WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal min drink

  1. Alcohol consumption among high-risk Thai youth after raising the legal drinking age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Patel, Shivani A; Galai, Noya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Limaye, Rupali J; Manowanna, Sutassa; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, A

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine and alcohol are the leading substances abused by Thai youth. In 2008 the government passed laws that limited alcohol availability and increased the legal drinking age from 18 to 20. We assessed whether the law reduced drinking among methamphetamine-using 18-19 year olds in Chiang Mai. The study compares drinking patterns among methamphetamine smokers aged 18-19 years (n=136) collected prior to the legal changes, to a comparable post-law sample (n=142). Statistical tests for differences between the pre- and post-law samples on problem drinking and recent drinking frequency and drunkenness were conducted. Logistic regression modeled the relative odds of frequent drunkenness, controlling for demographic characteristics. A high prevalence of problematic drinking was present in both samples, with no difference detected. The post-law sample reported a significantly higher median days drunk/month (9 vs. 4, p≤0.01); in adjusted analysis, frequent drunkenness (>5.5 days/month) was more common in the post-law compared to pre-law period in the presence of other variables (AOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3, 3.9). Post-law participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the law's components. The study suggests that the new laws did not reduce drinking among high-risk, methamphetamine-smoking 18-19 year olds; rather, the post-law period was associated with increased drinking levels. The data indicate that the law is not reaching high-risk under-aged youth who are at risk of a number of deleterious outcomes as a result of their substance use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: Long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R.; Norberg, Karen E.; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Methods Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990–2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed which incorporated state and birth year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. Results In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18, p=0.0003) and homicide (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; p=0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Conclusions Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. PMID:22085045

  4. The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R; Norberg, Karen E; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-02-01

    Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990 to 2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed, which incorporated state and birth-year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.18, p = 0.0003) and homicide (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.25, p = 0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui G. Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US, and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’. We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014. Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset. Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]. An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21] and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]. Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED

  6. Investigation on deterrence effect of legal punishment measures on driving after drinking in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Driving after drinking is one of the main causes associated with road accidents in China. China has been concerned about this serious problem and updated the regulations of road traffic safety law about driving after drinking 3 times in the last 10 years to deter this offense. The deterrence effect of the current punishment measures implemented since January 2013 was studied in this article. Data applied in the study were collected by questionnaire surveys carried out in Chongqing, a city in southwest China. A total of 329 drivers participated in 3 rounds of the survey and a 5-point scale rating was applied in the investigation. There was a slight difference between drivers' familiarity of the law regarding driving after drinking in April 2013 and April 2014. The perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking was higher in April 2013 than in April 2014 and it had a time-dependent decreasing tendency. Our investigations also show that license suspension is the most practical and effective measure and penalty points system ranks second. A monetary fine appears to be inefficient to achieve the desired effects. The fourth edition of the Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China, which took effect in January 2013 coinciding with the application of random breath testing and intensification of enforcement activity, is effective in deterring driving after drinking according to our investigation. More measures should be implemented to change the decreasing tendency of perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking. An increase in the monetary fine is suggested.

  7. Effects of a stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention targeting alcohol use in university students of legal drinking age: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Thomas; Braun, Michael; Laging, Marion; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Michalak, Johannes; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n=514], AO [n=467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=194], AO [n=231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=146], AO [n=200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Alcohol and Other Substance Use Reduced When College Students Attend Alcohol-Free Programs? Evidence from a Measurement Burst Design Before and After Legal Drinking Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, Eric K; Calhoun, Brian H; Russell, Michael A; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-03-08

    College drinking and its negative consequences remain a major public health concern. Yet, many prevention efforts targeting college drinkers are expensive, are difficult to implement, use indicated approaches targeting only high-risk drinkers, and/or are only marginally effective. An alternative strategy taken explicitly or implicitly by many colleges is campus-led alcohol-free programming which provides students with attractive leisure alternatives to drinking on weekend nights. This study aimed to extend work by Patrick et al. (Prevention Science, 11, 155-162, 2010), who found that students drank less on weekend nights they attended LateNight Penn State (LNPS) activities during their first semester of college. Here, daily diary and longitudinal data on college students' daily lives and risk behaviors were collected from 730 students on 19,506 person-days across seven semesters at a large university in the Northeastern United States. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate alcohol and illegal substance use on weekend days as a function of LNPS attendance, gender, legal drinking status (≥ 21 years), and day of the weekend. Across college, students who attended LNPS used alcohol and illegal substances less in general and less on days they participated compared to themselves on days they did not participate. Legal drinking status moderated the association between LNPS attendance and alcohol and illegal substance use such that levels of use were lowest for students under 21 years old on weekend days they attended LNPS. Our findings provide support for campus-led alcohol-free programming as a potential harm reduction strategy on college campuses.

  9. Historical Variation in Young Adult Binge Drinking Trajectories and Its Link to Historical Variation in Social Roles and Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines historical variation in age 18 to 26 binge drinking trajectories, focusing on differences in both levels of use and rates of change (growth) across cohorts of young adults over 3 decades. As part of the national Monitoring the Future Study, over 64,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976 to 2004 were surveyed at…

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youth should not drink alcohol. Support effective community strategies to prevent binge drinking, such as those recommended by the Community Guide.* Support local control of the marketing and sale of alcohol. Support the minimum legal drinking age ...

  11. Se min kjole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen Se min kjole udkom i anledning af 50-året for de første ordinationer af kvindelige præster i den danske folkekirke i 1948. Bogen giver analyser af, hvad kvindelige præster har betydet for præsterollen og for prædikengenren; den fortæller om de første kvindelige præsters liv og syn på forkyn...

  12. MinC/MinD copolymers are not required for Min function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Du, Shishen; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Summary In Escherichia coli, precise placement of the cytokinetic Z ring at midcell requires the concerted action of the three Min proteins. MinD activates MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ, at least in part, by recruiting it to the membrane and targeting it to the Z ring, while MinE stimulates the MinD ATPase inducing an oscillation that directs MinC/MinD activity away from midcell. Recently, MinC and MinD were shown to form copolymers of alternating dimers of MinC and MinD and it was suggested that these copolymers are the active form of MinC/MinD. Here, we use MinD mutants defective in binding MinC to generate heterodimers with wild type MinD that are unable to form MinC/MinD copolymers. Similarly, MinC mutants defective in binding to MinD were used to generate heterodimers with wild type MinC that are unable to form copolymers. Such heterodimers are active and in the case of MinC were shown to mediate spatial regulation of the Z ring demonstrating that MinC/MinD copolymer formation is not required. Our results are consistent with a model in which a membrane anchored MinC/MinD complex is targeted to the Z ring through the conserved carboxy tail of FtsZ leading to breakage of FtsZ filaments. PMID:26268537

  13. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  14. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  15. USGS 1-min Dst index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  16. MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE required for the Min oscillator to spatially regulate cytokinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Summary MinD recruits MinE to the membrane leading to a coupled oscillation required for spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring in E. coli. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear since the MinD binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a 6-stranded β-sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. Here, minE mutations are isolated that restore interaction to some MinD and MinE mutants. These mutations alter the MinE structure releasing the MinD binding regions and N-terminal helices that bind MinD and the membrane, respectively. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes reveals a 4-stranded β-sheet MinE dimer with the released β strands (MinD binding regions) converted to α-helices bound to MinD dimers. These results suggest a 6 stranded, β-sheet dimer of MinE ‘senses’ MinD and switches to a 4-stranded β-sheet dimer that binds MinD and contributes to membrane binding. Also, the results indicate how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface. PMID:21816275

  17. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  18. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  19. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  20. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  1. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional. This di...

  2. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  3. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  4. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript High resolution [27.9 MB] Open Captioned [ ...

  5. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  6. Alcohol and student performance: estimating the effect of legal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M; Swensen, Isaac D; Waddell, Glen R

    2013-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. Our preferred approach identifies the effect through changes in one's performance after gaining legal access to alcohol, controlling flexibly for the expected evolution of grades as one makes progress towards their degree. We also report RD-based estimates but argue that an RD design is not well suited to the research question in our setting. We find that students' grades fall below their expected levels upon being able to drink legally, but by less than previously documented. We also show that there are effects on women and that the effects are persistent. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we show that students drink more often after legal access but do not consume more drinks on days on which they drink. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  8. Mechanism of the asymmetric activation of the MinD ATPase by MinE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Wu, Wei; Lovell, Scott; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Summary MinD is a component of the Min system involved in the spatial regulation of cell division. It is an ATPase in the MinD/ParA/Mrp deviant Walker A motif family which is within the P loop GTPase superfamily. Its ATPase activity is stimulated by MinE, however, the mechanism of this activation is unclear. MinD forms a symmetric dimer with two binding sites for MinE, however, a recent model suggested that MinE occupying one site was sufficient for ATP hydrolysis. By generating heterodimers with one binding site for MinE we show that one binding site is sufficient for stimulation of the MinD ATPase. Furthermore, comparison of structures of MinD and related proteins led us to examine the role of N45 in the switch I region. An asparagine at this position is conserved in four of the deviant Walker A motif subfamilies (MinD, chromosomal ParAs, Get3 and FleN) and we find that N45 in MinD is essential for MinE stimulated ATPase activity and suggest that it is a key residue affected by MinE binding. PMID:22651575

  9. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & ...

  10. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who ... Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  11. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living in Philadelphia, PA Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop ... Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Our Cultures Are Our Source of Health (9:02) Our Cultures Are Our Source of Health (: ... Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript High resolution [27.9 MB] Open Captioned [12.6 MB] Request a ...

  13. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came ...

  14. Dynamic assembly of MinD on phospholipid vesicles regulated by ATP and MinE

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zonglin; Gogol, Edward P.; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Selection of the division site in Escherichia coli is regulated by the min system and requires the rapid oscillation of MinD between the two halves of the cell under the control of MinE. In this study we have further investigated the molecular basis for this oscillation by examining the interaction of MinD with phospholipid vesicles. We found that MinD bound to phospholipid vesicles in the presence of ATP and, upon binding, assembled into a well-ordered helical array that deformed the vesicle...

  15. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  16. Energy drinks – consumption and awareness among students of Medical University of Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencek Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED, containing caffeine, taurine and another substances, are one of the more frequently used legal stimulants. Still, because these can endanger consumers’ health, it is thought that their marketing should be legally controlled.

  17. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  18. RESULTS OF IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF PARAMETRIC INDICES OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING OF MEDICINES, PARAPHARMACY, ALCOHOLIC DRINKS - EVIDENCE BASE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NORMATIVE AND LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF THE EFFECTIVE STATE REGULATION OF ITS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ponomarenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There was conducted the analysis of parametric indices of monitoring of television advertising of medicines, parapharmaceutical production and alcoholic drinks in 2011 on the main Ukrainian television channels. There were determined key differences and mechanisms of the development of television advertising business.

  19. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  20. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  1. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe ... & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to drop out. Drinking disrupts sleep patterns, which can make it harder to stay awake and concentrate during the day. This can lead to struggles with studying and poor academic performance. People who binge-drink may find that their ...

  3. The cell division protein MinD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominates the assembly of the MinC-MinD copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyan; Wang, Ping; Bian, Li; Osawa, Masaki; Erickson, Harold P; Chen, Yaodong

    2018-04-02

    Cell division of rod-shaped bacteria requires the Z ring, a ring of FtsZ filaments associated with the inner-membrane wall. The MinCDE proteins help localize the Z ring to the center of the Escherichia coli cell. MinC, which inhibits Z-ring assembly, is a passenger on MinD. Previous studies have shown that MinC-MinD from E. coli and Aquifex aeolicus assemble in vitro into extended filaments with a 1:1 stoichiometry. However, a recent study has raised questions about the function of the MinC-MinD copolymer in vivo , since its assembly appears to require a high concentration of these two proteins, has a long lag time, and its blockade does not affect in vivo activities. Here, we found that MinC and MinD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa coassemble into filaments with a 1:1 stoichiometry. We also found that the minimal concentration of ~4 μM required for assembly applies only to MinD because above 4 μM MinD, even very low MinC concentrations sustained coassembly. As previously reported, the MinC-MinD coassembly exhibited a long lag of ~100 s when initiated by ATP. Premixing MinD with ATP eliminated this lag, suggesting that it may be due to slow MinD dimerization following ATP activation. We also discovered that MinC-MinD copolymers quickly bound and formed huge bundles with FtsZ filaments. Our results resolve previous questions about the low concentration of MinC and the lag time, insights that may inform future investigations into the exact role of the MinC-MinD copolymer in vivo . Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  5. Roles of MinC and MinD in the site-specific septation block mediated by the MinCDE system of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, P A; Crossley, R E; Rothfield, L I

    1992-01-01

    The proper placement of the cell division site in Escherichia coli requires the site-specific inactivation of potential division sites at the cell poles in a process that requires the coordinate action of the MinC, MinD, and MinE proteins. In the absence of MinE, the coordinate expression of MinC and MinD leads to a general inhibition of cell division. MinE gives topological specificity to the division inhibition process, so that the septation block is restricted to the cell poles. At normal ...

  6. Performance analysis of 60-min to 1-min integration time rain rate conversion models in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yun-Yann; Singh, Mandeep Singh Jit; Thiruchelvam, Vinesh

    2018-01-01

    Utilizing the frequency band above 10 GHz is in focus nowadays as a result of the fast expansion of radio communication systems in Malaysia. However, rain fade is the critical factor in attenuation of signal propagation for frequencies above 10 GHz. Malaysia is located in a tropical and equatorial region with high rain intensity throughout the year, and this study will review rain distribution and evaluate the performance of 60-min to 1-min integration time rain rate conversion methods for Malaysia. Several conversion methods such as Segal, Chebil & Rahman, Burgeono, Emiliani, Lavergnat and Gole (LG), Simplified Moupfouma, Joo et al., fourth order polynomial fit and logarithmic model have been chosen to evaluate the performance to predict 1-min rain rate for 10 sites in Malaysia. After the completion of this research, the results show that Chebil & Rahman model, Lavergnat & Gole model, Fourth order polynomial fit and Logarithmic model have shown the best performances in 60-min to 1-min rain rate conversion over 10 sites. In conclusion, it is proven that there is no single model which can claim to perform the best across 10 sites. By averaging RMSE and SC-RMSE over 10 sites, Chebil and Rahman model is the best method.

  7. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Office of Associate Director of Communication, Division of Public Affairs Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  8. Binge Drinking

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  9. Binge Drinking

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  10. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Philadelphia, PA Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence ... in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Dangerous Creatures Healthy Changes Start in Preschool ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video ... Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of ...

  12. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Binge Drinking Transcript High resolution [27.9 MB] Open Captioned [12.6 MB] Request a higher resolution ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  13. Binge Drinking

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  14. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  15. Binge Drinking

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  16. Binge Drinking

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  17. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety ...

  18. Binge Drinking

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  19. Binge Drinking

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  20. Binge Drinking

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  1. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harder to get—for example, by raising the price of alcohol and keeping the minimum drinking age ... These are programs that provide students with the knowledge, skills, motivation, and opportunities they need to remain ...

  2. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention ... Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

  3. Binge Drinking

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  4. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center ...

  5. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Our Source of Health (:30) Systems Thinking The Value of Systems Thinking (10:09) Systems Mapping: The ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  6. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  7. Binge Drinking

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  8. Binge Drinking

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  9. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...

