What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Full Text Available This article discusses the right to education for foreign inmates in Norwegian prisons, with a particular focus on the group of inmates who lack a residence permit in Norway and could be expelled once their sentence is served. The viewpoint of the Norwegian criminal justice policy is that all inmates should have the same right to education as other citizens and residents in Norway. For the group without residence permit, however, it seems not fully clear what that right to education should entail. National law only provides access to the education system for those with a residence permit. In addition, International law is not fully clear on the content of the right to education for inmates. On this background, the article clarifies the right to education for foreign inmates, as it follows from national and international law. It pays specific attention to the prison as a specific context for the provision of education, and explains how the right to education relates to the law of the execution of sentences. Drawing from the ethical considerations of the penal system, and from legal principles of non-discrimination, the article eventually concludes that all foreign inmates who serve sentences of certain duration must be ensured access to education on an equal basis with other prisoners.
Dlugacz, Henry; Wimmer, Christopher
The administration of antipsychotic medications to jail and prison inmates involves two related components: conducting the informed consent process in a coercive environment and, where consent is not obtained, forcible administration of medication if needed. In the United States, both involve common law, statutory, and constitutional principles. Obtaining informed consent in correctional institutions is complicated. Patients in correctional institutions lack access to alternate sources of information, and depend on the correctional system completely - a system which they may distrust. This may influence the patient's view of the administering physician. Where consent cannot be obtained, forcible administration may be legally permissible for two primary reasons: to restore a criminal defendant to competency in order to stand trial and to ameliorate severe symptoms of mental disability, particularly when they threaten the safety of self, others, or in some instances, property. The interests at stake for the individual and the government, and the legal standards developed to balance these interests, differ between the two situations. When considering challenges to forcible medication of inmates serving a prison sentence, the United States Supreme Court has treated the interest of the institution in maintaining security as paramount. By contrast, when considering challenges to forcible medication of pretrial detainees, the Court's concern for the fair trial rights guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment has seemingly led it to moderate its emphasis on security. However, this distinction is not stable and may in fact be breaking down, as the recent case of Jared Loughner demonstrates. This article discusses the various federal, state, and international legal standards applicable to both informed consent and forcible medication, and their implementation in the correctional setting, focusing on issues related to the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Steven Neal Greenoe, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate 54450-056, USP Atlanta, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 1150160, Atlanta, GA...: Currently incarcerated at: Inmate 54450-056, USP Atlanta, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 1150160, Atlanta, GA...
This article discusses the right to education for foreign inmates in Norwegian prisons, with a particular focus on the group of inmates who lack a residence permit in Norway and could be expelled once their sentence is served. The viewpoint of the Norwegian criminal justice policy is that all inmates should have the same right to education as other citizens and residents in Norway. For the group without residence permit, however, it seems not fully clear what that right to education should en...
Samuelsson, Stefan; Herkner, Birgitta; Lundberg, Ingvar
Addresses how prison inmates or juvenile delinquents have been consistently compared with norms obtained for either an adult population or same-age comparison groups with more favorable opportunities to develop reading and writing skills. Concludes that prison inmates in Sweden possess reading and writing skills that are comparable to those found…
Full Text Available The criminological literature underscores that criminal offences committed by senior citizens are directly related to their age and entering a new stage of life. In elder offenders, we may observe a distinctive pattern in the development of their criminal activities, the structure of crime, gender-specific criminal offences, their previous criminal records and their social status. The former criminological studies on the elderly population have most frequently focused on examining the senior citizens' fear of crime and their victimization within the family; the studies on criminal offences committed by the elderly seem to be rather scarce. The prior research into the criminal activity of elder offenders has largely addressed the needs and difficulties encountered by elderly inmates, particularly in case they were sentenced to long-term imprisonment and subject to strict parole rules. Some researchers have also extended criticism on the lack of special correctional facilities specifically designed for elder inmates. In general, crime rate drops with aging. In developed countries, there is a constant increase of elder population as opposed to the marked decrease of younger population. Yet, the percentage of convicted offenders among the persons over the age of 55 is still significantly lesser as compared to the percentage of younger convicts. Namely, different issues pertaining to 'elder people behind bars' have eventually become the subject matter of interest of criminologists and penologists, public administration authorities and international organizations advocating the observance of human rights. The incarcerated men and women face many physical and psychological problems which are generally encountered by all people at large but usually at a later age, when they are at least 10 years older than the inmates. Violence, anxiety and distress caused by the immediate prison environment, separation from their friends and families, and the awareness
Routh, Douglas; Abess, Gassan; Makin, David; Stohr, Mary K; Hemmens, Craig; Yoo, Jihye
Transgender inmates provide a conundrum for correctional staff, particularly when it comes to classification, victimization, and medical and health issues. Using LexisNexis and WestLaw and state Department of Corrections (DOC) information, we collected state statutes and DOC policies concerning transgender inmates. We utilized academic legal research with content analysis to determine whether a statute or policy addressed issues concerning classification procedures, access to counseling services, the initiation and continuation of hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. We found that while more states are providing either statutory or policy guidelines for transgender inmates, a number of states are lagging behind and there is a shortage of guidance dealing with the medical issues related to being transgender.
This catalogue lists all currently valid sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated
Prisoners from the California Department of Corrections (CDoC) system have complained that they are unable to adhere to their anti-HIV treatments because medical personnel are not helping them receive the necessary medications. The prison system appears to be ignoring the need for continuous treatment, which has public health officials concerned that the prison system is breeding a virus that may be too potent for current anti-HIV drugs. In addition to lawsuits filed by inmates, a resolution by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors urges the City Attorney to investigate the CDoC for unacceptable care in managing HIV-infected inmates. Also, inmates that are released from prison are not given any guidance on how to obtain medical treatment or follow-up care outside of prison.
This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters issued during the period 1970-1994. Most publications are published in English, through some are also available in French, Russian and Spanish. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated
... taken by legal guardian, etc. 266.12 Section 266.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD... submitted or taken by legal guardian, etc. All matters and actions in connection with an annuity submitted or taken by the guardian or other person legally vested with the care of the person or estate of an...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Jose Guadalupe Reyes... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22... 750.8 of the Regulations states that the Bureau of Industry and Security's Office of Exporter Services...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Jose Arturo Ramon-Herrada... Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45 days from the date of....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Emenike Charles... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... first obtained a validated export license from the United States Department of Commerce, in violation of...
Nash, Louise; Daly, Michele; Johnson, Maree; Walter, Garry; Walton, Merrilyn; Willcock, Simon; Coulston, Carissa; van Ekert, Elizabeth; Tennant, Chris
To describe the differences in psychological morbidity between Australian general practitioners (GPs) who have experienced a medico-legal matter and those who have not. A total of 1,499 GPs were initially invited to participate in the study. Two hundred and sixty requested not to participate, with 1,239 subsequently being sent a survey. There were 566 respondents (45.7% response rate to survey). There were two sources of data. First, a cross-sectional survey sought demographic information, personality traits via the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), history of a medico-legal matter with any medical defence organization, and measures of psychological morbidity, including the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Second, information was extracted from the United Medical Protection database on medico-legal matters. Fifty-nine per cent of respondents to the survey reported ever having a medico-legal matter, with 13% having a current medico-legal matter. Those with a current matter reported increased levels of disability (in work, social or family life) and higher prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (45% vs 27% GHQ 'case identification' rates), compared to those with no current matter. Those respondents with a history of past medico-legal matters reported increased levels of disability (SDS) and depression subscores (GHQ). Male respondents drank significantly more alcohol than female respondents, and male respondents with current or past medico-legal matters had significantly higher levels of alcohol use than male respondents with no experience of medico-legal matters. Doctors who have current and past medico-legal matters have a higher level of psychological morbidity. The study design was unable to distinguish cause or effect. A longitudinal study is planned to investigate this. The findings have significant implications for medical training, doctor support systems and medical
Beh, Hazel G; Pietsch, James H
This article focuses on the thorny and evolving legal issues and implications of health care decision-making for children and adolescents in matters of gender, sexual identity, sexual conduct, and reproduction. In treating minors, health care professionals increasingly experience competing duties and responsibilities to their patient, the parents or guardians, and to the state. This article gives health care professionals a foundation for understanding the legal concepts of adolescent health care decision-making and provides an approach for balancing the potential competing interests of these stakeholders while complying with professional standards,the law, and their own ethical and moral convictions.
markdownabstractDo the different ways that commercial banks are legally organized matter for the design of financial regulation? It is often assumed that most commercial banks are setup as investor owned business corporations. However, this is not always the case In many jurisdictions, banks are legally organized using a plethora of organizational forms, which include: co-operatives, mutual associations and even nonprofit entities. Thus, some of the distinctive legal attributes and features o...
Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada
Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This paper presents the basic legal instruments of mutual assistance in tax matters in the field of direct and indirect taxation in European union, forms of mutual assistance and its importance in fight against international tax evasion and international double taxation. Namely, processes of globalization and liberalization, in terms of taxation in accordance with the principle of worldwide income, have meant that information that is available to a tax administration is not enough to correctly determine tax liability. In such situations states can rely on mutual assistance which may be manifested as exchange of tax information, collaboration by officials and simultaneous controls.
Full Text Available The study of the legal and penal mechanism by which European Union Member States jointly act for preventing and combating certain categories of crimes, includes the analysis of conventions regarding legal assistance that Member States undertake to grant each other the catching and prosecution of people who commit crimes on their territory, either violating the domestic criminal law or the international criminal law represented by international conventions that require signatory states to incriminate or punish certain categories of crimes, against which they pledged to fight together. Conventions adopted at European Union level concerning international legal assistance in criminal matters, give legal expression to the most complex and most effective form of cooperation between States in the fight against crime, establishing brand new ways of international legal assistance in criminal matters.The importance of the Conventions regarding legal assistance in criminal matters result from the fact that they ensure the correct application of European criminal law relating to combating the worst types of crimes, making possible criminal liability and conviction of various crimes, with the help of other member states of the European conventions.
Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Miras, Alain; Contrand, Benjamin; Galera, Cédric; Pujos, Stéphane; Michel, Grégory; Lagarde, Emmanuel
To estimate the incidence of suicide attempts during imprisonment in a French prison and to determine factors associated with them. All male inmates of a prison for prisoners awaiting trial or serving a short sentence (Bordeaux, France) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. They were face-to-face interviewed by an experienced psychologist (n = 369; mean age = 36 years). Socio-demographic data, imprisonment conditions, health status, healthcare utilization, mental health, impulsiveness, inmate-to-inmate violence (victim and perpetrator status) and suicidal behaviours were documented. The incidence of suicidal attempts during imprisonment was 13.4 per 100 person-years. Having made at least one suicide attempt during imprisonment was associated with: being a victim of physical or sexual violence without perpetrating it (adjusted OR = 5.4; 95%CI [2.4-12]), suffering from depressive and anxious symptoms (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95%CI [1.5-7.7]), having children (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95%CI [1.2-7.7]) and having a poor perceived health status (OR = 2.5; 95%CI [1.1-5.4]). A history of suicide attempt before imprisonment was not associated with the risk of suicide attempts while imprisoned. Our results suggest that violence plays a major role in the suicidal process in prison. The inclusion of inmate-to-inmate violence in the screening checklists of inmate suicide risk should be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
... COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.27 Inmate vacations. (a) An inmate who has worked... vacation credit is made by the inmate's work supervisor, through the Department Head, to the Unit Team, who shall approve the request if the inmate's work performance qualifies for vacation credit. (b) Staff...
Kolivoski, Karen M.; Shook, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, Heath C.; Goodkind, Sara; Fusco, Rachel; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.
Background: Legal socialization is the process through which young people develop beliefs in the legitimacy of the law and legal system. Research has examined how perceptions of interactions with authority figures influence beliefs regarding the legitimacy of laws and legal system, thereby shaping compliance with the law (Fagan and Tyler in…
... inmate's sentence, detainer, participation in Bureau programs such as the Inmate Financial Responsibility... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate access to Inmate Central File. 513... AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Inmate Requests to Institution for...
... parole hearings. A parole-eligible inmate (an inmate who is currently serving a sentence for an offense... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate access to Inmate Central File in... OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Inmate...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Juan Ricardo Puente-Paez... Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45 days from the date of this Order and....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Andrew Vincent O'Donnell... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22... 750.8 of the Regulations states that the Bureau of Industry and Security's Office of Exporter Services...
Paula Arboleda Currea
Full Text Available According to the Colombian Council of State, it is necessary to comply with all the procedural requirements of a process in order to fulfill the principle of legal certainty, especially in processing administrative appeals on tax matters. These requirements include filing the appeal in proper form and within the legal deadlines. However, there has been some debate regarding the manner of calculating the deadline for filing an appeal, which calls for analyzing the jurisprudential line of the Fourth Section of the Council of State through the reconstruction of the jurisprudential line of both theses, as proposed by author Diego López Medina in his book El Derecho de los Jueces.
N.M. Rajkovic (Nikolas)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article engages the narrative of fragmentation in international law by asserting that legal academics and professionals have failed to probe more deeply into ‘fragmentation’ as a concept and, more specifically, as a spatial metaphor. The contention here is that
This 9, 871 word article was published in a special issue sponsored by the Institute for Global Law and Policy of the Harvard Law School. It questions how international legal theory is consumed over whether international law is “fragmenting”, yet without ever questioning where the meaning and
Cramer, Ryan; Leichliter, Jami S; Stenger, Mark R; Loosier, Penny S; Slive, Lauren
Expedited partner therapy (EPT) is a potential partner treatment strategy. Significant efforts have been devoted to policies intended to facilitate its practice. However, few studies have attempted to evaluate these policies. We used data on interviewed gonorrhea cases from 12 sites in the STD Surveillance Network in 2010 (n = 3404). Patients reported whether they had received EPT. We coded state laws relevant to EPT for gonorrhea using Westlaw legal research database and the general legal status of EPT in STD Surveillance Network sites from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web site in 2010. We also coded policy statements by medical and other boards. We used χ tests to compare receipt of EPT by legal/policy variables, patient characteristics, and provider type. Variables significant at P < 0.10 in bivariate analyses were included in a logistic regression model. Overall, 9.5% of 2564 interviewed patients with gonorrhea reported receiving EPT for their partners. Receipt of EPT was significantly higher where laws and policies authorizing EPT existed. Where EPT laws for gonorrhea existed and EPT was permissible, 13.3% of patients reported receiving EPT as compared with 5.4% where there were no EPT laws and EPT was permissible, and 1.0% where there were no EPT laws and EPT was potentially allowable (P < 0.01). Expedited partner therapy was higher where professional boards had policy statements supporting EPT (P < 0.01). Receipt of EPT did not differ by most patient characteristics or provider type. Policy-related findings were similar in adjusted analyses. Expedited partner therapy laws and policies were associated with higher reports of receipt of EPT among interviewed gonorrhea cases.
Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer
Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.
Koffeman, Nelleke Renate
Within the European Union there is considerable diversity in morally sensitive issues like legal recognition of same-sex relationships and reproductive matters such as abortion, assisted human reproduction and surrogacy. Cross-border movement within the EU exposes and affects this diversity, as it
... copying machines at her institution resulted in staff making copies of legal material for inmates on a... diploma or an equivalent degree, or has been exempted from participation because of a learning disability..., manufacture, introduction, or loss of a non-hazardous tool, equipment, supplies, or other non-hazardous...
... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.42 Inmate... team. (a) The SOI may remove an inmate from FPI work status according to the conditions outlined in the... on an unsatisfactory performance rating for failure to be at work. (d) Any inmate or detainee who is...
O'Keefe, Maureen L.
Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…
This article explains and analyzes the practical application of the Socratic method in the context of inmate education, and identifies core critical thinking elements that emerge from four transcribed Socratic discussions with prison inmates. The paper starts with a detailed examination of the stages of the Socratic method as practiced by the…
... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.57 Inmate appeals. Inmates may seek formal review of complaints regarding the operation of the drug abuse treatment program by using administrative remedy procedures in 28...
