contracting Party in several International Conventions and participates in International Organizations related to this area and takes their recommendations into account when revising its national legislation. Specific Spanish legislation is constituted by Law 25/1964, of April 29th, on Nuclear Energy, which outlines the legal system regarding nuclear energy, and regulates all aspects which refer to same, from the competent organisms and authorities to the sanctions to be imposed for non-fulfilment of the provisions. In order to offer sufficient flexibility, so that it can be adapted to specific circumstances, the Law's provisions are very ample and development is foreseen by means of regulations. So far, two Regulations have been published: Regulation relating to Coverage of Risk of Nuclear Damage, which refers to Civil Responsibility and its Coverage; and Regulation relating to Nuclear and Radioactive Installations, which refers to the authorization and license system. At the present time, the Regulation relating to Radiation Protection is being elaborated and it will replace the present Radiation Protection Ordinances. In addition to the foregoing, reference is made to others which, although they are not specifically ''nuclear'', they include precepts related to this question, such as the Regulation regarding Nuisance, Unhealthy or Dangerous Industries or some Labor Law provisions [es

  12. Foreign and Russian legal psychology: meeting in St. Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozortseva E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 24 - 27 June 2014 in St. Petersburg state University hosted the conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law (EAPL "Actual problems of legal psychology. Victims and witnesses: from research to effective practice". The conference was attended by over 330 professionals from 24 countries, making it the largest international forum on legal psychology in Russia. Special symposia were dedicated to an outstanding scientist working in the field of forensic psychology in the Netherlands and Russia, - V. A. Wagenaar and M. M. Kochenova. 42 thematic sessions presentations were made, covering all areas of legal psychology. For the first time foreign colleagues and national experts had the opportunity to get acquainted with the issues and each other's experiences in this volume. Great attention was paid to the issues of memory, true and false memories, lie detection, of investigation of serial crimes. A feature of the conference was the active participation not only of psychologists but also of lawyers, who presented his view of psychological problems in a legal context. Currently is working on a book, a collection of papers following the conference.

  13. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...

  14. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  15. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  16. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  17. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  18. The changing nutrition scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  19. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  20. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  1. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  2. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  3. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  4. 36 CFR 1275.14 - Legal custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...

  5. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.

  6. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  7. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  8. Legal Logic? Or can we do without?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid

  9. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  10. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  11. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  12. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...

  13. 33 CFR 327.6 - Legal adviser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...

  14. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...

  15. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...

  16. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  17. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  18. Legal foundations of adaptive licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V

    2013-09-01

    In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.

  19. Legal Aspects of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.

  20. Translating Legal Collocations in Contract Agreements by Iraqi EFL Students-Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaha A. Abdulwahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will guarantee an overall communicative process and avoid inconsistency in legal translation. However, the inability of the translator to meet these two functions in translating the contract item not only affects the contractors’ comprehension of the contract item but also affects the parties’ contractual obligations. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to find out how legal collocations used in contract agreements are translated from Arabic into English by student-translators in terms of (1 purely technical, (2 semi-technical, and (3 everyday vocabulary collocations. For the data collection, a multiple-choice collocation test was used to be answered by 35 EFL Iraqi undergraduate translator-students to decide on the aspects of weaknesses and strengths of their translation, thus decide on the aspects of correction. The findings showed that these students had serious problems in translating legal collocations as they lack the linguistic knowledge and pragmatic awareness needed to achieve the legal meaning and effect. They were also unable to make a difference among the three categories of legal collocations, purely technical, semi-technical, and everyday vocabulary collocations. These students should be exposed to more legal translation practices to obtain the required experience needed for their future career.

  1. Legal Liability in Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty

  2. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...

  3. The parenteral nutritional regimen in pigs for basic studies in physiology of nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matkowitz, R.; Harting, W.; Souffrant, W.B.; Junghans, P.; Boerner, P.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental studies concerning a parenteral nutritional regimen were performed in pigs aiming at comparative metabolic investigations to evaluate clinically relevant problems within nutritional research. By means of the 15 N tracer technique the evaluation of the postoperative protein turnover was rendered possible by this animal model

  4. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  5. Reviem Of Legal Relevance Program School No Political Party Based On The Proportionality And Evidence And Justifiability Controls Applied By The Brazilian Supreme Court

    OpenAIRE

    Baggenstoss, Grazielly Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the legal context of bringing the School No Political Party Program, which aims to include legal provisions in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education. Therefore, the problem of research is if the mentioned project has legal relevance to the Brazilian legal system , as well as the current pedagogical context. Thus, with deductive method, the question is examined from the proportionality test of Robert Alexy and Evidence and Justifiability Controls, applied...

