WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal office environment

  1. Corporate environment protection as a legal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is discussed what legal instruments companies have for integrating environment protection into their corporate policy: Industrial self-monitoring; the environmental health officer as an instrument of corporate environment protection (environmental health officer, radiation protection officer); obligations to disclose information on corporate organisation pursuant to Article 52 a of the Federal Emmission Control Act; corporate environment protection as a general obligation of the operator. Possible ways of strengthening corporate environment protection are considered de lege ferende, e.g. the additional instruments of corporate self-monitoring laid down in the General Part of the Environmental Code, audits on environment protection, corporate environment protection through quality assurance systems. (orig.) [de

  2. Heidbreder to head Office of Legal Counsel

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Kay Heidbreder of Blacksburg, has been appointed University Counsel by the Virginia Attorney General and will head the university's legal office. Heidbreder, who holds the position of assistant attorney general, has been associate general counsel at Virginia Tech since 1985.

  3. Legal dimensions of power in the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dermyden, Sue Ann; Sperry, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Hostile workplace environments and sexual harassment depend on unequal power. It is the legal responsibility of the employer (the dentist practice owner) to protect against, investigate, and take appropriate action to prevent the abuse of power in the office. This article discusses harassment by dentists, staff members, and patient, vendors, and other third parties. Six direct steps for managing this issue are presented.

  4. 32 CFR 776.67 - Judicial and legal officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL... covered attorney shall not make a statement that the covered attorney knows to be false or with reckless... officer, hearing officer, adjudicatory officer, or public legal officer, or of a candidate for election or...

  5. 32 CFR 727.6 - Functions of legal assistance officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... another party or his lawyer, and prepare all types of legal documents, including pleadings, as are... Act of 1964 and pertinent Navy instructions. (b) Nature of assistance. Legal assistance officers and... problems, business ventures, or matters that are not of a personal nature. Legal assistance duties are...

  6. Ergonomics in the office environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  7. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  8. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.

  9. Ohio Legal Office Managment. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document, which lists core business and legal office management competencies identified by representatives from education and business and industry throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary associate degree…

  10. 75 FR 47632 - Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Philippines and India. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,370 is hereby issued as follows: All workers..., Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages... To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as...

  11. 75 FR 49528 - Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations Cleveland Office Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Philippines and India. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,370 is hereby issued as follows: ``All workers..., Legal Editorial Operations Cleveland Office Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages... Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of...

  12. 40 CFR 2.205 - Final confidentiality determination by EPA legal office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., after consideration of any timely comments submitted by the business, the EPA legal office makes a... is made by the business and approved by the EPA legal office. Except in extraordinary circumstances... determinations; matters to be considered. (1) If the EPA legal office finds that a business has failed to furnish...

  13. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  14. 48 CFR 1401.7001-2 - Legal review by the Office of the Solicitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal review by the Office of the Solicitor. 1401.7001-2 Section 1401.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Acquisition Reviews 1401.7001-2 Legal review by the Office of the...

  15. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad-zada, Z.; Aliev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: For the last years the terrorism has significantly changed. If 20-30 years ago terrorists would kidnap famous politicians or hijack planes, but at this stage they switched to massive destruction of innocent people. Now the problem of struggle against nuclear terrorism becomes very actual problem. The nuclear terrorism is meant as an opportunity of accomplishment of act of terrorism with use of the nuclear weapon, or accomplishment of explosions on atomic power stations and other objects of an atomic energy. Threats to nuclear objects become more and more often and appreciable. In the world there were some similar cases of threat to nuclear objects from the part of terrorists, and also cases of use by terrorists of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological substances. These cases testify to real threat of use by terrorists of the weapon of mass destruction. It is natural, that accomplishment of acts of terrorism on these objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. Up to the middle of sixtieth years of twentieth century protection of an environment was not put forward as an independent political problem, and its scientific substantiation has not been developed enough as a diversified, complex, global problem. Only dynamical development in seventieth - eightieth years of scientific bases of global problems has allowed to allocate the rules of law concerning to protection of an environment, into special group. International legal protection of ecology was precisely allocated now in system of the general international law as independent, specific sphere of regulation. The principle of inadmissibility of radioactive pollution of environment covers both military, and peace area of use of nuclear power. Formation and the statement of this special principle of International law of the Environment takes place in two ways - contractual and usual, with observance by the states of

  16. Development of legal environment for Rosatom Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El'fimova, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    The scope of legal and regulatory work within the Corporation Rosatom is characterized with the large number of legal acts that have been developed and adopted under the initiative of the Corporation Rosatom that aim to address objectives associated with the advancement of the nuclear energy of Russia. The rapidly expanding industry requires their continuous development and improvement. The tasks and problems of legislation pertaining to use of nuclear energy and safety regulation are discussed in the paper [ru

  17. Using Scaffolding to Improve Student Learning in Legal Environment Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Students taking the initial legal environment course in a business school generally have little background in the law. Most of these students are learning new terms and are exposed to the workings of the legal system and statutes and cases for the first time. Some students have characterized learning the law as like "learning a new…

  18. Regional legal consequences of the separation of the notion of registered office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia CRISTEA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the importance of defining the registered office with the commercial law, this study aims at analyzing the legal connotations of the business office in the fiscal law. The separations of the notions originate in the European regulations included in Law no 31/1990 regarding the commercial companies. Law no 105/1992 regarding the international private law, the Fiscal Code, and the International Conventions regarding the avoidance of double taxation. Depending on the fiscal legal status of the subject as either resident or non-resident, this study aims at finding what are the differences and the relations between the institutions called: registered office – business office.

  19. 5 CFR 297.402 - Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory legal process served on the Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory legal process served on the Office. 297.402 Section 297.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS Disclosure of Records § 297.402 Disclosure pursuant to a compulsory...

  20. International perspectives on the legal environment for selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myors, B.; Lievens, F.; Schollaert, E.; van Hoye, G.; Cronshaw, S.F.; Mladinic, A.; Rodríguez, V.; Aguinis, H.; Steiner, D.D.; Rolland, F.; Schuler, H.; Frintrup, A.; Nikolaou, I.; Tomprou, M.; Subramony, S.; Raj, S.B.; Tzafrir, S.; Bamberger, P.; Bertolino, M.; Mariani, M.; Fraccaroli, F.; Sekiguchi, T.; Onyura, B.; Yang, H.; Anderson, N.; Evers, A.; Chernyshenko, O.; Englert, P.; Kriek, H.J.; Joubert, T.; Salgado, J.F.; König, C.J.; Thommen, L.A.; Chuang, A.; Sinangil, H.K.; Bayazit, M.; Cook, M.; Shen, W.; Sackett, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Perspectives from 22 countries on aspects of the legal environment for selection are presented in this article. Issues addressed include (a) whether there are racial/ethnic/religious subgroups viewed as "disadvantaged," (b) whether research documents mean differences between groups on individual

  1. 75 FR 74146 - Office of Financial Research; Statement on Legal Entity Identification for Financial Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... information regarding this Statement contact the Office of Domestic Finance, Treasury, at (202) 622-1766. All... relationship to other entities. Identification of the legal entity is a fundamental ingredient in creating a... reassigned; (3) Persist over the life of an entity regardless of corporate actions or other business or...

  2. Nuclear power plants and environment-Legal and institutional aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de

    1986-01-01

    Some legal aspects about nuclear power plants siting in face of environment legislation and policy in the Brazilian law are discussed. The public participation in the process of site selection in face of actual constitutional precepts and the decision given by Supreme Court which determined to private competence of the Union, given by Constitutional rules and by the law number 6803 in 1980. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. The Attorney-Client Relationship as a Business Law-Legal Environment Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Murray S.

    2004-01-01

    Business school law courses should promote understanding of legal processes affecting business, help students learn to recognize legal issues and manage legal risks, increase ethical sensitivity, and help students to develop critical thinking skills. To this end, business law and legal environment textbooks tend to focus on ethical and legal…

  4. 48 CFR 801.602-80 - Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. 801.602-80 Section... Responsibilities 801.602-80 Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. An Office of Construction and Facilities Management or National Cemetery...

  5. Perceived office environments and occupational physical activity in office-based workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A; Smith, L; Ucci, M; Jones, R; Marmot, A; Fisher, A

    2017-06-01

    Individuals in office-based occupations have low levels of physical activity but there is little research into the socio-ecological correlates of workplace activity. To identify factors contributing to office-based workers' perceptions of the office environment and explore cross-sectional relationships between these factors and occupational physical activity. Participants in the Active Buildings study reported perceptions of their office environment using the Movement at Work Survey. A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on survey items. A sub-sample wore the ActivPAL3TM accelerometer for ≥3 workdays to measure occupational step count, standing, sitting and sit-to-stand transitions. Linear regression analyses assessed relationships between environmental perceptions and activity. There were 433 participants, with accelerometer data available for 115 participants across 11 organ izations. The PCA revealed four factors: (i) perceived distance to office destinations, (ii) perceived office aesthetics and comfort, (iii) perceived office social environment and (iv) perceived management discouragement of unscheduled breaks. Younger participants perceived office destinations as being closer to their desk. Younger and female participants perceived more positive office social environments; there were no other socio-demographic differences. Within the sub-sample with accelerometer data, perceived discouragement of breaks by management was related to occupational step count/hour (B = -64.5; 95% CI -109.7 to -19.2). No other environmental perceptions were related to activity or sitting. Perceived managerial discouragement of breaks could be related to meaningful decreases in occupational step count. Future research should aim to elucidate the role of the workplace socio-cultural environment in occupational walking, with a focus on the role of management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All

  6. Applying Legal Concepts to Business in a Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Course: The Build-a-Business Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelecki, Ryan C.; Willey, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant hurdles to overcome in teaching law to business students is getting them to recognize and appreciate the real-world applicability of the law, a seemingly esoteric and irrelevant discipline. This hurdle is especially challenging when teaching Legal and Ethical Environment of Business (LEEB), a course that most business…

  7. Clinical trials using a radiopharmaceutical investigational drug: What legal environment and what authorizations required?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, G.; Nguon, B.; Tibi, A.; Rizzo-Padoin, N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent revision of the legal environment for clinical research in France provided an opportunity to review what a hospital needs to carry out clinical trials using a radiopharmaceutical investigational drug. Legal measures concerning radiopharmaceutical investigational drugs are indeed more complex than those of classical clinical trials because of the additional legal provisions governing the use of ionizing radiation. Thus, requirements by the concerned staff (sponsor, pharmacist, person in charge of the nuclear activity) are described here. (authors) [fr

  8. An Intelligent System for Document Retrieval in Distributed Office Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Uttam; And Others

    1986-01-01

    MINDS (Multiple Intelligent Node Document Servers) is a distributed system of knowledge-based query engines for efficiently retrieving multimedia documents in an office environment of distributed workstations. By learning document distribution patterns and user interests and preferences during system usage, it customizes document retrievals for…

  9. Physical Environment Comfort Impacts on Office Employee’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shirley Jin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office workplaces today is now no longer only consisting of passive and fixed activity but also towards a more flexible environment activity. The number of office workplaces is hiking from day to day which leads to the increase of the office workers. The productivity will be improved by providing optimum physical environment. The physical environment comfort in a workplace is claimed to be vital as it will encourages healthier, more productive and lower absenteeism rate among employees. The physical environment comfort encompassed optimum room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. This research intend to investigate the importance of physical environment comfort by evaluating the comfort based on the existing workplace and determine its effect on employee’s performance. Evaluation between the selected case studies are made in the aspects of employee’s comfort perceive health and absenteeism rate by wielding the elements of physical comfort consisting room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. Field study was carried out for 3 institutional building particularly management department. High correlations are found between room temperature, lighting and relative humidity with health related issue such as stuffy, easily tired and difficulty in concentration which affect employees’ productivity and work performances.

  10. International legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental generally recognized principles of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meherremov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of international legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental, generally recognized principles of international law is analyzed in the article taking into consideration the different opinions in legal scientific researches and international practice. It is concluded that the protection of environment for the present and next generations - is a basic principle of international legal protection of environment. The meaning of this principleis that the countries will take all necessary measures for preservation and promotion of the quality of environment for the present and next generations, as well as rational management of natural resources. Adoption and national legal implementation of specific norms, in conformity with that basic principle, is a main factor in resolution of environmental problemsand ensuring environmental security

  11. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT, AUDIT QUALITY AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Unsal Memis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between earnings management-audit quality and earnings management-legal system quality by using 1507 firms’ observations from listed companies in private firms across different 8 emerging countries. Consistent with previous research, differentiation between Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms are used as a audit quality proxy and discretionary accruals are used to measure the earnings management. According to the results, only for Brazilian and Mexican companies, there is significant relationship between the discretionary accruals and audit quality. For the other countries there is not significant relationship. Furthermore efficiency of the legal system helps decrease earnings management incentives. Along with results, the big four auditors do not constrain the earnings management incentives in every emerging country but effective legal system does. In this analysis we used other earnings management related variables like the size of the firms, leverage, lagged ROA of the firms which have loss in the previous year and Tobin Q as control variables.

  12. Gender differences in public office workers' satisfaction, subjective symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints in workplace and office environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbok; Park, Myoung Hwan; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates differences between male and female public office workers' satisfaction levels, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) complaints in workplace and office environments. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 30 offices from 15 public institutions. Male and female workers of the same age were coupled and selected from each office, gathering a total of 120 male and 120 female subjects. The results show that differences exist between genders in noise and lighting satisfaction levels, SBS-related symptoms (eye, nose, skin) and MSD complaints of hand/wrist/finger, while there is no difference in overall satisfaction level of office environments. The study also suggests that office design for public office workers should take into account gender differences in preventing MSDs and also SBS. The findings of this study are expected to serve as basic data for designing effective public office environments.

  13. Task exposures in an office environment: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Mazumder, Anjali; Cole, Donald; Wells, Richard; Moore, Anne

    2009-10-01

    Task-related factors such as frequency and duration are associated with musculoskeletal disorders in office settings. The primary objective was to compare various task recording methods as measures of exposure in an office workplace. A total of 41 workers from different jobs were recruited from a large urban newspaper (71% female, mean age 41 years SD 9.6). Questionnaire, task diaries, direct observation and video methods were used to record tasks. A common set of task codes was used across methods. Different estimates of task duration, number of tasks and task transitions arose from the different methods. Self-report methods did not consistently result in longer task duration estimates. Methodological issues could explain some of the differences in estimates seen between methods observed. It was concluded that different task recording methods result in different estimates of exposure likely due to different exposure constructs. This work addresses issues of exposure measurement in office environments. It is of relevance to ergonomists/researchers interested in how to best assess the risk of injury among office workers. The paper discusses the trade-offs between precision, accuracy and burden in the collection of computer task-based exposure measures and different underlying constructs captures in each method.

  14. Inaccessible Built Environments: The Bane of a Weak Legal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUDZI

    2016-09-19

    Sep 19, 2016 ... accessibility for Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) as a human right issue has been long and tortuous.The period ... resolve to secure accessible built environments for PWDs. ..... diversity in body so help all to feel ok. We are ...

  15. The thermal environment and occupant perceptions in European office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J L [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2002-02-01

    The results from a large field study of thermal comfort in European office buildings are reported. Environmental conditions and occupant perceptions were collected over fourteen months from twenty-six different office buildings located in France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the UK. This thesis focuses on the thermal measurements and occupant perceptions; however, some of the additional variables with strong connections to thermal sensation are also examined. A summary of human comfort is presented to help place this thesis in appropriate context. The summary presents thermal comfort issues within a broad framework of environmental comfort including physical, physiological, behavioural, psychological and other variables. A more narrowly focused overview of current thermal comfort research is also included. The work attempts to show relationships and produce useful information from the data set by using rather simple statistics and graphical methods. The objective is to quite literally use the data set to illustrate the actual thermal conditions in European office buildings and the occupant perceptions of those conditions. The data are examined in some detail with key relationships identified and explored. Significant differences between countries, both for the physical conditions and the perceptions of those conditions are identified. In addition, the variation over the course of the year for each country is explored. The variations occur in complex ways, which make simple, all encompassing explanations impossible. The nature and size of the variations make the application of simple Europe wide models of thermal comfort questionable. It appears that individuals in different European countries have different expectations for their indoor office thermal environment. This data set will be further explored in a more complete study, which will examine the other measured variables.

  16. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  17. [Correlation between legal protection of the environment and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, Guglielmo; Rinaldi, Alessandro; D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucchetti, Pietro; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; d'Alessandro, Eugenia De Luca

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is a priority of our time and planning and the evaluation of health and hygiene should be directed towards strategies to improve the well-being and lifestyles of the community. At the legislative level in Italy, the Ministry of Health, was established in 1958 with the task of providing for the collective health of the whole nation and in 1978, with Law 833, the National Health Service (NHS) was created which secured assistance and healthcare to all Italian citizens. The most important component of the entire health system is the Local Health Unit (USL) which has responsibility for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and highlights the importance of safeguarding the health, hygiene and safely at home and at work and the "hygiene of urban settlements and communities", ie environmental protection. One of the reasons for the delays in the promotion of environmental protection initiatives in Italy is to be found in the referendums of 1993, including the one which removed the tasks regarding environmental controls from the NHS. The temporary skills gap in the environmental field was filled with the 'National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA), which later became the Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), and the regional level, the Regional Agencies Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA). Law 61/21 January 1994 joined the ARPA to the National Institute for Environmental Research and Protection (ISPRA). It is now necessary to implement a program that takes account of the damage caused to the environment and consequently the individual, which is totally committed the combination of the environment and human health and not, as in the recent past, as two distinct entities. In this sense, it is of fundamental importance the role of prevention departments to promote the organization networking and of individual companies' and individuals' skills, in fact. The integration of planning processes, environmental monitoring

  18. Replicating enterprise environment using Office 365 to enhance graduates’ employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carutasu Nicoleta Luminita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of faster insertion of graduates into labor market and enhancing professional and soft skills of graduates required by employees, conduct to new learning method necessity. Starting from stated foreseen of Europe 2020 strategy, creativity, entrepreneurship and intensive use of ICT should be enhanced soon to all academic levels. Also, the entrepreneurs require that graduates to have strong organizational knowledge, to quickly integrate into company’ business processes. The traditional assessment of students implies an individual form, team assessment being avoided to be sure of each individual contribution. Also, the future Industry 4.0 implementations will ask for interdisciplinary skills regarding ICT use and specific digital workflows. The proposed enterprise environment replication uses ERP as backbone of IT infrastructure and Office 365 as business workflow tool management. The experience in using ERP as laboratory IT infrastructure for multiple subjects of academic curriculum of the same academic program showed that graduates could focus on internal business process and documents flow rather than learning how to use the software. The Office 365 is used to experience internal workflow of companies, implemented on existent tenants. To enhance the entrepreneurship and innovation, the learning method is completed with simulated enterprise specific activities.

  19. It's Not Easy Being Green: Bringing Real Life to the Undergraduate Legal Environment of Business Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Tanya M.; Perry, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Legal Environment of Business course in a traditional undergraduate business curriculum, students are expected to acquire knowledge about many areas of the law and the application of law to business, society, and the international marketplace. Current concepts in undergraduate business education, such as ethics and sustainability, must also…

  20. "Piggybacking" on Business Communication through Interdisciplinarity: Developing Student Communication Skills in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Amanda Harmon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an assignment for a legal environment of business course that builds upon and reinforces strong business communication practices. The assignment discusses "piggybacking," which is the unauthorized use of another person's wireless Internet connection. In this assignment, the students are required (1) to…

  1. Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering in Clinical Environment and Legal Surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedec, M.

    2013-01-01

    An application of radiation in medicine is essentially associated with medical physics and biomedical engineering. The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception and the status of clinical medical physicists and biomedical engineers within the current international and Croatian legal framework. The International Labour Organization (ILO) in its International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) notes that medical physicists and biomedical engineers are an integral part of the health workforce, alongside those occupations classified as health professionals. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its basic safety standards for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources also defines medical physicists as health professional. The World Health Organization (WHO) urges member states to include biomedical engineers in assessment, planning, procurement, implementation and management of health technologies, in particular biomedical devices. The Council of the European Union (EU) in its directives defines qualified professionals, especially experts in medical physics, as workers who carry out physical, technical and radiochemical work in regard to dosimetry, radiation protection, quality assurance and quality control, equipment management, etc. According to the U.S. Office of Labor Statistics, biomedical engineer is an occupation with the third-fastest growth rate in the economy, as projected for the period 2010-2020. It is expected that the role and the importance of medical physics and biomedical engineering profession in Croatia, a member state of ILO, WHO, IAEA and EU, will be soon fully regulated in a way comparable to the career paths of other health professionals within a clinical environment, primarily for the benefit of patients and hospital staff, healthcare facilities and healthcare system in general.(author)

  2. Fees and penalties for use of the environment – financial and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fees and penalties for use of the environment, regulated by the Environmental Protection Act, are legal structures related with each other. These are the four basic fees (for the emission of gases or dust into the air, the discharge of sewage, for water drawing and for storage of waste, as well as increased fees and penalties. Fees and penalties for use of the environment are separate institutions in relation to other categories of public revenues (taxes, fees for services. These are the payments for use directly the components of the environment (e.g. air, water. They constitute public burden for the use of the environment, which the state legislature imposes on entities using the environment. Their aim is to limit the use of the natural environment and the accumulation of funds for financing the tasks in the area of environmental protection.

  3. Customising Microsoft Office to Develop a Tutorial Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Andrew; Jaftha, Jacob; Horwitz, David

    2004-01-01

    Powerful applications such as Microsoft Office's Excel and Word are widely used to perform common tasks in the workplace and in education. Scripting within these applications allows unanticipated user requirements to be addressed. We show that such extensibility, intended to support office automation-type applications, is well suited to the…

  4. Development and Delivery of Coursework: The Legal/Regulatory/Policy Environment of Cyberforensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Bagby

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a cyber-forensics course that integrates important public policy and legal issues as well as relevant forensic techniques. Cyber-forensics refers to the amalgam of multi-disciplinary activities involved in the identification, gathering, handling, custody, use and security of electronic files and records, involving expertise from the forensic domain, and which produces evidence useful in the proof of facts for both commercial and legal activities. The legal and regulatory environment in which electronic discovery takes place is of critical importance to cyber-forensics experts because the legal process imposes both constraints and opportunities for the effective use of evidence gathered through cyber-forensic techniques. This paper discusses different pedagogies that can be used (including project teams, research and writing assignments, student presentations, case analyses, class activities and participation and examinations, evaluation methods, problem-based learning approaches and critical thinking analysis. A survey and evaluation is provided of the growing body of applicable print and online materials that can be utilized. Target populations for such a course includes students with majors, minors or supporting elective coursework in law, information sciences, information technology, computer science, computer engineering, financial fraud, security and information assurance, forensic aspects of cyber security, privacy, and electronic commerce.