  10. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... 35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round ... Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  13. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  14. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  15. Membrane-bound MinDE complex acts as a toggle switch that drives Min oscillation coupled to cytoplasmic depletion of MinD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Hwang, Ling Chin; Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Min system self-organizes into a cell-pole to cell-pole oscillator on the membrane to prevent divisions at the cell poles. Reconstituting the Min system on a lipid bilayer has contributed to elucidating the oscillatory mechanism. However, previous in vitro patterns were attained with protein densities on the bilayer far in excess of those in vivo and failed to recapitulate the standing wave oscillations observed in vivo. Here we studied Min protein patterning at limiting MinD concentrations reflecting the in vivo conditions. We identified “burst” patterns—radially expanding and imploding binding zones of MinD, accompanied by a peripheral ring of MinE. Bursts share several features with the in vivo dynamics of the Min system including standing wave oscillations. Our data support a patterning mechanism whereby the MinD-to-MinE ratio on the membrane acts as a toggle switch: recruiting and stabilizing MinD on the membrane when the ratio is high and releasing MinD from the membrane when the ratio is low. Coupling this toggle switch behavior with MinD depletion from the cytoplasm drives a self-organized standing wave oscillator. PMID:26884160

  16. College Alcohol Policy and Student Drinking-while-Driving: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol prohibition and legal or administrative sanctions have been implemented in attempts to curb alcohol drinking and drinking-while-driving in the general population as well as among college students. This dissertation study examines the impact of college alcohol prohibition and policy enforcement on students' alcohol drinking and…

  17. Does Drinking Impair College Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Approach. NBER Working Paper No. 16330

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark; West, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of alcohol consumption on student achievement. To do so, we exploit the discontinuity in drinking at age 21 at a college in which the minimum legal drinking age is strictly enforced. We find that drinking causes significant reductions in academic performance, particularly for the highest-performing students. This…

  18. Min-max event-triggered computation tree logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    components. In order to express the above class of efficiently checkable event timing queries, we define an extension of Min-max CTL, called Min-max Event Triggered Computation Tree. Logic (Min-max ETCTL). We then present an algorithm for Min-max ETCTL evaluation and show that it runs in time polynomial in the size ...

  19. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  20. Energy Drinks: Ergolytic or Ergogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillivent, Joe; Blevins, Jennifer; Peak, Kayla

    Despite the growing popularity of energy drinks, many do not realize the negative effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of energy drink ingestion on estimated VO 2 max, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively), rate pressure product (RPP), and RPE at rest and during exercise. Seven healthy adults (age: 24.3 ± 3.5 yrs; body mass: = 66.0 ± 2.2 kg) participated in this randomized double blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested a placebo (PL) or Redline (RL) energy drink (240ml; 250 mg caffeine) 40 minutes before maximal graded exercise test (GXT). Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) was lower in the RL trial (37.9±5.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) compared to the PL trial (39.7±6.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; P = 0.02). Although no significant differences were noted for the number of ectopic beats (ETB) between the trials, a five to one ratio for the RL and PL existed (RL = 106 total ectopic beats; PL = 21 total ectopic beats). Sub-maximal exercise heart demand (RPP: systolic BP × HR) at the same workload was considerably higher in the RL trial (224.9 ± 39.9 mmHg·bts·min -1 ; P =0.04) compared to PL (195.8 ± 22.9 mmHg·bts·min -1 ). Recovery DBP was significantly higher at one min. in the RL trial (51.6 ± 25.1 mmHg) compared to PL (25.4 ± 33.8 mmHg; P =0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was determined that energy drinks lowered estimated VO 2 max while elevating RPP and recovery DBP.

  1. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... del virus del Zika para Puerto Rico (:30) Un cambio para toda la vida Vacúnese y prevenga ... Office of Associate Director of Communication, Division of Public Affairs ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  2. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More ...

  3. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Drinking" width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/I9hdkDTaQWU?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

  4. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ...

  5. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  6. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... About HIV Influenza Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes – Kids (:18) Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes – Penguin (:18) ... Drinking" width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/I9hdkDTaQWU?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

  7. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A ... Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury ...

  8. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  9. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the ... Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » College Drinking In ...

  10. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... The Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  12. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  13. MinD and MinE Interact with Anionic Phospholipids and Regulate Division Plane Formation in Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lars D.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    The Min proteins (MinC, MinD, and MinE) form a pole-to-pole oscillator that controls the spatial assembly of the division machinery in Escherichia coli cells. Previous studies identified that interactions of MinD with phospholipids positioned the Min machinery at the membrane. We extend these studies by measuring the affinity, kinetics, and ATPase activity of E. coli MinD, MinE, and MinDE binding to supported lipid bilayers containing varying compositions of anionic phospholipids. Using quartz crystal microbalance measurements, we found that the binding affinity (Kd) for the interaction of recombinant E. coli MinD and MinE with lipid bilayers increased with increasing concentration of the anionic phospholipids phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. The Kd for MinD (1.8 μm) in the presence of ATP was smaller than for MinE (12.1 μm) binding to membranes consisting of 95:5 phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin. The simultaneous binding of MinD and MinE to membranes revealed that increasing the concentration of anionic phospholipid stimulates the initial rate of adsorption (kon). The ATPase activity of MinD decreased in the presence of anionic phospholipids. These results indicate that anionic lipids, which are concentrated at the poles, increase the retention of MinD and MinE and explain its dwell time at this region of bacterial cells. These studies provide insight into interactions between MinD and MinE and between these proteins and membranes that are relevant to understanding the process of bacterial cell division, in which the interaction of proteins and membranes is essential. PMID:23012351

  14. Determination of structure of the MinD-ATP complex reveals the orientation of MinD on the membrane and the relative location of the binding sites for MinE and MinC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Park, Kyung-Tae; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Summary The three Min proteins spatially regulate Z ring positioning in E. coli and are dynamically associated with the membrane. MinD binds to vesicles in the presence of ATP and can recruit MinC or MinE. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicate the binding sites for these two proteins on MinD overlap. Here we solved the structure of a hydrolytic-deficient mutant of MinD truncated for the C-terminal amphipathic helix involved in binding to the membrane. The structure solved in the presence of ATP is a dimer and reveals the face of MinD abutting the membrane. Using a combination of random and extensive site-directed mutagenesis additional residues important for MinE and MinC binding were identified. The location of these residues on the MinD structure confirms that the binding sites overlap and reveals that the binding sites are at the dimer interface and exposed to the cytosol. The location of the binding sites at the dimer interface offers a simple explanation for the ATP-dependency of MinC and MinE binding to MinD. PMID:21231967

  15. Carbonated soft drinks and carbonyl stress burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Keisuke; Nakayama, Masaaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yaeko; Sato, Toshinobu; Kohno, Masahiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2009-12-01

    Carbonated soft drinks reportedly contain methylglyoxal (MG), which is strongly associated with human carbonyl stress. We sought to evaluate the effects of carbonated drink intake on human carbonyl stress. We measured MG levels in 4 commercial beverage brands, and evaluated the changes in plasma MG in healthy subjects following the intake of carbonated drinks. By 30 min after intake of samples containing high glucose and high MG, the levels of plasma MG, glucose, insulin and uric acid had increased significantly, and then returned to basal levels by 120 min. After intake of the low-calorie carbonated samples containing little MG, there were no increases in plasma MG. Our results suggest that glucose-containing carbonated soft drinks are associated with increases in not only glucose but also carbonyl burden.

  16. Drinking cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh andexplore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility oflinking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water...... beconducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant’s drinking water sourceswere all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explainedthat they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Conclusion: Theoretically, V....... cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however,water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinkingwater sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system anddrinking water sources among the study population...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vital Signs Vital Signs – Presión Arterial Alta Other Languages Arabic احصل على التطعيم لتجنب الحصبة French Faites- ... of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ...

  18. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  19. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  20. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  1. Simple membrane-based model of the Min oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Min proteins in E. coli bacteria organize into a dynamic pattern oscillating between the two cell poles. This process identifies the middle of the cell and enables symmetric cell division. In an experimental model system consisting of a flat membrane with effectively infinite supply of proteins and energy source, the Min proteins assemble into travelling waves. Here we propose a simple one-dimensional model of the Min dynamics that, unlike the existing models, reproduces the sharp decrease of Min concentration when the majority of protein detaches from the membrane, and even the narrow MinE maximum immediately preceding the detachment. The proposed model thus provides a possible mechanism for the formation of the MinE ring known from cells. The model is restricted to one dimension, with protein interactions described by chemical kinetics allowing at most bimolecular reactions, and explicitly considering only three, membrane-bound, species. The bulk solution above the membrane is approximated as being well-mixed, with constant concentrations of all species. Unlike other models, our proposal does not require autocatalytic binding of MinD to the membrane. Instead, it is assumed that two MinE molecules are necessary to induce the dissociation of the MinD dimer and its subsequent detachment from the membrane. We investigate which reaction schemes lead to unstable homogeneous steady states and limit cycle oscillations, and how diffusion affects their stability. The suggested model qualitatively describes the shape of the Min waves observed on flat membranes, and agrees with the experimental dependence of the wave period on the MinE concentration. These results highlight the importance of MinE presence on the membrane without being bound to MinD, and of the reactions of Min proteins on the membrane.

  2. Simple membrane-based model of the Min oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Min proteins in E. coli bacteria organize into a dynamic pattern oscillating between the two cell poles. This process identifies the middle of the cell and enables symmetric cell division. In an experimental model system consisting of a flat membrane with effectively infinite supply of proteins and energy source, the Min proteins assemble into travelling waves. Here we propose a simple one-dimensional model of the Min dynamics that, unlike the existing models, reproduces the sharp decrease of Min concentration when the majority of protein detaches from the membrane, and even the narrow MinE maximum immediately preceding the detachment. The proposed model thus provides a possible mechanism for the formation of the MinE ring known from cells. The model is restricted to one dimension, with protein interactions described by chemical kinetics allowing at most bimolecular reactions, and explicitly considering only three, membrane-bound, species. The bulk solution above the membrane is approximated as being well-mixed, with constant concentrations of all species. Unlike other models, our proposal does not require autocatalytic binding of MinD to the membrane. Instead, it is assumed that two MinE molecules are necessary to induce the dissociation of the MinD dimer and its subsequent detachment from the membrane. We investigate which reaction schemes lead to unstable homogeneous steady states and limit cycle oscillations, and how diffusion affects their stability. The suggested model qualitatively describes the shape of the Min waves observed on flat membranes, and agrees with the experimental dependence of the wave period on the MinE concentration. These results highlight the importance of MinE presence on the membrane without being bound to MinD, and of the reactions of Min proteins on the membrane. (paper)

  3. Timing matters: negative emotion elicited 5 min but not 30 min or 45 min after learning enhances consolidation of internal-monitoring source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bukuan, Sun

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the time-dependent effects of negative emotion on consolidation of item and internal-monitoring source memory. In Experiment 1, participants (n=121) learned a list of words. They were asked to read aloud half of the words and to think about the remaining half. They were instructed to memorize each word and its associative cognitive operation ("reading" versus "thinking"). Immediately following learning they conducted free recall and then watched a 3-min either neutral or negative video clip when 5 min, 30 min or 45 min had elapsed after learning. Twenty-four hours later they returned to take surprise tests for item and source memory. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants, without conducting an immediate test of free recall, took tests of source memory for all encoded words both immediately and 24 h after learning. Experiment 1 showed that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory (as measured by retention ratio of free recall) regardless of delay of emotion elicitation and that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 5 min delay but reduced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 30 min delay; when elicited at a 45 min delay, negative emotion had little effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 replicated the enhancement effect on source memory in the 5 min delay even when participants were tested on all the encoded words. The current study partially replicated prior studies on item memory and extends the literature by providing evidence for a time-dependent effect of negative emotion on consolidation of source memory based on internal monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Parents Kids Teens Caffeine Calcium Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? What Should Preschoolers ... Caffeine Confusion What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide ...

  5. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  6. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  7. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  8. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  9. Quantitative approach of Min protein researches and applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell division in prokaryotes is a process (known as binary fission) where the parent cell divides into daughter cells. In this process, the dynamics of Min proteins is an important factor in the accurate positioning at the midcell in Escherichia coli. This site specificity is regulated by the oscillatory behavior of Min proteins.

  10. Noise-induced Min phenotypes in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fange

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal oscillations of the Escherichia coli proteins MinD and MinE direct cell division to the region between the chromosomes. Several quantitative models of the Min system have been suggested before, but no one of them accounts for the behavior of all documented mutant phenotypes. We analyzed the stochastic reaction-diffusion kinetics of the Min proteins for several E. coli mutants and compared the results to the corresponding deterministic mean-field description. We found that wild-type (wt and filamentous (ftsZ- cells are well characterized by the mean-field model, but that a stochastic model is necessary to account for several of the characteristics of the spherical (rodA- and phospathedylethanolamide-deficient (PE- phenotypes. For spherical cells, the mean-field model is bistable, and the system can get trapped in a non-oscillatory state. However, when the intrinsic noise is considered, only the experimentally observed oscillatory behavior remains. The stochastic model also reproduces the change in oscillation directions observed in the spherical phenotype and the occasional gliding of the MinD region along the inner membrane. For the PE- mutant, the stochastic model explains the appearance of randomly localized and dense MinD clusters as a nucleation phenomenon, in which the stochastic kinetics at low copy number causes local discharges of the high MinD(ATP to MinD(ADP potential. We find that a simple five-reaction model of the Min system can explain all documented Min phenotypes, if stochastic kinetics and three-dimensional diffusion are accounted for. Our results emphasize that local copy number fluctuation may result in phenotypic differences although the total number of molecules of the relevant species is high.

  11. Oscillating behavior of Clostridium difficile Min proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroczyová, Jana; Jamroškovič, Ján; Krascsenitsová, Eva; Labajová, Nad'a; Barák, Imrich

    2016-06-01

    In rod-shaped bacteria, the proper placement of the division septum at the midcell relies, at least partially, on the proteins of the Min system as an inhibitor of cell division. The main principle of Min system function involves the formation of an inhibitor gradient along the cell axis; however, the establishment of this gradient differs between two well-studied gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. While in gram-negative Escherichia coli, the Min system undergoes pole-to-pole oscillation, in gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, proper spatial inhibition is achieved by the preferential attraction of the Min proteins to the cell poles. Nevertheless, when E.coli Min proteins are inserted into B.subtilis cells, they still oscillate, which negatively affects asymmetric septation during sporulation in this organism. Interestingly, homologs of both Min systems were found to be present in various combinations in the genomes of anaerobic and endospore-forming Clostridia, including the pathogenic Clostridium difficile. Here, we have investigated the localization and behavior of C.difficile Min protein homologs and showed that MinDE proteins of C.difficile can oscillate when expressed together in B.subtilis cells. We have also investigated the effects of this oscillation on B.subtilis sporulation, and observed decreased sporulation efficiency in strains harboring the MinDE genes. Additionally, we have evaluated the effects of C.difficile Min protein expression on vegetative division in this heterologous host. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  13. Trends in hotel patronage and drink driving in Hobart, Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, S; Wood, L J; Montgomery, I M; Davidson, J; Jones, M E

    1995-01-01

    From 1990 to 1991 in the Hobart region there was a marked fall in both hotel patronage and the proportion of patrons subsequently driving with their blood alcohol concentration above the legal limit. This was associated with smaller falls in the number of drink drivers charged and alcohol-related road accidents, which continued in the following year. It appears that the pattern of drinking and driving is changing, presumably in response to random breath testing and tougher penalties for offences.

  14. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  15. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  16. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  17. Projekti Min-E-Max kohtumine Saksamaal / Katrin Arge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arge, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    Oktoobri keskel toimus Lõuna-Saksamaa väikelinnas Oberderdingenis Hispaania, Portugali, Ungari, Leedu, Eesti ja Saksamaa õpetajate kohtumine seoses Euroopa Liidu poolt rahastatava Comenius1 projektiga Min-E-Max (minimum energy input maximum output)

  18. Teadlastele on Saksamaa kogemus hindamatu / Mart Min, Jaan Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Min, Mart, 1943-

    2012-01-01

    Oma muljeid Saksamaalt jagavad Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli professor Mart Min, kes on viibinud õppejõuna Saksamaal ja Frankfurdis Max Plancki instituudis doktorantuuris aju ja teadvust uuriv noorteadlane Jaan Aru

  19. 160-min solar pulsation recorded simultaneously by two radio telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, N.S.; Urpo, S.; Kotov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Independent differential (center--limb) measurements of the brightness of the quiet sun on 1981 June 22 at lambda = 13.5 mm in the Crimea and at 8 mm in Finland show synchronous variations with 160-min periodicity

  20. Effective learning in recurrent max-min neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Kia Fock; Teow, Loo Nin

    1998-04-01

    Max and min operations have interesting properties that facilitate the exchange of information between the symbolic and real-valued domains. As such, neural networks that employ max-min activation functions have been a subject of interest in recent years. Since max-min functions are not strictly differentiable, we propose a mathematically sound learning method based on using Fourier convergence analysis of side-derivatives to derive a gradient descent technique for max-min error functions. We then propose a novel recurrent max-min neural network model that is trained to perform grammatical inference as an application example. Comparisons made between this model and recurrent sigmoidal neural networks show that our model not only performs better in terms of learning speed and generalization, but that its final weight configuration allows a deterministic finite automation (DFA) to be extracted in a straightforward manner. In essence, we are able to demonstrate that our proposed gradient descent technique does allow max-min neural networks to learn effectively.