  6. Archival Sources for Legal Biography at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...

  7. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  8. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...

  9. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  10. Hip Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...

  11. Medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert

    2002-05-01

    This article will deal with medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Clinical problems occur when the symptoms become exaggerated and result in debilitation, dehydration, and hospitalization. The treatment of NVP in its early stages has the implication that it will prevent the more serious complications, including hospitalization. Therapeutic modalities discussed in this conference that have been used or are being tested are primarily symptomatic treatments (antihistamines, Bendectin (Merrell Dow; Cincinatti, Ohio), phenothiazines, hypnosis, accupressure, relaxation behavioral modification, audiogenic feedback training, newer medications, diet, and nutritional support). Bendectin is probably the most studied medication with regard to its reproductive effects, and the studies clearly demonstrate that therapeutic doses of Bendectin have no measurable reproductive risks to the mother or the fetus. In spite of Bendectin's record of safety, numerous nonmeritorious congenital malformation lawsuits were filed and went to trial, and that junk science was presented at these trials. The Bendectin era focused our attention on the area of nonmeritorious litigation and junk science, which could have an effect on any new or less well-studied therapies, because such a high percentage of women are treated for NVP. Because 3% of the offspring will be affected with birth defects, the potential for litigation is immense. The solutions are (1) for legal problems, the medical community should focus their attention on junk scientists and their junk science, over which physicians should have some authority, and (2) for the treatment problem, it would seem most logical that a major research effort should be directed toward brain receptors that are involved in these physiologic effects. Furthermore, it would be imperative to study the array of molecules, both natural and manufactured, that can interact with these receptors for the

  12. Improving Nutrition Care for Nursing Home Residents Using the INRx Process

    OpenAIRE

    Crogan, Neva L.; Alvine, Ceanne; Pasvogel, Alice

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Individual Nutrition Rx (INRx) assessment process and report findings on elder nutritional status, common nutrition problems identified by the INRx process, resolution outcomes from each problem, and the most efficacious approaches used to address the identified nutrition problems. The study used a two-group prospective quasi-experimental design with measures taken at baseline and at 6 months. Participants in the treatment group (n = 41) received...

  13. Civil Rights of Foreigners in Private Legal Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Dukagjin Leka

    2016-01-01

    The movement of people, goods, money, intellectual property and ideas, nowadays is a normal phenomenon and important characteristic of the contemporary world, and certainly would be characteristic for the future, even in a greater extent, when we consider the fact that globalization today is one of the phenomena that has swept across the globe. Knowing the fact that the intensification of legal relations with a foreign element as to the type and for the content imposes various problems of law...

  14. Legal aspects of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1981-10-01

    In connection with methods for disposal of highly radioactive waste, that consisting of burying such waste in the sub-seabed arouses an increasingly marked interest among specialists. Apart from the technical difficulties still to be overcome and current safety assessments, this method gives rise to quite considerable legal and political problems. Their solution will undoubtedly have a bearing on its chances of being implemented. (NEA) [fr

  15. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  16. European Nutrition and Health Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, A.; Nowak, V.

    The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute to the identificat......The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute...... to the identification of major nutrition and health problems in the EU regions and to the monitoring and evaluation of food and nutrition policies already in place within the Member States. The method implies collecting and critically reviewing available data on the most common indicators used for the assessment...... of nutrition and health situation of 25 European countries. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will provide information on dietary habits, diet related health indicators as well as established food and nutrition policies in European countries....