  5. Assessing changes in HIV-related legal and policy environments: Lessons learned from a multi-country evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Nicholson, Alexandra; Henry, Ian; Saha, Amitrajit; Sellers, Tilly; Gruskin, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent. We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data on activities designed to improve legal environments through a systematic document review and 53 qualitative interviews. The project made substantial strides towards legal change in many places, and examples provide broader lessons for work in this area. Two core pillars appear fundamental: a government-led participatory assessment of the legal environment, and building the capacity of those impacted by and engaged in this work. Systematic attention to human rights is vital: it can help open new spaces for dialogue among diverse stakeholders, foster new collaborations, and ensure local ownership, nuanced understanding of the political landscape, attention to marginalized populations, and accountability for (in)action. Entry points for effecting legal change go beyond "HIV laws" to also include other laws, national policies and strategies. Conducting legal environment assessments, multi-stakeholder dialogues, action planning and related activities, alongside capacity building, can contribute to changes in knowledge and attitudes directly relevant to reforming laws that are found to be harmful. Shorter-term goals along the causal pathway to legal change (e.g. changes in policy) can constitute interim markers of success, and recognition of these can maintain momentum. Increasing understanding of progress towards changes in the legal environment

  6. Assessing changes in HIV-related legal and policy environments: Lessons learned from a multi-country evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent.We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data on activities designed to improve legal environments through a systematic document review and 53 qualitative interviews.The project made substantial strides towards legal change in many places, and examples provide broader lessons for work in this area. Two core pillars appear fundamental: a government-led participatory assessment of the legal environment, and building the capacity of those impacted by and engaged in this work. Systematic attention to human rights is vital: it can help open new spaces for dialogue among diverse stakeholders, foster new collaborations, and ensure local ownership, nuanced understanding of the political landscape, attention to marginalized populations, and accountability for (inaction. Entry points for effecting legal change go beyond "HIV laws" to also include other laws, national policies and strategies.Conducting legal environment assessments, multi-stakeholder dialogues, action planning and related activities, alongside capacity building, can contribute to changes in knowledge and attitudes directly relevant to reforming laws that are found to be harmful. Shorter-term goals along the causal pathway to legal change (e.g. changes in policy can constitute interim markers of success, and recognition of these can maintain momentum. Increasing understanding of progress towards changes in the legal

  7. [Legal development of consumer protection from the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety standpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püster, M

    2010-06-01

    Ten years after publication of the White Paper on Food Safety, health consumer protection has made significant progress and, today, is a key field in politics at both the European and German levels. In addition to the protection of health and security of consumers, consumer information has become a core element of consumer protection for the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz and Lebensmittelsicherheit, BVL). State authorities are provided with new means of communication and interaction with consumers.

  8. Reneging: A Topic to Promote Engaging Discussions about Law and Ethics in a Business Law or Legal Environment Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended for business law and legal environment instructors who want to help students understand how they might react when presented with an ethical conflict, no matter how big or how small. The article discusses not only the compelling ethical issues that may arise in reneging cases, but also legal issues. The article provides…

  9. Development of a Virtual Environment for Catapult Launch Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    the duties of a launch officer. Analysis of the data gathered from the job task analysis produced a flowchart that can be represented as a finite...duties of a launch officer. Analysis of the data gathered from the job task analysis produced a flowchart that can be represented as a finite state...pass through when learning a skill as shown in Table 3.1. These skill levels are: novice, advanced beginner , competence, proficiency, expertise

  10. [Legal medicine specialists within the framework of acute care : Analysis of legal medicine consultations in relation to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, G; Heide, S; Lucas, B; Brandstädter, K; Walcher, F; Kropf, S; Lessig, R; Piatek, S

    2018-05-01

    In acute medical care, there are patients who have been injured by the influence of others. The aim of this study was to analyze all cases which were presented to the Institute for Legal Medicine of the University Halle (Saale). The cases where analyzed in relation to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt. The consultations of the Institute for Legal Medicine Halle-Wittenberg for 2012-2015 were evaluated with regard to the age and gender distribution, the reasons for the consultation and time until the request for consultations. These cases were statistically compared to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt 2014-2015. A total of 536 cases (55.6% male and 44.4% female patients) were evaluated. In all, 62.1% of patients were under 18 years of age; 43.5% of all consultations were requested by pediatric (surgery) clinics. The most common reasons for consultation were sexual child abuse or violence against children (50.7%). Compared to the victims' statistics, significantly more children were examined by legal medicine specialists than could have been expected (p legal medicine specialists in relation to the victims' statistics. Most of them were children and women. The temporal latency between the act of violence and the consultations was one day and more. The latency and the renunciation of the consultation of the legal medicine specialists can lead to loss of evidence.

  11. Indoor climate, psychosocial work environment and symptoms in open-plan offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, J; Allermann, L; Kristensen, T S

    2006-01-01

    To study the indoor climate, the psychosocial work environment and occupants' symptoms in offices a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was made in 11 naturally and 11 mechanically ventilated office buildings. Nine of the buildings had mainly cellular offices; five of the buildings had mainly open...... irritation, skin irritation, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and psychosocial factors. Occupants in open-plan offices are more likely to perceive thermal discomfort, poor air quality and noise and they more frequently complain about CNS and mucous membrane symptoms than occupants in multi......-person and cellular offices. The association between psychosocial factors and office size was weak. Open-plan offices may not be suited for all job types. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Open-plan offices may be a risk factor for adverse environmental perceptions and symptoms....

  12. Physical and psychological discomfort in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Veitch, J.A.; Newsham, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Office employees spend a lot of time inside buildings, where the physical conditions influence their well-being and indirectþ influence their employers' business performance. With data from a field study conducted in the Netherlands in April-May 2003, we used path analysis to further elucidate the

  13. A research on indoor environments of an office building by occupants' subjective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.W.; Kim, T.W.; Hong, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Since modern workers spend more than 80 per cent of their time in indoor environments, it is important to make a comfortable indoor environment in order to maintain occupational health and to improve work efficiency and productivity. Not only are new offices bigger than ever before, the internal heat and air are controlled by a central air conditioning system, which do not allow occupant control. This study evaluated indoor environments of office buildings in an effort to understand how the indoor environment influences work efficiency. The study involved the use of a survey questionnaire to obtain occupants' subjective evaluation of indoor working environments of an office building in terms of thermal comfort, lighting, noise and air quality. The survey results indicated that the indoor environment interrupts the work of many workers. Neck, eye, skin and nasal symptoms were found to be the symptoms most related to the indoor environment, with temperature and humidity posing the greatest challenge. 9 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Predicting DUI decisions in different legal environments: investigating deterrence with a conjoint experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Johnson, Mark B; Beck, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement practices and sanctions contribute differentially to the certainty, swiftness, and severity of punishment, which are the key components of general deterrence theory. This study used a conjoint experiment to understand the decision-making process of potential DUI offenders and tested how variation in enforcement and legal punishment affects drinking and driving decisions. It sought to verify and quantify the unique deterrent effects of certainty, severity, and swiftness and to predict the rates of drinking and driving in different legal environments. One hundred twenty-one college seniors and graduate students at the University of Maryland participated in the Web-based conjoint experiment. They were randomly assigned to 4 blocks, each of which included 9 hypothetical scenarios composed of different levels of DUI enforcement and penalties. Respondents were asked to state their likelihood of drinking and driving under each scenario, as well as their estimated chance of being caught by the police for DUI. Intensified enforcement, harsh jail penalty, and immediate long license suspension were found to be the strongest deterrents to drinking and driving. Alternative ways to get home were also important in reducing people's willingness to drive. These factors accounted for most of the attribute effect on the DUI decision, whereas delayed punishment due to judicial processing, fine penalty, and legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit had negligible effects. For the personal characteristics, college seniors and those who had previously driven after drinking were more likely to choose to drink and drive, whereas those who expect a jail penalty for a DUI offense were less likely to drive. Our research confirmed and quantified certainty of punishment as the greatest deterrent to DUI, but it also indicated the equally important effect of a severe jail penalty. It provides evidence on the feasibility of using a conjoint

  15. Legal instruments and proposals for acts of the European Communities relating to the protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1992-01-01

    The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilation as of July 15, 1985, November 1, 1986, December 1, 1988 and March 1, 1991. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de

  16. Problems and Tendencies of Development of Political and Legal Environment of Public-private Partnership in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альберт Илдусович Абдрахманов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study o/f political and legal terms for Public-Private Partnerships (PPP development while PPP becomes the issue of today for Russian political and social-economic life. The article covers particularly the analysis of the effective legislation of PPP at the federal and regional levels and appraisal of the current political trends regarding the development of legal partnership between the government and companies in the connection with the legislation. The author provides research especially of the prospects of the PPP federal Draft Law and reveals key specifics and problems of the legal environment of PPP in districts of the Russian Federation.

  17. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  18. REFLECTIONS ON PSYCHO-LEGAL PRACTICES IN THE TRIAGE OF THE PUBLIC DEFENDER’S OFFICE OF SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ghisleni de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we presented some developments of the doctoral research in which were studied psycho-legal encounters at the Defensoria Pública do Estado de São Paulo (Public Defender’s Office of the State of São Paulo, taking the experience of the Centros de Atendimento Multidisciplinar (Multidisciplinary Assistance Centers – CAMs, acronym in Portuguese as subject. Through a qualitative intervention-research methodology based on diaries and narrative construction, we have monitored professional practices involving the joint work of defenders, social workers and psychologists at the Public Defender’s Office, between 2011 and 2013. Here, we decided to focus on the triage, space where the first assistance to people who look for legal help is performed, which allowed us to get in contact with the management of requests and the way they become legal, non-legal and psycho-social demands. In order to do that, we used information from referral forms sent to a CAM in the years 2010 and 2011, along with situations experienced in the course of this research. The theoretical references of this study are Foucault’s thought and French Institutional Analysis. The triage showed that a traditional division between knowledges is utilized, which tends to (reproduce an “unintegrated” and disciplined legal assistance, providing a familialist mode of response to the problems presented by the population. However, mental health issues emerge as something that escapes divisions, producing shifts in the work process. We believe these ways of knowing-how-to-do generate a legal assistance that tends to be more oriented to comprehensive care, constituting an experience of thinking-knowing-doing between professions that does not submit to protocols and divisions already established.

  19. Humidification and perceived indoor air quality in the office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, L M; Aunela-Tapola, L; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of humidification on the odour, acceptability, and stuffiness of indoor air. METHODS: In a six period cross over trial at the Pasila Office Center, Helsinki, the air of two wings of the building in turn were ventilated with air of 30%-40% humidity. A third wing served as a non-humidified control area. The quality of indoor air was assessed weekly by a panel containing 18 to 23 members. The intraindividual differences in the ratings for odour, stuffiness, and acceptability between humidified and non-humidified wings were used to assess the effect of humidification. The roles of sex, current smoking, and age as potential effect modifiers were assessed by comparing the mean intraindividual differences in ratings between the groups. RESULTS: Humidified air was found to be more odorous and stuffy (paired t test P = 0.0001) and less acceptable than the non-humidified air (McNemar's test P humidification decreases the perceived air quality. This effect is strongest in women and young subjects. PMID:9196454

  20. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Langkilde, Gunnar; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of...... of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health and productivity.......The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University...

  1. Law in Translation: Challenges and Opportunities in Teaching International Students in Business Law and Legal Environment Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Laura R.; Bryant, Natalie P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the unique challenges faced by international students enrolled in business law or legal environment of business courses. It is also imperative to recognize the numerous opportunities that instructors can create in business law classrooms that will enhance the experience of all students given the…

  2. Occupant satisfaction with the acoustical environment : green office buildings before and after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Acoustics and Noise Research Group

    2009-07-01

    Sustainable architecture is meant to preserve the environment and conserve natural resources, as well as provide an environment for the occupants that promotes wellbeing and productivity. Occupants generally claim that the acoustical environment is the least satisfactory aspect of green office buildings. They are dissatisfied with excessive noise and poor speech privacy. This paper reported on the results of 2 studies of the acoustical environments in green office buildings before and after acoustical-control measures were installed. Acoustical quality was evaluated by occupant-satisfaction surveys and acoustical-parameter measurements. The first study, which involved 6 green office buildings, showed that buildings designed to obtain LEED ratings are unlikely to have satisfactory acoustical environments. A naturally-ventilated, green university building with a poor acoustical environment was examined in the second study. The results of this study suggest that improving acoustical environments in green buildings requires good acoustical design, with input from an acoustical specialist from the beginning of the design process. The design should consider site selection and building orientation; external envelope and penetrations in it; building layout and internal partitions; HVAC systems; appropriate dimensioning of spaces; and the amount and location of sound absorbing treatments. The study also showed that a building's energy efficiency, lighting, ventilation, air-quality and acoustics are interconnected, and that no aspect can be successfully designed in isolation. It was concluded that optimized engineering-control measures can improve poor acoustical environments. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  3. The Large Office Environment - Measurement and Modeling of the Wideband Radio Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Bauch, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    In a future 4G or WLAN wideband application we can imagine multiple users in a large office environment con-sisting of a single room with partitions. Up to now, indoor radio channel measurement and modelling has mainly concentrated on scenarios with several office rooms and corridors. We present...... here measurements at 5.8GHz for 100 MHz bandwidth and a novel modelling approach for the wideband radio channel in a large office room envi-ronment. An acoustic like reverberation theory is pro-posed that allows to specify a tapped delay line model just from the room dimensions and an average...... calculated from the measurements. The pro-posed model can likely also be applied to indoor hot spot scenarios....

  4. The slow elimination of legal protection in connection with the law on the protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geulen, R.

    1980-01-01

    The main cause of the reduction of legal protection against decisions under planning law and faits accomplis created during planning seems to stem from the practice adopted by those initiating and having an interest in projects, namely to prepare and somewhat anticipate the essential decisions long before government-controlle planning sets in. In fact, the licensing authorities which, according to their legal function, would have to check applications of operators with regard to licensing requirements, see themselves confined to follow a slow process of amalgamation with given, and, sometimes, factually executed planning decisions. In addition, the situation of the authorities regarding personnel and time does not allow them to carry out factual checking in its proper sense of, for example, licensing requirements for nuclear power plant construction. This process of amalgamation discussed by the author has an impact on the functions to be fulfilled by the courts, and on legal protection in general. The prognosis given by the author says that, due to this lack of efficient control by governmental authorities and courts especially in connection with the planning of large-scale projects likely to have an unfavourable effect on the environment, those persons or groups of persons feeling themselves insufficiently protected by the legal system, will more and more have recourse to political action rather than legal action. (orig.) [de

  5. Effects of the office environment on health and productivity 1: Auditory and visual distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, E. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of visual or auditory distraction in an office environment on productivity, concentration and emotion. Ten subjects performed a simple, standardized computer task in five conditions (undisturbed, 3 variations of auditory distraction and visual

  6. 75 FR 53017 - Office of the General Counsel; Appointment of Members of the Legal Division to the Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Division to the Performance Review Board, Internal Revenue Service Under the authority granted to me as... following persons to the Legal Division Performance Review Board, Internal Revenue Service Panel: 1.... Andrew Keyso, Deputy Associate Chief Counsel (Income Tax & Accounting) 5. Drita Tonuzi, Deputy Division...

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment in the marine environment: A comparison of legal frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Flávia; Grilo, Catarina; Pedroso, Nuno M.; Cabral, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established practice in most developed countries, even though its application to projects in the marine environment is at a much earlier stage of development. We use the Portuguese example to address marine EIA legislation since its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is currently the third largest in the European Union and its EIA legislation does not require various offshore activities with potentially negative environmental impacts to undergo EIA before being licensed. This paper aims to determine whether three types of projects implemented within Portuguese maritime zones – artificial reefs using sunken ships, hydrocarbon prospecting and wave-energy generation – would benefit from application of an appropriately designed EIA. We have conducted a structured review of EIA legal provisions from seven other countries, and considered whether a full EIA was required for each project type. Consequently, 12 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) have been compared to identify patterns of (dis)similarity across countries and project types. Additionally, we identified key descriptors and predicted impacts for each project type referred to in their EIS. The main conclusion is that ultimately all three projects would benefit from mandatory EIA in Portugal. This paper is relevant for countries with large maritime areas and underdeveloped marine EIA legislation, helping improve international policy-making relating to these three types of marine projects. - Highlights: • EIA is not mandatory for some project types developed in Portuguese maritime zones. • Artificial reefs, oil&gas prospecting and wave-energy licensing differ in 8 countries. • EIA should be mandatory in Portugal for artificial reefs and oil&gas prospecting. • However, an AEInc approach is enough for wave-energy projects in Portugal. • Findings could be extended to other EU countries with extensive maritime zones

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment in the marine environment: A comparison of legal frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Flávia, E-mail: f.c.diasguerra@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, 1500-124 Lisboa (Portugal); Grilo, Catarina [Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, 1500-124 Lisboa (Portugal); Pedroso, Nuno M. [Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica — CENA, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes — cE3c, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Henrique [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-11-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established practice in most developed countries, even though its application to projects in the marine environment is at a much earlier stage of development. We use the Portuguese example to address marine EIA legislation since its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is currently the third largest in the European Union and its EIA legislation does not require various offshore activities with potentially negative environmental impacts to undergo EIA before being licensed. This paper aims to determine whether three types of projects implemented within Portuguese maritime zones – artificial reefs using sunken ships, hydrocarbon prospecting and wave-energy generation – would benefit from application of an appropriately designed EIA. We have conducted a structured review of EIA legal provisions from seven other countries, and considered whether a full EIA was required for each project type. Consequently, 12 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) have been compared to identify patterns of (dis)similarity across countries and project types. Additionally, we identified key descriptors and predicted impacts for each project type referred to in their EIS. The main conclusion is that ultimately all three projects would benefit from mandatory EIA in Portugal. This paper is relevant for countries with large maritime areas and underdeveloped marine EIA legislation, helping improve international policy-making relating to these three types of marine projects. - Highlights: • EIA is not mandatory for some project types developed in Portuguese maritime zones. • Artificial reefs, oil&gas prospecting and wave-energy licensing differ in 8 countries. • EIA should be mandatory in Portugal for artificial reefs and oil&gas prospecting. • However, an AEInc approach is enough for wave-energy projects in Portugal. • Findings could be extended to other EU countries with extensive maritime zones.

  9. Local bureaucrats as bricoleurs. The everyday implementation practices of county environment officers in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Funder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bricolage in natural resource governance takes place through the interplay of a variety of actors. This article explores the practices of a group whose agency as bricoleurs has received little attention, namely the government officers who represent the state in the everyday management of water, land, forests and other resources across rural Africa. Specifically we examine how local Environment Officers in Taita Taveta County in Kenya go about implementing the national environmental law on the ground, and how they interact with communities in this process. As representatives of “the local state”, the Environment Officers occupy an ambiguous position in which they are expected to implement lofty laws and policies with limited means and in a complex local reality. In response to this they employ three key practices, namely (i working through personal networks, (ii tailoring informal agreements, and (iii delegating public functions and authority to civil society. As a result, the environmental law is to a large extent implemented through a blend of formal and informal rules and governance arrangements, produced through the interplay of the Environment Officers, communities and other local actors.

  10. Occupant Responses and Office Work Performance in Environments with Moderately Drifting Operative Temperatures (RP-1269)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    of 21.4°C (70.5°F) (for 6 h) were examined. Subjects assessed their thermal sensation, acceptability of the thermal environment, perceived air quality, and intensity of sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms. Subjects’ performance was measured by simulated office work, including tasks such as addition...... found, while intensity of headache, concentration ability, and general well-being were significantly affected in most of the ramps. Linear dependence of perceived air quality on operative temperature was noted. No significantly consistent effects of individual temperature ramps on office work...... performance were found....

  11. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  12. Employees' satisfaction as influenced by acoustic and visual privacy in the open office environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Maureen Jeanette

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employees' acoustic and visual privacy issues and their perceived satisfaction in their open office work environments while in focus work mode. The study examined the Science Teaching Student Services Building at the University of Minnesota Minneapolis. The building houses instructional classrooms and administrative offices that service UMN students. The Sustainable Post-Occupancy Evaluation Survey was used to collect data on overall privacy conditions, acoustic and visual privacy conditions, and employees' perceived privacy conditions while in their primary workplace. Paired T-tests were used to analyze the relationships between privacy conditions and employees' perceptions of privacy. All hypotheses are supported indicating that the privacy variables are correlated to the employees' perception of satisfaction within the primary workplace. The findings are important because they can be used to inform business leaders, designers, educators and future research in the field of office design.

  13. Legal Environment Against Online Identity Theft: Comparative Analysis of USA’s and Lithuania’s Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet and e-commerce has taken identity theft to new levels. Indeed, consumers, financial institutions and the whole economic suffer from online identity theft. This article analyses the legal environment which is concerned with online identity theft. The analysis is based on the comparison of two countries—USA’s and Lithuania’s— legislation, regulating such fields as personal data protection, electronic information security, identification, criminal liability and special legal acts, regulating online identity theft, because if all these fields are sufficiently regulated, the fight with online identity theft is more successful. The choice of the countries is based on the fact that USA has experience in fighting online identity theft while Lithuania is taken into a deeper consideration as it is a member of the European Union, the legal system of which has great differences in comparison to the USA. The analysis of legislation, regulating personal data protection, is based on comparison of the main requirements and principles of personal data protection, institutions which are responsible for personal data protection and liability for breaches of personal data protection rules. The authors of the present article also present similarities and differences of legal regulation of electronic information security in USA and Lithuania by comparing the institutional control of information security, main requirements for information security and liability for breaches of information security rules. Also, the variety of personal identity documents in the USA and Lithuania is analyzed, main personal identity documents are presented as well as regulation of online identity theft, elements and types of identification online are discussed. Moreover, criminal and special legislation of USA and Lithuania is taken into consideration in order to discuss and compare criminalization aspects of online identity theft. In this article it is

  14. An Empirical Path-Loss Model for Wireless Channels in Indoor Short-Range Office Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel empirical path-loss model for wireless indoor short-range office environment at 4.3–7.3 GHz band is presented. The model is developed based on the experimental datum sampled in 30 office rooms in both line of sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS scenarios. The model is characterized as the path loss to distance with a Gaussian random variable X due to the shadow fading by using linear regression. The path-loss exponent n is fitted by the frequency using power function and modeled as a frequency-dependent Gaussian variable as the standard deviation σ of X. The presented works should be available for the research of wireless channel characteristics under universal indoor short-distance environments in the Internet of Things (IOT.

  15. Embedded Advertising on Television: Classic Legal Environment and Business Law Content "Brought to You by ..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Rita Marie

    2010-01-01

    Students are familiar with some or all depictions of branded products in popular television shows. But they probably have no idea the number of legal and public policy issues these product appearances are generating. This article explains how embedded advertising in television shows can be the attention-grabbing vehicle for teaching numerous…

  16. A New Paradigm for the Teaching of Business Law and Legal Environment Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Marc

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to develop curriculum and materials on law-related topics better designed for business students planning a career in business. Except incidentally, business school legal faculty are not teaching future lawyers or paralegals. The world of the business practitioner is very different from that of the lawyer. For most business people…

  17. Legal environment and operation of general aviation aerodromes – the overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk JAFERNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of general aviation aerodromes in Poland are regulated by more than 20 national and international legal acts. Knowledge about air law and its application ensures safe operations and flights at aerodromes and airfields. This paper summarizes source of law for general aviation and associated with its development strategies and reports. In the development of general aviation important role play small aerodromes, which are a “meeting point” for air transport sector and local economy, increase investments and tourism attractiveness of the region as well as are "meaningful way for the development of the region". Despite this, there is no legal act comprehensively regulating the issue of financial support for investment at important local aerodromes.

  18. Legal standards concerning health and ecological implications of radioactively contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    The author decided to explore legal standards in this paper because they are to only norms but also representations or levels of requirements, excellence or attainment. They thus present a way to look at things, to measure them against others, and to set goals for them. In other words, legal standards, whether in legislation are a part of agency requirements, set goals for getting the job done and then can be used as measures about whether or not it is getting done right. When dealing with the multifaceted problems before us, it is important to put it into perspective. We need to look at it from many points of view but with a stable focus-just as one looks through a microscope or a telescope with different magnifications and fields of vision. To have a point of vie, however, both the experts and the general public need to have some way to judge issues. One way they can do so is to use legal standards

  19. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-04-25

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  20. The Hungarian Energy Office view of the legal and regulatory framework for the gas and electricity industry in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, I.