  1. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  2. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  3. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  4. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  5. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  6. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  7. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  8. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  10. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  11. Alcohol and Student Performance: Estimating the Effect of Legal Access

    OpenAIRE

    Jason M. Lindo; Isaac D. Swensen; Glen R. Waddell

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol, which is known to increase drinking behavior, on academic performance. We first estimate the effect using an RD design but argue that this approach is not well-suited to the research question in our setting. Our preferred approach instead exploits the longitudinal nature of the data, essentially identifying the effect by comparing a student's academic performance before and after turning 21. We find that students' grades fall below their expe...

  12. MinT: Middleware for Cooperative Interaction of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobin Jeon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT middleware called Middleware for Cooperative Interaction of Things (MinT. MinT supports a fully distributed IoT environment in which IoT devices directly connect to peripheral devices easily construct a local or global network, and share their data in an energy efficient manner. MinT provides a sensor abstract layer, a system layer and an interaction layer. These enable integrated sensing device operations, efficient resource management, and active interconnection between peripheral IoT devices. In addition, MinT provides a high-level API to develop IoT devices easily for IoT device developers. We aim to enhance the energy efficiency and performance of IoT devices through the performance improvements offered by MinT resource management and request processing. The experimental results show that the average request rate increased by 25% compared to Californium, which is a middleware for efficient interaction in IoT environments with powerful performance, an average response time decrease of 90% when resource management was used, and power consumption decreased by up to 68%. Finally, the proposed platform can reduce the latency and power consumption of IoT devices.

  13. Resolving plasmid structures inEnterobacteriaceaeusing the MinION nanopore sequencer: assessment of MinION and MinION/Illumina hybrid data assembly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophie; Pankhurst, Louise; Hubbard, Alasdair; Votintseva, Antonia; Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Mathers, Amy; Norris, Rachel; Navickaite, Indre; Eaton, Chloe; Iqbal, Zamin; Crook, Derrick W; Phan, Hang T T

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION long-read sequencer in reconstructing fully closed plasmid sequences from eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates of six different species with plasmid populations of varying complexity. Species represented were Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Citrobacter freundii , Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella oxytoca , with plasmid populations ranging from 1-11 plasmids with sizes of 2-330 kb. Isolates were sequenced using Illumina (short-read) and ONT's MinION (long-read) platforms, and compared with fully resolved PacBio (long-read) sequence assemblies for the same isolates. We compared the performance of different assembly approaches including SPAdes, plasmidSPAdes, hybridSPAdes, Canu, Canu+Pilon (canuPilon) and npScarf in recovering the plasmid structures of these isolates by comparing with the gold-standard PacBio reference sequences. Overall, canuPilon provided consistently good quality assemblies both in terms of assembly statistics (N50, number of contigs) and assembly accuracy [presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/indels with respect to the reference sequence]. For plasmid reconstruction, Canu recovered 70 % of the plasmids in complete contigs, and combining three assembly approaches (Canu or canuPilon, hybridSPAdes and plasmidSPAdes) resulted in a total 78 % recovery rate for all the plasmids. The analysis demonstrated the potential of using MinION sequencing technology to resolve important plasmid structures in Enterobacteriaceae species independent of and in conjunction with Illumina sequencing data. A consensus assembly derived from several assembly approaches could present significant benefit in accurately resolving the greatest number of plasmid structures.

  14. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  15. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  16. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? ... ingredients they contain and how they measure up: Sports Drinks Sports drinks may be beneficial for kids ...

  17. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  18. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  19. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  1. Legal nature of affatomia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...

  2. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  3. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  4. Truth About Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be tested and controlled. AAFP also is against marketing and selling energy products to kids under 18 ... drinks. It has become “cool” and common to mix them with alcohol. Energy drinks can offset the ...

  5. Drinking Water Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  6. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  7. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  8. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...

  9. Snacks and sweetened drinks - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosing healthy snacks and drinks for your children can be hard. There are many options. ... Encourage children to drink a lot of water. Avoid sodas, sport drinks, and flavored waters. Stay away from drinks made with sugar or ...

  10. Min-max event-triggered computation tree logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    language called Min-max Event-Triggered Computational Tree Logic for express- ing such extremal queries on the timings of events and show that such queries can be evaluated in time polynomial in the size of the system times the length of the formula. Keywords. Computational tree logic; timing verification; temporal ...

  11. A Modified MinMaxk-Means Algorithm Based on PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanping

    The MinMax k -means algorithm is widely used to tackle the effect of bad initialization by minimizing the maximum intraclustering errors. Two parameters, including the exponent parameter and memory parameter, are involved in the executive process. Since different parameters have different clustering errors, it is crucial to choose appropriate parameters. In the original algorithm, a practical framework is given. Such framework extends the MinMax k -means to automatically adapt the exponent parameter to the data set. It has been believed that if the maximum exponent parameter has been set, then the programme can reach the lowest intraclustering errors. However, our experiments show that this is not always correct. In this paper, we modified the MinMax k -means algorithm by PSO to determine the proper values of parameters which can subject the algorithm to attain the lowest clustering errors. The proposed clustering method is tested on some favorite data sets in several different initial situations and is compared to the k -means algorithm and the original MinMax k -means algorithm. The experimental results indicate that our proposed algorithm can reach the lowest clustering errors automatically.

  12. Linked Min.B configuration inside high shear magnetic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohasa, K.; Ikuta, K.

    1976-03-01

    Arrangement of the l = m baseball coils to form the toroidally linked Min.B configuration with large rotational transform is studied analytically and numerically. By an optimization the closed magnetic isobars are obtained inside the last closed magnetic surface having practical volume and high shear if l = 3 baseball coils are arranged. (auth.)

  13. Primary standards for measuring flow rates from 100 nl/min to 1 ml/min - gravimetric principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Hugo; Petter, Harm Tido; Lucas, Peter; Batista, Elsa; Filipe, Eduarda; Almeida, Nelson; Ribeiro, Luis Filipe; Gala, João; Martins, Rui; Savanier, Benoit; Ogheard, Florestan; Niemann, Anders Koustrup; Lötters, Joost; Sparreboom, Wouter

    2015-08-01

    Microflow and nanoflow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as liquid chromatography, (scaled-down) process technology, and special health-care applications. However, traceability in the microflow and nanoflow range does not go below 16 μl/min in Europe. Furthermore, the European metrology organization EURAMET did not yet validate this traceability by means of an intercomparison between different National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The NMIs METAS, Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, IPQ, Danish Technological Institute, and VSL have therefore developed and validated primary standards to cover the flow rate range from 0.1 μl/min to at least 1 ml/min. In this article, we describe the different designs and methods of the primary standards of the gravimetric principle and the results obtained at the intercomparison for the upper flow rate range for the various NMIs and Bronkhorst High-Tech, the manufacturer of the transfer standards used.

  14. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...

  15. Effets à long terme des fumures minérales et organo-minérales sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. La disponibilité et la cinétique du phosphore (P) dans un Lixisol, après 40 années de mise en culture, ont été étudiées par la méthode de la dilution isotopique. Quatre traitements ont été utilisés : fumures minérales faible (fm) et forte (FM), organo-minérale faible (fmo) et le témoin (T1). Les fumures ont eu des effets ...

  16. Evaluating impaired drivers confidence and intention to "(Please) drink responsibly".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Howell, Steven M; Dennis, Maurice

    2011-04-01

    Currently, alcohol industry-sponsored advertisements subsume traditional designated driver and don't drink and drive messages within responsible drinking campaigns. Yet, to date, there remains a dearth of literature specifically examining the attitudinal beliefs impaired drivers attach to the responsible drinking message. This investigation sought to examine the responsible drinking attitudes and beliefs of impaired drivers, specifically examining their confidence and intention to drink responsibly the next time they consumed alcohol. A random sample of 729 students attending a large, public Texas university completed a web-based administration of the Characteristic of Responsible Drinking Survey (CHORDS). Participants in this sample who had driven while impaired by alcohol exhibited significantly less confidence in refraining from drinking and driving and reported significantly lower intentions to designate a driver, take a taxi, or use a safe-ride program the next time they consumed alcohol. Additionally, they also reported less confidence, and lower intentions, to ensure their blood alcohol concentrations remained below the legal limit (0.08%) the next time they consumed alcohol. Drivers who had driven while impaired significantly differed in their confidence and intention to drink responsibly the next time they consumed alcohol. Logistic regression results indicate that by increasing one's confidence in responsible drinking, and increasing their intention to drink responsibly, the likelihood of impaired driving can be decreased. Results from this investigation demonstrate one's responsible drinking attitudinal beliefs accounts for a significant amount of the variance associated with one's alcohol-related behaviors. Thus, further research should examine and establish how individuals conceptualize and practice responsible drinking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of only 0-1 min clip or 1-4 min Clip for focal liver lesions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Road, Wuhan 430030, PR China ... arterial phase starts from 10-20 s after the injection of MBs, lasts for ..... malignant lesions because of rapidly filling in the artery phase. However, it did not affect the diagnosis as benign nodules by the entire clips and 1-4min clips in our investigation.

  18. Drink driving - Why risk the consequences?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the second of the series of articles about alcohol, CERN is highlighting the dangers of drinking and driving. Have you ever driven after drinking alcohol? If you did, then you were more likely to be involved in an accident that could kill or injure yourself or other people. Why risk it? Any alcohol can impair driving ability. The risk of being in an accident rises significantly after alcohol is consumed: at the French legal limit of 0.5 grams of alcohol per litre of blood, a driver is twice as likely to have an accident as someone who has had no alcohol. At the Swiss legal limit of 0.8 g/l, a driver is five times more likely to be involved in an accident. Many EU countries share the French limit. Penalties for breaking the law vary depending on the severity of the offence, but they include disqualification, fines and imprisonment. Drink Drive Limits and Penalties in the European Union Country Limit g/l Prison Sentence (maximum) Austria 0,5 up to 3 months / 3 years (if fatal) Belgiu...

  19. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyun Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio, is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT. MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.

  20. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  1. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  2. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  3. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  4. Decay of the 16.3 min Decay of the 16.3 min {sup 182}Ta Isomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejeberg, M. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmskog, S.G. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1967-01-15

    Some transitions in the decay of the 16.3 min {sup 182}Ta isomer have been studied with a Ge(Li) detector and a double lens electron coincidence spectrometer. Gamma ray and conversion electron intensities were measured. From a delayed coincidence experiment it was concluded that both of the two lowest excited states in {sup 182}Ta had a half life less than 30 psec.

  5. BELIEFS ABOUT DRINKING BEHAVIOR PREDICT DRINKING CONSEQUENCES†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Arthur W.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Schmaling, Karen B.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitions about drinking, such as positive expectancies and self-efficacy, have been found to profoundly influence drinking behavior. Although the relationship of self-efficacy and positive expectancies with drinking consumption has been established, the relationship of self-efficacy and alcohol expectancies with the number of reported drinking related consequences has not been examined. One hundred thirteen participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were administered the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, the Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and the Losses of Significance Self-report Questionnaire-Revised. As predicted, lower self-efficacy and greater positive alcohol expectancies predicted greater recent drinking consequences beyond those accounted for by alcohol consumption alone. Greater numbers of positive alcohol expectancies also predicted greater numbers of recent important alcohol related losses. Correcting errant assumptions about alcohol expectancies and strategies designed to increase self-efficacy may reduce harmful drinking consequences even if a client is unwilling to reduce consumption. PMID:14621140

  6. Beliefs about drinking behavior predict drinking consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Arthur W; Lostutter, Ty W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

    2003-01-01

    Cognitions about drinking, such as positive expectancies and self-efficacy, have been found to profoundly influence drinking behavior. Although the relationship of self-efficacy and positive expectancies with drinking consumption has been established, the relationship of self-efficacy and alcohol expectancies with the number of reported drinking related consequences has not been examined. One hundred thirteen participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were administered the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, the Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and the Losses of Significance Self-report Questionnaire-Revised. As predicted, lower self-efficacy and greater positive alcohol expectancies predicted greater recent drinking consequences beyond those accounted for by alcohol consumption alone. Greater numbers of positive alcohol expectancies also predicted greater numbers of recent important alcohol related losses. Correcting errant assumptions about alcohol expectancies and strategies designed to increase self-efficacy may reduce harmful drinking consequences even if a client is unwilling to reduce consumption.

  7. Period 2 Mutation Accelerates ApcMin/+ Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Patricia A.; Yang, Xiaoming; Taber, Andrew; Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Ayers, Stacy E.; Al-Assaad, Ziad; Carnevale, Kevin; Berger, Franklin G.; Peña, Maria Marjorette O.; Hrushesky, William J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer risk is increased in shift workers with presumed circadian disruption. Intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is gated throughout each day by the circadian clock. Period 2 (Per2) is a key circadian clock gene. Per2 mutant (Per2m/m) mice show an increase in lymphomas and deregulated expression of cyclin D and c-Myc genes that are key to proliferation control. We asked whether Per2 clock gene inactivation would accelerate intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis. The effects of PER2 on cell proliferation and β-catenin were studied in colon cancer cell lines by its down-regulation following RNA interference. The effects of Per2 inactivation in vivo on β-catenin and on intestinal and colonic polyp formation were studied in mice with Per2 mutation alone and in combination with an Apc mutation using polyp-prone ApcMin/+ mice. Down-regulation of PER2 in colon cell lines (HCT116 and SW480) increases β-catenin, cyclin D, and cell proliferation. Down-regulation of β-catenin along with Per2 blocks the increase in cyclin D and cell proliferation. Per2m/m mice develop colonic polyps and show an increase in small intestinal mucosa β-catenin and cyclin D protein levels compared with wild-type mice. ApcMin/+Per2m/m mice develop twice the number of small intestinal and colonic polyps, with more severe anemia and splenomegaly, compared with ApcMin/+ mice. These data suggest that Per2 gene product suppresses tumorigenesis in the small intestine and colon by down-regulation of β-catenin and β-catenin target genes, and this circadian core clock gene may represent a novel target for colorectal cancer prevention and control. PMID:19010825

  8. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  9. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  10. Chain rules for smooth min-and max-entropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitanov, Alexande; Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The chain rule for the Shannon and von Neumann en- tropy, which relates the total entropy of a system to the entropies of its parts, is of central importance to information theory. Here, we consider the chain rule for the more general smooth min- and max-entropies, used in one-shot in formation...... theory. For these en- tropy measures, the chain rule no longer holds as an equality. How- ever, the standard chain rule for the von Neum ann entropy is re- trieved asymptotically when evaluating the smooth entropies for many identical and independently distributed states....