  17. Formal and Legal Aspects of Buying and Commissioning Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Sebastian; Nowotarski, Piotr; Milwicz, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Formal and legal aspects of buying flats and their reception is very current topic and touches wide group of buyers. Annually in Poland great amount of flats is being sold and put to use. However, the case of housing purchase requires knowledge of both the construction and the legal aspects each buyer has to encounter. The paper faces the subject of formal and legal aspects, and analyses accompanying procedure of purchase and reception of housing in Poland. The article presents principles associated with the acquisition of a dwelling, process of works reception, removal of detected faults, fault-free reception, transfer of ownership, warranties, guarantees and possibilities of their enforcement. Contracting parties of the developer agreement were revealed. In addition, the entities present in the course of works such as general contractor were mentioned, due to the fact of his direct influence on the results of a contract terms between developer and buyer. Logical connection between three parties (buyer-developer-general contractor) were shown and direct and indirect dependencies were revealed. Existing laws and regulations that govern the relationship between the developer and the buyer of a dwelling were determined showing basic rights and responsibilities of each. The article also presents problems resulting from delaying the completion of works by developer’s fault and indicates possible legal paths to follow in order claim their rights. Due to the fact, that many of discussed formal and legal aspects in this subject have their origin connected to construction works and design issues, author suggests increased quality control and efficient work organization in order to solve problems before appearance.

  18. Medical-legal partnerships: the role of mental health providers and legal authorities in the development of a coordinated approach to supporting mental health clients' legal needs in regional and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Christopher A; Parsons, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Medical-legal partnerships (MLP) are a model in which medical and legal practitioners are co-located and work together to support the health and wellbeing of individuals by identifying and resolving legal issues that impact patients' health and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to analyse the benefits of this model, which has proliferated in the USA, and its applicability in the context of rural and remote Australia. This review was undertaken with three research questions in mind: What is an MLP? Is service provision for individuals with mental health concerns being adequately addressed by current service models particularly in the rural context? Are MLPs a service delivery channel that would benefit individuals experiencing mental health issues? The combined searches from all EBSCO Host databases resulted in 462 citations. This search aggregated academic journals, newspapers, book reviews, magazines and trade publications. After several reviews 38 papers were selected for the final review based on their relevance to this review question: How do MLPs support mental health providers and legal service providers in the development of a coordinated approach to supporting mental health clients' legal needs in regional and rural Australia? There is considerable merit in pursuing the development of MLPs in rural and remote Australia particularly as individuals living in rural and remote areas have far fewer opportunities to access support services than those people living in regional and metropolitan locations. MLPS are important channels of service delivery to assist in early invention of legal problems that can exacerbate mental health problems.

  19. CONNECTIONS AND INTERFERENCES BETWEEN THE RIGHT TO DEFENCE AND THE RIGHT TO LEGAL ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andriţoi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Between the right to defence and assistance and the civil rights a close connection has been identified. Sometimes the realisation and protection of these rights, such as the right to life, to personal dignity, to private life etc., in general are impossible without the right to defence and legal assistance. First, the right to legal assistance allows the individual to comprehend the powers conferred to him by this right. Second, the right to legal assistance allows the protection and enforcement of these personal rights. The subjects of both rights are all the persons who have the right to information about the status of their own rights and liberties and the problems impeding their achievement. The importance of informing citizens and states in all spheres, and in particular about the implementation scope of the right to legal assistance consists in the population’s comprehensive legal information.

  20. Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that tackling the overweight/obesity problem solely from nutrition and health perspective may not be adequate. A holistic interdisciplinary strategy involving nutrition, health, social and behavioural science is needed to develop culturally-sensitive interventions against the emerging obesity problem.

  1. Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines. Malnutrition remains a serious problem in the Philippines, especially among children. Could integrated garden and nutrition programs at schools help address the problem? An estimated 3 million children in the Philippines are undernourished.

  2. Legal challenges in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  3. Legal challenges in neurological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra

    2016-10-01

    Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  4. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  5. Navigating New Legal Demands For Franchisor Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Plump, Esq.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Franchising is a relationship wherein one organization (i.e., the franchisor allows other organizations (i.e., franchisees to use its brand name, products, and processes in exchange for fees. Because franchising offers franchisors the opportunity to build their brands quickly, it is perhaps not surprising that many firms rely on franchising as a key tool for organization design. One caution about franchising is that its use brings a complex array of legal issues into play. As franchising increases in popularity, so too does the scrutiny paid to this organizational form by the legal system. Indeed, the courts appear to be demanding increased accountability from franchisors. The goal of this Point of View article is to explain how organizations can avoid problems associated with increased accountability and even benefit from it. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  6. Assessing the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz NAS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nur Adilah Shuhada Abd Aziz, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Mohd Ramadan Abdul Hamid, Nazrul Hadi Ismail Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Malaysia Purpose: The increasing number of elderly people worldwide throughout the years is concerning due to the health problems often faced by this population. This review aims to summarize the nutritional status among hospitalized elderly and the role of the nutritional assessment tools in this issue.Methods: A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms “malnutrition”, “hospitalised elderly”, “nutritional assessment”, “Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA”, “Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI”, and “Subjective Global Assessment (SGA”.Results: According to the previous studies, the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly shows an increasing trend not only locally but also across the world. Under-recognition of malnutrition causes the number of malnourished hospitalized elderly to remain high throughout the years. Thus, the development of nutritional screening and assessment tools has been widely studied, and these tools are readily available nowadays. SGA, MNA, and GNRI are the nutritional assessment tools developed specifically for the elderly and are well validated in most countries. However, to date, there is no single tool that can be considered as the universal gold standard for the diagnosis of nutritional status in hospitalized patients.Conclusion: It is important to identify which nutritional assessment tool is suitable to be used in this group to ensure that a structured assessment and documentation of nutritional status can be established. An early and accurate identification of the appropriate treatment of malnutrition can be done as soon as possible, and thus, the malnutrition rate among this group can be minimized in the future. Keywords: malnutrition in elderly

  7. Legal protection of the whistleblowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Safta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.

  8. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  9. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  10. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  11. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  12. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  13. [Psychiatric treatment--legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  15. Nutrition from the Inside Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Dennis M

    2017-08-21

    Nearly 50 years ago, I set out to investigate the clinical problem of hypoglycemia in children with illnesses that limited their food intake. My goal was to gather accurate and precise measurable data. At the time, I wasn't interested in nutrition as a discipline defined in its more general or popular sense. To address the specific problem that interested me required development of entirely new methods based on stable, nonradioactive tracers that satisfied the conditions of accuracy and precision. At the time, I had no inclination of the various theoretical and practical problems that would have to be solved to achieve this goal. Some are briefly described here. Nor did I have the slightest idea that developing the field would result in a fundamental change in how human clinical investigation was conducted, with the eventual replacement of radiotracers with stable isotopically labeled ones, even for adult clinical investigation. Additionally, I had no inclination that the original questions would open avenues to much broader questions of practical nutritional relevance. Moreover, only much later as the editor of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition did I appreciate the policy implications of how nutritional data are presented in the scientific literature. At least in part, less accurate and precise measurements and less than full transparency in reporting nutritional data have resulted in widespread debate about the public policy recommendations and guidelines that are the intended result of collecting the data in the first place. This article provides a personal recollection (with all the known faults of self-reporting and retrospective memory) of the journey that starts with measurement certainty and ends with policy uncertainty.

  16. [Enteral nutrition in the multiple trauma patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Izquierdo Riera, J A; Montejo González, J C

    1992-01-01

    The hypermetabolism that develops in patients with severe polytraumatism has led to the need for an aggressive metabolic-nutritional support from the start. Parenteral Nutrition is the preferred technique in many instances, due to the doubts on the effectiveness of enteral nutrition in the control of the metabolic response and to problems of gastrointestinal tolerance derived from its administration. However, the role of enteral nutrition as an important factor which limits the development of bacterial translocation and the chain of events leading to multiorganic failure appears to be more and more well-established and is an important argument for justifying the early administration of enteral nutrition in these patients. In accordance with the accumulated experience of several authors over the past few years, enteral nutrition may be administered early in polytraumatized patients. This is not only accompanied by the evidence of acceptable gastrointestinal tolerance to the diet, but also by additional advantages compared to parenteral nutrition, such as the maintenance of trophism and immunocompetence of the digestive mucosa, the reduction of septic complications and also greater nutritional effectiveness which can be evaluated by the behaviour of the seric proteins used as nutritional evolution markers. The interest of the different diet formulae which exist at present, for example diets enriched with branched-chain amino acids, diets with added fibre, peptidic diets, specific pulmonary diets or "euglycaemic diets" is evaluated in this review. All these diets may mean an increase in the effectiveness and/or tolerance of enteral nutrition in polytraumatized patients, and also contribute to the handling of specific problems such as "stress" hyperglycaemia or the withdrawal of mechanical ventilation support. The use of specific nutrients for the digestive mucosa, such as glutamine or short chain fatty acids seems to be an important factor in the reduction of