    1996-01-01

    Based on its administrative structure, Hungary has chosen a method for creating the new energy acts which will regulate the system of state control on gas and electric energy supplies by establishing a governmental administrative organisation of the national competence. The regulations cover the overall process of exploration and production, construction and operation of transport pipelines. Pricing regulation divide the energy products into two categories: products with liberated prices (coal, liquid hydrocarbons, PB-gas, firewood), and products with prices set by the authorities (electric energy, natural gas, thermal energy) besides establishing and/or preparing rules for energy pricing and price application the task of the Hungarian Energy Office consists of issuing licences for: gas supply and sales, production, transport and supply of electric energy, establishment of power plants

  1. LEGAL ENVIRONMENT FOR B2B CROSS-BORDER SALES BETWEEN CISG AND CESL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the Proposal for a Regulation on a Common European Sales Law (CESL is to establish “a comprehensive set of uniform contract law rules covering the whole life -cycle of a contract” In the field of B2B transaction, the CESL, a regional legal provision, seems to bear several similarities with the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG of 1980. This paper will examine the relationship between both legal instrument for uniformisation of sales law at regional and global leve l. Thus, it will compare the provisions regarding the major aspects of the commercial sale contract, such as: the objectives, the scope of application, the formation of contract, the rights and obligations of the parties, and the conflict of laws problem, as well. In the end, it will be analyzed whether the CESL offer better solutions than those already found in the CISG in order to stimulate the cross-border sales.

  2. Legal Environment Against Online Identity Theft: Comparative Analysis of USA’s and Lithuania’s Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Pakutinskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The growth of the Internet and e-commerce has taken identity theft to new levels. Indeed, consumers, financial institutions and the whole economic suffer from online identity theft. This article analyses the legal environment which is concerned with online identity theft. The analysis is based on the comparison of two countries—USA’s and Lithuania’s— legislation, regulating such fields as personal data protection, electronic information security, identification, criminal liability and special legal acts, regulating online identity theft, because if all these fields are sufficiently regulated, the fight with online identity theft is more successful. The choice of the countries is based on the fact that USA has experience in fighting online identity theft while Lithuania is taken into a deeper consideration asit is a member of the European Union, the legal system of which has great differences in comparison to the USA. The analysis of legislation, regulating personal data protection, is based on comparison of the main requirements and principles of personal data protection, institutions which are responsible for personal data protection and liability for breaches of personal data protection rules. The authors of the present article also present similarities and differences of legal regulation of electronic information security in USA and Lithuania by comparing the institutional control of information security, main requirements for information security and liability for breaches of information security rules. Also, the variety of personal identity documents in the USA and Lithuania is analyzed, main personal identity documents are presented as well as regulation of online identity theft, elements and types of identification online are discussed. Moreover, criminal and special legislation of USA and Lithuania is taken into consideration in order to discuss and compare criminalization aspects of online identity theft.In this article

  3. The cause of divorce among men and women referred to marriage and legal office in Qazvin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Ebrahim, Sarichlow Mohamad; Navid, Mohammadi

    2012-08-27

    Marital separation and divorce can be the most unpleasant event in the adult's life, and families will be hurt by divorce event. The prevalence of divorce has been increased in last decades. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the divorce cause among the divorce seeking men and women in Qazvin, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 572 (400 women and 172 men) subjects who requested for divorce and were referred to divorce and marriage office of Qazvin province during 3 month in 2009. Data were collected by self - administered questionnaire, interviewing subjects and using Likert scale. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square test and Mann-Whitney (SPSS version 16). The participants of the study included 400 women (26.5 ± 7.4 years) and 172 men. In view points of women the primary wrong mate selection was main cause of divorce (59.8%), but the men believed that the families and relatives interference was the main reason for separation (43.7%). Among the respondents, mean score of "dependency to their families" and "unmet emotional needs" were 3.44 ± 1.6 and 3.86 ± 1.4 respectively. In addition mean score of infertility among men and women were 1.37 ± 1.0 and 1.29 ± 0.9 respectively. Wrong mate selection, unmet emotional needs, families' interference, and "dependency to families" are more important factors than traditional factors which are sexual or physical factors.

  4. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  5. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Sakellaris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality, and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index, and building characteristics (office type and building’s location. Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  6. [Number of suicides in Spain: differences between data from the Spanish Statistical Office and the Institutes of Legal Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Lucas; Guija, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    To be able to prevent suicides, The exact magnitude of suicides must be known in order to prevent them. There is evidence that data provided on the number of suicides by the Spanish Statistical Office (Instituto Nacional de Estadística [INE]) differs from that identified by forensic pathologists. This paper aims to determine whether the INE data are to the same as those recorded by the agencies responsible for conducting autopsies in Spain (IML), and calculate the number of missing cases. IML were requested to provide the number of suicides in a five year period (2006-2010) and this was compared with those offered by INE in its site. A new rate of suicides per 100,000 was obtained and used to calculate the number of suicides in Spain. For every year of the studied period, the number of suicides reported by the INE was lower than that obtained directly from the IML. Using the highest annual suicide rate registered by province and the total, a count was obtained of identified suicides that for some reason had not been recorded in the INE or the IML data. Based on these figures, the mean rate of suicides per 100,000 was 0.97 (SD 0.10) higher than official INE data, which indicates a mean loss of 443.86 (SD 46.72) cases reported each year. Possible factors that may influence the missing recorded cases are discussed. According to the results, there is a discrepancy between INE and IML about the number of suicides in Spain. Neither of the two sources can be considered more reliable than the other. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. The Cause of Divorce among Men and Women Referred to Marriage and Legal Office in Qazvin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Ebrahim, Sarichlow Mohamad; Navid, Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marital separation and divorce can be the most unpleasant event in the adult’s life, and families will be hurt by divorce event. The prevalence of divorce has been increased in last decades. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the divorce cause among the divorce seeking men and women in Qazvin, Iran. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 572 (400 women and 172 men) subjects who requested for divorce and were referred to divorce and marriage office of Qazvin province during 3 month in 2009. Data were collected by self – administered questionnaire, interviewing subjects and using Likert scale. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square test and Mann-Whitney (SPSS version 16). Results: The participants of the study included 400 women (26.5±7.4 years) and 172 men. In view points of women the primary wrong mate selection was main cause of divorce (59.8%), but the men believed that the families and relatives interference was the main reason for separation (43.7%). Among the respondents, mean score of “dependency to their families” and “unmet emotional needs” were 3.44±1.6 and 3.86±1.4 respectively. In addition mean score of infertility among men and women were 1.37±1.0 and 1.29±0.9 respectively. Conclusion: Wrong mate selection, unmet emotional needs, families’ interference, and “dependency to families” are more important factors than traditional factors which are sexual or physical factors. PMID:22980391

  8. Legal instruments and proposals for acts of the European Communities relating to the protection of the environment. As of May 12, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1993-01-01

    The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilations. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de

  9. Ensuring Access to Safe, Legal Abortion in an Increasingly Complex Regulatory Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Maureen; Norton, Mary E

    2016-07-01

    Restrictions on access to abortion in the United States have reached proportions unprecedented since the nationwide legalization of abortion in 1973. Although some restrictions aim to discourage women from having abortions, many others impede access by affecting the timeliness, affordability, or availability of services. Evidence indicates that these restrictions do not increase abortion safety; rather, they create logistic barriers for women seeking abortion, and they have the greatest effect on women with the fewest resources. In this commentary, we recall the important role that obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) have played, both before and after Roe v. Wade, in facilitating access to safe abortion care. Using the literature on abortion safety and access as a foundation, we propose several practical ideas about what we as ob-gyns can do to address the current threat to abortion access, whether or not we provide abortion services in practice. We hope that this commentary will encourage discourse within our profession and prompt other suggestions. As ob-gyns who are dedicated to addressing health disparities and promoting the health and well-being of our patients, we can make a difference.

  10. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  11. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air...... with the temperature of 25°C. PV improved thermal conditions and was up to nearly 10 times more efficient in delivering clean air at workstations than mixing ventilation systems, which resulted in strong protection of occupants from the cross-infection. In the room space outside workstations no substantial differences...

  12. Too hot to carry on? Disinclination to persist at a task in a warm office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syndicus, Marc; Wiese, Bettina S; van Treeck, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of an elevated ambient temperature on performance in a persistence task. The task involved the coding of incorrect symbols and participants were free to decide how long to spend performing this task. Applying a between-subject design, we tested 125 students in an office-like environment in one of the three temperature conditions. The comfort condition (Predicted Mean Vote [PMV] = 0.01) featured an average air temperature of 24 °C. The elevated ambient temperature condition was 28 °C (PMV = 1.17). Condition three employed an airstream of approximately 0.8 m/s, intended to compensate for performance decrements at the elevated air temperature (28 °C, PMV = 0.13), according to Fanger's thermal comfort equation. Participants in the warm condition were significantly less persistent compared with participants in the control and compensation conditions. As predicted by the thermal comfort equation, the airstream seemed to compensate for the higher temperature. Participants' persistence in the compensation and comfort conditions did not differ. Practitioner Summary: A laboratory experiment involving a simulated office environment and three ambient temperature conditions (24 °C, 28 °C and 28 °C plus airstream) showed that persistence at a task is significantly impaired at 28 °C. An airstream of 0.8 m/s at 28 °C compensated for the disinclination to persist with the task.

  13. [Surveillance groups and occupational phisicians for prevention and security in work environment: legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, A

    2006-01-01

    Italian jurisdiction, since the setting up of the Republic in 1948, has experienced a real and proper Copernican revolution, not only in the field of prevention of accidents and safety at work, which has meant that at the centre of the system there is no longer a State-finality but the individual person, in the form of inviolable rights that the Democratic Republic-vehicle recognises and guarantees in every place, including all places of occupation. To this end the entrepreneur/employer has become the guarantor of the health of his employees through a complex series of laws and regulations that imposes the adoption of safety measures on an individual, general and organizational level in the company. This guarantee has been reinforced by bringing in penalties for all those evasions or violations of these obligations of the entrepreneur/employer. The centralizing of the culture of prevention has meant that all the controls converge on the judicial police, with the head of the surveillance bodies having the status of officer of the judicial police, and with the adoption of regulations that follow the code of criminal procedures, which, while being binding for the same surveillance bodies is also a guarantee in respecting the right to be defended of the entrepreneur/employer.

  14. The Future Security Environment: Why the U.S. Army Must Differentiate and Grow Millennial Officer Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and M. Epstein, “ Millennials and the World of Work: An Organizational and Management Perspective,” Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 25, 2010...Why the U.S. Army Must Differentiate and Grow Millennial Officer Talent FOR THIS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS, VISIT US AT http://www.carlisle.army.mil...SUBTITLE The Future Security Environment: Why the U.S. Army Must Differentiate and Grow Millennial Officer Talent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Augmented and virtual reality in surgery—the digital surgical environment: applications, limitations and legal pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Chan, Adrian; Patel, Ketan; Wong, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The continuing enhancement of the surgical environment in the digital age has led to a number of innovations being highlighted as potential disruptive technologies in the surgical workplace. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are rapidly becoming increasingly available, accessible and importantly affordable, hence their application into healthcare to enhance the medical use of data is certain. Whether it relates to anatomy, intraoperative surgery, or post-operative rehabilitation, applications are already being investigated for their role in the surgeons armamentarium. Here we provide an introduction to the technology and the potential areas of development in the surgical arena. PMID:28090510

  16. Legal Regulation for Risk in the Work Environment and Bullying at work

    OpenAIRE

    大和田, 敢太

    2009-01-01

    In Belgium, protection for workers from bullying, violence and moral or sexual harassment at work is regulated by the law of June 16, 2007 in the more general framework of prevention of the psychosocial load caused by work. At the same time, it is treated from the point of view of a risk in the work environment. With regard to definitions, violence at work is defined as all situations in which a person is threatened or attacked psychologically or hysically during performance of their duties. ...

  17. Augmented and virtual reality in surgery-the digital surgical environment: applications, limitations and legal pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Wee Sim; Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Chan, Adrian; Patel, Ketan; Wong, Jason

    2016-12-01

    The continuing enhancement of the surgical environment in the digital age has led to a number of innovations being highlighted as potential disruptive technologies in the surgical workplace. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are rapidly becoming increasingly available, accessible and importantly affordable, hence their application into healthcare to enhance the medical use of data is certain. Whether it relates to anatomy, intraoperative surgery, or post-operative rehabilitation, applications are already being investigated for their role in the surgeons armamentarium. Here we provide an introduction to the technology and the potential areas of development in the surgical arena.

  18. [The notion of conflict of interest in the field of health and environment: philosophical and legal approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermitte, M-A; Le Coz, P

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the conflict of interest in philosophical and legal perspective. The philosophical approach comes from two perspectives: political philosophy focuses on the role of the link of interest in the city considered in the light of a broader reflection on the conditions of living together. Antiquity philosophers have enhanced the interest link as privileged vector of humanization and socialization of individuals. In the eighteenth century, Adam Smith considers the pursuit of individual interests a stronger social base that love of neighbor advocated by Christians. Moral philosophy focuses specifically on the passage of interest linked to the conflict of interest. It wondered if we should be impartial in all circumstances or whether it's right to give priority to our friends and loved ones. Thus, it poses the question of whether introspection is sufficient to detect conflicts of interest or if the look of an external third party is still required. The legal process differs from the philosophical approach at two levels; on the one hand, its scope is more limited: the law doesn't envisage the benefits of links of interest on social life even though it may protect some of them (in the context of the family, for example) and is intended to prevent bias that may taint the decision public. On the other hand, the lawyer doesn't enter the interiority of individuals but stands by what appears on the outside: it tracks the suspicion of bias can have serious impacts, such as health and the environment. Somehow, it is more radical. It's noteworthy that despite its many developments, the law can't to stop conflicts of interest in research. Several reasons account for this impasse: scientists receive mission to partner with industry to develop products but they must remain independent in order to assess the risks; there is a tendency to always choose the same experts; there are conflicts of interest intellectuals which are not easy to detect.

  19. Integrating environment into land-use planning through strategic environmental assessment in China: Towards legal frameworks and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Tang; Tan Zhu; He Xu

    2007-01-01

    China currently put forwards 'striving to build an environmentally friendly society' as one of the most important development goals. The land administration authorities are facing the challenge of effectively incorporating environment considerations into their planning system. This paper aims to investigate why and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is enacted as an effective tool to integrate the environment into land-use planning during the construction process of an environmentally friendly society in China, and identify factors that influence the integration. It presents characteristics of the land-use planning system, and reviews the progress and current state of SEA in China. Results show that SEA provides many benefits in promoting environmental considerations into the land-use planning process. The legal frameworks and operational procedures, in the context of land-use master planning SEA, are summarized and an assessment made of their effectiveness. Some barriers are highlighted through examination of the latest case studies, and several recommendations are presented to overcome these obstacles

  20. Democracy, Participation and Citizenship : A Fundamental Value Trídua to Tutela Legal Environment Ecologically Balanced in Iberoamericano Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Patrícia Fuller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the triad and conceptual discussions related among democracy, participation and citizenship in front of an ecologically balanced environment, enshrining the idea that their definitions include multifaceted aspects, interrelated, interdependent and indispensable for the legal protection by itself. The development topic begins with the concept of democracy (equal opportunities in its different aspect to be submitted in the environmental context; subsequently the study referred to in a logical and sequential order the issue with regard to the participation of the environment, characterized as an essential factor of democracy; and also encompass to the right of information, and the right to defense plans, projects and environmental programs as part of the collective. It’s means as an important guide for the practice of citizenship, which it’s one of the constitutional foundations, of principle for dignity of the human person, and the responsibility that every human being possesses. In this range, and finally, the study raises the question about the environmental governance as a measurement of instrumentation, the participation and citizenship in a democratic state with rule of law.

  1. Sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers in a Malaysian university--Associations with atopy, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fang-Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Md Said, Salmiah; Than, Leslie Thian-Lung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-12-01

    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The legal and regulatory framework relative to safety and environment in the uranium mines in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahamane, S.

    2001-01-01

    The mining sector holds an important position in Niger economy. Considerable funds have been invested for the promotion, exploration and exploitation of mineral resources since the colonial period. This has resulted in the discovery of numerous deposits among which are those of uranium. Today, uranium represents more than 3/4 of Niger export revenues. The mining sector is supervised by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. The Ministry applies the mining policy as defined by the government. It elaborates legislative and regulatory texts and sees to their implementation. Regarding uranium, mining activities have been governed since 1961 by various orientation laws and implementation decrees. However, to face up to the harmful consequences on national economy of successive drops of price and sales of its major export product, and taking into account the new international requirements relating to economy globalization and sustainable development, Niger set up a diversification strategy of its mining productions as part of which a new mining code particularly incentive has been established in 1993. The new mining code provides significant advantages to investors. These advantages insure them a great cost effectiveness of their investments in Niger and easy and less onerous respect of regulations regarding safety and protection of environment. Tremendous efforts have been, thus, provided by the IAEA, the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the uranium companies for an optimal protection of workers and the public, especially against the hazards of ionizing radiations. This will to improve the situation has resulted in the adoption of several laws and their application decrees as well as various sectorial laws designed by various Ministry departments concerned with environmental issues and risks prevention. Among these texts are the renewal of the order No 31 M/MH which has defined since 1979 the main axis of the Niger regulations as regards to radioprotection and the design of

  3. Teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act to Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Undergraduate Students through a Role-Play Experiential Learning Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Konrad S.; Thue, Matthew I.

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with a description of a role-play exercise for teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) to an introductory Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Law (Business Law) undergraduate class. It goes on to provide the context for consumer debt in the United States. Next, the problems of debt collection are…

  4. BLOND, a building-level office environment dataset of typical electrical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno

    2018-03-27

    Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles. We provide voltage and current readings for aggregated circuits and matching fully-labeled ground truth data (individual appliance measurements). The dataset contains 53 appliances (16 classes) in a 3-phase power grid. BLOND-50 contains 213 days of measurements sampled at 50kSps (aggregate) and 6.4kSps (individual appliances). BLOND-250 consists of the same setup: 50 days, 250kSps (aggregate), 50kSps (individual appliances). These are the longest continuous measurements at such high sampling rates and fully-labeled ground truth we are aware of.

  5. BLOND, a building-level office environment dataset of typical electrical appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno

    2018-03-01

    Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles. We provide voltage and current readings for aggregated circuits and matching fully-labeled ground truth data (individual appliance measurements). The dataset contains 53 appliances (16 classes) in a 3-phase power grid. BLOND-50 contains 213 days of measurements sampled at 50kSps (aggregate) and 6.4kSps (individual appliances). BLOND-250 consists of the same setup: 50 days, 250kSps (aggregate), 50kSps (individual appliances). These are the longest continuous measurements at such high sampling rates and fully-labeled ground truth we are aware of.

  6. A maker-community-friendly implementation of a smart and green office environment: Lessons learned

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available previously untested (again, by ourselves) concepts and technologies, our learning from the first design iteration proved to be of significant value. Both design iterations incorporate a combination of an Arduino Uno [11] and a Raspberry Pi [12... into the office. Sensing the state of the office door, the office window, and the presence of a person within the office is simple: By wiring three sensors that each sends one of two signals levels to an Arduino Uno circuit, we can independently detect whether...

  7. Transit Officer Training Recommendations to Improve Safety in a High Stress Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Christine; Quin, Robyn; Green, Lelia; Bahn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the experience of one of the authors, an ethnographic researcher who, in the course of her investigation into the everyday work and communication cultures of Australian public transport officers, spent 12 weeks undergoing training as a rail transit officer before spending four months on the job where she was rostered on duty…

  8. Daylight artificial light and people in an office environment, overview of visual and biological responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begemann, S.H.A.; Beld, van den G.J.; Tenner, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Long-term behaviour/response of people has been studied in standard window zone offices during daytime working hours. Regular cell-offices were equipped with experimental lighting systems delivering lighting conditions that are known to influence human physiology. The results show that most

  9. [Risk for environment-induced diseases due to air pollution from motor vehicles in road-patrol officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlichenko, K Iu; Kas'ianenko, A A; Shchelkunova, I G; Grechko, A V

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes risk factors for environment-induced diseases in road-patrol (RP) officers under the existing working conditions: noise and chemical ambient air pollution from motor vehicles. There is evidence for a significant increase in the incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous system, sense organs, digestive and endocrine metabolic systems in the State Road Safety Inspectorate officers who are directly engaged in traffic management. Potential and real risks from motor transport to the health of RP roads have been estimated. Recommendations on optimizing the working conditions are given.

  10. A Phenomenological Study of the Office Environments of Clinical Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jamie K

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and uses of the office space among licensed clinical social workers in private practice. Previous research suggests the importance of the office space in clinical practice in regard to therapeutic alliance, client behavior, and the well-being of the therapist. However, therapist offices contain much variation in design. This study looked further into specifically how the therapy room is important through the perspective of the licensed clinical social workers in order to identify common themes. Seven licensed clinical social workers in private psychotherapy practice were interviewed in their offices. Phenomenological research methods were used to explore and analyze their experiences. While the offices contained many physical differences, the intentions behind the designs were similar. Three themes emerged regarding how participants used and designed their spaces. First, participants used their offices to provide care for clients and themselves. Second, participants used their spaces to communicate therapeutic messages and to reveal and/or conceal aspects of themselves. Third, participants also used their space in direct practice. This phenomenological study provided insight into the importance and use of the psychotherapy office space. These findings may be helpful for therapists designing or redesigning their own practice spaces.

  11. Inaccessible Built Environments in Ghana’s Universities: The Bane of a Weak Legal and Regulatory Framework for Persons with Disabilities 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tiah Bugri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative study of the role of the legal and regulatory framework in making built environments accessible to Persons with Disabilities in six universities in Ghana. It revealed that the local component of legislation dealing with accessible environments was fragile and fraught with compliance challenges, administrative laxity and the lack of a time conscious approach to issues thereby resulting in inaccessible built environments. In effect, the study gives credence to the proposition of the social model that disability is a creation of humankind and recommends an amendment of Ghana’s Persons with Disability Act.

  12. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Alfven, Tobias; Rugg, Deborah; Peersman, Greet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention to the negative effects of structural barriers on HIV efforts is increasing. Reviewing national legal and policy environments with attention to the international human rights commitments of states is a means of assessing and providing focus for addressing these barriers to effective HIV responses. Methods Law and policy data from the 171 countries reporting under the Declaration of Commitment from the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS were analyzed to assess attention to human rights in national legal and policy environments as relevant to the health and rights of key populations such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men and sex workers. Results Seventy-eight governments and civil society in 106 countries report the existence of laws and policies which present obstacles to accessing HIV services for key populations. Laws and policies which positively affect access to HIV-related services, in and of themselves constituting structural interventions, were also reported. The dissonance between laws and how this impacts the availability and use of HIV-related services deserve greater attention. Conclusions Recognition of the harms inherent in laws that constitute structural barriers to effective HIV responses and the potential positive role that a supportive legal environment can play suggests the need for legal reform to ensure an enabling regulatory framework within which HIV services can be effectively delivered and used by the populations who need them. Moving beyond laws and policies, further efforts are required to determine how to capture information on the range of structural barriers. Teasing apart the impact of different barriers, as well as the structural interventions put in place to address them, remains complicated. Capturing the impact of policy and legal interventions can ultimately support governments and civil society to ensure the human rights of key populations are protected in

  13. Human subjects’ perception of indoor environment and their office work performance during exposures to moderate operative temperature ramps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the presented research work was to study the effects of moderate operative temperature drifts on human thermal comfort, perceived air quality, intensity of SBS symptoms and office work performance. Experimental subjects (52, 50% female) were seated in a climatic chamber and exposed....... A linear relation between perceived air quality and temperature (enthalpy) was found. No significant consistent effect of individual temperature ramps on office work performance was found. Increasing operative temperature appeared to slightly decrease speed of addition and text typing regardless the slope...... sensation was also included. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding perception of the environment and intensity of SBS symptoms. Subjects performed simulated office tasks (addition, text typing, proof reading, comprehension and reasoning). Results showed that all tested ramps were recognized...

  14. Energy Analysis of Multi-Function Devices in an Office Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of an effort to monitor electricity usage by plug loads in a new high performance office building, plug load management devices were deployed to enable data...