Kreager, Derek A; Schaefer, David R; Bouchard, Martin; Haynie, Dana L; Wakefield, Sara; Young, Jacob; Zajac, Gary
The mid-twentieth century witnessed a surge of American prison ethnographies focused on inmate society and the social structures that guide inmate life. Ironically, this literature virtually froze in the 1980s just as the country entered a period of unprecedented prison expansion, and has only recently begun to thaw. In this manuscript, we develop a rationale for returning inmate society to the forefront of criminological inquiry, and suggest that network science provides an ideal framework for achieving this end. In so doing, we show that a network perspective extends prison ethnographies by allowing quantitative assessment of prison culture and illuminating basic characteristics of prison social structure that are essential for improving inmate safety, health, and community reentry outcomes. We conclude by demonstrating the feasibility and promise of inmate network research with findings from a recent small-scale study of a maximum-security prison work unit.
Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.
... PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.62 Inmate accident... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate accident compensation. 345.62... work-related injuries (including occupational disease or illnesses directly caused by the worker's job...
... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a performance... from the industrial work assignment. Copies shall be sent to the unit team. Inmate workers should...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events. ...
Dr. Charlotte Wheeler discusses Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates in California. Created: 2/26/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/26/2015.
Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci
Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…
Weber, Christian; Fijalkowska, Barbara; Ciecwierska, Katarzyna; Lindblad, Anna; Badura-Lotter, Gisela; Andersen, Peter M; Kuźma-Kozakiewicz, Magdalena; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée; Pasierski, Tomasz; Lynöe, Niels
Healthcare legislation in European countries is similar in many respects. Most importantly, the framework of informed consent determines that physicians have the duty to provide detailed information about available therapeutic options and that patients have the right to refuse measures that contradict their personal values. However, when it comes to end-of-life decision-making a number of differences exist in the more specific regulations of individual countries. These differences and how they might nevertheless impact patient's choices will be addressed in the current debate. In this article we show how the legal and medical frameworks of Germany, Poland and Sweden differ with regard to end-of-life decisions for patients with a fatal progressive disease. Taking Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) as an example, we systematically compare clinical guidelines and healthcare law, pointing out the country-specific differences most relevant for existential decision-making. A fictional case report discusses the implications of these differences for a patient with ALS living in either of the three countries. Patients with ALS in Germany, Poland and Sweden are confronted with a similar spectrum of treatment options. However, the analysis of the normative frameworks shows that the conditions for making existential decisions differ considerably in Germany, Poland and Sweden. Specifically, these differences concern (1) the legal status of advance directives, (2) the conditions under which life-sustaining therapies are started or withheld, and (3) the legal regulations on assisted dying. According to the presented data, regulations of terminating life-sustaining treatments and the framework of "informed consent" are quite differently understood and implemented in the legal setting of the three countries. It is possible, and even likely, that these differences in the legal and medical frameworks have a considerable influence on existential decisions of patients with ALS.
Collins, Shayda A; Thompson, Sharon H
The current economic downturn has caused some states to consider serving inmates less food to save money. Because South Carolina has been reported to have the lowest meal costs at $1.13/day per inmate, this study analyzed nutritional value of its prison meals. Menus were obtained from the South Carolina Department of Corrections and a county detention center. Analysis of adherence to Dietary Reference Intake recommendations revealed higher levels of cholesterol, sodium, and sugar and lower levels of fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin D, and vitamin E than recommended. Increasing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and reducing sodium and sugar in inmate meals may improve health, decrease chronic disease, reduce medical costs, and benefit taxpayers.
Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [ OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use ( OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking ( OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Search of control unit inmates. 541.48... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.48 Search of control unit inmates. (a) The Warden at an institution housing a control unit may order a digital or simple instrument...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates exempted from fee assessment. 505... AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.3 Inmates exempted from fee assessment. Inmates who began service of sentence before January 1, 1995, or who have had a fine either imposed or expressly...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...
presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...
Martin, Frank P.; Osgood, D. Wayne
Research has indicated that increasing autonomy to incarcerated youths results in greater acceptance of institutional treatment goals and less support for an inmate counterculture. To examine different processes by which autonomy might affect individual outcomes, 430 youths in four Michigan boys' training schools were surveyed. The questionnaire…
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator services for prison inmate phones. 64... services for prison inmate phones. (a) Each provider of inmate operator services shall: (1) Identify itself... authorities of a prison or other correctional institution for use by inmates. (3) Inmate operator services...
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...
Alderson, Marie; Saint-Jean, Micheline; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Rhéaume, Jacques; Ruelland, Isabelle; Lavoie, Myriam
There are very few studies investigating the work nurses do in prisons. Based on data stemming from a research in Psychodynamics of Work and a literature review, this paper describes nursing practices in a Canadian penitentiary institution. Three male nurses and two female nurses participated in three two-hour long focus group sessions. Central sources of pleasure that emerged from the focus groups were the scope of nursing care practice ; the autonomy and collaboration with physicians; nursing care practices devoid of moral value judgments, the humanitarian approach, caring and the wish to make a difference in the lives of the inmates ; the pride connected to this unusual professional context, and the recognition by peers and inmates. The main sources of suffering on the other hand were the feeling that rehabilitation was more an ideal than reality ; the paradox of providing both care and safety ; the scary characteristics of working alone ; the fear of lawsuits, and the feeling of being observed continuously. The resulting data we discuss show the issues of a certain dissociation that exists between the patient and the inmate, the fear of contamination of a healthcare nursing identity by the place of practice, but also the feeling of plenitude and sublimation. The conclusion stresses the tension that exists between security and caring, distance and proximity.
... rule. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) proposes to amend regulations regarding inmate access to... those in contract facilities or community confinement, from possessing their Pre-Sentence Investigation.... DATES: Comments due by May 24, 2010. ADDRESSES: Comments should be submitted to the Rules Unit, Office...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that prison is characterized by a higher prevalence of chronic diseases than unconfined settings. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and health of inmates, focusing on internal diseases. Methods We designed a specific clinical record using the Python programming language. We considered all of the diagnoses according to the ICD-9-CM. Results Of a total of 17,086 inmates, 15,751 were enrolled in our study (M = 14,835; F = 869, corresponding to 92.2% of the entire inmate population (mean age of 39.6 years. The project involved a total of 57 detention facilities in six Italian regions (for a total of 28% of all detainees in Italy, as counted in a census taken on February 3, 2014. From the entire study sample, 32.5% of prisoners did not present any disorders, while 67.5% suffered from at least one disease. The most frequent pathologies were psychiatric (41.3%, digestive (14.5%, infectious (11.5%, cardiovascular (11.4%, endocrine, metabolic, and immune (8.6%, and respiratory (5.4%. Conclusion The findings showed that a large number of detainees were affected by several chronic conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an unusually high prevalence for such a young population. Therefore, a series of preventive measures is recommended to strengthen the entire care process and improve the health and living conditions of prisoners.
Marshall, W. L.; And Others
Evaluated Life Skills training programs conducted within 3 Canadian penitentiaries in terms of how effectively they met goals of changing inmates' personal and social functioning. Comparison of 68 treated inmates with 22 untreated controls indicated clear benefits for trained subjects. Discusses findings in terms of value of training in Life…
Locke, Joanne; And Others
The first of two articles describes a pilot project that offered library courses to penitentiary inmates, including the preparation of an education model for certification and the development of learning modules appropriate to distance education. The second describes the prison library and the reactions of inmates enrolled in the program. (CLB)
Smith, Craig; And Others
Youthful prison inmates (N=170) with mental retardation were studied to evaluate adjustment to incarceration, based on the frequency of five disciplinary infractions: hygiene violations, noncompliance with authority, assault on an inmate, assault on a correctional officer, and attempted escape. Results showed that subjects demonstrated poor…
It was concluded that the prevalence of low CRF was high among inmates in Kano prisons. Period of incarceration and low level of exercise activities are the causes of low CRF among prisoners in Kano-Nigeria. Keywords: Prison; Inmate; Cardorespiratory; Physical fitness; Kano The Tropical Journal of Health Sciences Vol ...
... of 78.57% and 78.12% were also recorded for inmates who were drinking water from the wells and streams respectively. Infection rates of 69.82% and 62.50% were equally observed among inmates that were using pit latrines and water cistern toilets respectively. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol.
The aim of this study is to determine the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of inmates in Maiduguri. Maximum Security Prison; and also to determine the effects of age, gender, and period of incarceration on CRF. A total of 247 apparently healthy inmates of Maiduguri Maximum Security Prison participated in the. 2 study.
Aim: To determine the prevalence of eye disorders among the inmates of a Nigerian prison with a view to providing eye health care for the prisoners. Methods: A ... The commonest ocular problems noted were presbyopia (21.5%), pterygium (19.3%) refractive error (15.6%) and allergic conjunctivitis (12.5%). One inmate ...
... inmate in New Mexico may be able to place a 15 minute interstate collect call at an effective rate as low... families to subsidize everything from inmate welfare to salaries and benefits, states' general revenue funds, and personnel training. 4. We applaud states such as New Mexico and New York that have already...
Allen, Rebecca S.; Phillips, Laura Lee; Roff, Lucinda Lee; Cavanaugh, Ronald; Day, Laura
Purpose: With the rapid growth in the older inmate population, emerging issues regarding physical and mental health require greater research and clinical attention. We examined the relation of religiousness/spirituality; demographic characteristics such as age, race, and type of crime; and physical and mental health among 73 older male inmates in…
The study examines the relationship between the physical traits on criminal behaviours of inmates in some Nigerian Prisons. Correlational study was employed to find out the degree of relationship. Five hundred and four (504) inmates who were randomly selected from prisons in Lagos, Oyo, Osun , Ondo and Ekiti states ...
... guidance. DATES: Written comments must be postmarked and electronic comments must be submitted on or before... detail/program supervisor will evaluate each inmate and will document in writing only those inmates who... treatment satisfactory progress/completion. With prior approval of the Psychology Services Department, each...
De La Serna, Marcelo; And Others
Examined the personality characteristics of male prison inmates. Results indicate some personality traits and two clinical syndromes are useful in differentiating prison inmates with high and low scores on measures of private self-consciousness. Suggests persons with high self-consciousness are more suspicious, obsessive-compulsive, and likely to…
Gamman, T; Linaker, O M
Prison inmates have high frequencies of psychiatric disorders. Most prisons have little health-personnel resources, and methods to help focus resources towards those with serious health-care needs would be useful. The Global Symptom Index (GSI) of the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) has performed well in other populations. Prisoners at Kristiansand County Prison, Norway were asked to participate in the study, and 187 of 206 (91%) consented. All filled in the SCL-90 during the first four days of incarceration, and were examined clinically by a psychiatrist. Clinical examination revealed 40 persons with psychiatric disorder. Of these, 37 had a GSI score > or = 1. There were three false negatives and two false positives. Based on various cut-off levels for the GSI, we found a GSI cut-off value at 1.5 to perform best with sensitivity = 0.78, specificity = 0.87, and Number Needed to Diagnose = 1.55. SCL-90 performs well as a screening instrument for psychiatric disorders among prison inmates.
Lohner, Johannes; Konrad, Norbert
Self-injurious behavior involving deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts by inmates while under custodial authority is a major problem for prisons and jails (prevalence, legal obligation for suicide prevention, and stress for officers). The differentiation of "serious" vs. "non-serious" and often manipulative suicide attempts as distinct phenomena, each with its own clinical features, is controversially discussed in current literature and a challenge for every diagnostician. If distinct clinical presentations and histories can be observed, an estimation of the seriousness of each act of self-injurious behavior can be simplified, whereby appropriate treatment of the individual case becomes possible. The aim of the study was to find differences between self-injurious behavior of "low seriousness" (i.e. low lethality and low suicidal intent) and of "high seriousness". Therefore, inmates showing self-injurious behavior were divided into subgroups of deliberate self-harm and suicide attempters on the basis of the act's intent and lethality. This was followed by a comparison of the clinical presentations of the individual inmates constituting the subgroups. Hence, 49 inmates showing self-injurious behavior were interviewed and tested with a variety of instruments (SCID-I and II, PCL-R, BDI-II, BHS, BSS, SIS, etc.), and their prison and health files were examined. The results indicate significant correlations between seriousness and some demographic, prison-related variables as well as different measures of depression. Negative, but nonsignificant correlations could be observed with regard to cluster B personality disorders. The PCL-R total score as well as PCL-R factor 1 showed a statistical trend for negative correlations with measures of seriousness. Inmates showing deliberate self-harm and suicide attempters seem to differ in a number of ways. Implications on how the individual prisoner should be treated are discussed.
Cunningham, Mark D.; Sorensen, Jon R.; Reidy, Thomas J.
An experimental scale for the assessment of prison violence risk among maximum security inmates was developed from a logistic regression analysis involving inmates serving parole-eligible terms of varying length (n = 1,503), life-without-parole inmates (n = 960), and death-sentenced inmates who were mainstreamed into the general prison population…
Sexual and reproductive health of prison inmates suffers from serious neglect in Nigeria. This mixed method study examined prison officials and 160 inmates on prison law and administration, and sexual health of inmates. Most of the inmates examined (82.5%) reported having frequent sexual desire. Wet dreams (46.2%) ...
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.
Rhode Island Governor Lincoln Almond vetoed legislation allowing State prison guards to learn the names of adult inmates infected with HIV. The bill was brought before the governor for two consecutive years. Almond stated that the disclosure requirement, supported by the Brotherhood of Correctional Officers, is not medically necessary, nor would it prevent transmission of the virus to guards or other inmates. Use of universal precautions will prevent transmission far better than any disclosure program, according to the governor.
Full Text Available To meet the educational needs of inmates, educational scholars of the world have attempted numerous strategies and interventions designs to facilitate learning and to improve achievement. The real function of a prison is to help develop better citizens, not just better inmates. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the educational needs of inmate’s prisons. The objective of study was to assess the educational needs of inmates of prisons through distance education. The sample of the study comprised of 57 inmates of graduation/master level available in the jail at the time of survey adopting cluster technique. Data collected through questionnaires was tabulated and descriptively analyzed according to 5 point Likert scale. With the help of summary obtained from Likert scale analysis, mean was calculated. The study revealed that majority of inmates was interested in further education above their obtained level. It was concluded that the inmates give too much importance to education. It was recommended that non-formal wing of Ministry of Education may include prisons while allocating funds for non-formal education and establishment of non-formal basic education schools in prisons. It was further suggested for Allama Iqbal Open University to extend its facilities for prisons to meet his motto “the education at door step”.
Ventura, Miriam; Simas, Luciana; Larouzé, Bernard
This study analyzes the links between health, rights, legislation, and public policies based on document research on legal safeguards for women and their children residing in prison. The research was conducted at the Federal level and in four States of Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo. The study aims to back measures by public agencies to guarantee such rights and to raise awareness of the problem, given the extreme vulnerability of women inmates and their children and the issue's legal and administrative invisibility. The authors identified 33 different legal provisions as points of tension, such as the possibility of house arrest and disparities in the terms and conditions for children to remain inside the prison system. Various provisions cite the Constitutional guarantee of women inmates' right to breastfeed in prison. Meanwhile, the study found gaps in other issues pertaining to motherhood in prison, expressed as dual incarceration (imprisonment arbitrarily extended to their children). It is necessary to expand and enforce the existing legislation to prevent such violations of rights.
Simon, Leonore M.