  11. Toddler drinks, formulas, and milks: Labeling practices and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Romo Palafox, Maria J; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-04-01

    Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations. In January 2017, we conducted legal research on U.S. food label laws and regulations; collected and evaluated toddler drink packages, including nutrition labels and claims; and compared toddler drink labels with the same brand's infant formula labels. We found that the U.S. has a regulatory structure for food labels and distinct policies for infant formula, but no laws specific to toddler drinks. Toddler drink labels utilized various terms and images to identify products and intended users; made multiple health and nutrition claims; and some stated there was scientific or expert support for the product. Compared to the same manufacturer's infant formula labels, most toddler drink labels utilized similar colors, branding, logos, and graphics. Toddler drink labels may confuse consumers about their nutrition and health benefits and the appropriateness of these products for young children. To support healthy toddler diets and well-informed decision-making by caregivers, the FDA can provide guidance or propose regulations clarifying permissible toddler drink labels and manufacturers should end inappropriate labeling practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A methodology for testing the erosive potential of sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S M; Hughes, J A; Newcombe, R G; Addy, M; West, N X

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a methodology in situ, which simulated the consumption of sports drinks. A secondary aim was to assess the acceptability of the method to sedentary participants. To select the sports drink for the study in situ, five commercially available sports drinks were examined for erosive potential in vitro. The study in situ was a single centre, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study to compare the erosive effect of a commercially available sports drink (Test), with that of mineral water (Control), over 10 day periods on 10 healthy volunteers. Subjects wore upper removable appliances containing two human enamel specimens from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The regimen of intake of the drinks was 350 ml in 10, 5-min rest, 650 ml in 25, 5-min rest, 500 ml in 10 and 5-min rest. Measurements of enamel loss were made on samples after 5 and 10 days by profilometry. The in situ study showed a statistically significant difference in erosive potential between the test and control beverages. No specimen exposed to the control beverage displayed appreciable erosion. Erosion occurred with the test drink, but to a variable degree between subjects. The subjects unanimously found the drinking regimen unpleasant. The sports drink caused significantly more erosion in situ than water and as seen in other studies, there was marked variation in susceptibility to erosion between subjects. The new drinking regimen was designed to simulate pre, during and post-exercise intake. Although all the sedentary subjects participating in this study reported that they found the volume of fluids consumed over a short period of time excessive it is unlikely that this would prove problematic in the exercise environment.

  13. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  15. Drinking caused by exposing dogs to radiant heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, W J

    1977-01-01

    1. Exposure to radiant heat caused dogs to pant and lose water by evaporation at rates of 40-70 g/hr. 2. When water was offered at intervals during the heating, the dogs drank at about half of the opportunities. The individual drinks were small but, by their repetition, loss of water by evaporation during heating was approximately matched by drinking. 3. Water given by stomach tube reduced drinking during a subsequent period of heating. 4. When water was offered more than 15 min after the end of a period of heating, after panting had ceased, drinking occurred only if the water loss exceeded 50-70 g, about 0-6% of the body water. This is regarded as drinking due to loss of water, beyond a threshold of dehydration necessary to stimulate drinking with the dog at rest. When water was offered during heating, drinking occurred with dehydration less than this threshold. 5. The drinking produced by heating was similar to that produced by running (O'Connor, 1975). When the animal ran under heat, panting was more severe and the water loss greater (85-150 g/hr); it was approximately matched by more drinking. PMID:839452

  16. Energy drinks: an emerging public health hazard for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a public health threat and are increasingly consumed by youth internationally. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. We review these practices and the current inconsistent state of labeling. We also examine international support for regulation of these products, including a survey showing that 85 per cent of United States parents agreed that regulations requiring caffeine content disclosure and warning labels on energy drinks are warranted. We then examine the regulatory structure for energy drinks in the United States, analyzing legal and self-regulatory strategies to protect consumers, especially youth, from these potentially dangerous products. Recommended government interventions include revised labeling requirements, addressing problematic ingredients, and enacting retail restrictions. We conclude by identifying areas for future research.

  17. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  18. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  19. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  20. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  1. Mouthguard and sports drinks on tooth surface pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y; Yang, T-C; Miyanaga, H; Tanaka, Y; Ikebe, K; Akimoto, N

    2014-09-01

    The influence of sports drinks and mouthguards on the pH level of tooth surface was examined. A custom-made mouthguard was fabricated for each subject. The pH level was measured by electric pH meter with sensitivity of 0.01 up to 30 min. Sports drinks (pH=3.75) containing 9.4% sugar were used in this study. Measurements were performed on a cohort of 23 female subjects without a mouthguard (control), wearing a mouthguard only (MG), wearing a mouthguard after 30 ml sports drink intake (SD+MG), wearing a mouthguard during a 5-min jogging exercise (MG+EX) and wearing a mouthguard during jogging after sports drink intake (SD+MG+EX). For 7 male subjects, the same measurements were performed while a sports drink was taken over the mouthguard (MG+SD, MD+EX+SD). MG showed statistically higher pH level than control (psports drinks were taken over the mouthguard, no significant differences in pH level were observed among the different conditions.Within the limitations of this study, it was suggested that wearing a mouthguard during exercise is in itself not a possible risk factor for dental caries, while wearing a mouthguard after consuming sports drinks is. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. MIN-CUT BASED SEGMENTATION OF AIRBORNE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ural

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an organization to the unstructured point cloud before extracting information from airborne lidar data is common in many applications. Aggregating the points with similar features into segments in 3-D which comply with the nature of actual objects is affected by the neighborhood, scale, features and noise among other aspects. In this study, we present a min-cut based method for segmenting the point cloud. We first assess the neighborhood of each point in 3-D by investigating the local geometric and statistical properties of the candidates. Neighborhood selection is essential since point features are calculated within their local neighborhood. Following neighborhood determination, we calculate point features and determine the clusters in the feature space. We adapt a graph representation from image processing which is especially used in pixel labeling problems and establish it for the unstructured 3-D point clouds. The edges of the graph that are connecting the points with each other and nodes representing feature clusters hold the smoothness costs in the spatial domain and data costs in the feature domain. Smoothness costs ensure spatial coherence, while data costs control the consistency with the representative feature clusters. This graph representation formalizes the segmentation task as an energy minimization problem. It allows the implementation of an approximate solution by min-cuts for a global minimum of this NP hard minimization problem in low order polynomial time. We test our method with airborne lidar point cloud acquired with maximum planned post spacing of 1.4 m and a vertical accuracy 10.5 cm as RMSE. We present the effects of neighborhood and feature determination in the segmentation results and assess the accuracy and efficiency of the implemented min-cut algorithm as well as its sensitivity to the parameters of the smoothness and data cost functions. We find that smoothness cost that only considers simple distance

  3. Quality control of 10-min soil temperatures data at RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, C.; González Sotelino, L.; Journée, M.

    2015-03-01

    Soil temperatures at various depths are unique parameters useful to describe both the surface energy processes and regional environmental and climate conditions. To provide soil temperature observation in different regions across Belgium for agricultural management as well as for climate research, soil temperatures are recorded in 13 of the 20 automated weather stations operated by the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium. At each station, soil temperature can be measured at up to 5 different depths (from 5 to 100 cm) in addition to the bare soil and grass temperature records. Although many methods have been developed to identify erroneous air temperatures, little attention has been paid to quality control of soil temperature data. This contribution describes the newly developed semi-automatic quality control of 10-min soil temperatures data at RMI.

  4. KA…HOO CONSTRUCTIONS IN TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chi Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan Southern Min ka and hoo have been broadly investigated in the literature (e.g., Cheng et al. 1999, Lien 2002, Tsao 2005. However, very little of the previous research has focused on the interaction between these two functional words. This paper thus explores structures with a ka…hoo configuration. Through the examination of corpus data, this paper finds that ka…hoo constructions are mainly separated into two constructions: ditransitive and resultative constructions. Based on the constructional approach, the ditransitive construction is found to include four construction patterns which can help differentiate verb types. In addition, the event structure account of the resultative ka…hoo construction is explored. It is posited that the event telicity may change when the causative word hoo overtly occurs. The distinction between a ditransitive and a resultative ka…hoo construction significantly reduces the confusion in data where the ka…hoo configuration is found.

  5. Min-max optimal public service system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kvet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with designing a fair public service system. To achieve fairness, various schemes are be applied. The strongest criterion in the process is minimization of disutility of the worst situated users and then optimization of disutility of the better situated users under the condition that disutility of the worst situated users does not worsen, otherwise called lexicographical minimization. Focusing on the first step, this paper endeavours to find an effective solution to the weighted p-median problem based on radial formulation. Attempts at solving real instances when using a location-allocation model often fail due to enormous computational time or huge memory demands. Radial formulation can be implemented using commercial optimisation software. The main goal of this study is to show that the suitability solving of the min-max optimal public service system design can save computational time.

  6. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  7. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  8. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  9. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  10. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  11. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  12. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  13. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  14. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  15. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  16. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  17. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  18. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their behaviors may get them into trouble. Health Problems Related to Alcohol The effects of long-term alcohol use on the brain may be life-long. Drinking also creates a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ...

  19. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  20. The Drinking Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  1. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  2. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  3. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  4. Dissecting the role of conformational change and membrane binding by the bacterial cell division regulator MinE in the stimulation of MinD ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Saud H; Cloutier, Adam D; McLeod, Laura J; Foo, Alexander C Y; Damry, Adam M; Goto, Natalie K

    2017-12-15

    The bacterial cell division regulators MinD and MinE together with the division inhibitor MinC localize to the membrane in concentrated zones undergoing coordinated pole-to-pole oscillation to help ensure that the cytokinetic division septum forms only at the mid-cell position. This dynamic localization is driven by MinD-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, stimulated by interactions with MinE's anti-MinCD domain. This domain is buried in the 6-β-stranded MinE "closed" structure, but is liberated for interactions with MinD, giving rise to a 4-β-stranded "open" structure through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that MinE-membrane interactions induce a structural change into a state resembling the open conformation. However, MinE mutants lacking the MinE membrane-targeting sequence stimulated higher ATP hydrolysis rates than the full-length protein, indicating that binding to MinD is sufficient to trigger this conformational transition in MinE. In contrast, conformational change between the open and closed states did not affect stimulation of ATP hydrolysis rates in the absence of membrane binding, although the MinD-binding residue Ile-25 is critical for this conformational transition. We therefore propose an updated model where MinE is brought to the membrane through interactions with MinD. After stimulation of ATP hydrolysis, MinE remains bound to the membrane in a state that does not catalyze additional rounds of ATP hydrolysis. Although the molecular basis for this inhibited state is unknown, previous observations of higher-order MinE self-association may explain this inhibition. Overall, our findings have general implications for Min protein oscillation cycles, including those that regulate cell division in bacterial pathogens. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  6. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  7. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  8. Drinking water microbial myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  9. The US Army HazMin probe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusinen, T.; Dirks, J.; Brothers, A.; Fowler, K.; Skumanich, M.; Scola, R.; Perich, A.; Napolitano, M.

    1993-03-01

    In 1987, the US Department of Defense (DOD) established a goal of reducing the quantity of hazardous waste generated by DOD facilities by 50%. To help achieve this goal, the US Army Production Base Modernization Activity (PBMA) has contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop decision support software to be used in the Army-wide hazardous waste minimization (HazMin) program. The resulting waste minimization prioritization software has been named the Project Opportunity and Benefit Evaluation (PROBE) model. PROBE can be used to evaluate both waste stream and project priorities. PROBE operates on any IBM-compatible personal computer hardware with at least 640K of memory and 5 megabytes of available hard disk space. PROBE was developed under the direction of PBMA, which retains unlimited rights to the Federal version of PROBE. PBMA encourages other DOD services and other Federal agencies to use PROBE to assist in their own waste minimization programs. PNL is also considering developing a copyrighted version of PROBE for the commercial market. PROBE was written using FoxPro 2.0 application development software, and runs as an executable file from either MS-DOS or Windows. The software can be loaded onto a single high-capacity floppy disk in a compressed format and can be transferred onto hard disk, ready to operate, via a simple start-up routine

  10. CPMC: Automatic Object Segmentation Using Constrained Parametric Min-Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, João; Sminchisescu, Cristian

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel framework to generate and rank plausible hypotheses for the spatial extent of objects in images using bottom-up computational processes and mid-level selection cues. The object hypotheses are represented as figure-ground segmentations, and are extracted automatically, without prior knowledge of the properties of individual object classes, by solving a sequence of Constrained Parametric Min-Cut problems (CPMC) on a regular image grid. In a subsequent step, we learn to rank the corresponding segments by training a continuous model to predict how likely they are to exhibit real-world regularities (expressed as putative overlap with ground truth) based on their mid-level region properties, then diversify the estimated overlap score using maximum marginal relevance measures. We show that this algorithm significantly outperforms the state of the art for low-level segmentation in the VOC 2009 and 2010 data sets. In our companion papers [1], [2], we show that the algorithm can be used, successfully, in a segmentation-based visual object category recognition pipeline. This architecture ranked first in the VOC2009 and VOC2010 image segmentation and labeling challenges.

  11. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  13. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  14. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  15. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  16. Effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Kavouras, Stavros A; Koutsari, Christina; Georgakakis, Charalambos; Skenderi, Katerina; Beer, Michael; Sidossis, Labros S

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 +/- 2.0; HMal: 68.6 +/- 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 +/- 2.0; Plac: 69.4 +/- 3.0 min, P> 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9%; faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.

  17. The Impact of Marijuana Legalization on Adolescent Use, Consequences, and Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoup, Ashley C; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Varma, Malini; Stewart, David G

    2016-12-05

    Currently, only four states have legalized recreational marijuana use for adults over 21 years of age. Therefore, little is known about the influence that legalization will have on adolescent marijuana use. This study examines how marijuana legalization has impacted the frequency and consequences of adolescent use in a sample of participants in a school-based, substance use intervention. We hypothesized that adolescents enrolled in the intervention in years after marijuana legalization would present with more problematic use compared to those enrolled prior, and that changes in the perceived risk of marijuana would be a mechanism of problematic use. Participants were 262 students enrolled in a school-based substance use intervention in 2010 to 2015. The Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record, Alcohol and Drug Use Consequences Questionnaire, and a decisional balance matrix were used to assess marijuana frequency, negative consequences, and perceived risk of use. A mediation model was used to test the degree to which marijuana legalization may lead to increased frequency and consequences of use through perceived risk. Findings indicated a significantly positive correlation between marijuana-related consequences and perceived risk post legalization. Despite relatively equal use between both groups, adolescents in the legalization group experienced higher levels of perceived risk and increased negative consequences. Due to the rising legalization status of marijuana in the United States, it is imperative that psychoeducation is provided to adults and adolescents about the consequences of underage marijuana use.

  18. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts

  19. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  20. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  1. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  2. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  3. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  4. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  5. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    To identify the extent and nature of the problem and the main contributing factors to drink driving crashes; determine the current mechanisms in place, particularly in terms of legislation and its enforcement; and identify baseline data and relevant stakeholders. The situational assessment was based on the collection of secondary data from available reports and documents, in-depth interviews with key representatives at a central level, and field surveys in provinces. Vietnam has experienced phenomenal growth in motor vehicles, especially motorcycles, in the last decade (400%). This initially led to an increase in deaths from road crashes, but since 2006 the number has stayed fairly level according to police statistics. However, comparisons with health data suggest that the number of deaths is much higher and there are clearly a number of problems with the relevant data systems. Data on the percentage of drivers exceeding legal limits are not available, but police statistics indicated that drinking alcohol was a contributory factor in 7 percent of motor vehicle crashes. This is likely to be an underestimate, because the police and health services do not have the equipment to measure the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of all drivers in crashes. Motorcycle riders and young people are in the high-risk groups. There are strict BAC limits starting at over zero and severe punishments for drunk drivers involved in serious crashes. However, the police do not have adequate manpower or equipment to conduct regular and frequent roadside checking for drivers who have been drinking. There have also been a number of education programs on road safety including drinking and driving, but these have not included sustained and intensive campaigns targeting the high-risk groups. The National Traffic Safety Committee (NTSC) is responsible for coordinating the relevant agencies but there is still a problem with lack of information sharing between agencies. This study completed

  6. Promotion of responsible drinking in hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, S; Wood, L J; Montgomery, I M; Davidson, J; Jones, M E

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on an intervention programme to promote responsible drinking in hotels. The licensees of eight hotels agreed to participate in a trial of measures designed to assist patrons to avoid drink-driving, and seven other hotels were used as controls. The interventions acceptable to licensees comprised commercial-quality promotional material with the theme "0.05 Know Your Limits", and a breath analysis machine and poster on its use. Patrons leaving the hotels on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights were interviewed and breath-tested. Although the intervention material had been seen by one-third of patrons in the intervention hotels, there was no significant difference between them and control hotel patrons in either median BAC or the proportion who were going to drive with BAC over the legal limit. There was poor compliance by hotels with the intervention procedures, indicating that a major impediment to the implementation and evaluation of programmes to promote responsible drinking is a lack of motivation by many licensees, despite support by some licensees and the Australian Hotels Association.