  15. USMC Contingency Contracting Force: An Analysis of Transient Officers in a Rapidly Changing Acquisition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and skills needed to manage the department’s acquisition system” (2008, p. 268). Relating back to the CCF, an overpopulation of lieutenant colonels...an individual task. Officers should subsequently be deployed in real world operations based upon the levels of technical competency they have...therefore, officers that transfer to the ECP need to be engaged in real- world operations as soon as possible to retain the skills obtained during

  16. Thermal Comfort in Simulated Office Environment with Four Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Mustakallio, Panu; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    with overhead mixing ventilation (MVRC). Whole body thermal sensation (TS) and whole body TS acceptability under the four systems in a simulated office room for one hour exposure were collected. The simulated two-man office (4.12 x 4.20 x 2.89 m, L x W x H) was kept at 26 oC room air temperature. Moderate heat...... to “neutral” compared to male, whose votes were closer to the “slightly warm” thermal sensation. The whole body TS acceptability was rated close to ''clearly acceptable'' (EN 15251-2007) and was independent of subject's gender for all tested systems....

  17. The influence of dry eye and office environment on visual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, M.A.; Kort, Helianthe; Murphy, P.; Evans, K.; Sik-Lányi, C.; Hoogerwerf, E.-J.; Miesenberger, K.; Cudd, P.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as high airflow and low relative humidity, are known to promote dry eye symptoms during reading tasks in office workers. These symptoms are associated with an adverse impact on daily activities at work. This study reports on the relationship between eye symptoms and

  18. Factors defining face-to-face interruptions in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matysiak, A.J.; Markopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an on-going investigation on interruptions in the office caused by face-to-face interactions between knowledge workers. The study aims to identify opportunities for interactive solutions that will support both, the interrupters and the interrupted. The study involves contextual

  19. A 3D visualization approach for process training in office environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aysolmaz, Banu; Brown, Ross; Bruza, Peter; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Process participants need to learn how to perform in the context of their business processes. Process training is challenging due to cognitive difficulties in relating process model elements to real world concepts. In this paper we present a 3D VirtualWorld (VW) process training approach for office

  20. Satisfying light conditions: a field study on perception of consensus light in Dutch open office environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chraibi, S.; Lashina, T.A.; Shrubsole, P.; Aries, M.B.C.; van Loenen, E.J.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace innovation has been changing the European office landscape into mostly open spaces, where enhanced interaction between people is combined by efficient use of space. However, challenges are found in offering individual preferred conditions in these multi-user spaces, especially when dealing

  1. Tomorrow's offices through today's eyes: effects of innovation in the working environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Vos, PGJC

    2002-01-01

    Many organisations have changed to new ways of working, steered or followed up by design interventions and sharing of activity related workplaces. Expectations have been high. Innovative offices should lead to more efficient use of space and other facilities; greater job satisfaction; the projection

  2. Multiuser MIMO Channel Measurements and Performance in a Large Office Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauch, Gerhard; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Guthy, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We consider a multiuser MIMO-OFDMA scheme which exploits multiuser diversity in all dimensions: time, frequency and space. The main contribution of this paper is the evaluation and explanation of multiuser MIMO in a real world scenario, i.e. a large office room, based on measured channels. We rep...

  3. Compliance officers and legal advisers in power supply companies. interactions between compliance, risk management and the employer-employee relationship; Compliance-Beauftragte und Justitiare in EVU. Wechselwirkungen von Compliance, Risikomanagement und Arbeitsverhaeltnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Juergen [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Ralf; Bussmann, Sandra [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    An inevitable task of any employee who has been appointed compliance officer, head of the legal department or internal auditor is to ensure that the company is protected against detriment through breaches of law or regulations. Another of his or her tasks, however, and one which might not be as obvious, is to ensure that parties outside the company are protected against detriment through his or her own employer. In order to deal appropriately with these and related questions some basic considerations on the necessity and function of compliance surveillance and its relationship with risk management must first be made. Using two significant court decisions for illustration the authors make a close examination of the liability issues involved in this area of potential conflict. They identify some salient points which should be considered in framing the contractual relationship between a compliance officer and his or her employer.

  4. The pursuit of the rule of law within a pluri-legal environment: Female circumcision—a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    In nations where state law is in conflict with traditional or customary law, significant issues can arise regarding the implementation of and adherence to national laws. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon within the context of legal pluralism is likely to reduce some of this conflict and

  5. Remote online ergonomic assessment in the office environment as compared to face-to-face ergonomic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Levy; Ribak, Joseph; Badihi, Yehuda

    2012-01-01

    remote online ergonomic assessment in the office environment as compared to face-to-face ergonomic assessment and examination of the applicability of remote online ergonomic assessment to office workers. 40 employees from a large Israeli hi-tech company were ergonomically assessed per the University of California computer usage checklist, according to the two assessment types (face-to-face and remote). An additional Ergonomist "assessor 2" examined the credibility of the process. Research hypothesis 1 was verified: 21 out of 22 questions (95.45%) from the checklist indicated compatibility between "assessor 1" to the "Gold Standard" at an 80% level. Research hypothesis 2: examining the credibility between the assessors with regard to remote assessment. This hypothesis was partially verified, the correlation between the assessors was measured at 0.54. Research hypothesis 3: examining the extent of deviation of natural posture between distal body parts assessment (distant from the center of the body) and proximal body parts (close to the center of the body). This hypothesis was clearly verified. It has been proven that there is statistical significance between the results. The current research has proved that there is an additional method to assess musculoskeletal disorders risk factors remotely online at office environment.

  6. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  7. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future

  8. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future.

  9. The physical environment and occupant thermal perceptions in office buildings. An evaluation of sampled data from five European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J L [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2002-02-01

    The results from a large field study of thermal comfort in European office buildings are reported. Measurements of physical environmental conditions and occupant perceptions were collected over sixteen months from twenty-six different office buildings located in France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the UK. This thesis focuses on the physical environmental measurements and occupant thermal perceptions; however, additional variables with connections to environmental satisfaction are also examined. An overview of human comfort theory is presented to help place this thesis in appropriate context. The overview presents thermal comfort issues within a broad framework of human response to the environment including physical, physiological. behavioural, psychological and other variables. A more narrowly focused overview of current thermal comfort research is also included. The work attempts to show relationships and produce useful information from the data set using graphical methods, especially lowess, a locally weighted regression based scatter plot smoothing technique. The objective of using this approach is to literally show the relationships visually. This approach allows the data set itself to illustrate the actual thermal conditions in European office buildings and the occupant perceptions of those conditions along with illustrating relationships. The data is examined in some detail with key relationships identified and explored. Significant differences between countries, both for the physical conditions and the perceptions of those conditions are identified. In addition, the variation over the course of the year for each country is explored. The relationship of daily average outdoor temperatures to indoor temperatures and indoor temperature perceptions is found to be critically important. The relationships, which appear to drive perceptions of thermal comfort, occur in complex ways, making simple, all encompassing explanations impossible. The nature and size of the

  10. Public Policy and the Prison System Failure Brazil: Legal Theses 17 and 18 of the Attorney General's Office - Ago, and Immediate Intervention Judicial Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Almeida Da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal feasibility of the judiciary determine the Executive to carry out works in prisons; confronting the reservation of the theory of financially possible and the immediate applicability of explicit fundamental rights in the Constitution, and the latest understanding of our Constitutional Court on the subject. Thus, it was taken as a backdrop the extraordinary appeal object if 592 581 / RS - which resulted in the legal arguments of nos 17 and 18 of the Attorney General - PGR, which concerned about the problem of "judicial control policies public "to ensure the preservation of the fundamental right to physical and moral integrity of prisoners, including renovation, expansion and construction of prisons in the event of failure of state entities. Finally, there was a brief analysis of the structural crisis of the Brazilian prison system, sign flagrant violation of the supreme value of human dignity.

  11. A vision driven wayfinding simulation system based on the architectural features perceived in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qunli

    2012-01-01

    Human wayfinding in the built environment is extensively investigated in the last 50 years. One major aspect of the outcome is the decision made on the egresses based on the information perceived during the wayfinding. Information acquired of the environment could be categorized into several types,

  12. Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2013-01-01

    velocity and turbulent intensity were measured and draft rate levels calculated in the room. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants’ thermal comfort. The results......The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...

  13. Thermal environment in simulated offices with convective and radiant cooling systems under cooling (summer) mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment in a double office room and in a six-person meeting room obtained with chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition-mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...... calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants' thermal perception. The results revealed that the differences in the thermal conditions achieved...

  14. Industry and the environment: Chief executive officer attitudes, 1976 and 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Davis, Charles

    1989-03-01

    This research considers the question of changing environmental values within the leadership of firms responsible for the management of pollution as an unwanted byproduct. Information was obtained from a pair of surveys mailed to the chief executive officers (CEOs) of the 50 largest firms listed within the mining and manufacturing directories of Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming in 1976 and again in 1986. The authors found that industry CEOs were more supportive of environmental concerns in 1986 than 1976, suggesting that ecological values have become institutionalized to some extent. Yet, there is little indication that this attitudinal shift in environmental concern among CEOs has been accompanied by a willingness to spend a larger proportion of the company budget on pollution control or to improve working relationships with federal regulatory officials.

  15. Considerations on the medico-legal compensation for stochastic effects induced by the exposure to ionizing radiations in working environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafontaine, M.

    1988-01-01

    A better detection of stochastic diseases induced by the exposure to ionizing radiations and the establishment of causative correlation are presently reasons to justify new medico-legal approaches. The right to reparation for workers suffering from diseases which may have been caused by occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in Belgium, is covered by the law on occupational diseases and by the legislation on industrial accidents. However, some difficulties persist, concerning the right for compensation, consisting in the very short delay for prescription, the existence of an administrative list of diseases eligible for compensation and in the burden of proof to establish an obvious etiological relation. (Author)

  16. Thermal environment in a simulated double office room with convective and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Rezgals, Lauris

    2017-01-01

    anddraught rate was calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins. CCMV provided slightly more uniform thermal environment and the least sensitive to different workstation layouts than the other systems. CB provided a bit higher draught rate levels than...

  17. Creation of an Integrated Environment to Supply e-Learning Platforms with Office Automation Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Emilio; Verga, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years great efforts have been made within the University environment to implement e-learning technologies in the standard educational practice. These learning technologies distribute online educational multimedia contents through technological platforms. Even though specific e-learning tools for technical disciplines were already…

  18. Perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort in European “Modern” office buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakellaris, I.A.; Saraga, D.E.; Mandin, C.; Roda, C.; Fossati, S.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Carrer, P.; Dimitroulopoulou, S.; Mihucz, V.G.; Szigeti, T.; Hänninen, O.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.G.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to

  19. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1 ~ 0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  20. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1 measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2 implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people’s environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3 constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV, two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  1. Air distribution in office environment with asymmetric workstation layout using chilled beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Hannu; Haeggblom, Henna [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Kosonen, Risto; Ruponen, Mika [Halton Oy, Niittyvillankuja 4, 01510 Vantaa (Finland)

    2010-09-15

    Air flow patterns and mean air speeds were studied under laboratory conditions representing a full scale open-plan office. Three basic conditions were tested: summer, spring/autumn and winter. Chilled beams were used to provide cooling, outdoor air supply and air distribution in the room. The heat sources had a notable influence on the flow pattern in the room causing large scale circulation and affecting the direction of inlet jets. The maximum air speed in the occupied zone was higher than the recommendations. The mean air speed was also high on at the floor level but low on at the head level. The air speed was highest in the summer case under high cooling load. Results indicate that especially with high heat loads, it is difficult to fulfill the targets of the existing standards in practice. Two main sources of draught risk were found: a) downfall of colliding inlet jets causing local maxima of air speed and b) large scale circulation caused by asymmetric layout of chilled beams and heat sources. The first phenomenon can cause local draught risk when the workstation is located in the downfall area. The flow pattern is not stable and the position of draught risk areas can change in time and also due to changes in room heat sources. The second phenomenon can cause more constant high air speeds on at the floor level. CFD-simulation was able to predict the general flow pattern but somewhat overestimated the air speed compared to measurements. (author)

  2. A longitudinal investigation of work environment stressors on the performance and wellbeing of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, S; Kwok, K C S

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the effects of inadequate Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) on work performance and wellbeing in a sample of 114 office workers over a period of 8 months. Participants completed a total of 2261 online surveys measuring perceived thermal comfort, lighting comfort and noise annoyance, measures of work performance, and individual state factors underlying performance and wellbeing. Characterising inadequate aspects of IEQ as environmental stressors, these stress factors can significantly reduce self-reported work performance and objectively measured cognitive performance by between 2.4% and 5.8% in most situations, and by up to 14.8% in rare cases. Environmental stressors act indirectly on work performance by reducing state variables, motivation, tiredness, and distractibility, which support high-functioning work performance. Exposure to environmental stress appears to erode individuals' resilience, or ability to cope with additional task demands. These results indicate that environmental stress reduces not only the cognitive capacity for work, but the rate of work (i.e. by reducing motivation). Increasing the number of individual stress factors is associated with a near linear reduction in work performance indicating that environmental stress factors are additive, not multiplicative. Environmental stressors reduce occupant wellbeing (mood, headaches, and feeling 'off') causing indirect reductions in work performance. Improving IEQ will likely produce small but pervasive increases in productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Airborne particles in indoor environment of homes, schools, offices and aged care facilities: The main routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Bae, G N; Buonanno, G; Chao, C Y H; Clifford, S; Fu, S C; Hänninen, O; He, C; Isaxon, C; Mazaheri, M; Salthammer, T; Waring, M S; Wierzbicka, A

    2017-11-01

    It has been shown that the exposure to airborne particulate matter is one of the most significant environmental risks people face. Since indoor environment is where people spend the majority of time, in order to protect against this risk, the origin of the particles needs to be understood: do they come from indoor, outdoor sources or both? Further, this question needs to be answered separately for each of the PM mass/number size fractions, as they originate from different sources. Numerous studies have been conducted for specific indoor environments or under specific setting. Here our aim was to go beyond the specifics of individual studies, and to explore, based on pooled data from the literature, whether there are generalizable trends in routes of exposure at homes, schools and day cares, offices and aged care facilities. To do this, we quantified the overall 24h and occupancy weighted means of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PN - particle number concentration. Based on this, we developed a summary of the indoor versus outdoor origin of indoor particles and compared the means to the WHO guidelines (for PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and to the typical levels reported for urban environments (PN). We showed that the main origins of particle metrics differ from one type of indoor environment to another. For homes, outdoor air is the main origin of PM 10 and PM 2.5 but PN originate from indoor sources; for schools and day cares, outdoor air is the source of PN while PM 10 and PM 2.5 have indoor sources; and for offices, outdoor air is the source of all three particle size fractions. While each individual building is different, leading to differences in exposure and ideally necessitating its own assessment (which is very rarely done), our findings point to the existence of generalizable trends for the main types of indoor environments where people spend time, and therefore to the type of prevention measures which need to be considered in general for these environments. Copyright © 2017 The

  4. Implementing Iris in the Railway Control Office Application for Secure Saas in Cloud Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Meena; Dr. M. Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in each and every part of the world. In particular ―Cloud‖ computing - a moderately recent term, characterizes the path to develop the advancement in the world of computer science. Further, Cloud provides an affordable environment for its users through different forms of services such as SaaS (Software as a service), PaaS (Platform as a service), and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). Cloud computing is also an Internet-based computing where a large ...

  5. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  6. [Association between psychosocial work environment and workplace bullying among office workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Y J; Dai, J M; Gao, J L; Lu, X Y; Liu, J Y; Fu, H

    2016-04-20

    To assess the prevalence of bullying in companies and health care center and identify the association between psychosocial environment and workplace bullying. A total of 847 employees at in business building companies and 146 employees at one community health service center were invited to this survey by cluster sampling during October to December 2014, using anonymous questionnaires including the general demographic information, job characteristics, job stress core scale, the social capital scale, and NAQ-R. The rate of targets of bullying in the two kinds of workplaces were 13.1% and 5.6% respectively. Workplace bullying was associated with employee's education level(χ(2)=11.17, P=0.019)and the area his or her families live in(χ(2)=5.66, P=0.017). In addition, workplace bullying was significantly associated with psychosocial work environment. Job demand was positively correlated with workplace bullying (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.34~3.74), and workplace social support was negatively associated with workplace bullying (OR= 0.33, 95% CI=0.18~0.60). Workplace bullying can be reduced by adjusting certain working conditions that negatively affect employees who are susceptible to being bullied, giving their individual and job characteristic. Moreover, workplace bullying could also be reduced if job demands are limited and job control and social capital are increased.

  7. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Review. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  8. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Geary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK. Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design. Review. Results. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  9. Cooperation Between Probation Officers and Other Services in Implementing Prevention and Social Rehabilitation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Jurczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the current legal regulations dealing with the tasks and duties of probation officers, as well as the misinterpretation of the role of probation officers in the mass media, among employees of other institutions and the charges of the officers. The authors have described a few of the most essential differences in working with an individual and his environment between career officers, social workers and police officers. They have stressed that understanding the differences in the scope of duties, as well as undertaking effective cooperation, are the key factors that affect the effectiveness of social rehabilitation interactions.

  10. Built sustainability. The office building of the Federal Ministry for the Environment in Berlin; Gebaute Nachhaltigkeit. Der Berliner Dienstsitz des Bundesumweltministeriums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mager, Hans; Schulz, Juergen; Weigand, Reinhold (comps.)

    2011-06-15

    With the move into the office building in the Stresemann Street in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety adopts a remarkable new building in the new centre of Berlin. It is the first Federal authority at all which works in a low-energy and passive house. This brochure under consideration reports on the history and architecture of the new office building as well as its sustainable energy management and life cycle assessments.

  11. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  12. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  13. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  14. Associations between the Objectively Measured Office Environment and Workplace Step Count and Sitting Time: Cross-Sectional Analyses from the Active Buildings Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abi; Ucci, Marcella; Smith, Lee; Sawyer, Alexia; Spinney, Richard; Konstantatou, Marina; Marmot, Alexi

    2018-06-01

    Office-based workers spend a large proportion of the day sitting and tend to have low overall activity levels. Despite some evidence that features of the external physical environment are associated with physical activity, little is known about the influence of the spatial layout of the internal environment on movement, and the majority of data use self-report. This study investigated associations between objectively-measured sitting time and activity levels and the spatial layout of office floors in a sample of UK office-based workers. Participants wore activPAL accelerometers for at least three consecutive workdays. Primary outcomes were steps and proportion of sitting time per working hour. Primary exposures were office spatial layout, which was objectively-measured by deriving key spatial variables: 'distance from each workstation to key office destinations', 'distance from participant's workstation to all other workstations', 'visibility of co-workers', and workstation 'closeness'. 131 participants from 10 organisations were included. Fifty-four per cent were female, 81% were white, and the majority had a managerial or professional role (72%) in their organisation. The average proportion of the working hour spent sitting was 0.7 (SD 0.15); participants took on average 444 (SD 210) steps per working hour. Models adjusted for confounders revealed significant negative associations between step count and distance from each workstation to all other office destinations (e.g., B = -4.66, 95% CI: -8.12, -1.12, p office destinations (e.g., B = -6.45, 95% CI: -11.88, -0.41, p office destinations the less they walked, suggesting that changing the relative distance between workstations and other destinations on the same floor may not be the most fruitful target for promoting walking and reducing sitting in the workplace. However, reported effect sizes were very small and based on cross-sectional analyses. The approaches developed in this study could be applied to other

  15. INTERACTION OF EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyrtyshny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of certain ideologemes of Western (European and Russian legal consciousness – prominent works of Ivan Ilyin and Duncan Kennedy are taken as examples. The article analyzes the tabula rasa principle and its place in legal consciousness. We use legal scholarship, judicial practice and opinion polls to examine the relationship between legal consciousness and the lack of trust in Russian courts, as well as their inefficiency from the point of view of public opinion. There are a number of shocking cases of torture of innocent people by the Russian police. Why is this so? The answer lies in the legal consciousness of police officers and of judges. This is something that has been inherited from the Soviet period. It is completely different from the Western legal consciousness, one of the key features of which is denial of authority. The critical legal studies branch of American legal realism almost denies the very existence of law, and, perhaps for this reason, American culture is less open to abuses like torture. At the same time, there is no possibility to shift legal consciousness immediately, the tabula rasa principle does not work. The final objective of the article is to provide a perspective on the reform of higher legal education and its relation to legal consciousness and legal anthropology. We propose that a greater part of the university curriculum is devoted to legal anthropology.

  16. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  17. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any...

  18. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims...

  19. Legal Officer Civil Law Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    bone fracture , subdural hematoma, sprain, internal- injury, pfoisoning, scalding, severe cut, laceration, bruise, or any combination ,cbnstituting a...Pensions to widows and children NE NE A A E E -lnspit:,l and domiciliary care NE NE A A E E Medical and dental care NE NE A A E E Prosthetic appliances...flooding (fresh or salt water, oil, JP-5, etc.) c. Source of flooding (internal or external) (1) Pipe rupture or valve failure (2) Tank rupture/hull

  20. Measurement Properties of a Self-Report Index of Ergonomic Exposures for Use in an Office Work Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dane, Dane

    2002-01-01

    Office work-related upper extremity symptoms and disorders have been associated with static work posture, repetition, and inadequate recovery in the anatomic structures of the neck and upper extremities...

  1. Radiation protection office at the general direction of health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protection office at the general direction of health has the following functions: organisation and relations with decentralized services, legal aspects, relations with the direction of nuclear installation safety, nuclear medicine with licensing, radioactive wastes in relation with ANDRA, environment, trusteeship of OPRI in matter of measurements, dosimetry and epidemiology in relation with the Minister of work and training in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  2. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  3. An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Washington, Carmen; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Clegg Smith, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    To estimate and compare price differences between legal and illicit cigarettes in 14 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). A cross-sectional census of all packs available on the market was purchased. Cigarette packs were purchased in formal retail settings in three major cities in each of 14 LMIC: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam. A total of 3240 packs were purchased (range = 58 packs in Egypt to 505 in Russia). Packs were categorized as 'legal' or 'illicit' based on the presence of a health warning label from the country of purchase and existence of a tax stamp; 2468 legal and 772 illicit packs were in the analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by country, city and neighborhood socio-economic status were used to explore the association between price and legal status of cigarettes. The number of illicit cigarettes in the sample setting was small (n price of legal cigarettes ranged from US$0.32 in Pakistan (n = 72) to US$3.24 in Turkey (n = 242); median purchase price of illicit cigarettes ranged from US$0.80 in Ukraine (n = 14) to US$3.08 in India (n = 41). The difference in median price between legal and illicit packs as a percentage of the price of legal packs ranged from 32% in Philippines to 455% in Bangladesh. Median purchase price of illicit cigarette packs was higher than that of legal cigarette packs in six countries (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam). Median purchase price of illicit packs was lower than that of legal packs in Turkey, Ukraine and China. The median purchase price of illicit cigarettes is higher than that of legal cigarette packs in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia appear to have few or no illicit cigarettes for purchase from formal, urban retailers. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf

  4. Air quality in a simulated office environment as a result of reducing pollution sources and increasing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Clausen, Geo

    2002-01-01

    Air quality was studied in an office space classified as low-polluting and ventilated with outdoor air at a rate of 1 h-1. The pollution load in the space was changed by introducing or removing common building-related indoor pollution sources (linoleum, sealant and wooden shelves with books and p...

  5. Towards a comfortable, energy-efficient office using a publish-subscribe pattern in an internet of things environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, LL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available an implementation of the pub-sub pattern specifically for an Internet of Things platform which operated at four levels –sensors (and actuator), Supervisors, Middleware, and application. This platform was specifically instantiated to control a typical office meeting...

  6. 4 CFR 83.18 - Rights of legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rights of legal guardians. 83.18 Section 83.18 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.18 Rights of legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual...