Investigates whether the victim-offender relationship plays a role in determining the original charge, crime conviction, and sentence length of inmates in prison for violent crimes. Results indicate the victim-offender relationship is related to the legal processing in paradoxical ways. Thus, although nonstranger offenders are charged with and…
Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino
Many studies have demonstrated that the risk of suicide in prison is higher than in the general population. This study has two aims. First, to explore the risk of suicide in men sentenced in Andalusian prisons. And second, to study the sociodemographic, criminal and, especially, psychopathological factors associated with this risk. An assessment was made of 472 sentenced inmates in two Andalusian prisons, and included a sociodemographic interview, the IPDE personality disorders questionnaire, the SCID-I diagnostic interview (DSMIV), and the Plutchick suicide risk questionnaire. The interviewers were experienced clinical psychologists with training in prison environments. Adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression. A risk of committing suicide was detected in 33.5% of the sample. The diagnoses (lifetime prevalence) of affective disorder (adjusted OR 3329), substance dependence disorders (adjusted OR 2733), personality disorders (adjusted OR 3115) and anxiety disorder (adjusted OR 1650), as well as a family psychiatric history (adjusted OR 1650), were the predictors that remained as risk factors after the regression analysis. No socio-demographic risk factor was significant in the regression analysis. The psychopathological variables are essential and the most powerful factors to explain suicide risk in prisons. A correct and systematic diagnosis, and an appropriate treatment by mental health professionals during the imprisonment are essential to prevent the risk of suicide. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle
The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice
Bilfinger, T V; Conti, V R
All Texas prison inmates requiring hospitalization since 1983 have been transferred to a separate prison hospital adjacent to a tertiary care university hospital. We reviewed and analyzed the data regarding one major tertiary care service, namely cardiac surgery, to describe the rate of utilization of this service and its results. From January 1, 1984, to June 30, 1988, 73 inmates underwent 74 cardiac operations, 50 of which were coronary revascularizations. The age-adjusted rates of utilization for coronary artery bypass grafting were substantially higher for inmates over age 45 than for that described for the general population, whereas the utilization rates for valve surgery were comparable. There were no perioperative or late deaths, and 86% of the inmate patients are currently employed within the Texas Department of Corrections system or were employed at the time of their release. The utilization rates and the results of this representative tertiary medical care service for the state's prison population are comparable to those achieved in the private sector, and may have a substantial beneficial effect on inmate rehabilitation.
Yanique A. Anderson
Full Text Available This article addresses rehabilitation, its conceptualisation by officers and inmates, and its expression in practice within a select Norwegian prison. It reports on findings from a qualitative interview-based research project conducted as a pilot study, whereby semi-structured interviews were conducted with inmates and officers at the prison. Furthermore, the authors examine the principle of rehabilitation as it follows from Norwegian law and assess how it is implemented in practice in a Norwegian prison. The preliminary findings from the study reveal factors—such as inmate isolation and mental health challenges, drug use, unequal treatment, and limited capacity and resources—that are impacting the effectiveness of what the prison has intended to achieve and ask for further research and discussion in this area.
The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....
The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
tattooing was practiced among the inmates. 130(79.3%) acknowledged knowledge of use of cannabis in prison; 3 (2.1%) male inmates actually accepted being homosexuals. None of the inmates reported knowledge of use of injectable drugs within the prison. Conclusions HIV prevalence rate (36.6 %) at the Chichiri Prison ...
Agbakwuru, Chikwe; Awujo, Grace C.
This paper investigated the strategies for coping with the challenges of incarceration among inmates of Port Harcourt Prison, Nigeria. The population was 2,997 inmates of the prison while the sample was 250 inmates drawn through stratified random sampling technique from the same Port Harcourt prison. Six research questions were posed and data for…
... Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Final... media and the inmate, for which the inmate is compensated. But the scope of this lawsuit does not... because the inmate publishes a writing under a byline in the news media is much more remote. Id. at 1123...
This report represents a step towards meeting the goal of the Aarhus Convention Access to Justice Task Force to develop a set of good practices and analyses on three priority issues: · The loser pays principle Article 9(4) of the Aarhus Convention requires that procedures for obtaining access to justice must not be prohibitively expensive. In some legal systems, the loser of an administrative or judicial action must pay all, or a portion of, the winner's litigation costs. These costs may incl...
Call, Lindsay Larson; Dyer, W. Justin; Wiley, Angela R.; Day, Randal D.
Recently, national attention has turned to the need for increased financial education, particularly for low-income populations. Incarcerated individuals represent a growing low-income group with unique needs that could likely benefit from financial education. However, few studies have examined the specific financial education needs of inmates,…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate rights and responsibilities. 541.12 Section 541.12 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL... medical and dental treatment. 4. It is your responsibility not to waste food, to follow the laundry and...
Menard, James M.
The need for constructive correctional officer-inmate interpersonal communication has developed into a paramount, but often ignored, concern of numerous correctional institutions throughout the country. Also, many good reintegrative programs have failed because the programs' penal environments were not up to the task of providing an atmosphere for…
Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.
Older adult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…
Lelaka C Motshabi MPH , Professor Supa Pengpid MSc DrPH MBA a & Professor Karl Peltzer PhD DrHabil b email@example.com
Sep 3, 2011 ... concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services. Keywords: Voluntary HIV counselling and testing, utilisation, attitudes, satisfaction, prison inmates, South Africa. Résumé.
No intestinal parasites were detected in the stool samples collected 5 days after the routine deworming exercise of the zoo inmates. The ova of A. ... results obtained from this study indicated that a high percentage of seemingly healthy zookeepers and animals harboured various species of parasites, which were zoonotic.
von Dresner, Kara Sandor; Underwood, Lee A.; Suarez, Elisabeth; Franklin, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to survey the current assessment, housing, and mental health treatment needs of transsexual inmates within state correctional facilities. The literature reviewed epidemiology, prevalence, multiple uses of terms, assessment, and current standards of care. Along with the rise of the multicultural movement, growing…
Background: Personality traits are the basic elements in the study of personality and it influences decision making by affecting our choices about whether to engage in different behaviours. Knowledge of the different personality traits among prison inmate is useful as it will assists in the development of interventions and ...
Papaioannou, Vasiliki; Anagnou, Evaggelos; Vergidis, Dimitris
Correctional education in Greece has been implemented since 1980's. Second Chance Schools (SCS) in prisons were established in 2004, aiming at combating social exclusion. This study's aim is to look into the reasons of school dropout and to interpret why inmates take part in the educational program provided by SCS, registering the motives,…
Background: Prisoners are a vulnerable and socially deprived group requiring dental care intervention. They are often neglected with little or no access to health care and poor oral hygiene may be an additional burden. Objectives: To assess the oral hygiene status of prison inmates and investigate its relationship to ...
Prisoners are a special population group who have limited freedom and are subjected to restrictions. They may not be able to enjoy health enhancing leisure and recreational activities or exercise of their choice or at a time they desire. The aim of this study is to determine the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of inmates ...
Spivak, Andrew L.; Sharp, Susan F.
The growth of the private corrections industry has elicited interest in the comparative performance of state and private prisons. One way to measure the service quality of private prisons is to examine inmates' postrelease performance. Current empirical evidence is limited to four studies, all conducted in Florida. This analysis replicates and…
Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.
Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison
Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values--the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis--has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal.
Making use of sea, as a place for dumping of wastes and other materials from human activities wasn’t forbidden before creation of the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matters (London Convention). Therefore, industrial countries, without any specific consideration, were dumping their wastes into the world’s seas. Many years and before the beginning of rapid development of industry, the great self- purification of seas were preventing some of disch...
for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...
Voller, Fabio; Silvestri, Caterina; Orsini, Cristina; Aversa, Laura; Da Frè, Monica; Cipriani, Francesco
Investigation of health conditions of prison inmates in Tuscany (Italy) compared with non-institutionalized population and literature data. Cross-sectional descriptive study of a sample recruited for a prospective cohort study. SETTING E PARTICIPANTS: Prison inmates detained in Tuscany on June 15th 2009. Istat data concerning the survey "Aspects of daily life" 2006-2009 has been used for comparison. The measures used for the analysis are prevalence data by age classes and odds ratios obtained through a logistic regression model. Outcome variables are: broad disease groups, in particular infectious and parasitic diseases and psychic disorders. Prison inmates from Northern Africa and Eastern Europe are 40% of the population studied. A high consumption of tobacco is observed, with 70.6% of regular smokers among prisoners vs 33.2% among free citizens. Digestive system diseases are the most frequent diseases (25.1%), followed by infectious and parasitic diseases (15.7%). Among digestive disease,more than half are teeth and oral cavity pathologies that affect 13.7% of prisoners.Other frequently reported disease groups were diseases of the bone-muscular and connective systems (11.0%), of the circulatory system (10.8%), endocrine and metabolic systems (9.2%), traumatisms and poisonings (6.8%), respiratory system diseases (5.9%), and nervous system diseases (4.9%). The prevalence of ischemic heart diseases, diabetes, obesity and esophagitis, gastritis and gastro-duodenal ulcers is significantly higher among prisoners than in the general population. The most frequent infectious and parasitic diseases are Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection with a prevalence of 9.0%, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection (2.2%), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection (1.4%). Hepatitis C, HIV and hepatitis A have a higher prevalence among inmates of Italian nationality, while syphilis is more common among prisoners from Eastern Europe (1.2%). The prevalence of psychic disorders among
An increase in the number of older and elderly inmates in the prison system has sparked controversy regarding current procedures and programs as well as possible solutions. Preservation of human and constitutional rights while maintaining appropriate punishment under the same Constitution and increased fiscal expenditures has called into question whether the correctional system is the correct setting for older and elderly inmates. The changing population in prisons has led to an increase in medical care expenses, causing some states to implement early release programs or to build separate facilities for the geriatric population. Statistics from the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Prisons in conjunction with empirical studies create a foundation that allows for a comprehensive survey of the problems, current protocols, and prospective practices.
The Louisiana Court of Appeal is reviewing a case on whether the Louisiana prison system is liable to a private citizen who was exposed to HIV as a consequence of an inmate escape. The case questions whether the Department of Public Safety and Corrections had a duty to inform the local prison, where the inmate was transferred to, about his HIV infection and propensity to escape. The department requested a summary judgment stating that no such duty existed. This motion was rejected by the trial court. Affidavits were presented that questioned the facts and circumstances of the case. The department's duty to the prisoner and jail are in dispute and the trial court's denial has been deemed proper.
Baltieri, Danilo Antonio
Although health surveys on sexual issues during incarceration have shown that women report having engaged in sexual activities while in prison, studies on sexual functioning in female inmates have been largely dismissed. This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among incarcerated women and determine the psychometric and sociodemographic features that are possibly related to the risk of sexual dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study conducted inside a penitentiary for women in São Paulo, Brazil. From June 2006 to June 2010, 315 inmates convicted of robbery or homicide were recruited. High risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) was measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and participants were also evaluated for alcohol and drug misuse, impulsiveness, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial features. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to analyze the data. Among the participants, 253 (80.32 %) met the criteria for HRFSD. Older age, total time of imprisonment, and depressive symptoms were related to a higher risk, while the status of being married, being Black, having sexual relations with other inmates, and receiving conjugal visits were associated with a lower risk. As only 110 (34.92 %) inmates admitted to having sexual relationships inside prison, we evaluated this sub-sample separately. For this sub-sample, 61 (55.45 %) women met the criteria for HRFSD and the main factors associated with this risk were total time of imprisonment and depressive symptoms. Incarcerated women are uniquely vulnerable because they often have histories of deprivation and violence stemming from multiple sources and experience considerable psychological symptoms as a consequence of imprisonment. With the affected population rarely receiving psychosocial management for sexual dysfunction, service delivery efforts should be intensified to target this high-risk population.
... inmate's available funds. Staff may not interfere with selection and retention of attorneys if the inmate... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retention of attorneys. 543.12 Section... MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.12 Retention of attorneys. (a) The Warden shall allow an inmate to...
Ford, Loretta Theresa; Berg, Jonathan David
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms. Here we provide the first analytical confirmation that letters sent to inmates are being used to smuggle NPS into UK prisons. NPS were detected on all five letters and these included the stimulants ethylphenidate, methiopropamine and methoxiphenidaine, the sedative etizolam and the third generation synthetic cannabinoids 5F-AKB-48, AB-FUBINACA, MDMB-CHMICA. Other compounds detected including the class A drug cocaine, class B drug methylphenidate and the cutting agents lignocaine, benzocaine and procaine. NPS smuggled into UK prisons is a major safety and security concern. By analytically confirming letters sent to inmates do contain NPS we have produced categorical evidence to support anecdotal suggestions that NPS are entering UK prisons in this manner.
Heidari, Raheleh; Wangmo, Tenzin; Galli, Serena; Shaw, David M; Elger, Bernice S
Aging in custody and the rising population of elderly prisoners are creating compelling challenges for criminal justice, prison and public healthcare systems. Geriatric syndrome and higher prevalence of co-morbidities amongst older inmates result in heightened vulnerability in prison environments. Empirical research addressing older adults' access to medical care in detention is scarce; therefore, this study assessed access to medical care in prison from the perspective of older prisoners in Switzerland. We interviewed a sample of 35 older inmates (average age 61 years) on their experience of healthcare accessibility in prison; data were qualitatively analysed and major themes regarding evaluation of their access to medical services were extracted. Our findings identified three barriers to accessing health services in prison including psychological obstacles, negative consequences of healthcare utilization, and environmental hurdles. We advocate facilitating older inmates' access to medical care in order to relieve the psychological burden of seeking health services in detention and adequately informing them of their right to demand these services, thereby lessening the negative consequences of their requests. We suggest further training of prison and medical staff for better management of age-related issues in prison can ease the environmental obstacles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... accordance with good legal practice and the policies and guidance provided by the Judge Advocate General. (6... other matters requiring an educated ability to relate the general body and philosophy of law to a specified legal problem of a client. Guidance in this matter may be had from various official sources...
Firth, Caislin Leah; Sazie, Elizabeth; Hedberg, Katrina; Drach, Linda; Maher, Julie
The prevalence of diabetes among Oregon prison inmates has increased by 50% in the last 5 years. The Healthy Food Access Project (HFAP) was implemented in the minimum-security facility at the Oregon Coffee Creek Correctional Facility to reduce the risk of chronic disease (including diabetes) and improve nutrition among female prison inmates. The intervention reduced the menu from 3,000 to 2,200 calories per day and provided nutrition education. We evaluated the effectiveness of HFAP on female inmates with diabetes on two outcomes: the effect of the reduced calorie menu on glycemic control and other biometric measures, and the calories purchased from commissary foods. We conducted a quasiexperimental study among all female inmates with diabetes living at the prison on August 28, 2013. Exposed inmates resided in the minimum-security facility for a minimum of 90 days after August 1, 2012 (when a reduced calorie menu was implemented); unexposed inmates resided primarily or exclusively in the medium-security facility. Medical chart abstractions were conducted to collect biometric data and mixed effects models described the differences in biometric trends between exposed and unexposed participants. Commissary receipts were collected to measure calories purchased. Of the 63 female inmates with diabetes, 24 were exposed to the intervention and 39 were unexposed. Exposed inmates reduced their hemoglobin A1c levels by 0.04 percentage points per month compared with 0.01 percentage points per month among unexposed inmates. Changes in body mass index depended on the amount of time they had served at the prison. Participants purchased an average of 1,094 calories from the commissary per day. Exposed inmates did not purchase more calories from the commissary after HFAP implementation. Exposure to HFAP supported modest improvement in glycemic control among female inmates with diabetes, and inmates exposed to HFAP did not purchase more calories from the commissary. Published by
Schuhmann, Carmen; Kuis, Esther; Goossensen, Anne
Research suggests that prison visitation by volunteers may significantly reduce the risk of recidivism. Community volunteers offer sustained, prosocial support to inmates which may account for these beneficial effects. However, the question of how inmates themselves evaluate volunteer visitation has hardly been studied. This study explores how inmates of Dutch prisons who receive one-on-one volunteer visits experience and value these visits. To that end, semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 inmates across six penitentiaries. These show that the value of volunteer visitation for inmates has to be understood in terms of a human-to-human encounter. Visits by volunteers provide inmates with rare opportunities to have a confidential conversation, away from the harshness of the usual prison life. Furthermore, inmates perceive volunteer visitation as beneficial beyond the actual visits. Inmates draw hope, strength, or self-respect from the conversations; they see volunteers as role models and develop a more positive view of the future. Two potential obstacles to beneficial volunteer visitation were detected: lack of chemistry between volunteer and inmate and imposition of worldview beliefs by volunteers.
Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ
The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Garland, Brett; Wilson, Gabrielle
Although the prevalence of sexual assault in U.S. prisons is debated, it is known that the consequences for victims can be quite severe. The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) requires prison officials to keep track of incidents of sexual assault, but accurate figures will be generated only to the extent that inmates regularly report these acts. Male rape itself is a highly underreported phenomenon and even less reported in prisons due to inmate cultural norms that frown upon forwarding inmate information to correctional authorities. This article examines whether prison inmates believe that reporting prison rape is equivalent to snitching and analyzes possible explanations for the inmates' responses. Results indicate that inmates are less likely to view the reporting of prison rape as snitching earlier in their current commitment periods, and White inmates are more likely than Black inmates to think reporting rape is snitching. As this topic is extremely under studied, a number of suggestions for future research are advanced.
Boudoukha, A H; Hautekeete, M; Abdellaoui, S; Abdelaoui, S; Groux, W; Garay, D
Prison is typically considered as a dangerous setting partly because of promiscuity and violence, which leads to a whole series of suffering and frustration among prisoners. Due to their occupation, prison guards must ensure the safety of the inmates, their colleagues, as well as any other persons working in prison and in the prison setting. Thus, correctional guards are the "Bumper excitement" of prison violence and suffer from stressful and traumatic events. Indeed, inmates' sufferings and frustration are firstly expressed towards them because they share daily relationships with inmates. In addition, correctional guards are faced with the high inmate suicide risk. One potential consequence of these chronic stressful situations is burnout. Burnout is described as a three-dimensional syndrome composed of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and sense of lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is a severe psychological suffering, which can lead to depression. It has been initially identified among persons who are working with patients. Nevertheless, research shows that burnout is not a psychopathology of work but of the relationship with others. In other terms, burnout seems to arise when people share stressful, chronic and violent relationships with someone else. Burnout doesn't appear per se in any international classification of mental disorders: clinicians often use the diagnosis of adjustment disorder. Our aim is to assess the impact of victimization on burnout among guards in French prisons. Prison guards were chosen for two major reasons. First, the custodial role of correctional officers is typically described as a stressful occupation, sensitive to burnout. Second, prison is generally considered "dangerous". Indeed, victimizations and aggressions frequently occur. Consequently, we hypothesize that burnout levels will be high for prison guards. We also hypothesize that the intensity of the victimizations (verbal, physical or armed aggression) will
Jung, Hyunzee; Spjeldnes, Solveig; Yamatani, Hide
Incarcerated men, most of whom are recidivists, are disproportionately black. Much literature about prison ex-inmates reports on this disparity, yet little is known about racial disparity in recidivism rates among jail ex-inmates. This study examined recidivism rates and survival time (period from release date to rearrest) among male ex-inmates…
... and each staff member assigned to the project that documents relevant knowledge, skills and ability to... ability to implement a project of this size and scope. Review Considerations: Applications will be... and conveying expectations for inmates as part of an overall strategy to manage inmate behavior...
Koopman, P. R. S.
A study examined cognitive disorders and syntactical deficiencies in the inmate populations of federal penitentiaries in Canada. The focus of the study was on the relationship between language development and cognitive ability. During the study, a total of 240 inmates from prisons throughout Canada were given hour-long interviews in which they…
Waksman, M.; And Others
This research study is designed to determine (1) to what extent educationally low achieving inmates differ in their cognitive performance from high achieving inmates, and (2) if such differences exist, to what extent can the level of cognitive performance in the former group be modified in a positive direction by a specific learning experience.…
This was an exploratory study to seek out who certain inmates relate to and reveal themselves to. It investigated the similarities and the differences of self-disclosure between a select group of Black and white inmates incarcerated at Marion Federal Penitentiary, Marion, Illinois. (Author)
Marcos Misis; Bitna Kim; Kelly Cheeseman; Nancy L. Hogan; Eric G. Lambert
Research suggests that job-related stress affects correctional officers’ attitudes toward their work environment, coworkers, and supervisors, as well as their physical and mental health; however, very few studies have examined the relationship between stress and attitudes toward inmates. This study examined the relationship between correctional officers’ levels of stress and their perceptions of inmates by surveying a ...
This study investigated drug use pattern among inmates of Jos prison between 2010 and 2014. The study used a longitudinal design. Secondary data from the records unit of the Prison was employed for this study. The social disorganization theory was adopted for the understanding of drug abuse among prison inmates.
Henkel, Jane R.
This report was written for the Advisory Committee on Mentally Ill Inmates of the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It describes mental health services to inmates of Wisconsin's state prisons. Part I describes the organization of state level responsibilities for corrections, including the state…
Background: There is paucity of data on prevalence of non-communicable diseases in prison inmates. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of non-communicable diseases in inmates of Sokoto Central Prison, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out.
The estimated prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is nearly five times higher for incarcerated populations (2.0%) than for the general U.S. population (0.43%). In 1988, the Georgia Department of Corrections (GDC) initiated mandatory HIV testing of inmates upon entry into prison and voluntary HIV testing of inmates on request or if clinically indicated. GDC offered voluntary HIV testing to inmates annually during July 2003-June 2005 and currently offers testing to inmates on request. During July 1988-February 2005, a total of 88 male inmates were known to have had both a negative HIV test result upon entry into prison and a subsequent confirmed positive HIV test result (i.e., seroconversion) during incarceration. Of these 88 inmates, 37 (42%) had had more than one negative HIV test result before their HIV diagnosis. In October 2004, GDC and the Georgia Division of Public Health invited CDC to assist with an epidemiologic investigation of HIV risk behaviors and transmission patterns among male inmates within GDC facilities and to make HIV prevention recommendations for the prison population. This report describes the results of that investigation, which identified the following characteristics as associated with HIV seroconversion in prison: male-male sex in prison, tattooing in prison, older age (i.e., age of >26 years at date of interview), having served > or =5 years of the current sentence, black race, and having a body mass index (BMI) of inmates, highlighting the need for HIV prevention programs for this population.
... [Docket No. BOP-1118-F] RIN 1120-AB18 Inmate Discipline Program/Special Housing Units: Subpart Revision... Discipline Program and Special Housing Units (SHU) regulations. The Bureau issues this correction document in... INFORMATION: The Bureau corrects its Inmate Discipline and Special Housing Units (SHU) regulations (28 CFR...
Cushing, Judy L.; Williams, James D.
The Wild Mustang Program operated from 1988 to 1992 at a correctional facility. Inmate labor operated a horse adoption program. Findings suggest that inmate and staff perceptions about the program exceed the statistical evidence. The program was associated with a reduction in disciplinary reports. Evidence is inconclusive regarding recidivism.…
... Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Interim... anything of value for correspondence with the news media. The inmate may not act as reporter or publish... correspondence with representatives of the news media. * * * * * (b) The inmate may not receive compensation or...
Joseph, Tenibiaje Dele
The study investigated the present position of literacy, information and communication technology (ICT) in prisons by examining the perception of inmates. The study adopted a descriptive survey using structured questionnaire and observation guides on a randomly and purposively drawn sample of 664 inmates out of a population of 47,628 inmates…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests by... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Freedom of Information Act Requests for Information § 513.61 Freedom of Information Act requests by inmates. (a) Inmates are encouraged to...
... representatives of the news media. 540.20 Section 540.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... correspondence with representatives of the news media. (a) An inmate may write through “special mail” to representatives of the news media specified by name or title (see § 540.2(b)). (b) The inmate may not receive...
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is still a major challenge to the human race and this does not preclude prison inmates. This study was therefore designed to investigate the level of HIV/AIDS awareness of male prison inmates in Lagos, South west, Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted. The sample for the study ...
... only civil contempt commitments. 522.15 Section 522.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.15 No good time credits for inmates serving only civil contempt...
Loeb, Susan J.; Penrod, Janice; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Smith, Carol A.
The number of female inmates is growing, and their average age is increasing. As a result, end-of-life care is situated in a highly restrictive environment with a focus on security rather than comfort. We describe the need for and potential barriers to humane care and provide care strategies that can be useful in a complex organizational system. Frontline workers such as nurses who understand the balance between care and control must promote change in the women’s prison system. PMID:21645114
Prisoner population growth. 2. Prisoner popula- . tion forecasting. 3. Military prisoner overcrowding at USDB. 4. Elements of prisoner population . 5...of decisions in the Army. This thesis was initiated as a result not of overwhelming problems of overcrowding or of any particular problems or crises...AUG 83 UNCLASSIFIED F/il 5/9 N 12.2 Ln 1,6 1 2 .0 I~ii~ L 111U2 ICROCOP RSLUINTSCHR NAIOALBUEA F TAD336 1%- 2> Inmate Population Dynamics at the United
Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.
Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…
... Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL... are inadequate to achieve the purpose of punishment and deterrence necessary to regulate an inmate's... punishment and deterrence which initially resulted in the inmate's placement in disciplinary segregation...
Koenig, H G; Johnson, S; Bellard, J; Denker, M; Fenlon, R
The conditions of incarceration and the sociodemographic and health characteristics of 95 older male inmates of a federal correctional facility were studied to determine the relationship of such variables to rates of psychiatric disorder among older male inmates. A total of 51 inmates (53.7 percent) met one-month criteria for psychiatric disorder, a much higher rate than among a community sample of men in the same geographic area. Compared with inmates without such disorders, inmates with disorders were likely to be younger, to have a history of psychiatric disorder and substance abuse, to have poorer physical health, to have impaired social support, and to be serving a determinate sentence with no possibility of parole. Few were receiving treatment while incarcerated.
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
Full Text Available Studies on the impacts the type of prison's environment had on the psychosocial well-being of their inmates were few. To contribute more study on this, the current study explored the psychosocial health profiles of inmates and the type of prison environment by comparing inmates' psychosocial profiles of a medium security prison to a maximum security correctional facility located in north central Nigeria. Participants were male inmates of medium security prison located in Bida, Niger-State and Jos maximum security facility in Plateau-State. All the participants filled the study instruments (i.e., a sociodemographic questionnaire, the ten-item personality inventory, resilience scale, and Oslo Social Support Scale after obtaining informed consent from them. There was a significant positive association of prison types with resilience and social support which was reversed for spirituality. The multivariate analysis showed that inmates of medium security prison had significantly higher resilience and social support scores compared to those in maximum security correctional facilities. There was no difference in the five dimensions of personality among the inmates and in their experience of spirituality. The findings add to extant knowledge on the impact that the level of “indigenous” deprivations had on inmates psychosocial wellness factors. The study hence advocated to the department of correctional services to modify the indigenous measures that promote resilience and social support without compromising security.
Abiona, Titilayo C; Adefuye, Adedeji S; Balogun, Joseph A; Sloan, Patricia E
We examined the relationship between frequency of incarceration and preincarceration risk behaviors and determined the demographic factors associated with risk behaviors among a sample of African American inmates. We surveyed 229 (102 female and 127 male) randomly selected inmates. Risk behaviors between inmates serving their first prison sentence and those who had been incarcerated in prison more than once were compared using the chi2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with risk behaviors. For most risk behaviors, there were no significant differences between inmates serving their first prison sentence and inmates incarcerated more than once; however, male inmates who had been incarcerated more than once were more likely to report having had multiple vaginal sex partners (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.10-5.32; P = .03). No demographic variable was found to be independently associated with risk behaviors. Frequency of incarceration did not affect preincarceration human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among this sample of African American inmates. HIV prevention efforts should be directed at addressing the individual and structural factors associated with high-risk behaviors among African Americans.
L. J. Du Plessis
Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.
The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.
Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...
A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)
This article aims to clarify the international legal status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It examines the legal doctrines of Georgia, the Russian Federation, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia on this matter and how they correlate to the treaties, resolutions and declarations of international law. This article sets out to examine this problem and define the actual international legal status of these territories, which is the key to understanding how international law addresses the recognition of st...
Apperson, Ron; Waxman, Everett
This is the latest edition of a handbook designed to assist school administrators in preventing and dealing with school disruptions and certain related legal matters. Because the handbook was prepared specifically for use by administrators in the Los Angeles Unified School District, it is based on laws and regulations that may not apply elsewhere.…
Describes how indeterminate sentencing creates unique adaptations on the part of inmates, creating different kinds of difficulties for the staff. Questions whether this type of sentencing facilitates rehabilitation any more than traditional mandatory sentencing. (JAC)
Carcedo, Rodrigo J; López, Félix; Begoña Orgaz, M; Toth, Katalin; Fernández-Rouco, Noelia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the state of interpersonal needs and psychological health of male and female prison inmates who live in the same prison. The authors conducted in-person interviews with 118 male and 70 female inmates. The results show that women present a better interpersonal state and psychological health than do men. For both genders, the consequences of fulfilling or not fulfilling interpersonal needs-specifically, social loneliness and sexual satisfaction-are associated with psychological health. These findings suggest the importance of the state of prison inmates' interpersonal needs in promoting psychological health in the context of the prison, where these needs are generally difficult to be met. Making contacts possible between male and female inmates who are in the same prison might help them to better fulfill some of their interpersonal needs, especially those related to their sexual lives.
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 540 [BOP-1149] RIN 1120-AB49 Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice Department. ACTION: Interim final rule; technical correction. [[Page 25111
Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente
Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In...
de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco; Cardoso, Janaina Corrêa
To describe the incidence of tuberculosis among inmates of the municipal prison system in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1993 through 2000. A retrospective study was carried out of the number of cases of tuberculosis that were notified among inmates over the study period. This involved reviewing data from a total of 4,293 inmates who were held in the four prisons that comprise Campinas' municipal prison system. Data were obtained from the tuberculosis database belonging to the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine of the School of Medical Sciences at the State University of Campinas. The incidence of tuberculosis peaked in 1994 (1,397.62 cases per 100,000) and was lowest in 1999 (559.04 cases per 100,000). Most cases of tuberculosis occurred in inmates in the 25 to 34 year age group (62.6%). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was the disease most commonly associated with tuberculosis (49.9%), which was most often pulmonary in type (91.9%), with positive sputum smears in 70.3% of the inmates tested. Most inmates had not received treatment before (75.4%). The treatment dropout rate reached 49%, and a cure was achieved in only 20.8% of the cases notified over the study period. The incidence of tuberculosis observed in this study was moderate when compared to incidence rates found in other studies of prison inmates, but this could be due to underreporting. The frequency of treatment failure noted was low, since patients who were treated under supervision showed good adherence and were cured in the majority of cases. However, the high treatment dropout rate seen in the study is alarming because it could facilitate the spread of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the community at large. Controlling tuberculosis among prison inmates should be part of routine interventions aimed at eliminating this disease from the community and at preventing resistance to antituberculosis therapy.
Over the past 30 years, many states have abolished parole boards, which traditionally have had the discretion to release inmates before the expiration of their full sentence, in favor of fixed-sentence regimes in which the original sentence is binding. However, if prison time lowers recidivism risk and if parole boards can accurately estimate inmates' recidivism risk, then relative to a fixed-sentence regime, parole can provide allocative-efficiency benefits (costly prison space is allocated ...
Sattari, Mohammadreza; Islambulchilar, Mina; Toluyi, Mohsen; Mashayekhi, Siminozar
Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicat...
Steffensmeier, Darrell; Kassab, Cathy
Aims To examine: (1) the relationships between self-efficacy for health management and (a) health-promoting behaviors, (b) health-monitoring behaviors, and (c) self-rated health status in older male prisoners; and (2) the variations in self-rated health status and self-efficacy for health management by inmate characteristics of older men in prison. Background The graying of the inmate population around the globe can be attributed to increases in punitive crime control practices, life expectancy; and the aging baby boom generation. Older inmates are typically not a healthy group. Therefore, the needs of burgeoning numbers of older, sicker inmates are issues of international significance. Methods A descriptive, correlational, survey was conducted from late 2007 to mid-2008 with Bandura’s self-efficacy model as the guiding framework. Results/Findings Participants were 131 male inmates, age 50 and older. A significant positive relationship was found between self-efficacy for health management and the indexes measuring health-promoting behaviors (r=0.550; Pprisons. Nurses are front line health care providers in prison, who are in a key position to implement interventions that promote greater inmate self-efficacy for healthy behaviors and chronic disease management. PMID:21198807
Full Text Available Research suggests that job-related stress affects correctional officers’ attitudes toward their work environment, coworkers, and supervisors, as well as their physical and mental health; however, very few studies have examined the relationship between stress and attitudes toward inmates. This study examined the relationship between correctional officers’ levels of stress and their perceptions of inmates by surveying a sample of 501 correctional officers employed by a Southern prison system. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test the principal hypothesis of this study—that more negative perceptions of inmates would result in higher levels of stress for correctional officers. Independent variables were grouped into four groups (demographic variables, supervisory support, job characteristics, and attitudes toward inmates and were entered into the model in blocks. Lower supervisory support and perceptions of the job being dangerous were associated with higher levels of job stress. More importantly, correctional officers who saw inmates as intimidated (not arrogant and nonmanipulative reported lower levels of job stress, while officers who perceived inmates as being unfriendly, antisocial, and cold reported higher levels of stress.