  17. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  18. Perspectives in Legal English in-Service Education: Needs Analysis in Lithuanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnikaitė Edita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal English, being among the most complex and multifaceted areas of English for Specific Purposes (ESP, has duly received considerable attention on the part of linguists, discourse and learner needs′ analysts, sociolinguists and ESP researchers (Cheng and Cheng, 2014; Hafner, 2013; Hartig and Lu, 2014; Huhta et al, 2013; Shuy 2001. Most research has been carried out to investigate lexical, syntactic, grammatical and other communicative competences of law students in various cycles of higher education. An area that is still highly in need of examination is the development of communicative competences of Legal English among law practitioners who might have had a course of Legal English in their law studies and face with an urge of revision or might have not been introduced to Legal English whatsoever. In light of these observations, the present study examines the needs and problems regarding the use of general and legal English faced by 34 law practitioners, namely lawyers and judges working at two law companies and a district court in Kaunas, Lithuania. The study assumes qualitative methodology including a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. The results have revealed that communicative competence of legal practitioners gained during their formal education does not meet the demands of their legal practice. While skills of general English appear not to cause many problems, skills of legal English are not developed to an adequate level. Therefore, as the study shows, it is absolutely inevitable to develop and offer in-service education of Legal English carefully attuned to the diverse levels of competences and needs of legal practitioners.

  19. HTA and its legal issues: a framework for identifying legal issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.

  20. A critical analysis of the implementation of a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ("legal highs") in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2018-03-07

    In July 2013 New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) to establish the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ("legal highs"). To critically analyse the implementation of the PSA. Synthesis of findings from interviews with 30 key informants (i.e. politicians, civil servants, legal high industry actors, toxicologists, NGO representatives and drug policy academics), analysis of relevant laws and policy documents, and a review of academic and grey literature on the PSA. Key challenges experienced during the implementation of the PSA included the harmfulness of interim approved products, the slowness in withdrawing products which caused adverse effects, enforcing retail restrictions, price competition by retailers, judicial challenges by the "legal high" industry, and growing opposition to the regime from local communities and key stakeholders (including local councils). The PSA lacks a tax on products and restrictions on retail opening hours which likely contributed to the problems above. The implementation of the PSA also appeared to suffer from a rushed legislative process and resource constraints on the regulatory agency which led to delays in the development of the full regulatory framework, including the product testing requirements, and issues with enforcing retail regulation, such as the minimum age of purchase. The decline in public support for the PSA regime reflected problems with communicating the aims of the policy to the general public. The troubled implementation of the PSA underlines a number of important lessons for consideration when developing a regulated legal drug market, including advanced development of regulatory systems, ensuring the sale of low risk products, adequately resourcing regulatory agencies and related enforcement activity, detailed regulation of retail outlets, establishing price controls, and ongoing engagement with stakeholders and the general public. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  1. Civil Rights of Foreigners in Private Legal Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukagjin Leka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement of people, goods, money, intellectual property and ideas, nowadays is a normal phenomenon and important characteristic of the contemporary world, and certainly would be characteristic for the future, even in a greater extent, when we consider the fact that globalization today is one of the phenomena that has swept across the globe. Knowing the fact that the intensification of legal relations with a foreign element as to the type and for the content imposes various problems of law, which greatly appears repeatedly and stretches in a new form and new dimension, so today in terms of development contemporary society in general, there are no legal areas where no foreign element appears. For this reason, taking into account the development and intensification of legal relations with a foreign element, especially in the late twentieth century, with the dissolution of a significant number of countries and the creation of new states there are new situations created, which seek diverse solutions that would answer the interests of legal entities, which should be in accordance with the principles of the international community and for this reason a study of this topic will be analyzed.

  2. COMPUTER-ASSISTED TRANSLATION RISKS AND THREATS IN LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana, MÎNDRECI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In a world in which IT is developing faster than ever, providing reliable solutions to all problems, regardless the field of interest, the issue of computer-assisted translation systems is more and more complex, offering both advantages and disadvantages. The field of translating legal texts from Romanian into English is deprived of a large number of specialists and this is one of the main reasons why more and more people resort to computer-assisted translations, especially Google translations when dealing with translating various texts (from Romanian into English or vice-versa, in this particular case legal texts. Yet, although this field has immensely thrived recently, and is quite reliable for simple and very easy translations, the average English speaker runs huge risks of falling into traps that can lead to errors and misinterpretations. Thus, this article aims to identify the main theoretical approaches to computer-assisted theories and the major risks and threats that occur in this type of translation, focusing particularly on legal texts. There are important differences, not only of words, but also differences in the legal systems themselves, both theoretical and practical ones, which must be correctly dealt with -something which computer-assisted translation cannot do (yet.