  7. Office Computers: Ergonomic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganus, Susannah

    1984-01-01

    Each new report of the office automation market indicates technology is overrunning the office. The impacts of this technology are described and some ways to manage and physically "soften" the change to a computer-based office environment are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  8. The Federal Health Office in 1990. An information brochure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Health Office is the central research institution in the Federal Republic of Germany in the public health sector. Its task is to recognize and assess health hazards, contain such hazards within the framework of its legal competencies, and to provide scientific advice also on such health hazards as arise from the environment. The FHO's research activities are in the fields of health protection and consumer health protection, environmental hygiene, drug safety, and preventive medicine. - Executive tasks have been conferred on the Federal Health Office under the law on drugs and narcotic drugs, epidemics, particides and the use of chemicals, and genetic engineering. (orig./UT) [de

  9. Unmasking the effects of masking on performance: The potential of multiple-voice masking in the office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus van de Poll, Marijke; Carlsson, Johannes; Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Odelius, Johan; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Sundin, Gunilla; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-08-01

    Broadband noise is often used as a masking sound to combat the negative consequences of background speech on performance in open-plan offices. As office workers generally dislike broadband noise, it is important to find alternatives that are more appreciated while being at least not less effective. The purpose of experiment 1 was to compare broadband noise with two alternatives-multiple voices and water waves-in the context of a serial short-term memory task. A single voice impaired memory in comparison with silence, but when the single voice was masked with multiple voices, performance was on level with silence. Experiment 2 explored the benefits of multiple-voice masking in more detail (by comparing one voice, three voices, five voices, and seven voices) in the context of word processed writing (arguably a more office-relevant task). Performance (i.e., writing fluency) increased linearly from worst performance in the one-voice condition to best performance in the seven-voice condition. Psychological mechanisms underpinning these effects are discussed.

  10. PREDICTION OF AEROSOL HAZARDS ARISING FROM THE OPENING OF AN ANTHRAX-TAINTED LETTER IN AN OPEN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUE-SANG LIEN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Early experimental work, conducted at Defence R&D Canada–Suffield, measured and characterized the personal and environmental contamination associated with simulated anthrax-tainted letters under a number of different scenarios in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and formulating potential mitigation strategies for managing the risks associated with opening an anthrax-tainted letter. These experimental investigations have been extended in the present study to simulate numerically the contamination from the opening of anthrax-tainted letters in an open office environment using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. A quantity of 0.1 g of Bacillus atropheus (formerly referred to as Bacillus subtilis var globigii (BG spores in dry powder form, which was used here as a surrogate species for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax, was released from an opened letter in the experiment. The accuracy of the model for prediction of the spatial distribution of BG spores in the office from the opened letter is assessed qualitatively (and to the extent possible, quantitatively by detailed comparison with measured BG concentrations obtained under a number of different scenarios, some involving people moving within the office. The observed discrepancy between the numerical predictions and experimental measurements of concentration was probably the result of a number of physical processes which were not accounted for in the numerical simulation. These include air flow leakage from cracks and crevices of the building shell; the dispersion of BG spores in the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system; and, the effect of deposition and re-suspension of BG spores from various surfaces in the office environment.

  11. An Exploration of the Legal and Regulatory Environment of Privacy and Security through Active Research, Guided Study, Blog Creation, and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important topics for today's information technology professional is the study of legal and regulatory issues as they relate to privacy and security of personal and business data and identification. This manuscript describes the topics and approach taken by the instructors that focuses on independent research of source documents and…

  12. 22 CFR 72.9 - Responsibility if legal representative is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility if legal representative is... Nationals § 72.9 Responsibility if legal representative is present. (a) A consular officer should not act as provisional conservator if the consular officer knows that a legal representative is present in the foreign...

  13. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L. de

    1986-01-01

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  14. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  15. Exploring the Environment/Energy Pareto Optimal Front of an Office Room Using Computational Fluid Dynamics-Based Interactive Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangji Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the development of a high-resolution and control-friendly optimization framework in enclosed environments that helps improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ, and energy costs of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system simultaneously. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD-based optimization method which couples algorithms implemented in Matlab with CFD simulation is proposed. The key part of this method is a data interactive mechanism which efficiently passes parameters between CFD simulations and optimization functions. A two-person office room is modeled for the numerical optimization. The multi-objective evolutionary algorithm—non-dominated-and-crowding Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II—is realized to explore the environment/energy Pareto front of the enclosed space. Performance analysis will demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented optimization method.

  16. The psychosocial environment at work: an assessment of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join, A; Saeed, K; Arnaout, S; Kortum, E

    2012-04-01

    Psychosocial risks are widely recognised as major challenges to occupational health and safety. The risk management approach, which starts with an assessment of the risk that they pose, is acknowledged as the most effective way of preventing and managing psychosocial risks at the workplace. This paper presents the findings and action taken following a risk assessment of psychosocial risks, at the World health Organization Regional Officeforthe Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) and country offices, carried outon behalf of the Committee on Health and Safety in the Workplace in EMRO. The findings show that psychosocial risks pose a threat to the mental well-being of staff. Management and co-worker support, rewards, possibilities for development, and trust mitigate the negative impact of psychosocial risks. The results of this risk assessment are being used to develop interventions aimed at enhancing the sense of well-being of staff, initially through actions at the employee level.

  17. The physical work environment and end-user requirements: Investigating marine engineering officers' operational demands and ship design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica

    2016-08-12

    Physical environments influence how individuals perceive a space and behave within it. Previous research has revealed deficiencies in ship engine department work environments, and their impact on crew productivity, health and wellbeing. Connect operational task demands to pragmatic physical design and layout solutions by implementing a user-centric perspective. Three focus groups, each consisting of three marine engineers participated in this study. Focus groups were divided into two sessions: first, to investigate the end-user's operational requirements and their relationship with ship physical design and layout. Second, criteria formulated from group discussions were applied to a ship design case study. All focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Design choices made in a ships general arrangement were described to inherently influence how individuals and teams are able to function within the system. Participants detailed logistical relationships between key areas, stressing that the work environment and physical linkages must allow for flexibility of work organization and task execution. Traditional engine control paradigms do not allow effective mitigation of traditional engine department challenges. The influence of technology and modernization of ship systems can facilitate improvement of physical environments and work organization if effectively utilized.

  18. Influence of the urban environment on the effectiveness of natural night-ventilation of an office building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramponi, R.; Gaetani, I.; Angelotti, A.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of natural night-ventilation in the urban environment depends on local climate characteristics, but also on solar shading and wind shielding effects of the surrounding buildings. However, the impact of the latter factors on the effectiveness of night-ventilation is often

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.

    1986-02-01

    This volume is progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis for each project. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects. ACR

  20. 法律与行政环境对信托公司绩效的影响研究%Investigation on Effects of Legal and Administration Environment on the Performance of Trust Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋娴; 张强

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the influence of legal and administrative envi-ronment over the performance of trust corporations in China.The investigation is based on data of domestic trust corporations over the year span 2006 to 2012.The “Law and Finance”theory of LLSV is adapted and applied in this research.It is shown in this investigation that the complete-ness of trust law and good local legal environment has a significant positive effect on the perform-ance of trust corporations.The effect of an honest and effective administrative environment on the performance of trust corporations is also positive.%以2006~2012年的中国信托公司为样本,采用法与金融学理论研究方法,研究信托公司所处的法律环境与行政环境对公司绩效的影响。结果表明,信托法律体系的完善、投资保护力度的提升及良好的地方法治环境对信托公司绩效具有显著促进作用,政府廉洁度的提升对信托公司绩效也有显著的正向影响。

  1. Adoption of information technology in primary care physician offices in New Zealand and Denmark, part 3: medical record environment comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Protti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the third in a series of five papers about the use of computing technology in general practitioner (GP practices in Denmark and New Zealand. This paper looks at the environments within which electronic medical records (EMRs operate, including their functionality and the extent to which electronic communications are used to send and receive clinical information. It also introduces the notion of a longitudinal electronic health record (versus an EMR.

  2. How users organize electronic files on their workstations in the office environment: a preliminary study of personal information organization behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S.G. Khoo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing study of how people organize their computer files and folders on the hard disk of their office workstations. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the subjects, their work responsibilities and characteristics of their workstations. Data on file and folder names and file structure were extracted from the hard disk using a computer program STG FolderPrint Plus, DOS command and screen capture. A semi-structured interview collected information on subjects' strategies in naming and organizing files and folders, and in locating and retrieving files. The data were analysed mainly through qualitative analysis and content analysis. The subjects organized their folders in a variety of structures, from broad and shallow to narrow and deep hierarchies. One to three levels of folders is common. The labels for first level folders tended to be task-based or project-based. Most subjects located files by browsing the folder structure, with searching used as a last resort. The most common types of folder names were document type, organizational function or structure, and miscellaneous or temporary. The frequency of folders of different types appear related to the type of occupation.

  3. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    Personnel within the Office of the Secretary of Defense, other DoD Components responsible for preparing the annual financial statements, and legal counsel who provide legal representations regarding...

  4. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  5. A numerical study on the effects of exhaust locations on energy consumption and thermal environment in an office room served by displacement ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Qasim; Gao, Shian; Kareem, Ali Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced CFD program was developed and validated successfully. • The relation between the exhaust positions and heat sources was analysed. • Energy saving, thermal comfort and inhaled air quality were studied for 5 cases. • By combining the exhaust with office lamps, a 25% of energy saving was achieved. - Abstract: In an office room, many factors affect the pattern of airflow, thermal comfort, indoor air quality and energy saving. In this study, the effects of the location of exhaust diffusers where the warm and contaminant air is extracted and their relation to room heat sources on thermal comfort and energy saving were investigated numerically for an office served by a displacement ventilation system. The indoor air quality in the breathing level and the inhaled zone were also evaluated. The contaminants were released from window and door frames in order to simulate the contaminants coming from outside. The amount of energy consumption and the indoor thermal environment for various exhaust locations were investigated numerically using the computational fluid dynamics techniques. The results showed that the thermal indoor environment, thermal comfort, quality of indoor air and energy saving were greatly improved by combining the exhaust outlets with some of the room’s heat sources such as ceiling lamps and external walls. In particular, a 25.0% of energy saving was achieved by combining the exhaust diffuser with room’s ceiling lamps. In addition, locating the exhaust diffuser near the heat sources also reduced the cooling coil load by 13.8%. The risk of a large difference in temperature between the head and foot levels, increased particle concentration in the occupied zone, as well as increased energy consumption was also clearly demonstrated when the exhaust and recirculated air outlet (return opening) were combined in one unit in the occupied boundary area that is located at 2 m away from the occupants. Thus, for the optimum energy

  6. Auxiliary office chair

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Osés, Maite

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an auxiliary office chair, which favorably will compete with the existing chairs on the market. Evolutions of ergonomical survey in the work environment and on the configuration of offices require new products which fulfill the requirements properly. In order to achieve it a survey about office chairs has been carried out: types, characteristics, ways of usage and products on the market besides a large antropometrical study and ergonomics related to work ...

  7. Improved scheme for parametrization of convection in the Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguz, Elena; Thomson, David; Witham, Claire; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta

    2015-04-01

    NAME is a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model used by the Met Office to predict the dispersion of both natural and man-made contaminants in the atmosphere, e.g. volcanic ash, radioactive particles and chemical species. Atmospheric convection is responsible for transport and mixing of air resulting in a large exchange of heat and energy above the boundary layer. Although convection can transport material through the whole troposphere, convective clouds have a small horizontal length scale (of the order of few kilometres). Therefore, for large-scale transport the horizontal scale on which the convection exists is below the global NWP resolution used as input to NAME and convection must be parametrized. Prior to the work presented here, the enhanced vertical mixing generated by non-resolved convection was reproduced by randomly redistributing Lagrangian particles between the cloud base and cloud top with probability equal to 1/25th of the NWP predicted convective cloud fraction. Such a scheme is essentially diffusive and it does not make optimal use of all the information provided by the driving meteorological model. To make up for these shortcomings and make the parametrization more physically based, the convection scheme has been recently revised. The resulting version, presented in this paper, is now based on the balance equation between upward, entrainment and detrainment fluxes. In particular, upward mass fluxes are calculated with empirical formulas derived from Cloud Resolving Models and using the NWP convective precipitation diagnostic as closure. The fluxes are used to estimate how many particles entrain, move upward and detrain. Lastly, the scheme is completed by applying a compensating subsidence flux. The performance of the updated convection scheme is benchmarked against available observational data of passive tracers. In particular, radioxenon is a noble gas that can undergo significant long range transport: this study makes use of observations of

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  10. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  11. Legal means of the energy development in the respect of the environment in French law: research on the law of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatico, L.

    2003-05-01

    The energy regulation, in France, appears autonomous compared. to the environmental law. It was necessary to seek the reality of this autonomy, which resulted in analyzing its application at both national and community level. However, the autonomy of energy regulation has been kept in perspective through the influences of both public and economic policies, along with the general framework of life. This autonomy does not prevent the interdependence with environmental law. Indeed, the energy regulation is influenced by the environmental law, which can appear from differing viewpoints as either constraints for the energy sector or as opportunities. Here, the two regulations coexist with t:he environmental law trying to integrate completely with energy regulation. This seems to take place with difficulty through sustainable development, either requiring an evolution in traditional legal instruments or by the creation of new instruments. (author)

  12. Inauguration of the Moscow-based office of GRS/IPSN-RISKAUDIT by the Federal German Minister of the Environment, Mr. Klaus Toepfer, and the Minister of Industry, Mr. Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The German and the French Government as well as the EC are taking particular interest in cooperative activities with the Russian Federation in the field of reactor safety enhancement and protection of the environment. The existing cooperation is expected to be intensified by the establishment of a common office in Moscow. The organisation, tasks and financing scheme of the RISKAUDIT office are explained in the languages German, Russian and French. (HP) [de

  13. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  14. Twenty year of the State Office for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This overview of the history of the Office presents information regarding the Czech legal framework for nuclear safety, radiation safety, and scope and authority of the Office, main Office's activities in nuclear safety and radiation safety supervision in the Czech Republic, international cooperation, and the Office's human resources. (P.A.)

  15. Challenges and prospects of legal education in Nigeria: an overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many lawyers lack the intellectual skills to deal with simple legal tasks they are briefed to handle; some lack the rudimentary knowledge of basic legal principles and some dabble into unethical conducts such as defrauding clients, bribing judicial officers and embezzlement of funds in their custody etc. Hence, there is clamor ...

  16. Legal Sector Reform Pursuits in Ethiopia: Gaps in Grassroots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EN_Stebek

    in lawmaking, law enforcement, legal education and access to justice. Key terms. Lawmaking ...... Volume I, Main Text. GTP I. November 2010, Addis Ababa, English Version, p. 102. ... representatives to use JLSRI offices and JLSRI Library during their stay in. Addis. ...... law enforcement organs by ICT. 12 Project for legal ...

  17. The admission and enrolment of foreign legal practitioners in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation requires ever closer co-operation between legal professionals hailing from different national jurisdictions. This interactive global environment has fostered growing international training and mobility among legal practitioners and the internationalisation of legal education. Increasing numbers of law students get ...

  18. Environment protection in the legal system of Albania: The current situation in Albania on combating environmental crimes and the new reform directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkëlzen Selimi

    2016-07-01

    The conclusions reached at the end shows the evolution of the concept of environment and its protection, welcomes the new reform by noting the need of the judicial authorities to be trained in order to be fully implemented.

  19. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  20. Education and training as prerequisites for overcoming the difficulties in the implementation of ethical and legal norms concerning gender equality in a social environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author advances the thesis that in today's Serbia there is no social consensus concerning the unequal treatment of men and women, and that 'patriarchal syndrome', stereotypes and prejudices are still widely present and are greatly influencing the functioning of social mechanisms and the achievement of gender equality. In Serbia the process of achieving the equal treatment of women de jure is still in progress. With the absence of consensus, which is a prerequisite for 'transmitting' social values encompassed by gender equality, the chances are little that equality will be attained de facto. This paper is meant as a warning that not all types of women's inequality are easily noticeable, as well as that on the social scene there are many different and intertwined social actors which influence dealing with the problem of inequality, implementation of international and domestic legal acts, ethical standards, and taking steps to introduce mechanisms for achieving women's equality in society. One of the prerequisites for overcoming these difficulties is a system of education and educational resources, which promote the idea of gender equality.

  1. The Legal Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied

  2. The consequences of nuclear waste disposal facilities on public health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasi, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report, from the French parliament office for the evaluation of scientifical and technological choices, makes a status of the effluents and waste stocks from different types of nuclear facilities and analyzes the consequences of these effluents and wastes on the public health and on the environment. Finally, it examines the necessary scientifical, technical and legal improvements. (J.S.)

  3. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in c...

  4. Technical and legal application possibilities of the compulsory labelling of the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances - Project No. 53/03. Summary of the final report for the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Cremer, C.; Friedewald, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2005-06-13

    The standby consumption of electrical households and office appliances continues to be significant world-wide since the number of products with standby components is constantly increasing. For Germany, a recent assessment of the Fraunhofer ISI (Cremer et al. 2003) for 2001 arrived at an electricity demand of almost 15 TWh for household and office appliances in standby mode. i.e. in standby and off-mode. This represents almost 40% of the total consumption of these appliances and around 3% of the total electricity demand of the final energy sectors in Germany. The standby share in electricity demand is over 80 or even 90% for numerous appliances. The Federal Environmental Agency calculated that every year standby losses in German households and offices are responsible for wasted electricity amounting to 3.5 billion Euro (UBA 2004). For the OECD countries, field studies show that between 3 and 13% of the electricity consumption of households can be ascribed to standby losses (IEA 2001). Without energy policy measures on both national and international levels, there is a great risk that a further increase in standby consumption will occur. Many studies dealing with this subject have already been conducted and have shown that low standby consumption is technically feasible and usually achievable at a reasonable cost. One possible energy policy measure to reduce the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances is the introduction of mandatory consumption labelling. In principle, a high degree of effectiveness is attributed to such regulatory/command-and-control measures with regard to influencing the energy efficiency of devices. Compulsory energy labels to identify and, where necessary, to classify electricity consumption produce greater market transparency and offer buyers an additional decision criterion. In this way they promote indirectly the development, production and supply of energy-efficient products. When combined with comparatively low

  5. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  6. Office Hysteroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Hassa; Basar Tekin; H. Mete Tanir; Bulent Cakmak

    2007-01-01

    Although hysteroscopy has evolved in recent years, its use in the office setting was not made practical until early 1980s with the introduction of small caliber hysteroscopes of less than 5- mm outer diameter.This innovation simplifies ambulatory uterine exploration and the office evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. This article reviews current trends in office hysteroscopy and its areas of application in different forms of gynecological problems.

  7. Office Hysteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Hassa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although hysteroscopy has evolved in recent years, its use in the office setting was not made practical until early 1980s with the introduction of small caliber hysteroscopes of less than 5- mm outer diameter.This innovation simplifies ambulatory uterine exploration and the office evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. This article reviews current trends in office hysteroscopy and its areas of application in different forms of gynecological problems.

  8. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF SOIL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Along with specialty items used for the development and implementation of sustainable development, protection and conservation of the environment, legal protection component of soil resources play an essential role. Legal and institutional framework provides a much protection of soil resources. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil ...

  9. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  10. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  11. Against a Systemic Legal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the resort to systems theory as the foundation of an evolutionary legal history. In particular, the theoretical legacy of Niklas Luhmann upon which Marie Theres Fögen proposes to draw seems to have limited application outside a context in which advanced system differentiation is present. Although (like Marx, Durkheim and Weber before him Luhmann drew in a broad evolutionary trajectory, he was concerned principally with “functionally differentiated society”. Earlier phases – covering precisely those formations that historians will presumably focus upon – are very hazily sketched in and relatively poorly theorised. In general, we should not too readily acknowledge “the exhaustion of the paradigm of modernity” (Santos, 1995 or rush to proclaim the obsolescence of multi-dimensional approaches such as those of Bourdieu (1977 and Giddens (1984. Any legal history that marginalises both human actors and the conditional environment has a considerable task in making up the ensuing deficit.

  12. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  13. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  14. The strategic security officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of the strategic security officer, and the potential that it brings to the healthcare security operational environment. The author believes that training and development, along with strict hiring practices, can enable a security department to reach a new level of professionalism, proficiency and efficiency. The strategic officer for healthcare security is adapted from the "strategic corporal" concept of US Marine Corps General Charles C. Krulak which focuses on understanding the total force implications of the decisions made by the lowest level leaders within the Corps (Krulak, 1999). This article focuses on the strategic organizational implications of every security officer's decisions in the constantly changing and increasingly volatile operational environment of healthcare security.

  15. 12 CFR 1700.2 - Organization of the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regulatory issues, securities and corporate law principles, and administrative and general legal matters... developments in Enterprise activities, housing finance and financial regulation. The Office also prepares data...

  16. Legal protection in French environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromont, M.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents a comparison of the French and the Federal German legal provisions providing for preliminary legal protection in connection with proceedings where protection of the environment is involved. The author also discusses proceedings in contentious administrative matters in connection with the licensing of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as the protection of the laws in subject matters concerning airborne pollution control and environmental protection in general. One of the most outstanding different features is the fact that in legal proceedings on administrative matters in France, protection of the existing legal system is the main issue rather than the protection of individual rights, as is the case in the Fed. Republic of Germany. (HP) [de

  17. 40 CFR 1600.6 - Office location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office location. 1600.6 Section 1600.6 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD § 1600.6 Office location. The principal offices of the...

  18. Office-based anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection, and consistency in nursing personnel. In the USA 17 -. 24% of all elective ambulatory surgery is ... knowledge base or personality to deal with the OBA environment. Compared with hospitals, office-based facilities currently ... disease or major cardiovascular risk factors). Intravenous access via a flexible cannula is.

  19. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  20. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  1. 7 CFR 2.4 - General officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Nutrition, and Consumer Services; the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment; the Under... OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT General § 2.4 General officers. The work of the Department is under the...

  2. A reformed global legal architecture for corporate responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers key features within the legal architecture of all jurisdictions that utilise the ‘corporation’ as a primary medium for business enterprise. Therefore it highlights the legal frameworks under which ‘corporations’ operate and the pressure that this places upon corporate directors to achieve specific financial outcomes. It then illustrates how this legal architecture can have certain negative effects for other stakeholders such as the environment and communities. The pape...

  3. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  4. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    González Luna, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  5. Ecocitizen at the office

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    At the office, I do as I would at home At the office, just as at home, we need to stay warm, have light, be equipped (with office material, furniture). We thus need energy and raw materials. This consumption is not without consequences for our environment. How to reduce our consumption? In everyday life, we already have behaviours that allow us to save energy and resources, to sort our waste. At the office it is important to act in the same way as at home, as we spend a lot of time at our workplace. How to act more responsibly at the office, to reduce the environmental impact, and how to stay motivated? Computer, printer, copy machine… or coffee machine. There are quite a few electrical appliances which are indispensable in our office. Always turned on, or almost, they are also often inactive, and it is during these phases of inactivity that two thirds of their consumption occurs. The way one uses the computer is important in order to limit its consumption. Use the sleep mode with care. A c...

  6. Nuclear security officer training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Training has become complex and precise in today's world of critical review and responsibility. Entrusted to a security officer is the success or demise of large business. In more critical environments the security officer is entrusted with the monitoring and protection of life sensitive systems and devices. The awareness of this high visibility training requirement has been addressed by a limited few. Those involved in the nuclear power industry through dedication and commitment to the American public have without a doubt become leading pioneers in demanding training excellence

  7. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology - Transfer and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, F.; Hartmann, V.; Grottker, U.; Richter, D.

    2014-08-01

    Legal Metrology's requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408). We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology's requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany's Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID) are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology's requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria's generic requirements is also presented.