Kreager, Derek A.; Young, Jacob T.N.; Haynie, Dana L.; Bouchard, Martin; Schaefer, David R.; Zajac, Gary
Research of inmate social order is a once-vibrant area that receded just as American incarceration rates climbed and the country’s carceral contexts dramatically changed. This study reengages inmate society with an abductive mixed methods investigation of informal status within a contemporary men’s prison unit. The authors collect narrative and social network data from 133 male inmates housed in a unit of a Pennsylvania medium-security prison. Analyses of inmate narratives suggest that unit “old heads” provide collective goods in the form of mentoring and role modeling that foster a positive and stable peer environment. This hypothesis is then tested with Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) of peer nomination data. The ERGM results complement the qualitative analysis and suggest that older inmates and those who have been on the unit longer are perceived by their peers as powerful and influential. Both analytical strategies point to the maturity of aging and the acquisition of local knowledge as important for attaining informal status in the unit. In sum, this mixed methods case study extends theoretical insights of classic prison ethnographies, adds quantifiable results capable of future replication, and points to a growing population of older inmates as important for contemporary prison social organization. PMID:29540904
Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task
Gyamfi, O.K.; Bedzra, K.D.; Biney, E.; Marfo, K.; Khan, B.K.; Bonsu, F.A.; Addo, K. K.
One hundred and ninety-five (195) inmates, from eight (8) selected prisons within Ghana's penal system, each with an active cough of at least one week (as the inclusion criterion) were made to submit two sputum samples each for screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) using culture and subsequent microscopy and biochemical speciation tests. This sampling population was made up of 111 convicts and 84 remand prisoners. Forty eight (48) or 24.6% of these sputum samples returned a positive growth of MTB on Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ) slants. All growths harvested were also acid-fast on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy. Out of the 111 convicted prisoners, 26 (or 23.4%) gave sputum samples which returned a positive growth on culture. On the other hand out of the 84 remanded inmates, 22 (or 26.2%) were positive on culture. Of all the total sputum samples returning a positive growth on culture, 54.2% (26/48) was from convicted inmates who made up 56.9% (111/195) of the sampling population whilst remanded inmates who made up only 39.3% (84/195) of our sampling population were responsible for 43.1% (22/54) of all positive culture growths. The percentage of MTB growths on culture in the sputa from coughing inmates domiciled in individual cells of selected prisons are interesting and instructive. The highest number of coughing inmates sampled in a single individual cell was 9 out of which 55.6% (5/9) had sputa giving a positive growth of MTB on culture. The percentage of positive growths of sputa obtained from coughing inmates in individual cells ranged from 20% (1/5) to 100% (1/1 and 2/2) for the selected prisons. A batch of samples (N=19) obtained from isolated inmates symptomatic for TB and at various stages of the DOTS chemotherapy were also analysed. Six (6) samples were positive on culture. Four (4) of these samples emanated from inmates on DOTS chemotherapy for periods between 69 and 290 days whilst the other 2 emanated from inmates on treatment for a period less than 60
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro
Background The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in inmates has not been previously studied. Therefore, we determine the seroepidemiology of H. pylori infection in inmates. Methods Through a case-control study, inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango, Mexico and subjects without incarceration of the same city were examined for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, incarceration, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the inmates was also investigated. Results Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 140 (83.3%) of 168 inmates and in 101 (60.1%) of 168 controls. Seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was significantly higher in inmates than in controls (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.93 - 5.71; P = 0.000002). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, or socioeconomic status of inmates. Seropositivity to H. pylori was found in 3 of 3 inmates with peptic ulcer and in 1 of 2 inmates with gastritis. The seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure was high regardless the jail section, duration (years) in incarceration and number of incarcerations. Multivariate analysis revealed that H. pylori exposure was positively associated with having tattoos (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.14 - 9.70; P = 0.02), and negatively associated with drug abuse (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.70; P = 0.007). Conclusions Seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure in inmates is higher than those found in non-incarcerated people and other populations in the region. Results indicate that inmates may represent a new risk group for H. pylori exposure. Results warrant for further research on the potential role of incarceration and behavioral features of inmates for H. pylori infection. PMID:27785257
Blume, Peter Erik
This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...
Schwitters, A; Kaggwa, M; Omiel, P; Nagadya, G; Kisa, N; Dalal, S
The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners.
Schwitters, A.; Kaggwa, M.; Omiel, P.; Nagadya, G.; Kisa, N.; Dalal, S.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. RESULTS A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners. PMID:24902552
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (κ = 0.57. The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (κ = 0.61. Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.
Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (κ = 0.57). The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (κ = 0.61). Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems. PMID:21392390
Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were used. Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (κ = 0.57). The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (κ = 0.61). Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.
..., after consideration of any timely comments submitted by the business, the EPA legal office makes a... is made by the business and approved by the EPA legal office. Except in extraordinary circumstances... determinations; matters to be considered. (1) If the EPA legal office finds that a business has failed to furnish...
Warren, Janet I; Loper, Ann Booker; Komarovskaya, Irina
Our study examines the trauma-related experiences of 203 female prison inmates, most of whom had experienced chronic trauma throughout their lives but among whom only 51 percent met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We used the two groups to study differences in trauma exposure and pre-existent psychopathology as they related to the emergence of full diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We also used the entire sample to explore the factor structure and endorsement frequencies of each symptom category as it related to trauma exposure. Our analyses indicated that the PTSD group differed from the non-PTSD group in the number of life traumas each group had experienced and the pre-existence of borderline personality disorder. Five symptoms accurately differentiated the two groups, with an 86 percent correct classification: recurrent thoughts, amnesia, loss of interest, difficulty concentrating, and a heightened startle response. An exploratory factor analysis further suggested two primary factors: intrusion and arousal. We apply our findings to the naturalistic versus interactional debate surrounding the disorder and reflect on the endorsement frequencies as they might inform our understanding of malingering as it occurs in legal and forensic settings.
Beale, Joel A., Comp.
All of the books cited in this brief bibliography are annotated. Included are books on such subjects as: censorship, the moral and legal rights of prisoners, and basic human and civil rights. Some, if not all, of these books should be part of every prison library collection. (NH)
Background: The United Nations in her quest for the humane treatment of all human beings, had created and adopted a number of International legal instruments to protect and guarantee human rights to all persons including those who are incarcerated in the prisons. However, the application of these instruments in ...
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Penrod, Janice; Smith, Carol A.; Kitt-Lewis, Erin; Crouse, Sarah B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the values, beliefs, and perceptions of end-of-life (EOL) care held by inmates caring for peers approaching end of life. The study is part of a broader participatory action research project to infuse enhanced EOL care into state prisons. Face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured discussion guide were conducted with 17 male prisoners who were providing care for peers with advanced chronic illness and approaching end of life. Qualitative data were analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Key themes were: getting involved; living the role; and transforming self through caring for others. As well, contextual features at the organizational, peer, and personal levels were identified that either facilitated or impeded inmate caregiving. Provision of enhanced EOL care by inmate peers shows promise for improving prison community relations and morale, reducing suffering, and demonstrating care and compassion within the harsh prison environment. This study provides clear evidence that providing compassionate care for dying peers may result in transformative experiences for inmate caregivers. Implications for correctional nursing practice include providing training for inmate caregivers, including them in team meetings, and implementing grief support programs. Also, upholding nursing’s code of ethics and watching for predatory behavior are critical. “Prisons in the United States contain an ever growing number of aging men and women who…are incontinent, forgetful, suffering chronic illnesses, extremely ill, and dying” (Human Rights Watch, 2012, p. 4) PMID:24158099
Luallen, Jeremy; Cutler, Christopher
Older inmates are the fastest growing segment of the prison population; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. One explanation is that the general population is aging, driving prison age distributions to change. For this article, we study the role of population aging in prison growth by investigating how the baby boom phenomenon of post-World War II has contributed to the growth of older inmate populations. We identify the impact of population aging using simulation methods that explain prison growth as the combination of criminal justice processes. Overall, we find evidence that population aging has played a significant role in explaining the growth of older inmate populations, in particular among inmates aged between 50 and 64 years, contributing to as much as half of the observed increase in these groups since 2000. This finding stands in contrast to the notion that population aging has little explanatory power in describing the growth of prison populations and implies that older inmate groups are more sensitive to compositional changes in the general population. We argue that prediction-based modeling of prison growth should more seriously consider the impacts and consequences of demographic shifts among older prisoner populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa
This paper comprises two studies which address the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, GSS1. In study 1, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of a sample of Portuguese inmates (N=40, Mage=37.5 years, SD=8.1) were compared to those of a sample of Icelandic inmates (Gudjonsson, 1997; Gudjonsson & Sigurdsson, 1996). Portuguese inmates' results were in line with the original results. In study 2, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of the sample of Portuguese inmates were compared to those of a general Portuguese population sample (N=57, Mage=36.1 years, SD=12.7). The forensic sample obtained significantly higher scores in suggestibility measures than the general population sample. ANOVA confirmed that the increased suggestibility in the inmates sample was due to the limited memory capacity of this latter group. Given that the results of both studies 1 and 2 are in keeping with the author's original results (Gudjonsson, 1997), this may be regarded as a confirmation of the validity of the Portuguese GSS1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phelps, Michelle S
Despite the growing literature on the punitive turn, knowledge of how the experience of American imprisonment varied across time and place remain limited. This article begins to fill that gap, providing a more nuanced portrayal of rehabilitation during the punitive turn. To examine how one aspect of the rehabilitative ideal in practice-the provision of staff dedicated to inmate services-varied across time and place over the past 30 years. The article presents statistics on the inmate-to-staff ratios for inmate services staff (including teachers, counselors, doctors, etc.) between the years 1979 and 2005 for all 50 U.S. states. The analyses reveal that, while there was a substantial decline in the services staff ratio during the 1990s and 2000s, this shift across time paled in comparison to variation across place. Northeastern prison systems, for example, maintained higher inmate services staff ratios in 2005 than Southern states in any year. In addition, results suggest state variation is related to differences in prison crowding, inmates' racial composition, and political cultures. The findings suggest the punitive turn was more variegated and partial than is often assumed and highlight the importance of exploring state variation in penal practices.
Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the relationship between Reclusion-Aid and the application of the Principle of Equality through the analytical-deductive method with the analysis of doctrinal and legal aspects on the subject. The legislation after the Constitutional Amendment nº 20/1998 foresees a low-income requirement for granting Reclusion-Aid. Therefore, the benefit harms the Principle of Equality since it ensures the Pension Benefit only to the families with low-income. Before such discrimination, the families of policyholders inmates who received value greater than the stipulated in law are left helpless.
...: Inmate No. 81783- 079, FCI Ray Brook Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 300, Ray Brook, NY 12977...: Currently incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783-079, FCI Ray Brook, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 300, Ray Brook, NY 12977, and with an address at: 6045 Spencer Avenue, Bronx, NY 11471, and when...
Bai, Jennifer R.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Lowy, Franklin D.; Larson, Elaine L.
This study estimated the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and risk predictors of 759 newly admitted inmates in two New York State maximum-security prisons. The most prevalent conditions were respiratory (34.1%), cardiovascular (17.4%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD; 16.1%); least prevalent were HIV (3.6%), cancer (1.7%), and kidney disease (1.7%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that females had higher risk for all conditions except cardiovascular and liver disease; individuals aged 40 years and older had significantly higher risk for all conditions except asthma and STD; non-Hispanic Black inmates had higher risk for respiratory disease and STD; cigarette smoking was associated with asthma; and obesity was significantly associated with diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular conditions. These findings highlight the heavy burden of chronic illnesses among newly admitted inmates and the need to address adequate screening, prevention, and treatment services. PMID:26084947
Way, Bruce B; Sawyer, Donald A; Barboza, Sharen; Nash, Robin
This study examined the number of days that prisoners spent in a special disciplinary housing unit in New York State prison before a suicide occurred. Suicides that occurred between 1993 and 2003 were reviewed. A total of 32 suicides occurred in one-person special housing cells during the 11-year period. Inmates spent a median of 63 days in a special disciplinary housing cell before committing suicide. The aggregate median sentence these inmates were serving in special housing at the time of suicide was 298.5 days. Because most suicides in a special housing unit occurred within eight weeks of placement, enhanced observation of special housing inmates is warranted in that period at a minimum.
Hunter Buskey, Robin N; Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S; Feinglos, Mark N
The increasing prevalence and risk of complications from diabetes necessitate patient participation and attentiveness to select appropriate foods, perform regular physical activity, and be active in diabetes management and self-maintenance. Diabetes is often largely asymptomatic; consequently, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Inmates are a unique population challenged by the increased prevalence of chronic conditions including diabetes. Diabetes standards for inmates contain diagnostic and treatment management guidelines that incorporate personal glucose monitoring for insulin users. In December 2009, the Federal Bureau of Prisons initiated a program to distribute glucose meters to insulin-dependent inmates to facilitate self-monitoring blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these glucose meters on hemoglobin A1c levels. © The Author(s) 2015.
Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Pinto, Walkyria Pereira; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Tengan, Fátima Mitiko
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population. METHODS Systematic review on hepatitis C virus infection in the inmate population. Brazilian studies published from January 1, 1989 to February 20, 2014 were evaluated. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a scale of 0 to 8 points. RESULTS Eleven eligible studies were analyzed and provided data on hepatitis C virus infection among 4,375 inmates from seven states of Brazil, with a mean quality classification of 7.4. The overall hepatitis C virus prevalence among Brazilian inmates was 13.6% (ranging from 1.0% to 41.0%, depending on the study). The chances of inmates being seropositive for hepatitis C virus in the states of Minas Gerais (MG), Sergipe (SE), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Goiás (GO) and Espirito Santo (ES) were 84.0% (95%CI 0.06;0.45), 92.0% (95%CI 0.04;0.13), 88.0% (95%CI 0.09;0.18), 74.0% (95%CI 0.16;0.42), 84.0% (95%CI 0.08;0.31) and 89.0% (95%CI 0.01;0.05) respectively, lower than that observed in the Sao Paulo state (seroprevalence of 29.3%). The four studies conducted in the city of Sao Paulo revealed a lower prevalence in more recent studies compared to older ones. CONCLUSIONS The highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population was found in Sao Paulo, which may reflect the urban diversity of the country. Despite Brazilian studies having good methodological quality to evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus, they are scarce and lack data on risk factors associated with this infection, which could support decisions on prevention and implementation of public health policies for Brazilian prisons. PMID:26247383
Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).
The Native Inmate Substance Abuse Pre-Treatment Project, a 1-year research and development demonstration project, was pilot tested at Mountain Federal Penitentiary and William Head Federal Penitentiary in British Columbia (Canada). Ten inmates volunteered to participate in the Mountain program, and 14 inmates were required to attend at William…
... federal sentences running concurrently with state sentences. (c) An inmate with a committed fine, or fine.... Magistrate Judge-inmates in contract community-based facilities or state institutions. 571.54 Section 571.54... FROM CUSTODY Fines and Costs § 571.54 Determination of indigency by U.S. Magistrate Judge—inmates in...
This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.
Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman
Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...
Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard
This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....