  3. Fatal hemorrhage from legal abortion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A; Kafrissen, M E; O'Reilly, K R; Binkin, N J

    1983-11-01

    Deaths from hemorrhage associated with legal induced abortion should not occur. Yet hemorrhage was the third most frequent cause of death from legal abortion in the United States between 1972 and 1979. This study was undertaken to document the scope of the problem, to identify risk factors for fatal hemorrhage and to recommend ways of preventing these deaths. Deaths were identified through the CDC's nationwide surveillance of deaths from abortions; information on numbers and characteristics of women having legal abortions was obtained from CDC and the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Twenty-four women died from hemorrhage after legal abortion in the United States from 1972 to 1979, for a death-to-case rate of 0.3 deaths per 100,000 abortions (95 per cent confidence interval 0.2 to 0.5). Women who died from hemorrhage were significantly older than those who died from other causes (27.6 versus 24.4 years; p less than 0.05). Documented uterine perforation or rupture was far more frequent among women who died from hemorrhage than those who died from other causes (71 versus 8 per cent; p less than 0.001). Women who sustained uterine perforation or rupture were over 1,000 times more likely to die from hemorrhage than those who did not. Deaths from hemorrhage can be eliminated by preventing uterine trauma during abortion and by rapidly diagnosing and treating hemorrhage if it occurs.

  4. Criticism of the Legal Limitation on Maternal Child Custody after Death of Father in the Iranian Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    معصومه مظاهری

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iranian custody laws encounter with legal gaps and challenges. One of these challenges is the interference between the mother’s custody and the paternal grandfather’s guardianship in case the father is not alive. So, it was expected that the Family Protection Law from 2012 pays attention to this important issue, namely the problems which are arisen from the lack of mother’s right to child’s guardianship in families. But the Family Protection Law did not only pay attention to important legal gaps, its article 43 on child custody can even cause new problems for families. According to this article, in case of father death, paternal grandfather can prevent the mother from her right to child custody. Therefore, this article will focus on the issue that, concerning legal gaps on the maternal child custody in the absence of mother’s right to child’s guardianship, article 43 of family protection law only causes increasing problems in the field of custody. In addition, this article will give some suggestions about mother’s right to child’s guardianship, and will offer some revisions for article 43 of the Family Protection Law. These suggestions provide that in case of deceased father, no one, in any event, can prevent mothers from their right to child custody, except in cases of article 1173 of Civil Law that is about child custody deprivation of parents.

  5. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  6. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  7. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  8. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  9. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Nutritional support as an adjunct to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with malignancies which are treated with therapeutic radiation are at risk for nutritional problems, both from their underlying malignancy as well as from their treatment. These effects may be acute or chronic and relate to the site of the tumor and regions irradiated. There is a large experience with nutritional intervention in irradiated patients, including oral feedings and enteral and parenteral nutritional support. The indications for the specific administration of nutritional support during radiotherapy depend on the nutritional status of the patient and the area irradiated, as well as the individual prognosis. Patients who are malnourished at the time of treatment are most likely to profit from nutritional intervention. To date, prospective randomized trials of nutritional support in patients undergoing radiotherapy fail to show a benefit of routine adjuvant nutritional intervention in terms of improved response and tolerance to treatment, improved local control or survival rates, or reduction of complications from therapy

  11. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  12. European legal developments in product safety and liability: the role of customer complaint management as a defensive marketing tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Ko; de Ruyter, J.C.; Brack, Antoni

    1993-01-01

    In view of recent European legal developments, our purpose in this article is to position customer complaint management as an essential instrument for a defensive marketing strategy, specifically to prevent legal problems in the fields of product liability and product safety.