  8. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  9. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegu; Hong, Jungsik; Kang, Pilsung

    2017-01-01

    Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM) effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS) are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA), based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered.

  10. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA, based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered.

  11. Global environment and factors affecting the salary of the CEO (chief executive officer) of a goods producing firm: an Econometric modeling approach using STATA

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Zohaib; Muhammad, Ahsanuddin; Hussain, Ghulam

    2010-01-01

    The flattening of the world thanks to the cluster of profound socio-economic and politico-cultural changes has created unprecedented challenges for organizational leadership and management. The fast evolving global world of ours where challenges have to be continually met requires timely decision taken by CEOs’ (Chief Executive Officers) who shape and give direction to world politics and economic order. In the light of this we have studied the decisions taken by CEOs’ of goods producing firms...

  12. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  13. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

  14. Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  16. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  17. Mail Office

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Mail Office wishes to remind users that the CERN mail service is exclusively reserved for official CERN mail. All external official mail must be sent to the Mail Office in an unstamped envelope on which your name and Department must be clearly indicated below the official CERN address (see example) to help us to find you in the event that it cannot be delivered. If you wish to send private mail from the CERN site you must use the post offices at Meyrin (63-R-011) or Prévessin (866-R-C02). Please use "PRIORITY" envelopes only in the case of urgent mail. Any mail containing merchandise (i.e. anything other than documents) must be sent using an EDH shipping request form. INTERNAL MAIL Please remember to include the recipient’s MAILBOX number on the internal mail envelopes, either in the relevant box (new envelopes) or next to the name (old envelopes). This information, which can be found in the CERN PHONEBOOK, simplifies our t...

  18. Uniformed Services Worldwide Legal Assistance & Reserve Components Office Directory. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    257-1829 Commander (dl) 14th Coast Guard District Prince Kalanianaole Federal Building 300 Ala Moana Blvd, 9th Floor Honolulu, Hawaii 96850-4982...a),aarons.org Practice Area: 351 - Criminal Law - Defense, 400 - General Practice Bars Admitted: NM County of Practice: Santa Fe, Rio Arriba , Los

  19. The Role of the Business Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitman, Brenda C.

    The primary responsibilities of chief financial or business officers at community colleges include attending to business and financial affairs, dealing with the physical plan and real estate, handling legal affairs and auxiliary enterprises, providing leadership for policy matters, and acting as a financial advisor. Due to the significant…

  20. Legal problems brought about by technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In almost all sectors of public or private life, advances in the natural sciences and the progress of technology provoke changes that have to be managed by society. Our legal system is far from being left untouched by such changes, and frequently has to cope with new and complex legal problems in all fields of law. The book in hand collects eleven lectures presented within the framework of the Studium Generale at Heidelberg University, dealing with significant developments and their effects on the law, as e.g.: Risk acceptance in the wake of new technologies, in vitro fertilisation, early diagnosis of embryonic malformation, protection of animals in the context of medical research, information technologies and data protection, accidents in space and liability problems, transfrontier air pollution, protection of the environment. The legal aspects and the social aspects are discussed in detail by the lectures. Three of the contributions have been separately analysed for the database. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  2. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  4. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  5. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to Shirley Hassan, Office of General Law...

  6. Empirical Essays on Office Market Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.J. Jennen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOffice buildings are a major investment vehicle, provide a working environment for numerous employees across the globe and determine the skyline of major cities. Put differently: office buildings matter. This dissertation consists of six studies and focuses on office buildings from a

  7. Programmatic agreement among the USDOE/RL Operations Office, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the WA State Historic Preservation Office for the maintenance, deactivation, alteration and demolition of the built environment on the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    This Programmatic Agreement (PA) addresses the built environment (i.e., buildings and structures) constructed during the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era periods of Hanford's operational history. As such it encompasses the years 1943 through 1990. The identification, evaluation, and treatment of buildings and historic archeological remains on the Hanford Site predating 1943 will be accomplished through Sections 800.4 through 800.6 of the Council's regulations. This PA will be in effect from the date of signature until September 30, 2000. Completion of the Sitewide Treatment Plan established under this PA satisfies all Section 106 requirements for identification, evaluation, and treatment necessary for all undertakings, up to and including demolition which may affect Manhattan Project and Cold War Era properties. This PA may be extended if the Sitewide Treatment Plan has not been completed by the end of FY 2000. Identification, evaluation, and treatment of properties constructed on the Hanford Site after 1990 will be handled pursuant to the regulations in effect at the time such properties are eligible for review

  8. The legal mechanisms to control bribery and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to critically assess the effectiveness of the United Kingdom's legal responses to bribery and corruption. In particular, the chapter appraises the impact of the Bribery Act 2010 and comments on the enforcement strategy of the Serious Fraud Office and Financial Conduct Authority.

  9. 34 CFR 75.129 - Legal responsibilities of each member of the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal responsibilities of each member of the group. 75.129 Section 75.129 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Group Applications § 75.129 Legal responsibilities of each member of the...

  10. California Western Law School's First-Year Course in Legal Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Peter W.

    1980-01-01

    Design and content of a legal writing program are outlined: premises on which the curriculum is based, program overview, first semester skill elements, law office memorandum preparation, appellate advocacy, grading, legal skills notebook, student instructors. Available from Union University, 80 Scotland Ave., Albany, NY 12208; $2.50, entire issue.…

  11. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  12. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  13. Where did my office go? Is it in the cloud!? - Workshop on spatial and social connectedness in virtual and mediated work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gullström, C.; Kort, J.

    2016-01-01

    The physical workplace, a hub for communication, collaboration and co-located interaction can no longer be taken for granted. Today, the design of intelligent interactive media, physical products and ubiquitous environments has passed the phase of being technology-driven. Meaning, insight and

  14. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  15. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  16. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  17. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  18. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  19. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  20. "What makes you think you have special privileges because you are a police officer?" A qualitative exploration of police's role in the risk environment of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies.

  1. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... about the Child Care Rule > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  2. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  3. Legal regime of communal waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Záruba, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Legal regulation of Municipal Waste Management The purpose of my thesis is to analyse the national legislative frameworks on municipal waste management. The reason for my research is based on the fact that waste volumes are growing, driven by changing production and consumption patterns. As confirmed in the Sixth Environment Action Programme, waste management is one of the key priorities of EU environmental policy and the framework in this area has been progressively put in place since 1970s....

  4. The War in Afghanistan: A Legal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    parts of the legal environment. Al Qaeda’ s agents and franchisees often operate across political boundaries and may be independent of or have only...with illicit drug money and benefitting from either indifferent or actively sympathetic elements in some contiguous States, rein- forced its control...occupation forces failed in their attempts to pacify the country. A major reason for this failure was that the mujahedin benefitted from US weapons and

  5. Chief Financial Officer FY 1997 status report and five-year plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990 (CFO Act) establishes the legal framework for improved Federal financial management. The Act requires the agency CFO to prepare, and annually revise, a plan to implement the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Federal Financial Management Status Report and Five-Year Plan. This is the sixth Status Report and Five-Year Plan submission to OMB by the Department of Energy (DOE). Financial management at the Department operates in an environment of Government-wide efforts to improve financial management and implements legislation and administrative provisions which stress the need for change. This report sets forth the Department`s plans for financial management improvements in the coming years. It also highlights several new initiatives completed or currently underway that will significantly improve the overall effectiveness of financial management at the Department of Energy.

  6. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  7. Integration of radiation protection in occupational health and safety managementsystems - legal requirements and practical realization at the example of the Fraunhofer occupational health and safety management system FRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambotte, S.; Severitt, S.; Weber, U.

    2002-01-01

    The protection of the employees, the people and the environment for the effects of radiation is regulated by numerous laws and rules set by the government and the occupational accident insurances. Primarily these rules apply for the responsibles, normally the employer, as well as for the safety officers. Occupational safety management systems can support these people to carry out their tasks and responsibilities effectively. Also, a systematic handling of the organisation secures that the numerous duties of documentation, time-checking of the proof-lists and dates are respected. Further more, the legal certainty for the responsibles and safety officers will be raised and the occupational, environment, radiation and health protection will be promoted. At the example of the Fraunhofer occupational safety management system (FrAM) it is demonstrated, how radiation protection (ionizing radiation) can be integrated in a progressive intranet supported management system. (orig.)

  8. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  9. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.

    1997-01-01

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de

  10. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, 𔃺 le. ~~rt n the

  11. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  12. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  13. More than only weather protection for modern working environments. Multifunctional facade modul system for office buildings; Mehr als nur Wetterschutz fuer moderne Arbeitswelten. Multifunktionales Fassaden-Modulsystem fuer Buerogebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickmeyer, Philipp [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik

    2011-07-01

    Together with industrial and commercial partners, the Institute for Building and Solar Technology at the Technical University of Braunschweig (Braunschweig, Federal Republic of Germany) plans and develops working environments for the 21st century. Thus, the future:workspace is designed from the ninth floor in the university's high-rise BS4. Architectural visions are combined with innovative technical solutions and demonstrate the future quality of most modern office workplaces. The facade of the future:workspace is just more than a building closure and weather protection. A Schueco E{sup 2} facade is used as a multifunctional module system which is examined in the research project 'Distributed and modular building technology to increase energy efficiency and comfort of use'.

  14. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  15. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  16. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  17. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  18. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  19. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  20. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    OpenAIRE

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field i...

  1. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  2. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...

  3. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  4. 40 CFR 247.16 - Non-paper office products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressboard binders containing recovered paper; and solid plastic binders containing recovered plastic. (e... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-paper office products. 247.16...-paper office products. (a) Office recycling containers and office waste receptacles. (b) Plastic desktop...

  5. Legal Services: Military Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-20

    Individ- ual File ( CMIF ) and the MPRJ will be destroyed. b. Wholly set aside since 1 September 1979. All DA Forms 2627 of commissioned officers, warrant...routinely be trans- ferred to the restricted fiche. The DA Form 2627 reflecting the original imposition of punishment, if filed in the MPRJ or CMIF , will be...Records of nonjudicial punishment wholly set aside prior to 1 September 1979. Copies of such records filed in the CMIF and the MPRJ will be destroyed. (2

  6. Legal protection of land from pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.

  7. The Role of Virtues in Legal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal Szerletics

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author applies virtue theory (virtue epistemology and virtue ethics in particular to the question of legal education and examines the prospects of a virtue-based discourse in this context. Following the Aristotelian distinction between intellectual and moral virtues, he argues that law schools need to equip students – besides appropriate skills and knowledge of legal regulations – with intellectual and moral virtues necessary for a socially productive legal practice. Identifying lawyerly virtues and exploring the ways they can be fostered in a university environment might be the first steps to change the exaggeratedly formalistic thinking that seems to characterize legal education and legal practice in the CEE region. El autor aplica la teoría de la virtud (epistemología y ética de la virtud, en particular a la cuestión de la educación jurídica, y, en ese contexto, examina las perspectivas futuras de un discurso basado en la virtud. Siguiendo la distinción aristotélica entre virtudes intelectuales y morales, el autor argumenta que las escuelas de Derecho deberían educar, además de en las destrezas apropiadas y en el conocimiento de la ley, en las virtudes intelectuales y morales necesarias para un ejercicio del Derecho socialmente productivo. Los primeros pasos para cambiar el pensamiento exageradamente formalista que parece caracterizar la educación jurídica y la práctica de la profesión en la región de Europa central y oriental podrían ser la identificación de las virtudes del jurista y la reflexión sobre cómo aquéllas podrían ser fomentadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3075146

  8. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  9. Out of Office : A Study on the Cause of Office Vacancy and Transformation as a Means to Cope and Prevent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remøy, H.

    2010-01-01

    Office building vacancy is becoming an increasingly visible part of the cityscape. Billboards shout “for rent” and office locations look abandoned even in the middle of the day. Still, new office buildings and locations are being developed, adding up to the built environment. As hardly any office

  10. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  11. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  12. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  13. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  14. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  15. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  16. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  17. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  18. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  19. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology – Transfer and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal Metrology’s requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408. We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology’s requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany’s Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology’s requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria’s generic requirements is also presented.

  20. Federal Agency Scientific Integrity Policies and the Legal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Federal agencies have worked to develop scientific integrity policies to promote the use of scientific and technical information in policymaking, reduce special-interest influences, and increase transparency. Following recent allegations of agency misconduct, these policies are now more important than ever. In addition to setting standards, scientific integrity policies also provide avenues for whistleblowers to complain about perceived violations. While these policies have their shortcomings (which may differ by agency), they are also one of the better available options for upholding principles of scientific integrity within the federal government. A legal perspective will be offered on what sorts of issues might rise to the threshold to make an official complaint, and the process of actually making a complaint. Other legal avenues for complaining about scientific integrity violations will also be discussed, such as complaints filed with the U.S. Office of Special Counsel or an agency's Office of Inspector General, and bringing the matter to federal court.

  1. The responsible radiation protection supervisor: Who actually is he? Legal entities under public law and their legal responsibilities pursuant to radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    All radiation protection relevant activities subject to licencing or notifying include observation of legally allocated responsibilities. Responsible radiation protection supervisor is the licence owner in person. If the holder is a legal entity, that entity is responsible as such. The executives of the entity exercise the functions of a responsible radiation protection officer, or may delegate them to an authorized deputy. In this case, the yardstick of a possible liability may be changed. The liability of the responsible persons is determined by the general legal regulations. (orig.) [de

  2. Distribution and Supply Chain Management: Educating the Army Officer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solseth, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    ... and distribution management environment. It analyzes how officers should attain these skills using the three pillars of leader development in Department of the Army Pamphlet 600-3, "Commissioned Officer Development and Career Management...

  3. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  4. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  5. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  6. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  7. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.

  8. The institutional cooperation of probation officers for adults as a part of supervision of the condemned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Świerczek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This text is the observation of the adult’s probation officer about institutional cooperation done as pa part of actions he made. The author presents the subject and the object of the actions of probation officers. He also discusses the actions that are necessary for the rehabilitation process to be effective. Presents duties of the probation officers. Shows the current legal instruments and routines established according to the civil code.By means of duties such as inspection, education, motivation and also diagnostical, verifying, disciplinary and penal actions, the author points at subjects that are necessary for the help to be effective. The tasks, that are done during rehabilitation process and social readaptation of the supervised, are conscious and intentional actions of the probation officers. They are done by means of attaining the subjectivity and individuality of the supervised. They are also adequate to their perceptual, intellectual and mental abilities. The author emphasized the fact that rehabilitation process would not be possible without the cooperation with other institutions as it would contradict the general and fundamental rules of the probation process. The cooperation, that is done in an open environment, is inseparable and integral aspect of educational-rehabilitation work.

  9. Fermilab Education Office - FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Education Office FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions Click on the question to see the answer and the difference between the Education Office and the Lederman Science Center? The Education Office is store selling logo items and science toys. The Education Office staff works on both the 15th floor of

  10. Office 365 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The information you need to create a virtual office that can be accessed anywhere Microsoft Office 365 is a revolutionary technology that allows individuals and companies of all sizes to create and maintain a virtual office in the cloud. Featuring familiar Office Professional applications, web apps, Exchange Online, and Lync Online, Office 365 offers business professionals added flexibility and an easy way to work on the go. This friendly guide explains the cloud, how Office 365 takes advantage of it, how to use the various components, and the many possibilities offered by Office 365. It provi

  11. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  13. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  14. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  15. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  16. Dust and radon: the legal implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sittert, J.M.O.

    1990-01-01

    It is known that radon gas is not generally considered to be a major problem when encountered in the working environment. However, in its process of decay, a series of four short lived daughter products are formed. In a dust-laden atmosphere these daughter products, which are ionized readily, attach to the particulate material and when inhaled are deposited in the alveoli of the lungs. Therefore, if respirable dust is controlled, the effects of radon daughters will also be minimized. The legal requirements for dust control in South Africa and their implications are discussed. 1 ill

  17. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  18. Legal Marketing and Lawyer's Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casolaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident.   Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione

  19. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  20. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  1. Everyday Representations of Tax Avoidance, Tax Evasion, and Tax Flight: Do Legal Differences Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris; Schneider, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    From an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden. Due to legal differences and moral concerns it is, however, likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either de...

  2. A Legal Reasoning Component of a Network Security Command and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    United States Code VA Vulnerability Assessment VLC Virtual Legal Cell xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to humbly thank Professor Bret...cyberspace environment. In this thesis, the authors address the information warrior’s challenge of obtaining just-in-time legal advice. They...PROPOSED VIRTUAL DYNAMIC LEGAL CELL One of the challenges in cyberspace is to define and detect a hostile act or the use of force. Another major

  3. Radiation protection officers in customs : an experience in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscar Bordon

    2008-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 events unleashed an offensive of the United States government to detect devices that could suppose a terrorist threat. One U.S. program entitled the Container Security Initiative affected all the customs in the world. All the countries desiring commerce with the USA must be signatory to the program; otherwise its products will not arrive to the U.S. ports. With that imposition Customs began to invest more in non-intrusive means of detection. The introduction of new equipment into the Customs environment forced the institution to enter a new area called radiation protection. The beginning was difficult due to the lack of knowledge concerning procedures in the ionizing radiation field. Not one legal regulation was known. Fortunately, the regulatory authority followed the purchase of the scanner and communicated the necessity of a license to operate and demanded that a qualified person in the radiation protection area be hired. Initially the main goal required the officer to obtain the license; however, this took some time because neither national nor international norms for scanners in Customs existed. At that time the recommendations of the regulatory authority were essential. Therefore, several procedures were adapted, thus reinforcing the necessity of specific rules for scanners in Customs. The support of the Customs director was essential. A department of radiation protection was created. Immediately a series of informative classes about radiation protection was administered producing changes in the minds of the employees, especially concerning the safety of working with ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the role of the radiation protection officer within Customs, the difficulties of this position, and the benefits that the collaboration of the officer can bring towards the construction of a safety culture in this institution. (author)

  4. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  5. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  6. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  7. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  8. Putting the "social" back in legal socialization: procedural justice, legitimacy, and cynicism in legal and nonlegal authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, legal socialization theory and research has been dominated by a cognitive developmental approach. However, more recent work (e.g., Fagan & Tyler, 2005) has used procedural justice to explain the legal socialization process. This article presents 2 studies that expand this approach by testing a procedural justice model of legal socialization in terms of legal and nonlegal authority. In Study 1, participants completed surveys assessing the degree to which they perceived 3 authorities (police officers, parents, and teachers) as procedurally fair, the degree to which they perceived the authorities as legitimate, how cynical they were about laws, and the extent of their rule violation during the past 6 months. Across all 3 authorities, legitimacy and legal cynicism mediated the relation between procedural justice and rule violation. Study 2 examined the model with the same 3 authority types using experimental methods. Participants read 3 scenarios describing an interaction between an adolescent and an authority figure where a rule is enforced. Within each scenario, we manipulated whether the adolescent had a voice and whether the authority enforced the rule impartially. After reading each scenario, participants rated the authority's legitimacy, their cynicism toward the authority's rule, and the likelihood they would violate the rule. Again, legitimacy and rule cynicism mediated the relation between impartiality, voice, and rule violation. In addition, impartiality had a stronger effect in the parent and teacher scenarios, whereas voice had a stronger effect in the police scenario. Results are discussed in terms of expanding legal socialization to nonlegal contexts and applying legal socialization research to prevention and intervention strategies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The universal legal framework against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehr, W.

    2007-01-01

    After the events of September 11, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) which has been called the 'Counter-Terrorism Code' of the world, because it creates legal obligations for all 192 Member States of the United Nations. UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004) and 1735 (2006) as well as a defined set of 13 global treaties constitute the universal legal framework against terrorism which must be implemented in a manner consistent with international human rights obligations. Basically, these 13 treaties as well as Resolution 1373 are international criminal law instruments. Within this universal legal framework, the framework against nuclear terrorism is constituted by Resolution 1540, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which entered into force in 1987, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings which is in force since 2001. These three legal instruments will be supplemented by the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, an amendment to the CPPNM and two Protocols amending the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, once these instruments, all of which were adopted in 2005, enter into force. The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assists countries which are in need of legislative assistance for the drafting of appropriate counter-terrorism laws that duly take into account the obligations contained in Resolution 1373, the United Nations sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban as well as in the 13 universal conventions for the prevention and the suppression of terrorism, including the CPPNM and the new International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. UNODC/TPB has also

  10. Updated EMAS declaration of the Federal Office for Environment Protection 2009 for the sites Dessau-Rosslau, Berlin-Bismarckplatz, Berlin-Marienfelde, Langen and the house 23 in Berlin-Dahlem; Aktualisierte EMAS-Umwelterklaerung des Umweltbundesamtes 2009 fuer die Standorte Dessau-Rosslau, Berlin-Bismarckplatz, Berlin-Marienfelde, Langen und das Haus 23 in Berlin-Dahlem. Der Zukunft verpflichtet - ein Zeichen setzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The environmental certificate under consideration describes the state of the art of the environmental targets and the most important developments in the environmental management system of the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany). Moreover, the most important environmental characteristic values are updated. Thus, the Federal Office for Environment Protection fulfills the formal EMAS regulation and documents the high requirement for the enhanced claim of the environmental management.

  11. Collective legal protection: The European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic goals of the EU justice policy is to ensure an efficient and effective legal protection, particularly in cross-border disputes and cases concerning the violation of rights guaranteed under the EU legislation. In order to accomplish this goal, the EU embarked on a horizontal harmonization of civil procedure in some sectors and reinforced the institutional cooperation of Member States in the field of civil justice. Concurrently, there were some legal interventions in the field of civil procedure, which contributed to establishing a number of European procedural mechanisms, such as: the European Small Claims Procedure (2007, the European Payment Order Procedure (2006, etc. Many studies and analyses show that procedural mechanisms of collective legal protection are essential for ensuring an efficient and effective legal protection of rights guaranteed by the EU law. The idea of introducing the collective legal protection instruments into the EU law has been present for more than two decades. It has been endorsed by the European Economic and Social Committee, which has played the key role in its promotion. In June 2013, after extensive consultations, the European Commission adopted the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Members States concerning violations of rights guaranteed under the EU law. This document has provided a coherent horizontal framework for the collective legal protection at the EU level by establishing the common European principles for collective redress mechanisms which the Member States should incorporate into their national systems. Analysis of the common principles governing the collective legal protection shows that the European approach to shaping the collective redress claims is significantly different from the American class action model, which is considered to be incompatible with the European legal tradition and deemed to provide a wide

  12. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  13. Ergonomic design for dental offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, David J; Sanders, Martha J; Turcotte, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the dental office environment influences productivity and workflow for dental clinicians. Advances in technology, and with it the range of products needed to provide services, have led to sprawl in operatory setups and the potential for awkward postures for dental clinicians during the delivery of oral health services. Although ergonomics often addresses the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders for specific populations of workers, concepts of workflow and productivity are integral to improved practice in work environments. This article provides suggestions for improving workflow and productivity for dental clinicians. The article applies ergonomic principles to dental practice issues such as equipment and supply management, office design, and workflow management. Implications for improved ergonomic processes and future research are explored.

  14. Labour law and communitarian legal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jašarević Senad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently adopted amendments to the Labour Code was accompanied by an extremely high resistance. While opponents consider amendments to the Law a big step back and point out that it is completely contrary to the standards of the International Labor Organization, advocates of the changes have emphasized the progressiveness. The most important argument to them was that the Code represents a substantial harmonization of our legislation with the advanced standards of EU law. Much of what have excelled both advocates and opponents of legal change is not actually correct. The main reason for the erroneous views was lack of knowledge of comparative and international labor standards. The law on the one hand is a step backwards when it comes to the protection of workers. On the other hand, it is a step forward it is a reform of the system of labor relations that was necessary and was forced by the international environment, from which our country in the era of globalization can not be excluded. Amendments to the Labour Code we see as a tendency to be in Serbia finally to establish a similar legal environment in the domain of work, as in the advanced countries of Western Europe.