Full Text Available According to Turkish Law, only natural persons can be counted as perpetrators. Due to their characteristics, legal entities cannot directly commit crimes and cannot be perpetrators. Nevertheless, the criminal liability of the legal entities due to the actions of the persons who act on behalf of legal entities had been a hot topic until the Turkish Penal Code no 5237 came into force. Provisions about the legal entities’ criminal liability in several penal codes other than the abovementioned Turkish Penal Code were another matter of the debates. Further, the Constitutional Court of Turkey held that legal entities’ criminal responsibility was not unconstitutional. In the Code No 5237 that came into force on the 1st of June, 2005; it was explicitly stated that legal entities cannot be imposed with penal sanctions. Since criminal responsibility is personal, the legal entities, which do not have any ability to commit an offence, cannot be punished due to the actions of persons who act on behalf of legal entities. In other respects, according to article 20 of the Turkish Penal Code, security measures can be applied to legal entities whereas penal sanctions cannot be applied. By Turkish Penal Code Art 20, provisions regarding legal entities’ criminal responsibility in other penal codes were repealed. However, it is hard to claim that the debate regarding criminal responsibility of legal entities is over for the doctrine. The security measures to be imposed on legal entities are prescribed in Art 60 of the Turkish Penal Code. Security measures to be imposed within Art 60 are following: Cancellation of permit and confiscation. In this paper, the conditions for legal entities’ security measure responsibility; the debates in this regard and the provisions made will be examined.
Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we
Nelson, Nancy J.
This article describes an education program initiated by African American prisoners in the Airway Heights Correction Center in Airway Heights, Washington. The purpose of the program was to help the inmates to make productive use of their time while incarcerated and to help lessen the high return rate of African American men to the prison. Although…
Runte-Geidel, A; Girela, E; López, A; Ruiz, F; Torres-González, F
The aim of the study was to ascertain the opinions of both inmates and staff of prison establishments about the use of coercive measures justified for clinical reasons for people with mental health problems and about the need to create protocols to regulate the application of these measures. These opinions were gathered in a Qualitative Study with Focus Groups (prison inmates and prison staff) from the Granada Penitentiary Centre and the Alicante Penitentiary Psychiatric Hospital, both in Spain. The results showed that forced medication is the most commonly used coercive measure in these institutions. The inmates did not understand and rejected the use of this measure, above all because they were poorly informed about their illness and the medication required to treat it. The staff however defended the benefits of psychiatric medicine, even when administered without the patient's consent. Both inmates and staff agreed that it would be useful to have a protocol regulating the use of coercive measures. The study has also identified a number of important factors that could help to reduce the need for coercive measures or make their use unnecessary.
Fliegel, Alan B.
Subjects were 138 inmates from the pre-release unit of a Southwestern prison system, randomly divided into three groups of 46 each. Each group viewed a video-taped model delivering a speech. The independent variable had three levels: (1) lecturer attired in a shirt and tie; (2) lecturer attired in a correctional officer's uniform; and (3) model…
Research shows that in order to reduce recidivism rates in prisons, financial education and other life skills should be a mandatory topic in our prison systems. By creating a learning environment conducive to the specialized needs of this audience, an inmate's ability to set goals, recognize wants and needs, maintain bank accounts, create a…
Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.
Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…
Meyer, Cheryl L.; Harned, Megan; Schaad, Amanda; Sunder, Katherine; Palmer, Judson; Tinch, Christy
There is mounting evidence that prison inmates benefit from educational opportunities but may not be offered to them. In addition, when they are offered, priority is given to prisoners who will be released in the near future, and those serving long-term or life sentences are less likely to have access to classes. A service learning opportunity was…
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to ascertain the opinions of both inmates and staff of prison establishments about the use of coercive measures justified for clinical reasons for people with mental health problems and about the need to create protocols to regulate the application of these measures. Method: These opinions were gathered in a Qualitative Study with Focus Groups (prison inmates and prison staff from the Granada Penitentiary Centre and the Alicante Penitentiary Psychiatric Hospital, both in Spain. Results: The results showed that forced medication is the most commonly used coercive measure in these institutions. The inmates did not understand and rejected the use of this measure, above all because they were poorly informed about their illness and the medication required to treat it. The staff however defended the benefits of psychiatric medicine, even when administered without the patient's consent. Conclusions: Both inmates and staff agreed that it would be useful to have a protocol regulating the use of coercive measures. The study has also identified a number of important factors that could help to reduce the need for coercive measures or make their use unnecessary.
Brinkley, Chad A.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Heigel, Caron P.
Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRPS) is evaluated to determine the factor structure and concurrent validity of the instrument among 430 federal female inmates. Confirmatory factor analysis fails to validate the expected 2-factor structure. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis reveals a 3-factor structure…
Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Beaver, Kevin M.; Gertz, Marc
Despite concerns whether supermaximum security prisons violate human rights or prove effective, these facilities have proliferated in America over the past 25 years. This punishment--aimed at the "worst of the worst" inmates and involving 23-hr-per-day single-cell confinement with few privileges or services--has emerged despite little…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visits to inmates not in regular population status. 540.50 Section 540.50 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... not in regular population status. (a) Admission and holdover status. The Warden may limit to the...
Prevalence and Risk Factors for HIV/AIDS among Male Inmates in Jos Prison, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Seroprevalence among the prisoners (7%) was higher than the National median prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in year 2006 survey. This suggests the possibility of the following risk factors. Sharing ...
Prisons have been in existence in most parts of Nigerian since her inception as a country and it has served as correctional institutions for custody, reformation, rehabilitation and reintegration. The inmates are reported to exhibit poorer health status than the general population due to overcrowding and poor sanitary ...
Prisons like other correctional institutions deserve organized information provision centers like a library. This study examined library services provision in the south-western part of Nigeria. It was found out that despite their incarceration, inmates desires variety of information; whereas the library stock is grossly inadequate ...
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT and associated factors among inmates using intravenous heroin in Taiwan. A total of 315 inmates using intravenous heroin were recruited. Their unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT after discharge from prison were evaluated using the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale. The associations of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT with sociodemographic and drug-using characteristics, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression were examined using multiple regression analysis. The results of this study showed that the mean score of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT, determined on the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale, was 9.918 (standard deviation=2.277, range=5–20. Heroin-using inmates who were young, started using heroin earlier, perceived many advantages and few disadvantages of heroin use, had never received MMT, and had severe depression, had unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that inmates who have the factors associated with unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT should receive intervention and motivational interviewing to improve their attitudes toward MMT and to increase their opportunity to receive MMT after discharge from prison.
Walsh, C. Eamon
Examined data from New Jersey Department of Correction's "Offender Based State Correctional Information System" to obtain descriptive overview of number, offense characteristics, sentences, and lengths of stay of aging inmates in the state's prisons. Profile that emerged was male, aged 57, resident of Rahway State Prison, and convicted…
Naud, Hélène; Daigle, Marc S
To measure the predictive power of the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) in a male inmate population (federal penitentiary) with the added contribution of actuarial data. SPS scores and data from the files of 518 inmates were analyzed in relation to their suicidal behaviors over the following 10 years. During this period, 12 inmates committed suicide (2.32%), 43 engaged in non-lethal self-harm (8.3%) and 15 expressed serious suicidal intention (2.9%), for a total of 70 (13.51%) who manifested at least one form of suicidal behavior. The records of the 518 inmates allowed identifying seven actuarial variables (out of 24 documented) that distinguished the group that acted out. These variables were tested in combination with the SPS score to determine the best predictive models of suicidal behavior. Depending on type of suicidal behavior and on observation period, the following seven variables could prove useful in improving the predictive capacity of the SPS: age, prior suicidal behavior, borderline personality disorder, length of sentence, number of sentences, prior incarceration in a provincial prison, and juvenile priors. However, analyses did not allow developing a better predictive model for the specific subgroup of suicide completers. SPS is improved when adding actuarial data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Posada, A; Díaz Tremarias, M
To determine the prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and syphilis amongst inmates during the time period 1998-2001. Descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out at 6 prisons using a volunteer sample of 1773 inmates. Blood samples were gathered and analysed using enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA) and RPR screening tests to identify the presence of HIV antibodies, Hepatitis B anti-core antibodies and treponema pallidum. 456 cases gave a positive response to tests, 70 (4,0%) of which gave positive results for HIV, 280 (16,2%) for Hepatitis B and 106 (6,1%) for syphilis. The greatest percentage of HIV cases were found amongst the youngest inmates (18 to 37 years). The number of Hepatitis B cases increased progressively in line with age until reaching a maximum percentage in the 48-57 age group. No significant statistical difference for age was observed in syphilis cases, but differences were found amongst HIV positive and Hepatitis B cases for age, length of sentence and number of prisons where inmate resided.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine correlates and predictors of hazardous drinking behaviour, that may be considered evidence of generalised strain, in a sample of incarcerated non-Aboriginal males in New South Wales, Australia. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 283 non-Aboriginal male inmates as part of a larger epidemiological survey of inmates in NSW undertaken in 2015 by the Justice Health and Forensic Mental Health Network. Data relating to a range of social factors were selected with reference to relevant literature and assessed with regards their predictive value for scores from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). To facilitate regression analysis, variables were logically organised into historical factors or adult factors. Findings Almost all participants reported some history of alcohol consumption. Hazardous drinking was common among participants. While parental alcohol problems and adult drug use were the only correlates of AUDIT scores, parental misuse of alcohol was shown to be an important predictor of AUDIT scores in regression analysis. The role of parent gender was inconclusive. Previous incarceration as an adult, employment status, and drug use as an adult also predicted AUDIT scores. Originality/value Alcohol abuse is common among inmates and the use of alcohol is implicated in the commission of many offences. A better understanding of its genesis may inspire novel approaches to treatment, leading to improved health outcomes for inmates.
Zhu, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Jian-Song; Chen, Chen; Peng, Wang-Lian; Li, Wen; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xiang, Yu-Tao
High prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been found in Western prisons but no such data exists in China. The objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence of BPD in Chinese female prison inmates and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hunan Provincial Female Prison. Data on consenting inmates' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected and the diagnosis of lifetime BPD was established using the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The prevalence of BPD was 10.6% in the cohort of 2709 participating inmates. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age, unmarried marital status, higher education level, fewer major medical conditions, more frequent personal and family members' drug use, more frequent comorbid psychiatric disorders and family history of psychiatric disorders were positively and independently associated with BPD. BPD is common in Chinese female prison inmates. Considering its adverse social consequences and impact on physical and mental well-being, serious attempts should be made to diagnose BPD early and improve access to treatment in women prisons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests by... GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Freedom of Information Act Requests for Information § 513.62 Freedom of Information Act requests by former inmates. Former federal...
Slater, Robert Bruce
Argues that, although there are presently over 20,000 prison inmates, the largest of whom are black, enrolled in higher education programs, by 1996, there may be none. The author provides justification for prisoner rehabilitation, revealing the inadequacy of harsh punishment in stemming crime, and presents reasons why higher education in prisons…
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Management Information System in Yola. Central Prison is to assist management in making administrative decision. Therefore, this project aims at developing Prison inmate information system which will handle processes involved in keeping records for Prisoners such as those under awaiting trials, warrant return date and ...
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 541 [Docket No. BOP-1118-F] RIN 1120-AB18 Inmate Discipline Program/Special Housing Units: Subpart Revision and Clarification AGENCY: Bureau of... Discipline Program and Special Housing Units (SHU) regulations (28 CFR part 541, subpart A and subpart B...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When Bureau staff can arrest and detain a non-inmate. 511.18 Section 511.18 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... secured, using minimally necessary force and restraints, in a private area of the facility away from...
AJRH Managing Editor
is a need for legislation on sexual violence and exploring the practice of conjugal visits or furloughs as practiced in some countries. (Afr J Reprod Health 2016; ... been tried in parts of Europe, Mexico, Canada and few states in the U.S.A, notably ..... rates of sexual harassment or abuse among inmates. Prisons in five states in ...
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.
Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Taylor, Kelley R.
The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro
This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...
Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).
Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25 and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener. The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD before antisocial personality disorder (APD. Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD
Nowotny, Kathryn M.
This study examines race/ethnic disparities in treatment for drug dependent inmates in state correctional facilities. The data come from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities. Fixed effects logistic regression is used to analyze treatment outcomes for 5,180 inmates housed within 286 prisons. The analysis accounts for differences in background characteristics (i.e., age, gender, marital status, foreign born status, veteran status), socioeconomic characteristics (i.e., education, employment prior to incarceration), mental health (i.e., diagnosis with a serious mental illness), and incarceration experiences (i.e., current conviction, previous incarceration episodes, time served, additional sentencing requirements, external social support, disciplinary violations). The findings identify a remarkable unmet need among drug dependent inmates in that less than one-half of drug dependent inmates had received any type of treatment in prison at the time of the interview with the most common treatment type being self-help groups. Compared to whites, drug dependent Latino inmates have significantly lower odds of utilizing treatment, yet there are no significant black-white disparities found. Implications for drug treatment within prisons are discussed. PMID:25270722
Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first
Badke, Lara K.
A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.
Leigey, Margaret E; Ryder, Michael A
Previous research has found commonality in the pains of imprisonment reported by English and American long-term inmates. Using a triangulated research methodology, this study examined the hardships associated with permanent incarceration as reported by 18 older male inmates serving a sentence of life without the possibility of parole. Strong agreement existed between the present sample and previous samples as to the most and least difficult aspects of imprisonment. Consistent with the previous studies, outside problems were perceived as being more severe than inside problems. Overall, this study found agreement in the pains of long-term imprisonment, regardless of the exact length or type of sentence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Tangney, June Price; Mashek, Debra; Stuewig, Jeffrey
This paper describes our attempt to import social-personality theory and research on moral emotions and moral cognitions to applied problems of crime, substance abuse, and HIV risk behavior. Thus far, in an inmate sample, we have evidence that criminogenic beliefs and proneness to guilt are each predictive of re-offense after release from jail. In addition, we have evidence that jail programs and services may reduce criminogenic beliefs and enhance adaptive feelings of guilt. As our sample size increases, our next step is to test the full mediational model, examining the degree to which programs and services impact post-release desistance via their effect on moral emotions and cognitions. In addition to highlighting some of the key findings from our longitudinal study of jail inmates over the period of incarceration and post-release, we describe the origins and development of this interdisciplinary project, highlighting the challenges and rewards of such endeavors.
A study by Stadtlanders Pharmacy and the University of Pittsburgh shows that 36 percent of HIV-positive inmates do not receive adequate care based on government standards. These inmates, in both prisons and jails, are on regimens either "generally not recommended" or "not recommended" by Department of Health and Human Services guidelines. Of the 36 percent, 28 percent were placed on regimens that have some clinical benefit, but usually not enough to sustain initial viral suppression. The study was limited by the rapid turnover in high-volume jails and the fact that Stadtlanders can only track what medications are supplied to the facilities, not medications that are actually taken. Stadtlanders is the nation's largest supplier of medications to private firms furnishing health care services in correctional facilities.
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Lagarrigue, Aude; Ajana, Soufiane; Capuron, Lucile; F?art, Catherine; Moisan, Marie-Pierre
Context Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males) the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI) and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possib...
Teive, Hélio A G; de Paola, Luciano
The Alcatraz prison, with its picturesque surroundings and fascinating life stories of its inmates, has been the subject of a number of films and publications. The authors take a closer look at the biographies of "Al Capone", Robert "Birdman" Stroud and "Mickey" Cohen. These legendary American mobsters shared not only a history at "The Rock", but also a history of neuropsychiatric diseases, ranging from neurosyphilis to anti-social, borderline and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
Willrett, K., & Tourek, N. (1994). Health promotion, self - esteem , and weight among female college freshmen. Health Values, 18, 10-19. Nara, K...sample of 98 female inmates, at a Federal Bureau of Prisons complex, was used in this comparative descriptive study of weight, body mass index (BMI...stroke and the complications of diabetes (NHLBI, 1998a). Weight loss could also improve self - esteem and decrease the discrimination in employment, housing
Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Joshi, A V; Pujar, Kirankumar; Patil, Sandhya
A new trend of admitting more and more senior citizens hailing from the Indian middle class background to old age homes is being observed in recent times. The objectives of this study were to study sociodemographic dimensions and common health problems of inmates of old age homes and to know various reasons for their admissions and their leisure time activities in old age homes. The present cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April 2010 in 4 different old age homes in and around Belgaum city, North Karnataka, by interviewing the inmates of old age homes using predesigned, pretested, structured questionnaire followed by thorough clinical examination and haemoglobin estimation by Sahli's method. The collected data was compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 14. Out of 73 elderly, 54 were females (74.0%). Majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (50.7%) and 56 were belonging to nuclear family (76.7%). Thirty-nine inmates were widow/widower (53.4%) and 42 were having no children (57.5%). Forty-seven inmates were admitted as there was nobody to take care of them (64.4%). Common health problems observed were locomotive/joint and muscle disorders (35.6%), hypertension (34.2%), diabetes mellitus (26.0%), respiratory disorders (23.3%), hearing loss (21.9%) etc. Forty-nine were having normal body mass index (67.1%) while 19.2% were underweight. Majority were having haemoglobin levels between 10-12 g/dl (58.9%). Old age homes definitely will enable the elderly to remain sociopsychologically healthy and lead active lives if effective medical and emotional support is given.