  13. Participation of a Representative of a Foreign Country in the Procedure of the Legal Proceedings in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzakirov, Nail R.; Omarov, Yerbol A.; Mussilimov, Arman Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of foreigners' rights and freedoms protection during the criminal procedure in The Republic of Kazakhstan. The comparative analysis of national and international legal framework shows that principles of legal defense of foreigners' interests do not have a practical application. Examining the content of requests on…

  14. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  15. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  16. Technology Transfer in Digital Era: Legal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Anatol’yevich Bliznets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of disruptive technology in the digital era is the ruling condition of modern sustainable development. The authors proceed from the fact that legal tools for the creation and use, protection of advanced technologies provide the technology transfer process from the owner to interested parties for further practical, commercial application or further improvement. The article analyzes the legal positions of the concept of technology, legal ways to use modern technologies, stages of their implementation and practical application. In the innovation process legal mechanism in combination with the modern means of innovative development stimulates the creation and transfer of new technologies and at the same time it is a key factor for sustainable development in the context of modern digital technology revolution. In the modern digital revolution, the technology transfer acquires new features and ways for the dissemination of technical innovation, which creates new challenges for legal theory and practice, and legal tools should meet the challenges of the time.

  17. GNU General Public License v3: A Legal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Guadamuz González

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a first-look legal analysis of the draft version 3 of the GNU General Public License, and will also look at the debate that it has generated in the Free and Open Source community. The paper will answer the following vital questions: Is the GPL v3 different in any fundamental way from GPL v2? What are the main differences? What will be the impact of the new GPL to the problem of software patents? Is there an incompatibility problem with previous versions of the licence? How does it compare with other existing licences?

  18. Equity policies in higher education : a legal evaluation of institutional responses

    OpenAIRE

    Faakye, Solomon

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Higher education equity policies have for as long as they have existed provoked serious legal controversy, especially in the largest system of higher education, i.e. the USA. In as much as these legal troubles have not arisen (yet) in Ghana, it can’t be taken for granted that such problems are far-fetched. In that sense this study is a work ahead of its time; in drawing analogies from American case Law, the work attempts to predict the possible legal issues that may arise in th...

  19. To the Question of Legal Regulation in Conditions of Information Technologies Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes questions of legal regulation of the new public relations which appeared in connection with development and a wide circulation of new information and information and communication technologies. In article author carries out the analysis of questions of cyberwars and cyberespionage, opinions of the Russian and foreign scientists are analyzed. In the conclusion author draws a conclusion that emergence of new technologies and their active distribution in society generates a set of the legal problems needing to development of adequate legal decisions.

  20. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  1. Legal origin, colonial origin and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...

  2. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  4. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  5. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  6. Civil Legal Services and Medical-Legal Partnerships Needed by the Homeless Population: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.

  7. Basic problems of atomic law administration. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.; Vollmer, L.

    1974-01-01

    The authors confine themselves to the legal aspects of the problem. They start with a description of the present legal situation and then proceed to a discussion of the principal legal advantages of a zoning board as a special legal institution for the planning of large nuclear power plants. A final evaluation of legal results intends to demonstrate which constitutional and administrative factors will have to be considered for the final decision. The author concludes that the few general attempts at zoning following the administrative procedure do not quite meet the specific requirements of nuclear licensing procedures. In the long run, however, zoning might prove useful for nuclear licensing. (HP/AK) [de

  8. Breakdowns in communication of radiological findings: an ethical and medico-legal conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Leonard; Murphy, Daniel R.; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Communication problems in diagnostic testing have increased in both number and importance in recent years. The medical and legal impact of failure of communication is dramatic. Over the past decades, the courts have expanded and strengthened the duty imposed on radiologists to timely communicate radiologic abnormalities to referring physicians and perhaps the patients themselves in certain situations. The need to communicate these findings goes beyond strict legal requirements: there is a mor...

  9. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  10. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  11. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  12. Internet advertising and its legal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, Evgeniia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal aspects of Internet advertising. The main aim of this thesis is to define a legal code corresponding to this issue and to compare with the laws in Russia. The aim also is specify the efficiency of this legal aspects and review sufficiency of protection of consumers. Further explain the issue of spamming, find out its benefits to the retailer and negative aspects for consumers, and also to compare legal aspects of spamming with legislation in Russia.i