  15. Legal Issues in Educational Technology: Implications for School Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses several legal issues involving the use of educational technology: Freedom of speech, regulation of Internet material harmful to minors, student-developed Web pages, harassment and hostile work environment, staff and student privacy, special education, plagiarism, and copyright issues. Includes recommendations for addressing technology…

  16. The Legal Context of Sexual Harassment in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses legal aspects of sexual harassment in educational settings: definitions, the central issue of impact on the educational environment, questions about consensual sexual relationships, the concept of welcomeness, rights of the accused, issues of academic freedom, and successful defenses. Overviews relevant legislation, court cases,…

  17. 183 Legal/Judicial Enforcement Approaches towards Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... The issue of children living with HIV is a serious problem in Nigeria. This .... The pregnant woman must not be exposed to work or environment which ..... cultural, legal and other barrier to HIV and AIDS . socio-cultural barriers.

  18. Implications of the ethical-legal framework for adolescent HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethical-legal framework in South Africa is in a period of transition, with a number of new developments changing the substantive principles and procedures for health research in the country. Some of the changing dynamics include both law reform and the review of ethical guidelines. This changing environment poses ...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Departmental Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requests to amend records for records maintained by the Departmental Offices will be made by the head of... Treasury, Room 3000, Main Treasury Building, 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20220. 7. Annual... guardian of any individual will be required to provide adequate proof of legal relationship before such...

  20. 16 CFR 1000.14 - Office of the General Counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advice and counsel to the Commissioners and organizational components of the Commission on matters of law... with the Department of Justice, is responsible for the conduct of all Federal court litigation to which.... The Office provides final legal review of and makes recommendations to the Commission on proposed...

  1. Legal Order Founded on Human Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work I approach a topic of great complexity, always anchored in social actuality because it addresses to an extremely sensitive area in which law is intertwined with the human wisdom. I start from the reality that human spiritual balance as an obvious sign of human wisdom can be maintained in a secured social balance of the social order, as a manifestation of this virtue at a community level. I insist on the interferences between universal and social order in which is enrolled as an individual component the legal order. The specificity of this latter form of the inter-human relations is ensured by the peculiar physiognomy of law rules. There are rules of human behaviour which although present some own features to other social norms (generality, impersonality, typicality, these stand out by their obligation which allows, when necessary, to be done using coercive state power. Both creation and especially interpretation and application of the law rules, involves the legislature wisdom, to impose people legal orders which to order and discipline their relations with the environment in which they live and other members of human community so as to make possible a social balance and harmonious coexistence of humans. Legal order gives concreteness and expression to some fundamental valences of law: justice, equity and righteousness. Therefore, in the vast majority of live situations, especially in cases in which norms of law express “the will of the many”, they convince through their correctness and validity, harmonizing with the interests and aspirations of those whom are addressed, which exclude the intervention of human coercive force. Here, is a sign of human wisdom. But also as a sign of human wisdom can be considered appropriate and necessary the coercive intervention of the state, when the violation of a right occurred, the social order (also the legal one being more or less disturbed. In these situations, law intervention is

  2. How to Teach Legal Concerns in a Basic Business Communication Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Provides a basic overview of legal concerns that affect communications in the business environment, including agency, defamation, credit and collection, information and privacy, employment, and copyright. Furnishes a teaching plan that suggests various classroom activities to help develop students' awareness of these legal concerns. Recommends…

  3. 40 CFR 85.1907 - Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility under other legal... Requirements § 85.1907 Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved. The filing of any report under the provisions of this subpart shall not affect a manufacturer's responsibility to file reports or...

  4. 40 CFR 90.806 - Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility under other legal... § 90.806 Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved. The filing of any report under the provisions of this subpart does not affect a manufacturer's responsibility to file reports or applications...

  5. 40 CFR 92.407 - Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility under other legal... Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.407 Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved. The filing of any report under the provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 94.407 - Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility under other legal...-related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.407 Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved. The filing of any report under the provisions of this subpart shall...

  7. 40 CFR 91.906 - Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility under other legal... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.906 Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved. The filing of any report under the provisions of this subpart will not...

  8. Smart and Sustainable Offices (SSO: Showcasing a holistic approach to realise the next generation offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cobaleda Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Sustainable Offices project (SSO is a product of years of research with large sets of data collected from more than 30 office buildings in Switzerland, Sweden, and Spain. Based on scientific evidence, the concept of SSO, initially conceived as a research plan to address the interdependencies between office users and their working environment in a European context, is now used as a qualitative and quantitative mixed method approach for office diagnosis and ideation. At the current stage, the SSO methodology aims to implement a new paradigm of user-oriented, lower carbon footprint and resilient office design solutions. The main strategy is articulated around the “office DNA” of every organisation, decoded as a compound of work patterns, operational and individual needs, and their potential to define design criteria. The practical application of SSO and its tentative findings exemplified through three pilot test office-demonstrators are described in this paper.

  9. NOAA Workforce Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Fellows (PMFs) Program Coordination Office - Leadership Development Program (PCO-LDP) Employee (NRAP) Presidential Management Fellows (PMFs) Program Coordination Office - Leadership Development ) NOAA Leadership Seminar (NLS) NOAA Rotational Assignment Program (NRAP) Presidential Management Fellows

  10. HUD's Local Office Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD is organized in 10 Regions. Each Region is managed by a Regional Administrator, who also oversees the Regional Office. Each Field Office within a Region is...

  11. Research into radiation protection. 1994 Programme report. Report on radiation departmental research programme on radiation protection, sponsored by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, and placed under the administrative and subject competence of the Federal Radiation Protection Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedde, R.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Thieme, M.

    1994-10-01

    On behalf of the Ministery for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Department Research Programme of the year 1994. (orig.) [de

  12. Research activities in radiation protection. Programme report 1996. Report on the departmental research programme of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), performed under the scientific and administrative project management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Thieme, M.; Goedde, R.

    1997-02-01

    On behalf of the Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Department Research Programme of the year 1996. (orig.) [de

  13. Research into radiation protection. 1995 Programme report. Report on radiation departmental research programme on radiation protection, sponsored by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, and placed under the administrative and subject competence of the Federal Radiation Protection Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, M.; Goedde, R.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    1996-01-01

    On behalf of the Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Department Research Programme of the year 1995. (orig.) [de

  14. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  15. Fermilab Education Office - Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Office of Education and Public Outreach: Contacts All telephone numbers require area code Presentations for Presenters 840-3094 Office of Education and Public Outreach Spencer Pasero spasero@fnal.gov Education Office 840-3076 Fermilab Friends for Science Education General Questions Susan Dahl sdahl@fnal.gov

  16. Fermilab Education Office - Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    on Education Server, but to take full advantage of all of this site's features, you should turn Custom Search Connect with the Fermilab Education Office! Facebook Fermilab Education Office Join these groups: Science Adventures Group Teacher Resource Center Group Twitter Fermilab Education Office For more

  17. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reprints a selection of recently published legislative texts and documents: - Russian Federation: Federal Law No.170 of 21 November 1995 on the use of atomic energy, Adopted by the State Duma on 20 October 1995; - Uruguay: Law No.19.056 On the Radiological Protection and Safety of Persons, Property and the Environment (4 January 2013); - Japan: Third Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (concerning Damages related to Rumour-Related Damage in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Food Industries), 30 January 2013; - France and the United States: Joint Statement on Liability for Nuclear Damage (Aug 2013); - Franco-Russian Nuclear Power Declaration (1 November 2013)

  18. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  19. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  20. The Institutionalization of Catholic Culture through the Student Life Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    The main research question of this study was: How do student life offices at four diverse Catholic colleges and universities create an environment that is expressive of a Catholic way of life? This research question was operationalized by two research sub questions: How do senior student affairs officers, mid-level student affairs officers, and…

  1. 40 CFR 1.49 - Office of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Water. 1.49 Section 1.49... INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.49 Office of Water. The Office of Water, under the supervision of the Assistant Administrator for Water who serves as the principal adviser to the Administrator in matters pertaining to water...

  2. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  3. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  4. Office type's association to employees' welfare: Three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Christina Bodin

    2016-08-12

    The workplace is important for employees' daily life and well-being. This article investigates exploratory the office design's role for employees' welfare from different perspectives. By comparing different studies of the office, type's influence on different factors of employees' welfare the aim is to see if any common patterns exist in office design's impact. The three included studies investigate office type's association with employees' welfare by measuring its influence on: a) perception of leadership, b) sick leave, and c) job satisfaction.The sample consists of office employees from a large, national representative work environment survey that work in one of the seven identified office types in contemporary office design: (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Statistical method used is multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment for background factors. Overall results show that shared-room office, traditional open plan offices and flex-office stand out negatively, but to different degree(s) on the different outcomes measured. This explorative comparison of different studies finds a pattern of office types that repeatedly show indications of negative influence on employees' welfare, but further studies are needed to clarify this.

  5. Office 2013 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    A basic introduction to learn Office 2013 quickly, easily, and in full color Office 2013 has new features and tools to master, and whether you're upgrading from an earlier version or using the Office applications for the first time, you'll appreciate this simplified approach. Offering a clear, visual style of learning, this book provides you with concise, step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots that walk you through the applications in the Microsoft Office 2013 suite: Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Publisher.Shows you how to tackle dozens of Office 2013

  6. Office 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2013-01-01

    Office 2013 For Dummies is the key to your brand new Office! Packed with straightforward, friendly instruction, this update to one of the bestselling Office books of all time gets you thoroughly up to speed and helps you learn how to take full advantage of the new features in Office 2013. After coverage of the fundamentals, you'll discover how to spice up your Word documents, edit Excel spreadsheets and create formulas, add pizazz to your PowerPoint presentation, and much more.Helps you harness the power of all five Office 2013 applications: Word, Excel, PowerPoint,

  7. 75 FR 25271 - Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International (SOTI) AGENCY: Office of Refugee... effects of torture. (2) Social and legal services for victims of torture. (3) Research and training for...

  8. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  9. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  10. THE TRANSFER OF THE COMPANY’S REGISTERED OFFICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Prelič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the relevant case law of The Court of Justice of the EU it is emphasized that the cross-border transfer of company’s registered office (and its real seat must be permitted in accordance with the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU. Nevertheless, the Fourteenth Company law Directive should be adopted for the reasons of legal certainty and it should determine, whether the transfer of the registered office (without transfer of company’s real seat to another Member State is admissible or not. Furthermore, the authors discuss the cross-border restructuring of the company, which in addition to relocation of the registered office also includes a change of its legal form. The Court of Justice of the EU has not yet decided on such cross-border restructuring, nevertheless it should be allowed based of the freedom of establishment (cross-border formal transformation.

  11. THE PUBLIC OFFICER - THE ACTIVE SUBJECT OF A CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ELENA BUZATU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to analyze the active subject of the crime committed by an individual - the public officer, for example - during his daily duty program or with reference to the attributions he has versus the public office he holds, in the light of the regulations provided not only by the Penal Code in force but also by the future New Penal Code, as, among the important amendments it provides, the definition of the public officer is also mentioned. In the case of such a trespassing, the active subject shall hold the quality of a public officer the way this quality is regulated by the Penal Code, even if the definition is much ampler as compared to the one given by the Statute of the Public Officers. According to Art 147, paragraph 1 Penal Code, a public officer is any individual who permanently or temporarily exercises - irrespective of his/her rank or of the way this office was appointed, a paid or unpaid task of no matter what nature or importance - in the service of a department Art 145 refers to. The regulation proposed in perfect agreement with the solutions offered by other international legislations and conventions in the domain, the definition of a public officer refers to the individual who - permanently or temporarily appointed, paid or unpaid - shall exercise attributions specific to the legislative, executive or judiciary powers, a function of public dignity or a function of any other type - alone or in a group - within a self-governing management of another economic agent or of a legal person with a whole or a greater capital, or belonging to a legally declared person capital or to a legal person considered to be of public utility - attributions connected with the object of the latter’s activity.

  12. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  13. EWEA 2012: conference on the legal framework of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeding, Veronique; Iuga, Dorina; Lintker, Stephanus; Edlich, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    At the occasion of 2012 Europe Wind energy event (EWEA), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the legal framework of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the French and German respective regulations and administrative procedures for wind energy projects. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Synthesis note of the wind turbines French regulation (Veronique Froeding); 2 - Wind Barriers Presentation - Administrative and Grid access barriers (Dorina Iuga); 3 - Wind energy in France - Legal framework: what's new? (Veronique Froeding); 4 - North Rhine-Westphalia and the Wind energy Decree from July 2011: NRW Pioneer in Wind energy in Germany (Stephanus Lintker); 5 - Duration and development costs of wind energy projects in France and in Germany (Sophie Edlich)

  14. Legal accountability for public school discipline: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda de Waal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining well-disciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in making decisions and dealing with discipline. This article adds a third challenge: convincing educators, learners and parents/caregivers of their accountability concerning creating/maintaining safe learning environments. Five subordinate legislation documents relevant to legal accountability are scrutinized, as well as relevant case law. The article follows a documentary comparative perspective using a secondary analysis method: appraising legal guidelines and asking questions to draw conclusions and make pragmatic action-oriented suggestions.

  15. Legal liability and claims for the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimcho Todorov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of various aspects of legal liability and claims to hotel management arising in the hotel industry in the context of the legal framework and possible legal consequences for hotels and other types of commercial accommodation establishments. The main reasons for accidents' occurrence in the hotel industry are chronologically traced. Possible claims to the hotel management are also presented in detail. The problem with workplace discrimination, which is considered as unrightfully actions from administration towards hospitably industry personnel and the connected consequences, is discussed. A definition is given of the various forms of discrimination and the obligations of management to provide a healthy work environment without problems for the personnel are stated, as well. Regulative measures and documents are also presented, regarding measures following possible labour law violations. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated and ways to prevent and overcome problems and accidents in various accommodation establishments and the hotel industry as a whole are shown

  16. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  17. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  18. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  19. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...

  20. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  1. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  2. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  3. PLEDGES OF A LEGAL ACADEMIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Tsegaye Regassa is currently a PhD Candidate at Melbourne University. Law School and can be reached at ... worthy commentator of our laws for our times, a defender of the civilization embodied in the laws of the ... As a legal academic, I note that I am part of the corps of intellectuals who, as society's paid thinkers, seek to ...

  4. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  5. Citizen Access to Legal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Kay L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes activities by the American Bar Association and other groups aimed at educating the public about their legal rights and responsibilities, including informational pamphlets and brochures issued by state bar associations. These public service information pamphlets are listed by state and the address of each state's bar association is…

  6. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  7. Legal regime of water management facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal regime of water management facilities in the light of Serbian, foreign and European law. Different divisions of water management facilities are carried out (to public and private ones, natural and artificial ones, etc., with determination of their legal relevance. Account is taken of the issue of protection from harmful effects of waters to such facilities, as well. The paper points also to rules on the water management facilities, from acts of planning, to individual administrative acts and measures for maintenance of required qualitative and quantitative condition of waters, depending on their purpose (general use or special, commercial use o waters. Albeit special rules on water management facilities exist, due to the natural interlocking between all the components of the environment (water, air and soil, a comprehensive approach is required. A reference is made to other basic principles of protection of water management facilities as well, such as the principle of prevention, principle of sustainable development and the principle "polluter pays". The last one represents the achievement of contemporary law, which deviates from the idea accepted in the second half of 20th century that supported the socialization of risk from harmful effects of waters.

  8. Legal framework of the environmental regulatory regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.

    1992-01-01

    The growing concern regarding environmental issues has presented a number of new challenges to those exploring and developing the hydrocarbon reserves located on the Newfoundland continental shelf. Not the least of these challenges is the development of new technologies in the harsh environment of the North Atlantic; in addition, these new technologies must be implemented in an existing and ever-changing regulatory regime. The legal framework of the environmental regulatory regime relating to offshore development in Canada is reviewed along with some of the more important legislation involved in regulating environmental issues in the offshore area. The legal basis for exploration, development, and management of resources located on the Newfoundland continental shelf is the Canada-Newfoundland Accord on Joint Management of Offshore Oil and Gas Resources off Newfoundland and Labrador. Administration of the Accord is the responsibility of the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. To be able to apply Canadian laws to the continental shelf, legislation was passed including the Canadian Laws Offshore Application Act as well as the Act implementing the Accord. The latter gives the Offshore Petroleum Board authority to regulate all stages involved in bringing an oil pool to production, such as granting of licenses and work authorizations. Granting of such licenses and authorizations is subject to compliance with environmental requirements, and there are provisions against certain environmental offenses such as spills. Other federal legislation applicable to the offshore includes the Canada Shipping Act and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act

  9. IMPROVING LEGAL ARGUMENT CRITICALLY IN THE LITIGATION MECHANISM IN INDONESIA (AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL VERDICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Lisdiyono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal argument is a debate or argument in explaining the issues between two or more people performed in court. Legal argument is one way to perform law finding with the purpose to avoid legal vacuum when the judge makes a legal reasoning in a verdict. In making a legal argument, it is at least performed by legal reasoning, logic, facts. However, some judges, in making a decision, did not use the legal arguments by legal reasoning and facts so that it resulted in debates and arguments. It is  interesting to study on how to build legal argument in the litigation mechanism in Indonesia. Some verdicts in Indonesia have been the debate among the public through social media, by both academic and non-academic communities, because they were not based on the legal facts revealed at the trials and not in favor of the public sense of justice. Some of the examples are the verdict in the case of the environmental lawsuits of Lapindo Brantas Mud in Sidoarjo, the case verdict in Palembang District Court on the lawsuit filed by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry on forest fires and land concessions of PT. Bumi Mekar Hijau in 2014. From the decisions, it turned out that the judges, in making the legal arguments for their decisions, had deviated from the analogy and were not based on the existing legal facts. In building legal arguments, it would have to be conducted by collecting data (evidence and clear fact so that its solutions do not deviate from the rules of law

  10. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  11. Implementing lean office: a successful case in public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Mónica F. J. R.; Pacheco, Claudia C. L.; Dinis-Carvalho, José; Paiva, Francisco C.

    2015-01-01

    Applying lean approaches in office areas can lead to performance improvements and other benefits as achieved in traditional manufacturing environments. The intangibility of office operations may appear as a major difficulty for lean implementations but in fact the benefits achievable are as important as the ones achieved in manufacturing environments. This paper reports a successful case of lean office implementation in a public sector organization giving emphasis to its major performance imp...

  12. User behavior in Smart and Sustainable Offices (SSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Kozusznik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart and Sustainable Offices (SSO require synergies between technologies and users behaviors. The sociotechnical approach considers users’ motives, attitudes, cognitions and behaviors when designing work environments. This note will describe those phenomena in office environments. It will also present a set of tools to assess those phenomena and will provide guidelines to improve them.

  13. 40 CFR 1.29 - Office of Inspector General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Inspector General. 1.29 Section 1.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION... operations. The Office provides leadership and coordination and recommends policies for other Agency...

  14. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld) has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP') or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. ...

  15. 78 FR 79643 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... consumer behavior; and questions about why comments on the Draft National Climate Assessment were not... Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of... Energy Consumers of America (IECA), American Gas Association (AGA), Cato Institute Center for Study of...

  16. 77 FR 74454 - Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Deciding Officers in the Southern Region will publish notice of decisions... newspapers listed in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this notice. The Southern Region consists of...

  17. Legal Duties and Legal Liabilities of Coaches toward Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.

  18. Autonomous driving technical, legal and social aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdes, J; Lenz, Barbara; Winner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    This book takes a look at fully automated, autonomous vehicles and discusses many open questions: How can autonomous vehicles be integrated into the current transportation system with diverse users and human drivers? Where do automated vehicles fall under current legal frameworks? What risks are associated with automation and how will society respond to these risks? How will the marketplace react to automated vehicles and what changes may be necessary for companies? Experts from Germany and the United States define key societal, engineering, and mobility issues related to the automation of vehicles. They discuss the decisions programmers of automated vehicles must make to enable vehicles to perceive their environment, interact with other road users, and choose actions that may have ethical consequences. The authors further identify expectations and concerns that will form the basis for individual and societal acceptance of autonomous driving. While the safety benefits of such vehicles are tremendous, the auth...

  19. A computerized legal information management system | Ohiagu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.

  20. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advises on a range of current legal and business issues impacting IDRC by ... legal and risk management practices, and recommending courses of action to ... in conducting its overseas operations;; advising on new legislation, such as the ...

  1. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.

  2. Legal technique: approaches to section on types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Д. Шутак

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal technique is a branch of knowledge about the rules of doing legal work and creating in the process a variety of legal documents, which had previously been part of the theory of law. In modern conditions of the legal technique are isolated in a separate branch of legal science, focused on solving practical problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of legal techniques, in particular, on the basis of theoretical propositions about legal technique to allocate substantial characteristics and types of legal technique. O. Malko and M. Matuzov consider legal technique as a set of rules, techniques, methods of preparation, creation, registration of legal documents, their classification and accounting for their excellence, efficient use. A similar meaning is investing in this concept Alekseev, determining that the legal technique is a set of tools and techniques used in accordance with accepted rules in the formulation and systematization of legal acts to ensure their perfection. So, legal technique – theoretical and applied legal science, which studies the regularities of rational legal practice in the creation, interpretation and implementation of law. In relation to the type of legal techniques in the literature proposed different classifications. For example, G. Muromtsev technique, which is used only in the field of law, divide on the technique of law-making (legislative technique, technique of law enforcement, interpretation, technique of judicial speech, interrogation, notarial activities. V. Kartashov shared legal technique on law making and enforcement (prorealtime, interpretive yourself and prevacidrebatezw, judicial or investigative, prosecutorial, and the like. Some authors clearly indicate that the criterion by which to distinguish types of legal techniques. So, S. Alekseev notes that legal technique is classified from the point of view of the legal nature of the act made on: a techniques of legal acts; b the

  3. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  4. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  5. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  6. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  7. Environment-friendly building complex of the BBVA bank in Madrid, Spain. Sustainable and healthy indoor climate in a new office building; Spaans BBVA-cornplex milieuvriendelijk gebouwd. Duurzaam en gezond binnenklimaat nieuw hoofdkantoor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G. [Swegon, Capelle aan den IJssel (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    In the design and construction of the new office building of the Spanish bank BBVA (Madrid) sustainability and environmental effects were important aspects. The office building complex will certified by the American company Leed Gold. The energy efficient installations are made possible by Eurovent-certified heat recovery units and comfort units. [Dutch] Bij de bouw van het nieuwe hoofdkantoor van de Spaanse bank BBVA in Madrid staan duurzaamheid en milieuvriendelijkheid hoog in het vaandel. Het complex zal na de oplevering worden gecertificeerd conform het Amerikaanse Leed Gold. De energiezuinige installatie wordt mede mogelijk gemaakt door Eurovent-gecertificeerde wtw-units en comfortunits.