  7. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  8. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  9. Drinking to the Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2014-01-01

    : economic, cultural, inherited and organisational. A range of variables measuring alcohol norms, drinking practices and alcohol-related problems are then inserted into the space. This article identifies status differences in the employees’ drinking patterns indicating that respondents with large amounts...... of economic, cultural and inherited capital are more responsive to alcohol-related health messages than respondents (and especially males) occupying positions low in the social space. This, however, does not mean that respondents from dominant groups have ‘safe’ drinking habits, as these are defined...... by the Danish National Health Board. Rather, this article identifies a relatively large group of high-positioned respondents balancing at the limits of risky drinking – or transgressing them, if measured by international standards....

  10. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  11. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  12. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...... of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...

  13. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  14. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  15. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  16. Renal safety of ibandronate 6 mg infused over 15 min versus 60 min in breast cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomized open-label equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot, Xavier; Lortholary, Alain; Abadie-Lacourtoisie, Sophie; Mefti-Lacheraf, Fawzia; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Lefeuvre, Claudia; Letessier, Sarah; Morvan, Philippe; Dür, Carole; Frimat, L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the renal safety equivalence of ibandronate 6 mg infused over 15 min versus 60 min, in patients with bone metastases of breast cancer. Patients were females having breast cancer with at least one bone metastasis. Exclusion criteria were renal failure (creatinine clearance jaw disorder or uncontrolled severe disease. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive nine ibandronate 6 mg i.v. infusions over either 15 min or 60 min. The primary outcome was the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in creatinine clearance between groups, 28 days after the last infusion. The equivalence margin was ±8 mL/min. Overall 334 patients were randomized (165-15 min infusions vs. 169 to 60 min infusions, 325 (159 vs. 166) were analyzed by intent-to-treat, and 312 (151 vs. 161) were analyzed per protocol. Per protocol, the 15 min-60 min difference in creatinine clearance [95% CI] was -3.00 [-8.18, 2.18]. By intent-to-treat, this difference was-2.91 [-7.99, 2.16]. Death and serious adverse event rates did not differ between groups. Three serious adverse events were considered related to ibandronate: an osteonecrosis of the jaw (15-min group), a pain in jaw and an enamel cracking (60-min group). Two renal failures, reported in the 60 min group, were not considered related to ibandronate. None occurred in the 15 min group. Ibandronate may be infused over 15 min without clinically significant consequence on renal safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  18. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  19. Perfluorinated surfactants in surface and drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutlarek, Dirk; Exner, Martin; Färber, Harald

    2006-09-01

    the Ruhr river and the Moehne river (tributary of the Ruhr) (Ruhr: up to 446 ng/L, Moehne: up to 4385 ng/L). The maximum concentration of all drinking water samples taken in the Rhine-Ruhr area was determined at 598 ng/L with the major component PFOA (519 ng/L). The surface water contaminations most likely stem from contaminated inorganic and organic waste materials (so-called 'Abfallgemisch'). This waste material was legally applied to several agricultural areas on the upper reaches of the Moehne. Perfluorinated surfactants could be detected in some suchlike soil samples. They contaminated the river and the reservoir belonging to it, likely by superficial run-off over several months or probably years. Downstream, dilution effects are held responsible for decreasing concentrations of PS in surface waters of the Moehne and the Ruhr river. In analogy to the surface water samples, PS (major component PFOA) can be determined in many drinking water samples of the Rhine-Ruhr area where the water supplies are mainly based on bank filtration and artificial recharge. The concentrations found in drinking waters decreased with the concentrations of the corresponding raw water samples along the flow direction of the Ruhr river (from east to west) and were not significantly different from surface water concentrations. This indicates that perfluorinated surfactants are at present not successfully removed by water treatment steps. Because of their different problematic properties (persistence, mobility, toxicity, bioaccumulation), the concentrations of specific perfluorinated surfactants and their precursors in drinking waters and food have to be minimised. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to take the initiative to establish suitable legal regulations (limitations/ban) concerning the production and use of these surfactants and their precursors. Furthermore, it is indispensable to protect water resources from these compounds. A discussion on appropriate limit values in drinking

  20. Septal membrane localization by C-terminal amphipathic α-helices of MinD in Bacillus subtilis mutant cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuki; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2017-10-18

    The Min system, which inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic protein FtsZ, is largely responsible for positioning the division site in rod-shaped bacteria. It has been reported that MinJ, which bridges DivIVA and MinD, is targeted to the cell poles by an interaction with DivIVA, and that MinJ in turn recruits MinCD to the cell poles. MinC, however, is located primarily at active division sites at mid-cell when expressed from its native promoter. Surprisingly, we found that Bacillus subtilis MinD is located at nascent septal membranes and at an asymmetric site on lateral membranes between nascent septal membranes in filamentous cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. Bacillus subtilis MinD has two amphipathic α-helices rich in basic amino acid residues at its C-terminus; one of these, named MTS1 here, is the counterpart of the membrane targeting sequence (MTS) in Escherichia coli MinD while the other, named MTS-like sequence (MTSL), is the nearest helix to MTS1. These amphipathic helices were located independently at nascent septal membranes in cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA, whereas elimination of the helices from the wild type protein reduced its localization considerably. MinD variants with altered MTS1 and MTSL, in which basic amino acid residues were replaced with proline or acidic residues, were not located at nascent septal membranes, indicating that the binding to the nascent septal membranes requires basic residues and a helical structure. The septal localization of MTSL, but not of MTS1, was dependent on host cell MinD. These results suggest that MinD is targeted to nascent septal membranes via its C-terminal amphipathic α-helices in B. subtilis cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. Moreover, the diffuse distribution of MinD lacking both MTSs suggests that only a small fraction of MinD depends on MinJ for its localization to nascent septal membranes.

  1. Detection of active bile leak with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: comparison of 20-25 min delayed and 60-180 min delayed images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Stadnik, Anna; Lezak, Aleksandra; Maj, Edyta; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof; Rowinska-Berman, Katarzyna; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P; Krawczyk, Marek; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) performed in different time delays after injection of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) for the diagnosis of active bile leak. This retrospective analysis included Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR images of 34 patients suspected of bile leak. Images were acquired 20-25 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA injection. If there was inadequate contrast in the bile ducts then delayed images after 60-90 min and 150-180 min were obtained. Results were correlated with intraoperative findings, ERCP results, clinical data, laboratory tests, and follow-up examinations. Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.4%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 97.1% for the diagnosis of an active bile leak. The sensitivity of 20-25 min delayed MR images was 42.9%, of combined 20-25 min and 60-90 min delayed images was 92.9% and of combined 20-25 min, 60-90 min and 150-180 min delayed images was 96.4%. Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC utilizing delayed phase images was effective for detecting the presence and location of active bile leaks. The images acquired 60-180 min post-injection enabled identification of bile leaks even in patients with a dilated biliary system or moderate liver dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Legal and social control of alcohol-impaired driving in California: 1983-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, D E; Marelich, W D

    1997-09-01

    This research was designed to provide information on the legal and social forces that influence change in control of alcohol-impaired driving. Attitudes, perceptions and behaviors concerning drinking and driving for California drivers in 1994 (n = 608) were compared to similar information collected from California drivers in 1983 and 1986 (n = 291) through random-digit-dialing telephone interviews. Self-reported drinking-driving violations showed a substantial decline, paralleling the well-documented drop in alcohol-related traffic crashes during this time span. A large reduction in drinking before driving was reported for all age groups, men and women, and for both heavy drinkers and light drinkers. There was evidence of an increase in the levels of both general deterrence and general prevention. Increased external control was reflected in greater knowledge of drinking-driving laws and trends toward an increased expectation that violations would be followed by unpleasant consequences. Strong gains in creating a social norm for control of alcohol-impaired driving were indicated by perceptions that friends and relatives were more likely to disapprove of driving after drinking, observations of more control of drinking by drivers at occasions where alcohol is served and an increase in the view that it is morally wrong to drive after heavy drinking. California has made substantial progress in efforts to control alcohol-impaired driving, through increases in both general deterrence (fear of punishment) and general prevention (moral inhibitions and socialization of preventive habits), especially the latter.

  3. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  4. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  5. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  6. Polymerization and oscillation stuttering in a filamentous model of the subcellular Min oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Sengupta, Supratim; Sain, Anirban; Derr, Julien

    2011-03-01

    We present a computational model of the E. coli Min oscillation that involves polymerization of MinD filaments followed by depolymerization stimulated by filament-end zones of MinE. Our stochastic model is fully three-dimensional, and tracks the diffusion and interactions of every MinD and MinE molecule. We recover self-organized Min oscillations. We investigate the experimental phenomenon of oscillation stuttering, which we relate to the disruption of MinE tip-binding at the filament scale.

  7. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  8. The Legal Junction: the complex promise of modern legal professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Kwak

    2005-01-01

    textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted

  9. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  10. On the self-organisation of the bacterial proteins MinD and MinE and of the protein kinase PKCα

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Es existieren viele faszinierende Beispiele von Musterbildung in biologischen Systemen. Es wird seit langem vermutet, dass physikalische Mechanismen eine wichtige Rolle in der Bildung dieser Muster spielen. In dieser Arbeit verwenden wir Konzepte der Physik von Systemen außerhalb des thermodynamischen Gleichgewichts um die komplexen raumzeitlichen Muster der bakteriellen Proteine MinD und MinE und der Proteinkinase Cα (PKCα) zu untersuchen. Die Min Proteine organisieren sich im Bakterium ...

  11. Drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooksoo

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada. Using a focus group approach, qualitative data were collected from 19 elderly Korean immigrants (14 men; 5 women) residing in Canada. Data were analyzed using the techniques of grounded theory. The findings indicated that elderly Korean immigrants did not dramatically change their understanding of drinking or their ways of drinking. Instead, they modified their drinking behavior in accordance with the social and legal environment of their new country. In particular, Canadian alcohol policies, including the higher cost of alcohol, lower accessibility, and strict law enforcement, discouraged excessive drinking. Policy implications and recommendations for future research are presented.

  12. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  13. Implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, predict drinking over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Baldwin, S.A.; Norris, J.; Kaysen, D.; Gasser, M.L.; Wiers, R.W.

    OBJECTIVE: There is considerable excitement about implicit alcohol associations (IAAs) as predictors of college-student hazardous drinking; however, few studies have investigated IAAs prospectively, included multiple assessments, or controlled for previous drinking. Doing so is essential for showing

  14. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  15. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  16. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  17. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  18. [Legal aspects of geriatric rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, T

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.

  19. Legal Handbook on School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…

  20. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  1. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  2. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  3. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  4. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  5. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  6. Lower level of drink-driving in The Netherlands coincides with increased drug-driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, M.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Drink-driving in The Netherlands has dropped significantly since the mid-eighties. In 1983, 12% of car drivers during weekend-nights were over the legal BAC-limit of 0.5 g/l. In the first half of the 1990s, this proportion had dropped to around 4%. In the second half of the 1990s, the proportion of

  7. Alcohol Use, Acculturative Stress, and Drinking Motivation among International Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Chieko; Belli, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use, acculturative stress, and drinking motivations of 262 students in English as a second language programs in a U.S. community college were explored. Alcohol consumption was generally low, but differences between two groups with different legal statuses indicate the need to consider subgroups of international students for research…

  8. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A.; Ruepert, Nienke

    2016-01-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from...

  9. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  10. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  11. Lunchtime Food and Drink Purchasing: Young People's Practices, Preferences and Power within and beyond the School Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. J.; Danesi, G.; Kapetanaki, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights factors that influence young people aged 13-15 years when purchasing food or drink within or beyond the school catering service. The paper draws from a qualitative study of secondary schools in Scotland, which varied in terms of relative socio-economic deprivation and density of food and drink businesses within a 10-min walk.…

  12. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  13. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  15. Who drinks where: youth selection of drinking contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina F; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J; Grube, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Rethink Your Drink!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of drinking a lot of water.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  17. How Giraffes Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  18. Evaluation of exposure scenarios on intentional microbiological contamination in a drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Forêt, Jean Marie; Chardon, Jurgen; Teunis, Peter; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Tangena, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Drinking water distribution networks are vulnerable to accidental or intentional contamination events. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seeding duration and concentration, exposure pathway (ingestion via drinking of water and tooth brushing and inhalation by taking a shower) and pathogen infectivity on exposure and infection risk in the case of an intentional pathogenic contamination in a drinking water distribution network. Seeding of a pathogen for 10 min and 120 min, and subsequent spreading through a drinking water distribution network were simulated. For exposure via drinking, actual data on drinking events and volumes were used. Ingestion of a small volume of water by tooth brushing twice a day by every person in the network was assumed. Inhalation of contaminated aerosol droplets took place when taking a shower. Infection risks were estimated for pathogens with low (r = 0.0001) and high (r = 0.1) infectivity. In the served population (48 000 persons) and within 24 h, about 1400 persons were exposed to the pathogen by ingestion of water in the 10-min seeding scenario and about 3400 persons in the 120-min scenario. The numbers of exposed persons via tooth brushing were about the same as via drinking of water. Showering caused (inhalation) exposure in about 450 persons in the 10-min scenario and about 1500 in the 120-min scenario. Regardless of pathogen infectivity, if the seeding concentration is 10(6) pathogens per litre or more, infection risks are close to one. Exposure by taking a shower is of relevance if the pathogen is highly infectious via inhalation. A longer duration of the seeding of a pathogen increases the probability of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sense and sensibility in a legal argument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  1. Effect of an isotonic rehydration sports drink and exercise on urolithiasis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu N.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of physical exercise as well as the influence of hydration with an isotonic sports drink on renal function in male Wistar rats. Four groups were studied over a period of 42 days: 1 control (N = 9; 2 physical exercise (Exe, N = 7; 3 isotonic drink (Drink, N = 8; 4 physical exercise + isotonic drink (Exe + Drink, N = 8. Physical exercise consisted of running on a motor-driven treadmill for 1 h/day, at 20 m/min, 5 days a week. The isotonic sports drink was a commercial solution used by athletes for rehydration after physical activity, 2 ml administered by gavage twice a day. Urine cultures were performed in all animals. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at the beginning and at the end of the protocol period. Urinary and plasma parameters (sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, calcium did not differ among groups. However, an amorphous material was observed in the bladders of animals in the Exe + Drink and Drink groups. Characterization of the material by Western blot revealed the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein and angiotensin converting enzyme. Physical exercise and the isotonic drink did not change the plasma or urinary parameters measured. However, the isotonic drink induced the formation of intravesical matrix, suggesting a potential lithogenic risk.

  2. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  3. Legal regulation of the Commercial Register

    OpenAIRE

    Hanková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...

  4. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Codruta BADEA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  5. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  6. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  7. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...

  8. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  9. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  10. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  11. Does one day of drinking matter? 21st birthday drinking predicts subsequent drinking and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisner, Irene M; Lewis, Melissa A; Rhew, Isaac C; Mittmann, Angela J; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    There has been ample research on college student risks and consequences related to 21st Birthday Drinking. To date, no studies we are aware of have examined how 21st birthday drinking impacts subsequent drinking and related consequences. This study evaluates the effect of a single night of drinking on peak drinking, heavy drinking, and negative consequences over 12months following the event. Furthermore, we examine if typical drinking behavior prior to 21st birthday moderates the relationship between the event drinking and subsequent use. Participants included 599 college students (46% male) who intended to consume at least five/four drinks (men/women respectively) on their 21st birthday. Screening and baseline assessments were completed approximately four weeks before turning 21. A follow-up assessment was completed approximately one week after students' birthdays and every 3months for one year thereafter. Those who drank more on their 21st birthday, also reported higher peak consumption, increased likelihood of consequences, and increased number of consequences throughout the year. Additionally, baseline peak drinking moderated the relationship such that those who drank less at peak occasion prior to turning 21 showed the strongest effects of 21st BD drinking on subsequent consumption. 21st BD drinking could impact subsequent choices and problems related to alcohol. Interventions are warranted and implications discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  13. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  14. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  15. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  16. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  17. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  18. 36 CFR 1275.14 - Legal custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...

  19. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.