  13. Adolescent nutrition: what do pediatricians do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eell Ryoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple psychosocial problems and many chronic diseases of adulthood can be influenced by adolescent nutritional problems. In Korea, adolescent obesity and obesity related health risks have been increased and insufficient intakes of nutrients, such as calcium, iron and potassium, and distorted thinking about obesity are also common. However there are no comprehensive countermeasure because of the excessive burden of studies and the lack of community interest. And the nutrition guidelines that is suitable for Korean adolescent leaves something to be desired, and the pediatrician’s concern is lacking yet. In the Korean dietary reference intakes 2010 that was revised according to the 2007 Korean National Growth Chart and 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the range for adolescents is changed to the age 12-18 and dietary reference intakes of some nutrients mainly with vitamin D is changed. Recently several researches, about how school nutrition policies and media effect on eating habits and the weight concerns, and influences of public nutrition policies and fast food commercials have been actively studied to improve adolescent nutritive conditions. In this review, I summarize the dietary reference intakes for Korean adolescents that were revised in 2010, and current studies about the adolescent nutrition.

  14. Pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition in clinical practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lifschitz, Carlos H

    2002-01-01

    ... facts in molecular biology and genetics, as well as recently acquired clinical information, in conjunction with a practical approach to pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. The idea is to provide new information that seems to be here to stay, along with a comprehensive update on the management of nutritional and gastrointestinal problems that affect the pediatric population, from the newborn to the adolescent. We have also provided, when appropriate, a section on "what can go wrong." This section lists c...

  15. Illegal oral care: more than a legal issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Jean, Joanes; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2010-12-01

    Affordable, safe and appropriate oral care, including preventive services, is not available for large parts of the world's population. In many low- and middle-income countries patients have to rely on a range of illegal oral care providers who are often socially accepted and part of the cultural context. Although filling a gap in service provision for poor populations, illegal provision of oral care is a serious public health problem, resulting in situations of low-quality care and risks for patients. It is a complex phenomenon going far beyond the legal context. It should be seen as a symptom of underlying health system and society deficits, ranging from lack of access to care and health inequities to problems of governance and law-enforcement. This paper analyses the problem based on the country case of Guyana, explores the public health, legal, professional, social, economical and ethical dimensions of the problem and proposes a differential view on illegal practice by grouping illegal oral care situations in four broad categories; each of them requiring different solutions to tackle underlying issues leading to the problem of illegal oral care.

  16. Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities. PMID:19939997

  17. Nanotechnology research: applications in nutritional sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pothur R; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L; Saltos, Etta; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M; Friedl, Karl E; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of approximately 1-100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled "Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences" was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.

  18. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  19. A Community Prevention Model to Prevent Children from Inhaling and Ingesting Harmful Legal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. W.; Grube, J. W.; Ogilvie, K. A.; Collins, D.; Courser, M.; Dirks, L. G.; Ogilvie, D.; Driscoll, D.

    2012-01-01

    Children's misuse of harmful legal products (HLPs), including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a serious health problem for American society. This article presents a community prevention model (CPM) focusing on this problem among pre and early adolescents. The model,…

  20. [The victim as object of the medico-legal intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    We present a reflection about the victim as the object of the medico-legal intervention, that opens perspectives not only to the evidence research (as a techno-scientific contribute to support Justice in what concerns bio-psycho-social questions), but also to the support of victims which, in a last analysis, is no more than another aspect of this the social contribution of this science to ensure the best interest of the victim. This reflection aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the victim in his/her various perspectives. Accordingly, during the exposition, we refer some contributes of Victimology towards the understanding of the victims' behaviour's. Afterwards, we focus on the problems related to the aetiologies (with a particular reference to trauma), levels and consequences (physical, psychological and socio-economical) of victimization, as well as the methodologies of victims approach, medico-legal evaluation and reparation. Considering victims as being not only those who suffer directly the consequences of the victimizing phenomena, but also those that suffer from it indirectly and even secondarily, we shall approach the topic regarding both perspectives. We highlight the importance of understanding the victim as a person, not just understanding him/her confined to the organic aspect (as it used to be until recently in certain fields of medico-legal intervention, and as it still happens due to some legal obligations, for instance in the Labour Law), but considering the person in a global way (body, capacities, life situations and subjectivity). In conclusion, we highlight the importance of this topic to the medico-legal mission, while taking part in various multidisciplinary interventions and being involved in strategies and measures which purpose is to prevent violence, promote safety, avoid secondary victimization and revictimization as well as guarantee the victims' protection and reintegration, in a work attitude that should happen, even more and