  8. Technical and legal application possibilities of the compulsory labelling of the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances - Project No. 53/03. Final report for the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour; Technische und rechtliche Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten einer verpflichtenden Kennzeichnung des Leerlaufverbrauchs strombetriebener Haushalts- und Buerogeraete - Dienstleistungsvorhaben Nr. 53/03. Abschlussbericht an das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Cremer, C.; Friedewald, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2005-04-27

    The standby consumption of electrical households and office appliances continues to be significant world-wide since the number of products with standby componen ts is constantly increasing. For Germany, a recent assessment of the Fraunhofer ISI (Cremer et al. 2003) for 2001 arrived at an electricity demand of almost 15 TWh for household and office appliances in standby mode. i.e. in standby and off -mode. This represents almost 40% of the total consumption of these appliances and around 3% of the total electricity demand of the final energy sectors in Ge rmany. The standby share in electricity demand is over 80 or even 90% for numer ous appliances. The Federal Environmental Agency calculated that every year stan dby losses in German households and offices are responsible for wasted electrici ty amounting to 3.5 billion Euro (UBA 2004). For the OECD countries, field studi es show that between 3 and 13% of the electricity consumption of households can be ascribed to standby losses (IEA 2001). Without energy policy measures on bot h national and international levels, there is a great risk that a further increa se in standby consumption will occur. Many studies dealing with this subject hav e already been conducted and have shown that low standby consumption is technica lly feasible and usually achievable at a reasonable cost. One possible energy po licy measure to reduce the standby consumption of electrical household and offic e appliances is the introduction of mandatory consumption labelling. In principl e, a high degree of effectiveness is attributed to such regulatory/command-and-c ontrol measures with regard to influencing the energy efficiency of devices. Com pulsory energy labels to identify and, where necessary, to classify electricity consumption produce greater market transparency and offer buyers an additional d ecision criterion. In this way they promote indirectly the development, producti on and supply of energy-efficient products. When combined with

  9. Today Is the Tomorrow We Talked about Yesterday: Preparing Students for Working in the Office of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherly, Donna J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses changes in the office environment due to increased automation. Topics include (1) what changes will occur, (2) how they will affect office workers, and (3) how to prepare students for work in automated offices. (CH)

  10. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  11. The interface of legal and esthetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Smardon

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an overview of development of legal/policy factors affecting visual resource management. Review of major legal issues, court cases, laws and administrative decisionmaking reveals that the "action" regarding legal and aesthetic issues is currently in the public arena as managed by administrative agencies. Analysis of key court cases reveals that...

  12. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Develops systems and procedures for administering and tracking legal undertakings, coordinates and consolidates the legal information in order to meet deadlines. • Collaborates with the Secretary and General Counsel to ensure that all legal issues are handled efficiently, while respecting the highly confidential nature of ...

  13. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  14. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  15. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  16. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  17. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  18. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  19. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  20. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  1. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  2. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  3. Chernobyl and no legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzel, D.

    1987-01-01

    The author is doubtful about the judgement of the Superior Administrative Court Lueneburg of October 28, 1986 relating to the nuclear power plant of Brokdorf. Fundamental rights of citizens who live in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant are not guaranteed. The protection of life according to article 2 of the German Constitution should have priority over legal protection of atomic power plants pursuant to art. 14 of the Constitution. (CW) [de

  4. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  5. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  6. Legal Parameters of Space Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe

    2004-01-01

    The commercial concept of space tourism raises important legal issues not specifically addressed by first generation rules of international spacelaw. The principles established in the nineteen sixties and seventies were inspired by the philosophy that exploration of space was undertaken by and for the benefit of mankind. Technical developments since then haveincreased the potential for new space applications, with a corresponding increase in commercial interest in space. If space tourism is t...

  7. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  8. Fundamentals of legal argumentation : A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new

  9. Multi-office engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowle, E.S.; Hall, L.D.; Koss, P.; Saheb, E.; Setrakian, V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the viability of multi-office project engineering as has been made possible in a large part by the computer age. Brief discussions are provided on two past projects describing the authors' initial efforts at multi-office engineering, and an in-depth discussion is provided on a current Bechtel project that demonstrates their multi-office engineering capabilities. Efficiencies and cost savings associated with executing an engineering project from multiple office locations was identified as a viable and cost-effective execution approach. The paper also discusses how the need for multi-office engineering came about, what is required to succeed, and where they are going from here. Furthermore, it summarizes the benefits to their clients and to Bechtel

  10. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  11. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers' Association (PMA) and most of its members took government to court. ... Since 2 May 2004, it has been unlawful to supply medicines. 'according ... This article focuses on some of the key issues that are of ... chain for some time.

  12. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  13. Legal framework for food fortification: examples from Vietnam and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Van, Khan Tran; Laillou, Arnaud

    2013-06-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs. Fortification efforts in Indonesia and Vietnam are evaluated using published data as well as unpublished data from detailed evaluation reports, and compared with respect to the specific circumstances, constraints, objectives and results in each country. The legal framework is a crucial factor for the success of food fortification programs, as it shapes to a large extent the implementation of food fortification. The legal framework is instrumental to ensure the quality, safety, availability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of food fortification. In the first place, the legal framework should specify the fortificants and fortification levels, as well as the food vehicles and the fortification procedures. In addition, it should ensure the commitment of policy makers and producers to fortification, regulate the costing, describe and ensure information and communication such as product labeling integrate social marketing into the implementation, and provide the means to monitor and enforce fortification. A clear public health objective, together with careful consideration of the choices and restrictions dictated by the specific national environments, will help to develop legal frameworks that optimize the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and

  14. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  15. Investigating correlation between legal and physical property: possibilities and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, E.; Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary urban environment is characterized by complexity and mixed use of space, in which overlapping land parcels and different RRRs (Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities) are frequent phenomena. Internationally, real property legislation either focuses on surface property or has introduced individual 3D real property units. The former approach merely accommodates issues related to subdivision, expropriation and transactions on part of the real property above or below surface, while the latter provides for defining and registering 3D real property units. National laws require two-dimensional real property descriptions and only a limited number of jurisdictions provide for threedimensional data presentation and recording. International awareness on 3D Cadastre may be apparent through the proposals for transition of existing cadastral systems to 3D along with legal amendments improving national 3D Cadastre legislation. Concurrently the use of appropriate data sources and the correct depiction of 3D property units' boundaries and spatial relationships need to be addressed. Spatial relations and constraints amongst real world objects could be modeled geometrically and topologically utilizing numerous modeling tools, e.g. CityGML, BIM and further sophisticated 3D software or by adapting international standards, e.g. LADM. A direct correlation between legal and physical property should be based on consistent geometry between physical and legal space, improving the accuracy that legal spaces' volumes or locations are defined. To address these issues, this paper investigates correlation possibilities and constraints between legal and physical space of typical 3D property cases. These cases comprise buildings or their interior spaces with mixed use, as well as complex structures described by explicit facade patterns, generated by procedural or by BIM ready 3D models. The 3D models presented are evaluated, regarding compliancy to physical or legal reality.

  16. Sedentary Behavior of White Collar Office Workers-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkin, T. J.; Sarkar, Swarjit

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the physical activity time (PAT) of white collar office workers in order to assess the levels of sedentary activity in an office environment. Analysing the office workers PAT will not only allow an insight into how an office based job could impact a person’s overall health and wellness status, but will also allow for the development of future office based inter ventions aimed at increasing the overall physical activity among white collar of...

  17. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  18. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  19. Evolution for our time: a theory of legal memetics

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Deakin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance for legal thought of recent developments in evolutionary theory which are associated with the notion of 'memetics'. 'Memetics' aims to account for processes of cultural transmission and change using a version of the 'genetic metaphor'. This is the idea that patterns of cultural evolution are closely analogous to those which occur in the natural world as a result of the interaction between genes, organisms and environments. At a further,...

  20. Office 2013 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This complete training package makes learning the new Office 2013 even easier! Featuring both a video training DVD and a full-color book, this training package is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson of learning Office 2013, all while you work at your own pace. The self-paced lessons allow you to discover the new features and capabilities of the new Office suite. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstrate how to do tasks. This essential

  1. Office 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John; Groh, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    The best of the best from the bestselling authors of Excel, Word, and PowerPoint Bibles !. Take your pick of applications from the Office 2010 suite and your choice of leading experts to show you how to use them. This Office 2010 Bible features the best-of-the-best content from the Excel 2010 Bible , by "Mr. Spreadsheet" John Walkenbach; the Word 2010 Bible by Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson; the PowerPoint 2010 Bible , by PowerPoint expert Faithe Wempen; and coverage of Access 2010 from Microsoft MVP Michael Alexander. If you want to quickly and effectively begin using Office 2010, start i

  2. Medico-legal claims against English radiologists: 1995–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, S F S

    2009-01-01

    A list of claims against radiologists from 1995–2006 was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. It shows a total of 440 claims. The largest number of claims (199) related to delayed or missed diagnoses of cancer, and 73 claims related to breast radiology. There is a trend for a mild increase in the number of claims each year. 30 claims were made after a false-positive diagnosis of cancer. Just under £8.5 million has so far been paid in damages, with a further £5 million in legal fees. A claim for multiple missed diagnoses of breast cancer led to a pay-out of £464 000 (£673 000 after legal fees); the largest sum awarded following a delay in the diagnosis of an individual cancer was £300 000. The subtle legal distinction between error and negligence is reviewed here. The reason why breast radiologists are more likely to be sued than any other type of British radiologist is also discussed, along with the implications for UK radiological practice, particularly in light of the recent Chief Medical Officer's report on revalidation. A method is proposed that may protect radiologists from allegations of clinical negligence in the future. PMID:19470570

  3. Medico-legal claims against English radiologists: 1995-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, S F S

    2009-12-01

    A list of claims against radiologists from 1995-2006 was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. It shows a total of 440 claims. The largest number of claims (199) related to delayed or missed diagnoses of cancer, and 73 claims related to breast radiology. There is a trend for a mild increase in the number of claims each year. 30 claims were made after a false-positive diagnosis of cancer. Just under pound8.5 million has so far been paid in damages, with a further pound5 million in legal fees. A claim for multiple missed diagnoses of breast cancer led to a pay-out of pound464 000 ( pound673 000 after legal fees); the largest sum awarded following a delay in the diagnosis of an individual cancer was pound300 000. The subtle legal distinction between error and negligence is reviewed here. The reason why breast radiologists are more likely to be sued than any other type of British radiologist is also discussed, along with the implications for UK radiological practice, particularly in light of the recent Chief Medical Officer's report on revalidation. A method is proposed that may protect radiologists from allegations of clinical negligence in the future.

  4. INCRIMINATING THE CONFLICT OF INTERESTS IN ROMANIA: RECENT LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MAREȘ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at outlining the evolution of the Romanian criminal law provisions incriminating the conflict of interests, starting from its insertion, as of 2006, into the Criminal Code of 1968, until the up-to-date version of the offence as per the Criminal Code in force, renamed as use of the position for favouring persons, as amended by Law no. 193/2017. In this context, the approaches of the legal text in the well-established case-law of the judicial bodies as well as of the Constitutional Court and legal literature are highly relevant in order to explain the rationale behind the shaping of the legal content of the offence. The diachronic delineation shall be supplemented by elements of comparative law. Where appropriate, reference shall also be made to the administrative type of liability that may be incurred in a conflict of interest case and the relationship thereof with the proceedings in criminal matters or to distinctions between the analysed offence and other offences falling into the category of malfeasance in office or corruption offences. The conclusions of this examination emphasise the need for predictability and proper understanding of the criminological layer in tackling the conflict of interest phenomenon.

  5. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the...

  6. Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2009-12-15

    Presented is the 2009 Chief Financial Officer's Annual Report. The data included in this report has been compiled from the Budget Office, the Controller, Procurement and Property Management and the Sponsored Projects Office.

  7. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    governmental actions during emergency situations. At a minimum, the courts have shown a high degree of deference and provided immunity protection for discretionary governmental actions. For example, government organizations are often protected from legal redress for making basic policy decisions such as whether or not to implement an early warning system for emergency actions. Some national and state governments, however, have gone further to provide a legal shield of immunity through specific statutory enactments. Statutory protections generally extend to both the governmental organizations and the decision makers therein. In contrast, these protections are not always extended to third parties such as private businesses, which are often part of the chain of people and organizations that are critical for providing emergency notifications to the public. These businesses include the warning devices manufacturers, the communications systems installers, the software developers, and many other non-governmental parties essential to notifying the public. It can be argued that the legal risk in providing these private sector products or services serves to ensure their quality. But these businesses' real or perceived risk of liability could dissuade their participation in the notification system, or at least chill their innovation. Those involved in designing, developing, implementing, and operating emergency notification systems must consider how their unique situation will be impacted and potentially altered by the legal environment, or in some cases how they should affect change to that legal environment in order to have successful warning systems.

  8. Research activities in radiation protection. Programme report 1997. Report on the departmental research programme of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), performed under the scientific and administrative project management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Goedde, R.; Thieme, M.

    1998-03-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Departmental Research Programme of the year 1997. (orig.) [de

  9. Features interior design offices

    OpenAIRE

    Novikov, A. S.; National Aviation University, Ukraine

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the laws and the formation of office space inthe current conditions and investigate the application of the latest technical tools aesthetics to improve the quality of design solutions.

  10. Planning for Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  11. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  12. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best...

  13. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  14. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  15. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  16. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  17. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  18. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  19. Legal framework for e-research : realising the potential

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Legal Framework for e-Research: Realising the Potential provides an overview of key legal issues facing e-Research. Part One of this book considers the broader prospect and context of what e-Research will allow. Part Two looks more closely at the role law will play in the e-Research environment. Part Three focuses on the key issues of data exchange and data management highlighting important legal issues. Part Four reflects on the changing nature of Scholarly Communications while Part Five looks at the fundamental role of agreements for collaborative endeavour (contracts) in structuring collaboration and calls for greater consideration of way we can streamline the process. Part Six examines the role and operation of privacy law in an e-Research world while Part Seven posits a new approach to commercialisation that embraces the paradigm of open innovation. Part Eight looks at the international legal implications for e-Research and Part Nine considers the national survey we undertook on e-Research, collaborative...

  20. Discovery of ETI: Terrestrial and extraterrestrial legal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasan, Ernst

    TheLegalSituationonEarth: The following international legal regulations seem to apply to the search for and the eventual detection of ETI: a) The "Space Treaty" of Oct. 10, 1967; b) The Liability Convention of Oct. 9, 1973; c) The Moon Agreement of Dec. 5, 1979; d) The International Telecommunication Convention. LegalRelationswithExtraterrestrials: We may expect the following characteristics of ETI: 1. life in the sense of influencing the environment by selection from more than one possibility; 2. intelligence in the sense of self-realization of free will; 3. existence in three dimensional space and a will to live. With this we can expect that each race in the universe may have the following interests regarding its own race: a) to preserve and continue its own life; b) to protect this life from damage and intrusion; c) possibly to expand the realms of its living space. Therefore, if we decide to "answer" ETI, we may want to transmit such legal-philosophical principles: 1. the principle of nonviolation; 2. the principle of equality; 3. the principle to recognize the will to live and the living space of any intelligent race.

  1. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field is going to be the strengthening of the bond between international investments and environmental protection. It is insisted on the attitude that our law needs to approach adequately to the matter of legal valorization of the environmental protection issue. This requires the creating of a complex, coherent approach that should be based on adequate legal superstructure and amendments to the existing Law on Foreign Investments. The main direction of changes implies that the current obligation of foreign investors in this field should be raised onto a higher level and foreign investments should be placed in the function of accomplishing of the concept of sustainable development. However, such an approach has to be accompanied by appropriate mechanism of control and supervision in the given field, if its full effectiveness is to be achieved.

  2. The Sustainable Office. An exploration of the potential for factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be translated to the office market. The PhD research presented in this thesis focussed on finding solutions effectively contributing to factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation. In order to ...

  3. Assessing Performance of Three BIM-Based Views of Buildings for Communication and Management of Vertically Stratified Legal Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Atazadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multistorey buildings typically include stratified legal interests which provide entitlements to a community of owners to lawfully possess private properties and use communal and public properties. The spatial arrangements of these legal interests are often defined by multiplexing cognitively outlined spaces and physical elements of a building. In order to support 3D digital management and communication of legal arrangements of properties, a number of spatial data models have been recently developed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Building Information Modelling (BIM domains. While some data models, such as CityGML, IndoorGML or IFC, provide a merely physical representation of the built environment, others, e.g., LADM, mainly rely on legal data elements to support a purely legal view of multistorey buildings. More recently, spatial data models integrating legal and physical notions of multistorey buildings have been proposed to overcome issues associated with purely legal models and purely physical ones. In previous investigations, it has been found that the 3D digital data environment of BIM has the flexibility to utilize either only physical elements or only legal spaces, or an integrated view of both legal spaces and physical elements to represent spatial arrangements of stratified legal interests. In this article, the performance of these three distinct BIM-based representations of legal interests defined inside multistorey buildings is assessed in the context of the Victorian jurisdiction of Australia. The assessment metrics are a number of objects and geometry batches, visualization speed in terms of frame rate, query time, modelling legal boundaries, and visual communication of legal boundaries.

  4. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  5. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  6. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  8. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  9. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  10. Sleep Forensics: a critical review of the literature and brief comments on the Brazilian legal situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Delgado-Rodrigues

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new field among Medical Sciences. Its legal aspects are still obscure, either for lack of knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying violent behaviour during sleep or the virtual absence of clear legal and uniformly accepted guidelines as to whether to punish or treat those disorders. An updated review of the pertinent literature was performed to determine the most prevalent pathological conditions involving violence and sleep and to identify their most common precipitating factors, attempting to provide some technical support to aid Brazilian medical-experts or assistants in preparing substantial and scientific-based reports in a legal environment.

  11. Legal aspects of biobanking as key issues for personalized medicine & translational exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    the legal framework for biobanking and in particular for the challenges posed by PM. We conclude that any decisions as to the design of the regulatory environment should follow a process that takes account of the values, hopes and concerns of all stakeholders involved. In particular, we stress...... how the legal and ethical challenges might be dealt with analytically and in a practical way that reflects the concerns and interest of stakeholders in biobanking and results in a transparent, legally and ethically robust system. In our closing remarks we make recommendations on how to improve...

  12. Microsoft office 365 for lawyers a practical guide to options and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Schorr, Ben M

    2014-01-01

    Since Microsoft launched Office 365 in 2011, its popularity with small and midsized law firms has skyrocketed. Even large firms have been transitioning to Office 365 in droves as their legacy systems age. Microsoft Office 365 for Lawyers answers-in plain English-all of the common questions that lawyers ask when they're considering if they should migrate their firms to Office 365. Written specifically for lawyers by a twenty-year veteran of legal technology, this essential book offers guidance on how to set up, manage, and migra

  13. International Double Taxation Avoidance (Domestic Legal Regulations and Fiscal Conventions Concluded by Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia LEFTER; Simona CHIRICĂ

    2010-01-01

    The avoidance of double taxation has been firstly introduced in the Romanian legislation in 1973. Due to the permanent development of the economic, legal, social, etc. and global environment, Romania adapted accordingly her legal tax provisions in tax law area. One of the most relevant moments is the accession of Romanian into European Union. During pre- and after accession phase Romania has adopted the mandatory European fiscal legislation. Beeing member of EU, Romania has indirectly amended...

  14. Is The Legal Practice Course Training Future Solicitors to Avoid Professional Negligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Mark R

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 the Law Society for England and Wales introduced the Legal Practice Course as the final major taught and examined stafe of solicitors' training replacing the previous Law Socity Finals Course. In this article it is argued that many of the occurrences of solicitors negligence result not from a lack of legal knowledge but from poor working practices. The article considers whether the LPC meets the challenge of better preparing future solicitors for a modern and changing practice environ...

  15. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  16. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  17. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  18. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  20. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  1. Visions of the Future of (Legal) Education

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.

  2. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  3. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  4. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  5. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  6. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  7. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  8. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  9. LEGAL DRAFTING IN CROATIA - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Đerđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of legal drafting and its essential elements, which has not drawn a lot of attention in the Republic of Croatia so far. The paper emphasises the importance of proportionality in the simplicity and legal distinctness of a legal text in the process of drafting for the purpose of its clarity. The paper also presents objective requirements necessary for quality legal drafting, as well as subjective qualities of the drafters. With the purpose of drawing attention to imperfections in the legal drafting in Croatia, some defi ciencies are presented in the process of drafting and amending of the Utility Services Act. The process of drafting and amending of this Act is a good example of the way how legal drafting should not be done. It contains a lot of defi ciencies and failures that are the result of legal drafting mistakes. At the end, authors expect that the adoption of the Uniform methodology and nomotechnical rules for the drafting of acts enacted by Parliament should contribute to the higher quality of legal texts and to their full adjustment to the general requirements of legal certainty and rule of law.

  10. LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia-Raluca ONIŞOR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the legal effects of mergers and acquisitions from the Romanian Company Law perspective, underlining certain general principles, the procedure of annulment of such a legal transformation of companies and the protection of the employees of companies participating in the merger according to the Law no. 67/2006. These consequences of mergers and acquisions are to be seen in the broader light of the most important purpose of this legal instrument, maximizing financial and organizational efficiencies, thus legal certainty is a desirable goal to be assumed by any merger regulation.

  11. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  12. Genesis of regulatory and legal provision of financial safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Pataridze-Vyshynska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main problems that concern regulatory and legal provision of financial safety. The scientific groundwork of researchers of this matter in Ukraine is analyzed and its gaps are revealed. The state competences concerning the regulation of financial safety are investigated. The legal provision of financial safety in a retrospective section is considered. The short characteristic of the main legal instruments that make the subsoil for formation of financial safety environment is provided. The main stages of legislative process of ensuring financial safety are found out. The paradigm of financial safety formation is generalized. The possibilities of ensuring financial safety in different areas of the state financial policy through the definition of problem aspects and ways of their decision are defined. It is certain that the problem of protection of national interests in the economic sphere is rather actual, especially in formation of financial safety environment in modern conditions. This problem is subject to further investigation of both lawmakers and scientists-economists.

  13. Ethical and legal challenges associated with disaster nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Hammad, Karen; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh

    2015-06-01

    In disaster situations, nurses may face new and unfamiliar ethical and legal challenges not common in their everyday practice. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian nurses' experience of disaster response and their perception of the competencies required by nurses in this environment. This article discusses the findings of a descriptive study conducted in Iran in 2012. This research was conducted in Iran in 2012. Participants included 35 nurses who had experience in healthcare delivery following a disaster event in the past 10 years, either in a hospital or out-of-hospital context. This research study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From this study, five themes emerged as areas that nurses require competence in to work effectively in the disaster setting. This article focusses on one theme, the ethical and legal issues that arise during disaster response. Within the theme of ethical and legal issues, two sub-themes emerged. (1) Professional ethics explores professional responsibility of nurses as well as sense of ethical obligation. (2) Adherence to law refers to nurses' familiarity with and observation of legal requirements. This article adds to a growing pool of literature which explores the role of nurses in disasters. The findings of this study emphasize the need for nurses working in the disaster setting to be aware of professional responsibilities and familiar with legal requirements and the challenges related to observing ethical responsibilities. In highlighting these issues, this article may provide a useful starting point for the development of an educational framework for preparing nurses and other health professionals to work in the disaster setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  15. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  16. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  17. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  18. The new legal basis of the EU's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farantouris, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    According to article 194 of the EU Lisbon Treaty, energy now falls within the province of European policy and is a sector for shared responsibility with member countries, in the same way as for the environment, transportation, the interior market and trans-European networks (article 4 of the Lisbon Treaty). The introduction in the Treaty of a chapter devoted to energy clearly has a political emphasis, as its shows the EU's attachment to the implementation of a coherent policy. However, its enactment carries with it not insignificant legal changes, because a specific and autonomous legal basis is established for the first time, thus allowing the Union to take decisions and actions in the area of energy. (author)

  19. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  20. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths linked with trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Broi, Ugo; Colatutto, Antonio; Sala, Pierguido; Desinan, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Sudden deaths attributed to sniffing trichloroethylene are caused by the abuse of this solvent which produces pleasant inebriating effects with rapid dissipation. In the event of repeated cycles of inhalation, a dangerous and uncontrolled systemic accumulation of trichloroethylene may occur, followed by central nervous system depression, coma and lethal cardiorespiratory arrest. Sometimes death occurs outside the hospital environment, without medical intervention or witnesses and without specific necroscopic signs. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths associated with trichloroethylene demand careful analysis of the death scene and related circumstances, a detailed understanding of the deceased's medical history and background of substance abuse and an accurate evaluation of all autopsy and laboratory data, with close cooperation between the judiciary, coroners and toxicologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.