  20. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  1. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  2. Legal Logic? Or can we do without?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid

  3. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  4. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  5. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  6. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...

  7. 33 CFR 327.6 - Legal adviser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...

  8. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...

  9. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  11. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  12. Characterization of drinking water by TXRF. A survey analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, G.; Hernandez, E.; Capote, T.; Lue-Meru, M.; Greaves, E.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water samples collected inside houses in the region of Barquisimeto and Cabudare at Lara state were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and by the usual test used for water quality control (Alkalinity, Hardness, pH, Atomic Absorption Analysis, conductivity, etc.). The main objectives of the work were a.- to evaluate water quality at the consumer level, since the usual control is made at water treatment plant only, and b.- to compare the TXRF performance in water quality control by comparison to the classical techniques, required by the legal normative. Fifty water samples were collected, dividing the region in districts, depending on the water source plant, and analyzed according the legal normative and by TXRF. The TXRF analysis was carried out in a Canberra spectrometer, exciting with the Ag-Kα line of an Ag anode. Molybdenum and Vanadium were used as internal standard. The elements S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Pb were determined. Experimental data was analyzed by the statistical package Minitab windows, in order to evaluate the differences between samples classified by districts as mentioned before, as well the results obtained by TXRF compared to the analytical procedures required by the legal normative. The results lead to the characterization of drinking water consumed in the region, and permit to establish further conclusions about the metal content and its relation to some pathologies observed in the region, like lithiasis. (author)

  13. Voluntary fluid intake and palatability change with two-drink availability during cycling training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Scaglioni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how voluntary drinking is affected by the simultaneous presence of two different beverages (plain water and a sports drink compared to the availability of just one beverage at a time. Methods: Twenty recreational cyclists and triathletes (22.8 ± 6.9 years old were recruited. Subjects completed three laboratory sessions each (DB=23°C, RH=70% in randomly assigned order, with at least one week between sessions: one session, only water available (WAonly; another session, only sports drink (SDonly; and another session, both beverages (BOTH. Drinking was ad libitum. Each exercise session lasted 100 min.: a 20 min. warm-up, followed by eight 5-min. high-intensity intervals (85-95% HRmax alternating with 2.5 min. recovery time (60-70% HRmax and a final 20 min. recovery (60-70% HRmax. Fluid ingestion was measured each 20 min. Taste scores for both fluids (W and SD and body weight were also measured before and after each exercise session. Results: No significant differences were found for total fluid ingestion when comparing BOTH and SDonly (846.1 ñ 382.7 vs. 827.9 ñ 365.6 mL, respectively, p > 0.05. However, subjects consumed less water (WAonly, 633.4 ñ 400.5 mL compared with the other two conditions (p = 0.009. Subjects drank more sports drink than plain water during the BOTH condition (659.2 ñ 349.8 vs 186.9 ñ 128.0, p < 0.0005. Voluntary drinking was not enough to prevent a minor but statistically significant (p < 0.003 average reduction in body mass (voluntary dehydration of 0.5% BM for all experimental conditions. Sensory tests showed a preference for the sports drink flavor (7.49±1.1 vs. water (5.41±1.5 (p<0.0005. Conclusions: Sports drink enhances voluntary fluid intake more than when only water is available. Ad libitum drinking was greater when a sports drink was available. Sensory scores obtained support this preference for a sports drink vs. water.

  14. Min mentor er min voksenven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Birte

    2009-01-01

    En artikel i bogen: 6 belysninger af vejledning, brydninger, forståelser & praksis. Artiklen er et sammendrag af en diskursanalyse fra 2008 fra projetrapporten: Ind under huden, www.vejledning.net...

  15. Legal foundations of adaptive licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V

    2013-09-01

    In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.

  16. Legal Aspects of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.

  17. Legal Liability in Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty

  18. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  19. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...

  20. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Lucy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016, fruit squash (p = 0.042 and milk (p = 0.020 than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017 and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003. No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  1. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  2. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  3. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions.

  4. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions. (paper)

  5. Archival Sources for Legal Biography at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...

  6. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  7. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  8. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  9. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...

  10. Improved endurance capacity following chocolate milk consumption compared with 2 commercially available sport drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; Morris, Penelope; Stevenson, Emma

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 recovery drinks on endurance performance following glycogen-depleting exercise. Nine trained male cyclists performed 3 experimental trials, in a randomized counter-balanced order, consisting of a glycogen-depleting trial, a 4-h recovery period, and a cycle to exhaustion at 70% power at maximal oxygen uptake. At 0 and 2 h into the recovery period, participants consumed chocolate milk (CM), a carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), or a fluid replacement drink (FR). Participants cycled 51% and 43% longer after ingesting CM (32 +/- 11 min) than after ingesting CR (21 +/- 8 min) or FR (23 +/- 8 min). CM is an effective recovery aid after prolonged endurance exercise for subsequent exercise at low-moderate intensities.

  11. Caffeinated Energy Drinks Improve High-Speed Running in Elite Field Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance of elite field hockey players during a game. On 2 days separated by a week, 13 elite field hockey players (age and body mass = 23.2 ± 3.9 years and 76.1 ± 6.1 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants played a simulated field hockey game (2 × 25 min). Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the game were assessed using GPS devices. The total number of accelerations and decelerations was determined by accelerometry. Compared with the placebo drink, the caffeinated energy drink did not modify the total distance covered during the game (6,035 ± 451 m and 6,055 ± 499 m, respectively; p = .87), average heart rate (155 ± 13 beats per min and 158 ± 18 beats per min, respectively; p = .46), or the number of accelerations and decelerations (697 ± 285 and 618 ± 221, respectively; p = .15). However, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the distance covered at moderate-intensity running (793 ± 135 and 712 ± 116, respectively; p = .03) and increased the distance covered at high-intensity running (303 ± 67 m and 358 ± 117 m; p = .05) and sprinting (85 ± 41 m and 117 ± 55 m, respectively; p = .02). Elite field hockey players can benefit from ingesting caffeinated energy drinks because they increase the running distance covered at high-intensity running and sprinting. Increased running distance at high speed might represent a meaningful advantage for field hockey performance.

  12. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Monica C; Decou, Christopher R; Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups.

  13. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  14. Potential effect of alcohol content in energy drinks on breath alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher

    2009-04-01

    Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.

  15. Legal challenges in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  16. Legal challenges in neurological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra

    2016-10-01

    Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  17. Legal protection of the whistleblowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Safta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.

  18. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  19. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  20. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  1. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  2. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  3. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  4. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  5. [Psychiatric treatment--legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. AREVA announces US$ 7.75 Per share friendly cash offer for UraMin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    AREVA and UraMin Inc. ('UraMin') entered on June 15, 2007 into an agreement in respect of AREVA's friendly cash offer for 100% of the share capital of UraMin. UraMin is listed in London (AIM) and Toronto (TSX). AREVA (Euronext Paris) already owns 5.5% of UraMin's share capital. This cash offer of AREVA will be made through its indirect wholly-owned subsidiary CFMM Development ('AREVA') based on a price of US$ 7.75 per UraMin share. The total offer consideration amounts to more than USD 2.5 billion for 100% of the fully diluted share capital of UraMin. This represents a premium of 21% over UraMin 20-day weighted average trading price ending on June 8, 2007. The UraMin Board of Directors, after consulting with its financial advisors, has determined that the offer is fair and in the best interest of the UraMin shareholders and it has resolved to recommend acceptance of the Offer. BMO Capital Markets has provided an opinion that the offer is fair, from a financial point of view, to the UraMin shareholders. In connection with the offer, all directors and certain other shareholders representing approximately 25% of the outstanding UraMin shares (calculated on a fully diluted basis) have entered into lock-up agreements with AREVA pursuant to which they have agreed to tender all their UraMin shares to AREVA's offer. The support agreement entered into between AREVA and UraMin provides for, among other things, in case a superior proposal is accepted by UraMin, a right to match in favour of AREVA. The support agreement also includes a break up fee in favour of AREVA of US$ 75 million under certain circumstances. Concurrently with the closing of the proposed offer, UraMin will declare a dividend payable in shares of the capital of Niger Uranium Limited held by UraMin (where permitted by law) or a cash equivalent of the value of such shares

  7. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  8. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  9. HTA and its legal issues: a framework for identifying legal issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.

  10. Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, G; Constantini, N W; Yariv, H; Nice, S; Shapira, N

    2011-10-01

    It was previously demonstrated that drinking water significantly elevates the resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults, and that low water intake is associated with obesity and lesser success in weight reduction. This study addressed the potential of water drinking to increase the REE in children, as an additional tool for weight management. To examine the effect of drinking water on the REE of overweight children. A total of 21 overweight, otherwise-healthy children (age 9.9±1.4 years, 11 males) drank 10 ml kg(-1) cold water (4 °C). REE was measured before and after water ingestion, for 66 min. The main outcome measure was the change in mean REE from baseline values. Immediately after drinking water, there was a transient decrease in REE, from a baseline value of 3.32±1.15 kilojoule (kJ) per min to 2.56±0.66 kJ per min at minute 3 (P=0.005). A subsequent rise in REE was then observed, which was significantly higher than baseline after 24 min (3.89±0.78 kJ/min (P=0.021)), and at most time points thereafter. Maximal mean REE values were seen at 57 min after water drinking (4.16±1.43 kJ per min (P=0.004)), which were 25% higher than baseline. REE was significantly correlated with age, height, weight and fat-free mass; the correlations with maximal REE values after water drinking were stronger than with baseline REE values. This study demonstrated an increase of up to 25% in REE following the drinking of 10 ml kg(-1) of cold water in overweight children, lasting for over 40 min. Consuming the recommended daily amount of water for children could result in an energy expenditure equivalent to an additional weight loss of about 1.2 kg per year. These findings reinforce the concept of water-induced REE elevation shown in adults, suggesting that water drinking could assist overweight children in weight loss or maintenance, and may warrant emphasis in dietary guidelines against the obesity epidemic.

  11. Sports drinks and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Warden H; Donovan, Terence E; Geissberger, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Sports drinks were originally developed to improve hydration and performance in athletes taking part in intense or endurance sporting events. These drinks contain relatively high amounts of carbohydrates (sugars), salt, and citric acid. These ingredients create the potential for dental ramifications and overall public health consequences such as obesity and diabetes. High intake of sports drinks during exercise, coupled with xerostomia from dehydration, may lead to the possibility of erosive damage to teeth.

  12. Generalized Simplified Variable-Scaled Min Sum LDPC decoder for irregular LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Emran, Ahmed A.; Elsabrouty, Maha

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel low complexity scaling strategy of min-sum decoding algorithm for irregular LDPC codes. In the proposed method, we generalize our previously proposed simplified Variable Scaled Min-Sum (SVS-min-sum) by replacing the sub-optimal starting value and heuristic update for the scaling factor sequence by optimized values. Density evolution and Nelder-Mead optimization are used offline, prior to the decoding, to obtain the optimal starting point and per iteration upd...

  13. High-Coverage Long Read DNA Sequencing with the Oxford Nanopore MinION

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Miten

    2017-01-01

    Nanopore sequencing was conceived in 1989 by Dave Deamer (UCSC). Over two decades of development from research laboratories and, later on, Oxford Nanopore Technologies resulted in the MinION nanopore sequencer. This work describes the developments in MinION nanopore sequencing and software, and technical milestones achieved since the MinION’s release in 2014. These developments include establishing DNA reads that exceed 200 kb+ lengths and direct, simultaneous detection of nucleotide modifica...

  14. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  15. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  16. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  17. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  18. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Is drinking to thirst optimum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1969, athletes were advised to avoid drinking during exercise. At least 4 subsequent events led to the adoption of a radically different approach. By 1996, all exercisers were advised to drink 'as much as tolerable' in order to insure that they did not lose any weight during exercise - the 'zero percent dehydration' doctrine. This advice requires that athletes drink enough to 'stay ahead of thirst'. The act of drinking is a basic survival instinct that has been regulated by complex, unconscious controls ever since the first fish-like creatures moved onto land and should not require conscious adjustment. Literature survey of all studies comparing the effects of drinking to thirst (ad libitum) and drinking to prevent any weight loss during exercise - the 'zero percent dehydration' doctrine. No study found that drinking more than ad libitum during exercise produced any biological advantage, but it could cause exercise-associated hyponatremia. Drinking ad libitum appears to optimize performance and safety during exercise in many situations. The presence of thirst, not of water loss, may be the biological signal that impairs exercise performance in those who drink less than their thirst dictates during exercise. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Rapid and Accurate Sequencing of Enterovirus Genomes Using MinION Nanopore Sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Ke, Yue Hua; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Ke Qiang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Xin Xin; Dong, Xiao Ping; Xu, Wen Bo; Ma, Xue Jun

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of an enterovirus genome sequence is very important in epidemiological investigation to identify transmission patterns and ascertain the extent of an outbreak. The MinION sequencer is increasingly used to sequence various viral pathogens in many clinical situations because of its long reads, portability, real-time accessibility of sequenced data, and very low initial costs. However, information is lacking on MinION sequencing of enterovirus genomes. In this proof-of-concept study using Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) strains as examples, we established an amplicon-based whole genome sequencing method using MinION. We explored the accuracy, minimum sequencing time, discrimination and high-throughput sequencing ability of MinION, and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing. Within the first minute (min) of sequencing, the accuracy of MinION was 98.5% for the single EV71 strain and 94.12%-97.33% for 10 genetically-related CA16 strains. In as little as 14 min, 99% identity was reached for the single EV71 strain, and in 17 min (on average), 99% identity was achieved for 10 CA16 strains in a single run. MinION is suitable for whole genome sequencing of enteroviruses with sufficient accuracy and fine discrimination and has the potential as a fast, reliable and convenient method for routine use. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Legal Care as Part of Health Care: The Benefits of Medical-Legal Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Driving intoxicated: is hospital admission protective against legal ramifications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis

    2013-12-01

    According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  3. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  4. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  5. Technology Transfer in Digital Era: Legal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Anatol’yevich Bliznets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of disruptive technology in the digital era is the ruling condition of modern sustainable development. The authors proceed from the fact that legal tools for the creation and use, protection of advanced technologies provide the technology transfer process from the owner to interested parties for further practical, commercial application or further improvement. The article analyzes the legal positions of the concept of technology, legal ways to use modern technologies, stages of their implementation and practical application. In the innovation process legal mechanism in combination with the modern means of innovative development stimulates the creation and transfer of new technologies and at the same time it is a key factor for sustainable development in the context of modern digital technology revolution. In the modern digital revolution, the technology transfer acquires new features and ways for the dissemination of technical innovation, which creates new challenges for legal theory and practice, and legal tools should meet the challenges of the time.

  6. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  7. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  8. Legal origin, colonial origin and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...

  9. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  11. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  12. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  13. Evaluating implicit drinking identity as a mediator of drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Gasser, M.L.; Teachman, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We

  14. Civil Legal Services and Medical-Legal Partnerships Needed by the Homeless Population: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.

  15. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  16. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  17. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  18. Legal training of students in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Kablukov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.

  19. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  20. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  1. Internet advertising and its legal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, Evgeniia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal aspects of Internet advertising. The main aim of this thesis is to define a legal code corresponding to this issue and to compare with the laws in Russia. The aim also is specify the efficiency of this legal aspects and review sufficiency of protection of consumers. Further explain the issue of spamming, find out its benefits to the retailer and negative aspects for consumers, and also to compare legal aspects of spamming with legislation in Russia.i

  2. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intoxication by drinking location: a web-based diary study in a New Zealand university community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Paschall, Mallie J; Maclennan, Brett; Langley, John D

    2007-11-01

    Drinking to intoxication is a modifiable risk factor for various health, social, and legal problems. The objective was to estimate the relative risk of intoxication by type of drinking location. Participants were 1614 university students (mean age 19.0 years) in residential halls who completed a web survey (67% response). Respondents reported their drinking for each day of the preceding week, in residential halls, pubs/bars/nightclubs, student flats/houses, and 'other' locations. An estimated blood alcohol concentration (EBAC) was computed and intoxication was defined as EBAC>0.08%. Pubs/bars/nightclubs accounted for 51% of all alcohol consumed, followed by residential halls (34%), student flats/houses (9%), and other locations (6%). Episodes resulting in intoxication comprised 61% of all drinking episodes in pubs/bars/nightclubs, 55% in student flats/houses, 53% in residential halls, and 37% in other locations. Multi-level analyses revealed positive associations between the first three location types (relative to 'other') and intoxication among women. Drinking in pubs/bars/nightclubs was associated with intoxication among men. Other significant predictors included hazardous drinking in the respondent's residential hall, pre-university drinking, and first-year status. Student intoxication is commonplace in licensed premises and residential halls. These environments are amenable to interventions to reduce the incidence of intoxication.