This paper examines the implications the various conceptions of human nature hold for the legal system. No doubt, there are various and conflicting theories of human nature such that the concept of human nature seems to have remained elusive and pervasive. Some conceive man as nothing but matter pure and simple; ...
G. V. Startsev
Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.
This paper focuses on legal service delivery for the indigent by attorneys in private practice acting pro bono in civil rather than criminal matters. In this regard there have been and continue to be considerable gaps between the proper access to civil justice imperatives of constitutional South Africa and the status quo which ...
Juan I. Larrea Holguín
Full Text Available Here are collected two reports about the possibility of decriminalizing abortion in Ecuador. Although they were issued on the basis of two bills that failed in the legislature, historical and legal arguments discharges there, take advantage for further development doctrinal matter.
Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.
In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...
Chavez Cassanello, Griselda; Mels Siningen, Celeste; Reina, Mariana; Vega, Hernan
The present work intends to develop the legislative and regulatory framework in the matter of radioactive waste. The legal frame of the radioactive waste conformed by the National Constitution, the treaties and conventions, laws and decrees and regulatory norm in Argentine . The subject is approached from the international point of view considering the slogan of 36 The Annual Meeting of the Association Argentine de Nuclear Technology: 'The Nuclear Energy in the Present World'. This work also contains a special paragraph dedicated to the analysis of practical cases related to the subject and the activity of the National Commission of Atomic Energy. (author)
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won
Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.
Sánchez Recio, Raquel; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Santabárbara Serrano, Javier
To measure incidence and main risk factors related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Daroca Prison (Zaragoza, Spain). A retrospective cohort study (2005-2013) to measure the incidence of STI and a cross-sectional study to measure risk factors. Of the 203 inmates, 79 developed an STI, 37 had a previous STI, 55.2% lacked knowledge on STI prevention, and 28.9% showed behaviours unfavourable for STI prevention. The incidence rate was 6.5 STIs per 1,000 inmates-year. The most frequent STIs were hepatitis B (39.7%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (19.1%), herpes simplex (16.2%) and HIV (8.8%). The risk (hazard ratio, HR) of acquiring a new STI was significantly higher in inmates with a history of previous STI (HR=2.61; 95%CI: 1.01 to 6.69), and was at the limit of significance for non-preventive behaviour (HR=2.10; 95%CI: 0.98 to 4.53), but not in knowledge related to STIs (HR=1.33; 95%CI: 0.58 to 3.07). The most important risk factors in prison are behaviours related to STIs and previous history of STIs. Other factors are being a repeat offender, injecting drug use, or being in a methadone programme. Health personnel and peer education can facilitate prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Cristina Berger FADEL
Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThe increase in prison populations is a phenomenon which is systematically rising throughout the world, leading to overcrowding of prisons, which has direct consequences on the health conditions of the individuals.ObjectiveTo explore the relationship among oral health, the life path and the perception of subjects in a vulnerability context.Material and methodThis is a qualitative study, developed with inmates in a State Penitentiary. To obtain and process the data, individual interviews and the Thematic Content Analysis technique were used.ResultThe interviewees showed limited perception of the process of oral health and disease fostered by the experiences of relatives and by knowledge acquired in the street or from the media. The life path in prison seemed to have little influence on this understanding. However, the prison experience influenced the oral condition of the inmates by facilitating access to dental service, oral hygiene materials and the improvement in their health knowledge and habits. The oral health results presented were, generally, in agreement with so-called common sense and with studies developed in socially similar populations.ConclusionThus, considering the limitations imposed by the way data were collected, in prison and in a vulnerability context; a non-harmful influence on the condition studied regarding the oral health of inmates is suggested.
Kulkarni, Mayuri K; Somannavar, Pradeep D; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi; Nayak, Ramakant; Hosmani, Jagadish; Babji, Deepa
Cytogenetic studies from past decades have shown that interphase cells of female cats contain a densely stained chromatin mass in their nuclei called as Barr bodies (BBs) named after the scientist Murray Barr. BBs are unique chromatin structures formed due to the condensation of the X-chromosome. Many psychopathic disorders originate from defective genes including the multiple X syndromes. Males with extra X-chromosome generally present with severe personality disorder. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of extra X-chromosome in male jail inmates through the detection of BB in peripheral blood and buccal smear. Study included 100 male subjects (fifty jail inmates and fifty controls), after obtaining the consent, peripheral blood smears (PBS) and buccal smears (BS) were prepared and stained using Leishman's and cresyl violet stain respectively. One hundred neutrophils in PBS and epithelial cells in BS were screened for detection of the BB; accumulated data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. 60% of cases in PBS and 36% in BS showed positivity for the presence of BB in jail inmates as compared to 14% of cases in PBS and none in BS were positive for BB in controls. Presence of BB in male suggests increased likelihood of criminal tendencies. Further studies are to be carried out to compare the results with karyotyping.
Albertie, Ariel; Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
Research from high-income countries suggests that prison populations are affected disproportionately by mental illness. However, little research has examined mental health among prisoners in low- and middle-income countries or associations between mental health and contextual factors surrounding the prison experience among susceptible first-time inmates in these settings. The current study examines associations between connectivity, prison environment and mental health (major depression and substance use) among novice male inmates (n = 593) in three Mexico City prisons. Severe depression (46.2%), any substance use (53.8%) and heavy substance use (45.7%) were prevalent. Among key co-variates, recent visitors were protective for severe depression, conjugal visits for any substance use and prison employment for heavy substance use. Physical attacks were associated with increased prevalence of depression, sentence time served with both any and heavy substance use and overcrowding with any substance use. These findings suggest the need for routine health assessments to improve identification and treatment programmes to minimise mental health burden. Addressing demographic risk factors as well as contextual determinants, by decreasing physical violence and overcrowding and supporting outside connections for prisoners, may help improve inmate mental health.
Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.
MEARS, DANIEL P.; STEWART, ERIC A.; SIENNICK, SONJA E.; SIMONS, RONALD L.
Scholars have long argued that inmate behaviors stem in part from cultural belief systems that they “import” with them into incarcerative settings. Even so, few empirical assessments have tested this argument directly. Drawing on theoretical accounts of one such set of beliefs—the code of the street—and on importation theory, we hypothesize that individuals who adhere more strongly to the street code will be more likely, once incarcerated, to engage in violent behavior and that this effect will be amplified by such incarceration experiences as disciplinary sanctions and gang involvement, as well as the lack of educational programming, religious programming, and family support. We test these hypotheses using unique data that include measures of the street code belief system and incarceration experiences. The results support the argument that the code of the street belief system affects inmate violence and that the effect is more pronounced among inmates who lack family support, experience disciplinary sanctions, and are gang involved. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24068837
Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.
Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente
Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.
Eckes, Suzanne E.
This article examines an education policy matter that involves homophobic speech in public schools. Using legal research methods, two federal circuit court opinions that have examined the tension surrounding anti-LGBTQ student expression are analyzed. This legal analysis provides non-lawyers some insight into the current realities of student…
Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing objectively various techniques and methods of money laundering, both in classical and modern ways, by presenting case studies from the legal practice in Romania, in an attempt to clarify a number of issues related to the complexity of this crime, current and future tendencies of financial criminals for laundering proceeds of crime. Also, according to the analysis of comparative law performed in the last chapter, we highlighted a number of similarities and differences between the Romanian legislation and the legislative laws of other states, surprising the forms and effects of money laundering on the studied national systems as well as highlighting the measures for preventing and fighting against these crimes adopted by the analyzed legal systems. The comparative approach of the criminal and legal framework of preventing and combating money laundering is essential for the Romanian legal system efficiency in this matter.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma remains the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide and sexual behavior is regarded as the main contributing factor. We studied cervical cytology screening with surgical biopsy follow-up in women prisoners and compared the findings to those in the general population. Methods We reviewed 1024 conventional cervical smears, 73 cervical biopsies and 2 loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP specimens referred to us from the Correctional Center in Columbus, Ohio during a 12-month period. The results were compared to 40,993 Pap smears from the general population for the same 12-month period. Results High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL was diagnosed in 1.3% of the cervical smears from the inmate population versus 0.6% in the general population (p < 0.01. The unsatisfactory rate was 1.6% compared to 0.3% in the general population (p < 0.01. Among the study population, follow-up tissue diagnosis was obtained in 24.3% of the abnormal cytology results (ASCUS, LGSIL, and HGSIL. Of the HGSIL Pap smears, 61.5% had a subsequent tissue diagnosis. Thirty-nine biopsies (52% of the all inmate biopsies and LEEP showed CIN II/III (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II/III. Eight of these thirty-nine follow-up biopsies diagnosed as CIN II/III had a previous cervical cytology diagnosis of ASCUS. The average age for HGSIL was 30.5 years (S.D. = 5.7 and for low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL was 27.2 years (S.D. = 6.1. Conclusion A significantly higher prevalence of HGSIL cervical cytology and unsatisfactory smears was encountered in female inmates, with tissue follow-up performed in less than two thirds of the patients with HGSIL. These results are in keeping with data available in the literature suggesting that the inmate population is high-risk and may be subject to less screening and tissue follow-up than the general population. Clinicians should proceed with urgency to improve
Muasa Patoka Guillaume Kalonji
Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, quality of prison life remains a challenge in public health. The present study aimed at determining the quality of life as perceived by inmates during their imprisonment at the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out over a 3-month period (between December 2015 and February 2016 at the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi. Three hundred inmates participated to the survey. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF was used to estimate health and problems affecting inmates’ everyday life. Results: Mean age of inmates was 33 ± 10 years (range: 18-70 years and most of them were male (88.7%. The quality of life score estimated was below 50, on the WHOQOL-BREF scale weighted over 100 points (average overall score: 26 ± 7. When considering each WHOQOLBREF domain, the lowest scores (0-100 normalized scale were registered for: perception of physical health (24 ± 11, psychological health (18 ± 8, social relationship (39 ± 15 and environmental relationships (24 ± 8. Overall, inmates aged over 30 years old presented an average score slightly lower than younger inmates (25 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 7; p=0.005. Depending on the length of incarceration, the average score was lower for inmates imprisoned for more than 6 months compared to others (26 ± 6 vs. 28 ± 8; p=0.015. Correlations between domain scores were low but statistically significant; no correlation was highlighted between environment and mental health domains. Conclusion: Most inmates considered their quality of life as negative, regardless of the WHOQOL-BREF domain. Efforts to improve quality of life should remain a priority for political authorities.
Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.
According to "legal moralism" it is part of law's proper role to "enforce morality as such". I explore the idea that legal moralism runs afoul of morality itself: there are good moral reasons not to require by law all that there is nevertheless good moral reason to do. I suggest that many such reasons have broad common-sense appeal and could be appreciated even in a society in which everyone completely agreed about what morality requires. But I also critique legal moralism from the special perspective of liberal political justice. Liberalism requires that citizens who disagree with one another on a number of morally significant matters nevertheless coexist and cooperate within a political framework of basic rights protections. When it comes to working out the most basic terms of their political association, citizens are expected to address one another within the limits of what Rawls has called "public reason". Critics of liberalism claim that this is an essentially a-moral (or expedient) attempt to evade substantive moral issues--such as the moral status of the fetus. I argue, on the contrary, that liberalism's emphasis on public reason is itself grounded in very deep--though (suitably) "non-comprehensive"--moral considerations.
Full Text Available Legal aid in India has evolved over the last few decades since 42nd Amendment to the Indian Constitution. This paper attempts to provide philosophical underpinnings suggesting how legal aid model has evolved over the years and excogitate a newer trajectory for its future evolution. It delves into weighing Kant’s imperfect duty justifying a charity based regime and marks a transition to utilitarian model suggesting requirement of institutional need to address issues of basic liberty of ‘access to justice.’ It also spells out Rawls’ principles of justice and attempts to explore their applicability in the Indian context, to chart out a road map for future. While contrasting different models on legal aids, it makes a finding that, India doesn’t accord priority to liberty of access to justice. The Indian Supreme Court has emerged as a bastion of liberty but the finer details of the enactment has been messed up by the Indian lawmakers. The lower compensation to lawyers and lack of alternative incentives in attracting established litigators, testifies this. There is a convergence in Kantian duty of benevolence and Rawls’ liberty principle but in the world of moral relativism, a fair compensation must precede before imposing any obligation on lawyers to take up pro bono matters, as doing so, is likely to compromise their ‘true needs.’
Z. Gonul BALKIR
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni
A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.
Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which the concept of privacy is understood in the context of social media and with regard to users’ awareness of privacy policies and laws in the ‘Post-Snowden’ era. In the light of presumably increased public exposure to privacy debates, generated partly due to the European “Right to be Forgotten” ruling and the Snowden revelations on mass surveillance, this article explores users’ meaning-making of privacy as a matter of legal dimension in terms of its violations and threats online and users’ ways of negotiating their Internet use, in particular social networking sites. Drawing on the concept of legal consciousness, this article explores through focus group interviews the ways in which social media users negotiate privacy violations and what role their understanding of privacy laws (or lack thereof might play in their strategies of negotiation. The findings are threefold: first, privacy is understood almost universally as a matter of controlling one’s own data, including information disclosure even to friends, and is strongly connected to issues about personal autonomy; second, a form of resignation with respect to control over personal data appears to coexist with a recognized need to protect one’s private data, while respondents describe conscious attempts to circumvent systems of monitoring or violation of privacy, and third, despite widespread coverage of privacy legal issues in the press, respondents’ concerns about and engagement in “self-protecting” tactics derive largely from being personally affected by violations of law and privacy.
Stephens, Torrance T; Gardner, Darius; Jones, Keena; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Braithwaite, Ronald; Smith, Selina E
This study was designed to identify the extent to which self-reported Mandrax use impacts condom-use beliefs amongst South African prison inmates. Participants were inmates from four prisons in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga. In total, 357 inmates participated in the parent study of which 121 are included in this analysis based on their self-reported use of Mandrax. The questionnaire was developed in English, translated into Zulu, and back translated into English. Age significantly predicted the use of Mandrax: younger prison inmates reported higher use. Linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the use of Mandrax was associated with length of incarceration and other demographic variables, as well as participants' self-reported condom use beliefs behavior. Regression results indicated that two factors operationalizing condom-use beliefs were impacted by Mandrax use: 1) it is important to use condoms every time you have sex (pcondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV (puse. STI prevention programs among prison inmates that seek to promote safer sex behaviors among men must address attitudes to condom use, specifically consistent and correct use of latex condoms and reducing substance misuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Isabel Cristina Jaramillo Sierra
Full Text Available The concept of “family” plays an important role in the way national legal regimes distribute both power and resources. However, the idea of what a family is or should be is not univocal for all branches of law. In this paper we wish to contribute to feminist thinking about the law and to legal theory in general, by showing the contradictions and gaps in law’s incorporation of the legal concept of the family and their distributive impact. We use the notion of conceptual fragmentation to refer to the irregular manner in which family as a legal concept lands into the realms of diverse fields of law at different moments in time and with different emphasis. We argue that conceptual fragmentation makes connections through time and subject matter invisible, and therefore makes it harder to have a critique of the role of the family, treated as a legal concept, in the oppression of women. We establish that conceptual fragmentation is not irrational or incoherent but rather patterned in ways that correspond to the losses of women in contemporary societies. We use the case of colombian law to illustrate the stakes involved in defining the family and the operations that we call fragmentation. In particular, we explain how family law exceptionalism was produced, the importance of the legal concept of the family within family law and its ambivalence as to the proper definition, and the evolution of the concept of family within social policy. We argue that even if the stakes of the family seem to be all for same sex couples, in so far as “family” is still about reproduction and distribution, we should be vigilant about how women fare in the conceptual turns that seek to bring us closer to the natural family.