  4. C2 domain protein MIN1 promotes eyespot organization in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmeier, Telsa M; Berthold, Peter; Danon, Avihai; Lamb, Mary Rose; Levitan, Alexander; Rice, Michael E; Dieckmann, Carol L

    2008-12-01

    Assembly and asymmetric localization of the photosensory eyespot in the biflagellate, unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires coordinated organization of photoreceptors in the plasma membrane and pigment granule/thylakoid membrane layers in the chloroplast. min1 (mini-eyed) mutant cells contain abnormally small, disorganized eyespots in which the chloroplast envelope and plasma membrane are no longer apposed. The MIN1 gene, identified here by phenotypic rescue, encodes a protein with an N-terminal C2 domain and a C-terminal LysM domain separated by a transmembrane sequence. This novel domain architecture led to the hypothesis that MIN1 is in the plasma membrane or the chloroplast envelope, where membrane association of the C2 domain promotes proper eyespot organization. Mutation of conserved C2 domain loop residues disrupted association of the MIN1 C2 domain with the chloroplast envelope in moss cells but did not abolish eyespot assembly in Chlamydomonas. In min1 null cells, channelrhodopsin-1 (ChR1) photoreceptor levels were reduced, indicating a role for MIN1 in ChR1 expression and/or stability. However, ChR1 localization was only minimally disturbed during photoautotrophic growth of min1 cells, conditions under which the pigment granule layers are disorganized. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that neither MIN1 nor proper organization of the plastidic components of the eyespot is essential for localization of ChR1.

  5. Characterization of ftsZ mutations that render Bacillus subtilis resistant to MinC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, I.F.F.; Sousa Borges, A.; Kooij, V.; Bartosiak-Jentys, J.; Luirink, S.; Scheffers, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cell division in Bacillus subtilis occurs precisely at midcell. Positional control of cell division is exerted by two mechanisms: nucleoid occlusion, through Noc, which prevents division through nucleoids, and the Min system, where the combined action of the MinC, D and J proteins

  6. Characterization of ftsZ Mutations that Render Bacillus subtilis Resistant to MinC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes de Oliveira, Inês Filipa; Sousa Borges, Anabela de; Kooij, Viola; Bartosiak-Jentys, Jeremy; Luirink, Joen; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cell division in Bacillus subtilis occurs precisely at midcell. Positional control of cell division is exerted by two mechanisms: nucleoid occlusion, through Noc, which prevents division through nucleoids, and the Min system, where the combined action of the MinC, D and J proteins

  7. The 2-min walk test is sufficient for evaluating walking abilities in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, L N; Lowes, L P; Dvorchik, I; Yin, H; Maus, E G; Flanigan, K M; Mendell, J R

    2014-03-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis causes progressive functional loss due to declining muscle strength. Although the underlying cause is unknown, clinical trials are underway to improve strength and function. Selection of appropriate outcome measures is critical for the success of these trials. The 6-min walk test has been the de facto standard for assessing function in neuromuscular disease; however, the optimal walking test has not been determined in this disease. In this study, 67 individuals with sporadic inclusion body myositis completed a battery of quantitative strength and functional tests including timed walking tests, patient-reported outcomes, and other tasks. The 2-min and 6-min walk tests are highly correlated to each other (r=0.97, pwalk test, but 7% of subjects were unable to walk the full 6-min of the 6-min walk test due to fatigue. The 2-min walk test demonstrates similar correlation to all outcomes compared to the 6-min walk test, is less fatiguing and better tolerated. Results suggest that the 2-min walk test is a better alternative to tests of longer duration. Further research is needed to determine longitudinal changes on this outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A facile synthesis of MInSe2 (M= Cu, Ag) via low temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 2. A facile synthesis of MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) via low temperature pyrolysis of single source molecular precursors, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4]. Shamik Ghoshal Liladhar B Kumbhare Vimal K Jain Gautam K Dey. Nanomaterials Volume 30 Issue 2 April 2007 pp 173- ...

  9. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Coliform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about coliform bacteria. Including sections about what coliform bacteria is, how it enters drinking water, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, and how to treat drinking water that contains coliforms.

  10. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drink. Find Out More Is your "lite" beer light in alcohol? How strong is your mixed drink? Try the cocktail content calculator How many "drinks" are in a bottle of wine? Trying to lose weight? Try the ...

  11. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  12. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.

  13. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  14. TUBERCULOSIS: MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vetrugno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behavior differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc. which follow a classically epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli capable of spreading them by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb them are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor, not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95% of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Further, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behavior of the disease in the early stages, it appears appropriate to engage in targeted monitoring, also for the early identification of persons who may become ill.

  15. SPORT DRINKS WITH DIFFERENT OSMOLALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the assortment sport drinks’ extending possibility is represented. The juice component compositions for sport drinks with different osmolality were designed. The feasibility of adding into the drink calcium lactate as a source of quick body energy renovation and as calcium deficiency’s reducer were proved.

  16. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  17. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  18. Caffeinated energy drinks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2013-09-01

    A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks.

  19. medico-legal an overview of some of the key legal developments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. South Africa has a strong legal framework that offers a high level of .... medical practitioners preformed the transplant without confirming the HIV status of the donor. A claim for damages is pending ...

  20. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  1. Constitutionally-Legal Policy as Base Type of Legal Policy of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichkin, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…

  2. Wip1 abrogation decreases intestinal tumor frequency in APC(Min/+) mice irrespective of radiation quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Thakor, Hemang; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2014-09-01

    Low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) γ-ray exposure is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to their high-LET nature, energetic iron ions found in space are expected to pose greater CRC risks to astronauts undertaking long-duration space missions beyond low Earth orbit. Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is important for cellular DNA damage response and its abrogation has been shown to inhibit spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice, a well-studied mouse model of human CRC. However, the relationship of Wip1 to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis, especially by energetic iron ions, has not been investigated in APC(Min/+) mice. We have previously reported that there is a greater intestinal tumorigenic potential of iron-ion radiation relative to (137)Cs γ rays, so the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether Wip1 abrogation could influence high-LET dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice. Intestinal tumor frequency and grade were assessed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) mice and results were compared to those in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice after exposure to a mean absorbed dose of 2 Gy from (137)Cs γ rays or 1.6 Gy from 1 GeV/n iron ions. Cellular differentiation and proliferation were also assessed in the intestinal tumors of sham-irradiated and irradiated mice. Decreased tumor frequency and lower tumor grade were observed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. Notably, a similar decrease (∼6-fold in both groups) in tumor number was observed in sham-irradiated and γ-irradiated APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. However, tumorigenesis in the energetic iron-ion exposed group was reduced ∼8-fold in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. A significantly lower proliferation/differentiation index in tumors of iron-ion exposed APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice suggests that reduced proliferation and enhanced

  3. Laboratory Certification Manual for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Manual describes the Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program implementation procedures, laboratory procedures, and technical criteria for laboratories that analyze drinking water compliance samples.

  4. Does Sport-Drink Use During Exercise Promote an Acute Positive Energy Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Iulian B; Horswill, Craig A

    2016-10-01

    Sports drinks have been implicated in contributing to obesity and chronic diseases by providing surplus calories and excess sugars. Using existing literature we compared energy intake from sports drinks consumed during exercise with the exercise-induced calorie expenditure to determine whether sports drink use might eliminate the energy deficit and jeopardize conditions for improved metabolic fitness. We identified 11 published studies that compared sport drink consumption to placebo during exercise with a primary focused on the effect of sport drinks or total carbohydrate content on enhancing physical performance. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated using VO 2 , RER, and exercise duration for the exercise protocol. Energy ingestion (EI) was determined using the carbohydrate dosing regimen administered before and during the exercise protocol. A two-tailed t test was used to test whether the energy balance (EI-EE) was different from zero (alpha level = 0.05). Sport drink consumption during aerobic exercise of sufficient duration (≥ 60 min) did not abolish the energy deficit (p sports drinks to enhance performance did not abolish the caloric deficit of aerobic exercise. Sports drinks can be used in accordance with research protocols that typically provide 30-60 g of carbohydrate per hour when exercising at adequate durations for moderate to high intensity and still maintain a substantive caloric deficit.

  5. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  6. The effects of tones on speaking frequency and intensity ranges in Mandarin and Min dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng H.

    2005-05-01

    The differences of speaking frequency and intensity in different tonal dialects has not been widely investigated. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the speaking frequency and speaking intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min and (2) to compare the speaking frequency and intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min to those of American English. The subjects were 80 normal Taiwanese adults divided into two dialect groups, Mandarin and Min. The speaking F0, the highest speaking F0, the lowest speaking F0, the maximum range of speaking F0, and the intensity counterpart were obtained from reading in their native dialects. Statistical analysis revealed that Min speakers had a significantly greater maximum range of speaking intensity and a smaller lowest speaking intensity than Mandarin speakers, which indicated tonal effects by speakers of the Min dialect. Moreover, Mandarin and Min speakers had a greater maximum range of speaking F0 and maximum range of speaking intensity than American English speakers. The data may provide an assessment tool for Mandarin speakers and Min speakers. .

  7. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  8. On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, K.; Hulst, Liesbeth

    In this paper we discuss some strengths, stumbling blocks, common mistakes, and controversial issues that can be important when conducting experiments in the legal domain. To this end, we first briefly introduce the experimental method and note some of its strengths when used in legal research

  9. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  10. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A. (Ali); J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential

  11. Constitutionalising the Right Legal Representation at CCMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...

  12. Southern African Development Community (SADC) trade legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...

  13. Legal Frame of Non-Social Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the

  14. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions

  15. The legal personality of TNC: the issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleimanov M.R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article describes different approaches in definition of transnational corporation’s legal personality. The reviewed approaches have become available for the last fifty years and they contain completely opposite views on the legal personality of TNC. The methods of analyze, synthesis, ranging have been used during preparation of this article.

  16. Extracting legal arguments from forensic Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Sjoerd; Prakken, Hendrik; Meyer, John-Jules Charles; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in the forensic sciences have confronted the field of legal reasoning with the new challenge of reasoning under uncertainty. Forensic results come with uncertainty and are described in terms of likelihood ratios and random match probabilities. The legal field is unfamiliar with

  17. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  18. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  19. Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

  20. Legalizing the Intolerable Is a Bad Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    History reveals that drug legalization accelerates new use and contributes to a larger population of chronic users. When states energetically enforce antidrug laws and policies, illegal drug use is reduced and eliminated. Drug use is incompatible with healthy child development and learning. Legalizing drugs is the shallowest response to the…

  1. Copyright, the Internet, and Other Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasaway, Laura N.

    1998-01-01

    Copyright and other intellectual property issues have dominated discussions of legal issues surrounding the Internet. There are other issues of considerable importance that also attract attention. Five legal issues affecting the Internet are addressed: copyright, online service-provider liability, database protection, obscenity, and privacy. Cited…

  2. Legal terminology in African languages | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the project on legal terminology in the African languages. It focuses on terminology aspects relating to the coining of terms for the legal profession. Terminology development in South Africa has been hampered by a number of sociolinguistic factors. During recent years South Africa has seen ...

  3. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  4. Teaching the Legal Aspects of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Jules

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)

  5. The internationalization of law and legal education

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, Mortimer; Sellers, Mortimer

    2013-01-01

    The internationalization of commerce and contemporary life has led to a globalization of legal standards and practices. The essays in this text explore this new reality and suggest ways in which the new legal order can be made more just and effective.

  6. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203.100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”). The...

  7. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis...

  8. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...

  9. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or...

  10. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    However, its application in legal research could pose specific challenges to researchers and could impact on crucial aspects of .... electronic media channels. Rather, they emphasise that legal research ..... to the changing information environment and to exercise control over the digital tools and resources. This involves ...

  11. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.

  12. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  13. Origine de la minéralisation des eaux des aquifères discontinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... représentés dans ces eaux. Les principaux ions à l'origine de la minéralisation des eaux sont issus de l'altération des roches, de l'hydrolyse des minéraux silicatés tels que l'anorthite dans les plagioclases et de la décomposition des minéraux ferro-magnésiens comme la biotite et l'amphibole présentes dans les roches.

  14. Study of 1-min rain rate integration statistic in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sujan; Choi, Dong-You

    2017-03-01

    The design of millimeter wave communication links and the study of propagation impairments at higher frequencies due to a hydrometeor, particularly rain, require the knowledge of 1-min. rainfall rate data. Signal attenuation in space communication results are due to absorption and scattering of radio wave energy. Radio wave attenuation due to rain depends on the relevance of a 1-min. integration time for the rain rate. However, in practice, securing these data over a wide range of areas is difficult. Long term precipitation data are readily available. However, there is a need for a 1-min. rainfall rate in the rain attenuation prediction models for a better estimation of the attenuation. In this paper, we classify and survey the prominent 1-min. rain rate models. Regression analysis was performed for the study of cumulative rainfall data measured experimentally for a decade in nine different regions in South Korea, with 93 different locations, using the experimental 1-min. rainfall accumulation. To visualize the 1-min. rainfall rate applicable for the whole region for 0.01% of the time, we have considered the variation in the rain rate for 40 stations across South Korea. The Kriging interpolation method was used for spatial interpolation of the rain rate values for 0.01% of the time into a regular grid to obtain a highly consistent and predictable rainfall variation. The rain rate exceeded the 1-min. interval that was measured through the rain gauge compared to the rainfall data estimated using the International Telecommunication Union Radio Communication Sector model (ITU-R P.837-6) along with the empirical methods as Segal, Burgueno et al., Chebil and Rahman, logarithmic, exponential and global coefficients, second and third order polynomial fits, and Model 1 for Icheon regions under the regional and average coefficient set. The ITU-R P. 837-6 exhibits a lower relative error percentage of 3.32% and 12.59% in the 5- and 10-min. to 1-min. conversion, whereas the

  15. Responsive Legal Approach to Law of Human Trafficking in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana

    2018-01-01

    Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…

  16. Breast MRI at very short TE (minTE). Image analysis of minTE sequences on non-fat-saturated, subtracted T1-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael [Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Geppert, Christian [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, Arndt [Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology

    2017-02-15

    The aim was to evaluate a minimum echo time (minTE) protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast lesions compared to a standard TE (nTE) time protocol. Breasts of 144 women were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Additionally to the standard gradient-echo sequence with nTE (4.8 ms), a variant with minimum TE (1.2 ms) was used in an interleaved fashion which leads to a better temporal resolution and should reduce the scan time by approximately 50%. Lesion sizes were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective confidence was evaluated using a 3-point scale before looking at the nTE sequences (1 = very sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 2 = quite sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 3 = definitely want to see nTE for final assessment) and the subjective image quality of all examinations was evaluated using a four-grade scale (1 = sharp, 2 = slight blur, 3 = moderate blur and 4 = severe blur/not evaluable) for lesion and skin sharpness. Lesion morphology and contrast enhancement were also evaluated. With minTE sequences, no lesion was rated with ''definitely want to see nTE sequences for final assessment''. The difference of the longitudinal and transverse diameter did not differ significantly (p>0.05). With minTE, lesions and skin were rated to be significantly more blurry (p<0.01 for lesions and p<0.05 for skin). There was no difference between both sequences with respect to SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and detection of multifocal disease. Dynamic breast MRI with a minTE protocol is feasible without a major loss of information (SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and lesion sizes) and the temporal resolution can be increased by a factor of 2 using minTE sequences.

  17. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives...

  18. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  19. The First Drinking Simulator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current Thermal cycling units fail to simulate the drinking behaviors, and oral balancing temperature. They cannot also simulate other oral conditions such as drink coloring, and chemicals like tea, coffee, carbonated and noncarbonated, citrus juices as well as alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks and also saliva and milk itself. The main objective of this study is to introduce the designing and manufacturing the first Drinking Simulator Unit (DSU that reproduces the thermal, color and chemicalcycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions uniquely. Methods: The invented system generally has two parts: the hardware and the software parts. The hardware consists of the mechanical and electronic parts. The software part is responsible for controlling the heating and cooling systems, electric valves, the pumps, and automatic filling systems of tanks as well as the sensors of the machine. Results: DSU is the first unit can reproduce the thermal, color and chemical cycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions. Different kinds of colored and acidic drinks and also other chemical materials such as bleaching substances as well as detergents and antiseptics used for dentistry, industrial and medical purposes can be tested by DSU. DSU has also to be considered as an appliance performing in-vitro researches on dental structures. Conclusion: The invented system can greatly improve and validate the results of such researches.  

  20. Sports drinks hazard to teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The pH values of the drinks ranged from 4.46 (Maxim) to 2.38 (Isostar) and therefore were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralisation. Both Lucozade varieties had high titratable acidities (16.30 ml 0.1M NaOH to neutrality) with Gatorade, High Five, and Isostar displaying intermediate titratable acidity, although Isostar had 74.5 ppm calcium and 63.6 ppm phosphate. The fluoride concentration of all drinks was low, and none of the drinks was particularly viscous (range 3.1-1.4 mPa.s). CONCLUSIONS: The chemicophysical analyses indicate that all the sports drinks in this study have erosive potential. However, drinks with higher pH, lower titratable acidity, and higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride will reduce this erosive potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132205

  1. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  2. MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km (MYD03) are calculated for each 1 km MODIS Instantaneous Field of Views (IFOV) for all orbits daily(in...

  3. VIIRS/NPP Moderate Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 750m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIIRS/NPP Moderate Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 750m (VNP02MOD). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated...

  4. Peculiarities of natural electromagnetic field variations in the interval of periods of 60-240 min

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtun, A.A.; Smirnov, M.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Intensification of the oscillation amplitude of the natural electromagnetic field within 60-240 min period interval at practically all the latitudes was observed during the Earth re-entry to plasma high-speed flow

  5. MODIS/Terra Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MOD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  6. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  7. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MYD06_L2) product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely...

  8. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  9. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 375m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 375m (VNP02IMG). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated...

  10. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  11. Asymptotic Identity in Min-Plus Algebra: A Report on CPNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions.

  12. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m (MYD02QKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYD04_L2) product continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue...

  14. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m (MOD02QKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located...

  15. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m (MOD02HKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 7 discrete bands located...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m (MYD02HKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 7 discrete bands located in...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km (MYD021KM) product contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in...

  18. The Min system and other nucleoid-independent regulators of Z ring positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eMargolin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rod-shaped bacteria such as E. coli have mechanisms to position their cell division plane at the precise center of the cell, to ensure that the daughter cells are equal in size. The two main mechanisms are the Min system and nucleoid occlusion (NO, both of which work by inhibiting assembly of FtsZ, the tubulin-like scaffold that forms the cytokinetic Z ring. Whereas NO prevents Z rings from constricting over unsegregated nucleoids, the Min system is nucleoid-independent and even functions in cells lacking nucleoids and thus NO. The Min proteins of E. coli and B. subtilis form bipolar gradients that inhibit Z ring formation most at the cell poles and least at the nascent division plane. This article will outline the molecular mechanisms behind Min function in E. coli and B. subtilis, and discuss distinct Z ring positioning systems in other bacterial species.

  19. MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MYD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  20. Maxi-Min Language Use A Critical Remark on a Concept by Philippe van Parijs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Jan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Philippe van Parijs explains in Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World the concept of maxi-min language use as a process of language choice. He suggests that the language chosen as a common language should maximize the minimal competence of a community. Within a multilingual group of people, the chosen language is the language known best by a participant who knows it least. For obvious reasons, only English would qualify for having that status. This article argues that maxi-min is rather a normative concept, not only because the process itself remains empirically unfounded. Moreover, language choice is the result of complex social and psychological structures. As a descriptive process, the maxi-min choice happens in the reality fairly seldom, whereas the max-min use of languages seen as a normative process could be a very effective tool to measure linguistic justice.

  1. 2.5-min Isostatic Gravity Grid for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2.5-min isostatic gravity data set was produced by regridding the 4-km residual isostatic gravity grid of the U.S. The isostatic residual gravity grid was...

  2. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MOD06_L2) product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely...

  3. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Drinking Water Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about drinking water treatment systems. This fact sheet discusses different types of water treatment systems available to homeowners. It includes a table with water contaminants or problems, possible causes of the problem, and solutions.

  4. Minéralogie de la fraction argileuse des sols brunifiés de Kahankro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ilménite et boéhmite) avec une proportion généralement supérieure à 39%, des minéraux primaires (feldspaths, olivine, dolomite et calcite) ayant une proportion supérieure à 30% et des minéraux argileux (kaolinite, illite et chlorite) qui existent en une proportion généralement inférieure à 25%. Le phénomène d'argilation ...

  5. Training the Recurrent neural network by the Fuzzy Min-Max algorithm for fault prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemouri, Ryad; Racoceanu, Daniel; Zerhouni, Noureddine; Minca, Eugenia; Filip, Florin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a training technique of a Recurrent Radial Basis Function neural network for fault prediction. We use the Fuzzy Min-Max technique to initialize the k-center of the RRBF neural network. The k-means algorithm is then applied to calculate the centers that minimize the mean square error of the prediction task. The performances of the k-means algorithm are then boosted by the Fuzzy Min-Max technique.

  6. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  7. Psychopathy: Legal and neuroscientific aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Ortega-Escobar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.

  8. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  9. Urgency traits moderate daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication among young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Leeman, Robert F.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Corbin, William R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults with higher trait urgency (i.e., a tendency to act rashly in response to heightened affect) may be especially vulnerable to heavy drinking. The current study examined 1) the influence of urgency on daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication, and 2) whether urgency influenced the effectiveness of naltrexone (vs. placebo) for reducing alcohol use. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of data from 126 (n=40 female) heavy drinking young adults, ages 18–25, enrolled in a double-blind, 8-week clinical trial comparing brief motivational intervention and either naltrexone or placebo. Multilevel models examined whether trait urgency moderated daily relations between positive and negative affect and drinking to intoxication, measured by an estimated blood-alcohol concentration (eBAC) at or above the legal limit (≥0.08g%). Person-level interactions examined whether naltrexone was more effective than placebo at reducing the odds of eBAC≥0.08g% for individuals with higher vs. lower trait urgency. Results On days of greater within-person positive or negative affect, young adults with higher urgency were more likely to drink to intoxication than those with lower urgency. Naltrexone reduced the odds of drinking to intoxication significantly more than placebo, independent of positive or negative urgency. Conclusions Although naltrexone treatment reduced drinking overall, young adults with higher trait urgency were still at increased risk for hazardous drinking following times of strong positive or negative mood. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the risk of heavy drinking among young adults with high trait urgency. PMID:27875802

  10. Effect of Antimicrobial Agents on MinD Protein Oscillations in E. coli Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Corey; Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John

    2012-02-01

    The pole-to-pole oscillation of MinD proteins in E. coli cells determines the location of the division septum, and is integral to healthy cell division. It has been shown previously that the MinD oscillation period is approximately 40 s for healthy cells [1] but is strongly dependant on environmental factors such as temperature, which may place stress on the cell [2,3]. We use a strain of E. coli in which the MinD proteins are tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing fluorescence visualization of the MinD oscillation. We use high-resolution total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and a custom, temperature controlled flow cell to observe the effect of exposure to antimicrobial agents on the MinD oscillation period and, more generally, to analyze the time variation of the spatial distribution of the MinD proteins within the cells. These measurements provide insight into the mechanism of antimicrobial action. [1] Raskin, D.M.; de Boer, P. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 4971-4976. [2] Touhami, A.; Jericho, M; Rutenberg, A. (2006) J. Bacteriol. 188: 7661-7667. [3] Downing, B.; Rutenberg, A.; Touhami, A.; Jericho, M. (2009) PLoS ONE 4: e7285.

  11. Global statistical maps of extreme-event magnetic observatory 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coisson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity ΔBh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold (nT/min) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site, proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1 σ, lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500, [350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nT/min. At 40°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and 1 σ values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nT/min.

  12. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  13. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  14. Matcha Green Tea Drinks Enhance Fat Oxidation During Brisk Walking in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus; Şahin, Mehmet Akif; Cook, Matthew David

    2018-01-18

    Intake of the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine and is consumed as a drink. We examined the effect of Matcha green tea drinks on metabolic, physiological and perceived intensity responses during brisk walking. Thirteen females (age: 27±8 yr, body mass: 65±7 kg, height: 166±6 cm) volunteered. Resting metabolic equivalent (1-MET) was measured using Douglas bags (1-MET: 3.4±0.3 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). Participants completed an incremental walking protocol to establish the relationship between walking speed and oxygen uptake and individualize the walking speed at 5- or 6-MET. A randomized cross-over design was used with participants tested between day 9 and 11 of the menstrual cycle (follicular phase). Participants consumed 3 drinks (each drink made with 1 gram of Matcha premium grade, OMGTea Ltd UK) the day before, and 1 drink 2 hours before the 30-min walk at 5- (n=10) or 6-METs (walking speed: 5.8±0.4 km·h -1 ) with responses measured at 8-10, 18-20 and 28-30 min. Matcha had no effect on physiological and perceived intensity responses. Matcha resulted in lower respiratory exchange ratio (control: 0.84±0.04; Matcha: 0.82±0.04) (P drinking can enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation in females. However, when regular brisk walking with 30-min bouts is being undertaken as part of a weight loss program, the metabolic effects of Matcha should not be overstated.

  15. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  16. Radiological investigation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the report ''Radiological investigation of drinking water'' submitted by a working group of WHO to the Brussels meeting held between Nov 7 and 10, 1978. Annex II is emphasized of the WHO publication bearing the title ''The revision of WHO standards for drinking water''. It is shown that the draft of the revision does not basically differ from the revision introduced in Czechoslovakia and published in a revised standard CSN 83 0611 Drinking Water from 1978, including its harmonization with the Decree 59/72 Collect. of Laws on the protection of health from ionizing radiation, and from the standard CSN 83 0523 Radiometric analysis of drinking water. It is also shown that the text of the working group report contains some incorrect or unclear statements and views, which is explained by the misunderstanding of some ICRP recommendations. (H.S.)

  17. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  18. TENORM: Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has specific regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) that limit the amount of radioactivity allowed in community water systems. Learn about methods used to treat these water supplies to remove radioactivity and manage wastes.

  19. Promoting awareness of legal requirements and liabilities in food and beverage operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicolaides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to shed more light on the importance of promoting greater awareness of legal requirements and liabilities of food and beverage operations (F&B operations. It is a descriptive analysis which highlights aspects related to food hygiene. Managing legal issues in the hospitality industry, especially in F&B, is a tricky business. The magnitude of the global tourism industry means that the laws governing it are exhaustive and at the best of times, highly complex. Since tourists need to eat and drink it is imperative that industry employees have a meaningful grasp on what is expected legally speaking. Tourists spend large amounts of money on food and beverages and this is second only to airfare to and from destinations. Creating awareness of legal requirements and liabilities in food and beverage operations among industry employees is essential. As very little has been written on consumer rights and industry obligations in the South African hospitality industry food and beverage context, it is hope that this article will create greater awareness of a critically important aspect in the hospitality industry.

  20. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  1. Drinking Motives and Drinking Behavior Over Time: A Full Cross-Lagged Panel Study Among Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crutzen, R.M.M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.

    2013-01-01

    Drinking motives are among the most proximal factors for drinking behavior and serve as a mechanism through which more distal factors are mediated. However, it is less clear whether drinking motives are precursors of drinking or, in contrast, shaped by previous drinking experiences (reciprocal

  2. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  3. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  4. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  5. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strategic planning of business objectives. So it’s the need and the importance of developing a Legal Business Model that can be used in combination with Canvas.

  6. Medical legal aspects of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Terry J.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed

  7. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  8. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  9. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  10. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  11. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  12. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  13. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  14. Validity of the 6min walk test in outpatients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Buys, Roselien; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Herdt, Amber; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. People with bipolar disorder have a reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and its assessment within a multidisciplinary treatment therefore is necessary. We investigated the validity of the 6min walk test in people with bipolar disorder. A secondary aim was to assess clinical and demographic characteristics that might interfere with cardiorespiratory fitness performance. 19 (5♂) outpatients (47.1±8.3 years) underwent a 6min walk test and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer and completed the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule (PANAS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The distance achieved on the 6min walk test correlated moderately with peak oxygen uptake obtained during the maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The variance in age, weight and the PANAS negative score explained 70% of the variance in the distance achieved on the 6min walk test. The 6min walk test can be used as a measure-of-proxy to gauge cardiorespiratory fitness in people with bipolar disorder when maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test equipment is not available. Negative mood should be considered when evaluating the cardiorespiratory fitness of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Passive Cycling Exercise for 20 min on Cardiorespiratory Dynamics in Healthy Men [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Sayuri; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease is attributed to high daily sitting time, while a drop in risk of cardiovascular disease comes from a decrease in daily sitting time, rather than an increase in physical activity levels. Although short-duration passive exercise increases energy expenditure and blood flow, few studies have reported on the responses of cardiorespiratory dynamics to long-duration passive exercise. The purpose of this study was to consider the effect of long-duration passive exercise for 20 min on cardiorespiratory and muscle oxygen dynamics. Eight healthy men continuously performed passive exercise using a cycle ergometer for 20 min at 50 rpm. Changes in oxygen uptake, cardiac output and muscle oxygenation were measured during passive cycling exercise. The oxygen uptake at 1 min after the start of passive exercise was significantly increased, compared to resting level, but subsequently returned to the same as resting level. Cardiac output showed no change during passive cycling exercise. Tissue oxygen saturation increased after the start of passive exercise and subsequently maintained steady state. These results suggest that the effect of increases in energy expenditure was not maintained by passive exercise for 20 min. In addition, it is likely that passive cycling exercise for 20 min has an effect on peripheral circulation, although the exercise seems to have no effect on central circulation.

  16. Therapeutic utility of aspirin in the ApcMin/+ murine model of colon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Brian K; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Miller, Mark JS

    2002-01-01

    In recent years it has become evident that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in particular aspirin represent a potential class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Despite the wealth of knowledge gained from epidemiological, clinical and animal studies, the effectiveness of aspirin to treat established gastrointestinal cancer has not been determined. The present study examines the ability of aspirin to treat established polyposis in Min/+ mice. Min/+ mice with established polyposis were treated orally once daily from 12–16 weeks of age with either drug vehicle or aspirin (25 mg/kg). Upon completion of treatment, the number, location and size of intestinal tumours was determined. Additional variables examined were the number of apoptotic cells within tumours and COX activity. Administration of aspirin for 4 weeks to Min/+ mice produce no effect on tumour number compared to vehicle-treated Min/+ mice (65 ± 8 vs. 63 ± 9, respectively). In addition, aspirin had no effect on tumour size or location. However, aspirin treatment produced a greater than 2-fold (p < 0.05) increase in the number of apoptotic positive cells within tumours and significantly decreased hepatic PGE 2 content. Aspirin was found to have no effect on tumour number and size when administered to Min/+ mice with established polyposis. The findings in the present study call in to question the utility of aspirin as a stand-alone treatment for established GI cancer. However, aspirin's ability to significantly promote apoptosis may render it suitable for use in combinatorial chemotherapy

  17. Traceability and change in legal requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Winkels, R.

    2010-01-01

    While isomorphism of knowledge representation has been recognized as important, particularly to maintenance in legal knowledge representation, the requirements of the maintenance process in general get less attention. Traceability from knowledge resources used in the organization to the sources of

  18. Managing Legal Texts in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.

    Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.

  19. Legal Aspects of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php

  20. Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-10-01

    In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.