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund
This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....
data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...
Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.
Raghavendra B Nayak
Full Text Available Context: One percent of the population in India is homeless (destitutes which include beggars, commercial sex workers, homeless mentally ill, elderly women with dependent children, street children, and persons with disability. Psychiatric disorders are generally seen to be common among homeless individuals. The data are limited regarding psychiatric morbidity and its prevalence in this populace in Indian context. Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among the inmates of a center for destitutes. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study included all the residents (n = 50 of a center of destitutes. Psychiatric evaluation was done by qualified practicing psychiatrist. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning instruments were used to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms and general functioning of the individuals with mental disorders. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: All residents (n = 50 of center of destitutes were evaluated for psychiatric co-morbidity. 42 (84% inmates were suffering from psychiatric disorders. Most common psychiatric disorder among them was psychotic disorders in 19 (38%, followed by affective disorders, mainly depression in 16 (32%, somatoform disorders in 5 (10%, and anxiety disorders in 2 (4%. No significant gender differences were noted (P = 0.335. Substance abuse was present in 22 (44% of the inmates. A significant negative correlation between psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the subject was seen, (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders and in particular substance abuse, are common among the homeless people who stay in the center of destitutes. Psychiatric disorders are likely to be the cause significant functional impairment.
Jacinto Costa Azevedo
Full Text Available Aggression is one of the core symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. ASPD is highly prevalent among inmates, being responsible for adverse events and elevated direct and indirect economic costs for the criminal justice system. The Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS is a self-report instrument that characterizes aggression as either predominately impulsive or premeditated. This study aims to determine the validity and reliability of the IPAS in a sample of Portuguese inmates. A total of 240 inmates were included in the study. A principal component factor analysis was performed so as to obtain the construct validity of the IPAS impulsive aggression (IA and premeditated aggression (PM subscales; internal consistency was determined by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; convergent and divergent validity of the subscales were determined analyzing correlations with the Barratt Impulsiveness scale, 11th version (BIS-11, and the Psychopathic Checklist Revised (PCL-R. The rotated matrix with two factors accounted for 49.9% of total variance. IA subscale had 11 items and PM subscale had 10 items. The IA and PM subscales had a good Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. The IA subscale is correlated with BIS-11 attentional, motor, and non-planning impulsiveness dimensions (p < 0.05. The PM subscale is correlated with BIS-11 attentional, motor impulsiveness dimensions (p < 0.05. The PM subscale is correlated with PCL-R interpersonal, lifestyle, and antisocial dimensions (p < 0.05. The IA subscale is not correlated with PCL-R. The Portuguese translated version of IPAS has adequate psychometric properties, allowing the measurement of impulsive and premeditated dimensions of aggression.
Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; March Cerdà, Joan Carles; Ramos Montserrat, M Jose; Ballesta Gómez, Rosario; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles
The study of the health condition of the populations under confinement in penitentiaries is based on the evidence of a more deteriorated health than the general population and a greater degree of social exclusion, which is associated with worse general health. This study is aimed at ascertaining how the inmates of an Andalusian penitentiary perceive their health condition and the use made thereby of the healthcare services, as well as the factors associated with those variables. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected with a questionnaire. The sample size was 450 inmates, 90.4% of whom were males. Seventy-two percent of those taking part in the study considered their health to be good or very good, 32.7% stating having seen the doctor once a month or more often. A total 43.1% of the participants stated having chronic illnesses, mainly HIV (19.1%) and hepatitis C (18.2%); 40.9% stating that they take medication. Worse health was perceived among the older inmates, those who have to serve longer than a five-year sentence, those who are repeat offenders and those not having pending trials. Those perceiving their health to have deteriorated over the past year have chronic illnesses and take medication. The regression model for the use of healthcare services shows that they are used to a greater extent by those who are serving a longer than a 5-year sentence, those who have been in prison for less than a year and those who take medication. The results show the importance of increasing the monitoring of possible addictive disorders upon entering prison and of the trend and treatment of chronic diseases.
Lagarrigue, Aude; Ajana, Soufiane; Capuron, Lucile; Féart, Catherine
Context Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males) the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI) and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires. Results In this sample, obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was already frequent in women (18.2%) but rather scarce for men (11%) at prison entry. Incarceration worsened the rate of obesity in both genders (21.2% and 16.7% respectively). At the time of study, abdominal obesity estimated through waist circumference was particularly prevalent in women (69.7%) versus men (27.8%) and metabolic syndrome was detected in 33% of female against none in male inmates. Abdominal obesity was associated with female sex (peating disorder (p = 0.07) in univariate analyses. Low physical activity remained significant as an explanatory factor of higher abdominal obesity in multivariate analysis. A marked difference between genders was found for practice of physical activity with a higher proportion of women compared to men being inactive (37.9% vs. 11.8%) and fewer women being very active (17.2% vs. 41.2%). Conclusion This study revealed that a significant proportion of women of this correctional institution combined established obesity, a metabolic syndrome and very little practice of physical activity which put them at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, obesity should be better surveyed and treated in prison, especially for female inmates. Increased physical activity, adapted to obese women, would be the first mean to decrease obesity and gender
Lagarrigue, Aude; Ajana, Soufiane; Capuron, Lucile; Féart, Catherine; Moisan, Marie-Pierre
Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males) the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI) and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires. In this sample, obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was already frequent in women (18.2%) but rather scarce for men (11%) at prison entry. Incarceration worsened the rate of obesity in both genders (21.2% and 16.7% respectively). At the time of study, abdominal obesity estimated through waist circumference was particularly prevalent in women (69.7%) versus men (27.8%) and metabolic syndrome was detected in 33% of female against none in male inmates. Abdominal obesity was associated with female sex (pobesity in multivariate analysis. A marked difference between genders was found for practice of physical activity with a higher proportion of women compared to men being inactive (37.9% vs. 11.8%) and fewer women being very active (17.2% vs. 41.2%). This study revealed that a significant proportion of women of this correctional institution combined established obesity, a metabolic syndrome and very little practice of physical activity which put them at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, obesity should be better surveyed and treated in prison, especially for female inmates. Increased physical activity, adapted to obese women, would be the first mean to decrease obesity and gender differences.
Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.
This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered
Ovidiu – Horia Maican
Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.
Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W
Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.
Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України
In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...
Qiu, Hong-Zhong; Ye, Zeng-Jie; Liang, Mu-Zi; Huang, Yue-Qun; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhi-Dong
Creative arts therapies are proven to promote an interconnection between body and mind, but there are major obstacles for providing therapeutic services in prisons due to inmates' inherent mistrust for verbal disclosure and rigid self-defenses, especially among inmates with schizophrenia. Thus, we developed a structured and quantitative art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia to actually measure the benefits of art therapy on prison inmates in mainland China. Upon completion of the program, the intervention group reported a decrease in anxiety, depression, anger, and negative psychiatric symptoms and showed better compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medications, and regular sleeping patterns after 16 weekly sessions of go beyond the schizophrenia. This article concludes that the art brut therapy was effective for the inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China and provides encouraging data on how to enhance mental health for inmates with schizophrenia. Art brut therapy can reduce emotional distress and negative psychiatric symptoms among Chinese inmates. Arts brut therapy can enhance Chinese inmates' compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medicines, and regular sleeping patterns. Arts brut therapy in conjunction with medication is highly recommended for recovery of Chinese inmates with schizophrenia, especially for patients with negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schuck, A.R.T.; Ward, J.
Last statements of death row inmates represent a genre of discourse characterized by an acute situation in which to express final reflections. This article describes how Texas death row inmates give meaning to their situation by examining their last statements. Between December 1982 and November
Johnson, James H., Jr.; Farrell, Walter C., Jr.; Braithwaite, Lawrence P.
This paper describes a state-funded inmate education and re-entry program that provides soft skills training for soon-to-be released offenders. The paper presents preliminary evidence regarding the impact of this training on 14 young male participants. Data came from information prepared by inmates throughout the training program and ethnographic…
Teive, Hélio A. G.; Paola, Luciano de
The Alcatraz prison, with its picturesque surroundings and fascinating life stories of its inmates, has been the subject of a number of films and publications. The authors take a closer look at the biographies of “Al Capone”, Robert “Birdman” Stroud and “Mickey” Cohen. These legendary American mobsters shared not only a history at “The Rock”, but also a history of neuropsychiatric diseases, ranging from neurosyphilis to anti-social, borderline and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. ...
M Ali Zaidan
Full Text Available Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts to revise the provisions concerning remission, it should consider how far can reduce corruption and its impact on inmates and the public
Hélio A. G. Teive
Full Text Available The Alcatraz prison, with its picturesque surroundings and fascinating life stories of its inmates, has been the subject of a number of films and publications. The authors take a closer look at the biographies of “Al Capone”, Robert “Birdman” Stroud and “Mickey” Cohen. These legendary American mobsters shared not only a history at “The Rock”, but also a history of neuropsychiatric diseases, ranging from neurosyphilis to anti-social, borderline and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
The case of Ms B throws up some interesting issues regarding the role of the nurse in assisting patients in making and implementing their decisions. The High Court transcript makes it clear who the voices with influence in legal matters were, and why the decisions they took were made. Absent from the myriad voices is that of the profession of nursing. Are nurses silenced by professional boundaries, the legal framework or lack of confidence? The concept of nursing advocacy is once again thrown into relief and critical questions need asking about the limits of professional nursing practice.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, intravenous drug users (IDUs, and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%, IDUs without HIV (49.3%, and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%. A total of 115 (12.7% inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community.
Adjei, Andrew A; Armah, Henry B; Gbagbo, Foster; Ampofo, William K; Boamah, Isaac; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Asare, Isaac; Hesse, Ian FA; Mensah, George
Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg). These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336) of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445) of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84) and 38.1 years (range 25–59), respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among officers
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg. These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336 of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445 of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84 and 38.1 years (range 25–59, respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis
Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.
Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.
This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...
... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...
... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...
Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)
The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Angelo, Joseph A
Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S
Abat Ninet, Antoni
The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...
A. I. Olugbenga-Bello
Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for referral to the hospital and 112 emergency ambulance service uses patterns of the inmates and convicts in an E type prison. Material and Method: In this descriptive study, it was evaluated the prison records associated with referral to the hospital and 112 emergency ambulance service uses for one year in 2010- 2011. Of the statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test and Fisher%u2019s Exact Test were used. Results: All inmates and convicts were man, the median of age was 30,0 (min 18- max 68 years and substance use was 34,5%. The number of prisoners were referred to the hospital 815, total referrals were 1491; (referrals ranged from one to six and most common in January; and according to frequency, reasons of the referral were eyes problems, musculoskeletal disorders and psychological problems. Emergency medical service was used for in medical causes (78,3%, accident, trauma and injuries (16,4%, suicide (5,3%. Discussion: Findings from the study show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered physical and mental health problems that compared to the rest of society and have significantly high substance use rates.
Kaba, Fatos; Lewis, Andrea; Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Hadler, James; Lee, David; Alper, Howard; Selling, Daniel; MacDonald, Ross; Solimo, Angela; Parsons, Amanda; Venters, Homer
We sought to better understand acts of self-harm among inmates in correctional institutions. We analyzed data from medical records on 244 699 incarcerations in the New York City jail system from January 1, 2010, through January 31, 2013. In 1303 (0.05%) of these incarcerations, 2182 acts of self-harm were committed, (103 potentially fatal and 7 fatal). Although only 7.3% of admissions included any solitary confinement, 53.3% of acts of self-harm and 45.0% of acts of potentially fatal self-harm occurred within this group. After we controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, serious mental illness, and length of stay, we found self-harm to be associated significantly with being in solitary confinement at least once, serious mental illness, being aged 18 years or younger, and being Latino or White, regardless of gender. These self-harm predictors are consistent with our clinical impressions as jail health service managers. Because of this concern, the New York City jail system has modified its practices to direct inmates with mental illness who violate jail rules to more clinical settings and eliminate solitary confinement for those with serious mental illness.
Owens, Mandy D; Rowell, Lauren N; Moyers, Theresa
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach shown to be helpful for a variety of behaviors across many populations. Treatment fidelity is an important tool for understanding how and with whom MI may be most helpful. The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity coding system was recently updated to incorporate new developments in the research and theory of MI, including the relational and technical hypotheses of MI (MITI 4.2). To date, no studies have examined the MITI 4.2 with forensic populations. In this project, twenty-two brief MI interventions with jail inmates were evaluated to test the reliability of the MITI 4.2. Validity of the instrument was explored using regression models to examine the associations between global scores (Empathy, Partnership, Cultivating Change Talk and Softening Sustain Talk) and outcomes. Reliability of this coding system with these data was strong. We found that therapists had lower ratings of Empathy with participants who had more extensive criminal histories. Both Relational and Technical global scores were associated with criminal histories as well as post-intervention ratings of motivation to decrease drug use. Findings indicate that the MITI 4.2 was reliable for coding sessions with jail inmates. Additionally, results provided information related to the relational and technical hypotheses of MI. Future studies can use the MITI 4.2 to better understand the mechanisms behind how MI works with this high-risk group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Juan A. Valdivia
Full Text Available A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92 and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a model showing a negative association between psychopathy and age at which the person stopped living with his family of origin, age of first incarceration, severity of delinquent acts, length of prison sentence, and length of time spent in prison. (χ2/df = 1.40, FD = 1.34, PNI = 0.38, RMSEA =.04, IFI = .94, CFI = .94 and TLI = .93. Furthermore, the model sustained a positive association of psychopathy with income and frequency of incarceration. Level of education and age were eliminated from the model given that no significant associations were found among these variables and psychopathy. The validation of this model enables to interpret research findings in relation with attachment theory.
Joubert, David; Archambault, Kyle; Brown, Greg
In spite of past and current efforts at implementing effective rehabilitative interventions in carceral settings, institutions of confinement are primarily concerned with the maintenance of order within their walls. The purpose of this paper is to better understand associations between inmates' developmental background and the experience of institutional discipline, to collect information on childhood maltreatment and disciplinary measures for a sample of Canadian prisoners. Information relative to socio-economic background, childhood maltreatment and experience of discipline while in custody was obtained using face-to-face interviews and institutional file review for a sample of 416 male and 106 female offenders in Canadian provincial institutions. Results from logistic regression analyses provided support for the association between childhood maltreatment and the experience of discipline, specifically in the form of increased monitoring from correctional staff. Furthermore, this association was found to be more pronounced for female offenders. The findings highlight the need to incorporate a developmental perspective to current understanding of the use of disciplinary interventions in a prison environment. Such an approach may allow for preventing the enactment of a cycle of coercion, with negative consequences for the inmates. This study is original in its use of latent variable analytic methods to uncover the structure underlying the construct of childhood maltreatment in adult offenders. In addition, it provides valuable data of interest to researchers, corrections personnel and policy makers on the possible links between earlier developmental experiences and adjustment to the prison environment.
Smith, Phillip N; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Mandracchia, Jon T; Jahn, Danielle R
Prison inmates are exposed to a number of adverse conditions prior to and during incarceration that place them at risk for suicide. The interpersonal theory of suicide may prove useful in better understanding suicide in prisons, allowing for more effective prevention and treatment programs. However, no studies of the interpersonal theory have been conducted in prison populations. Further, there have been no studies examining the factor structure of the assessment of one of the theory's main constructs: the acquired capability for suicide. The current study examined the factor structure of the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale in a sample of male prison inmates. We found that a 4-factor model provided the best statistical and conceptual fit, though only 3 of these factors were meaningful with an additional method-factor. The 3 resulting factors were each associated with previous exposure to painful and provocative events, but none differentiated suicide attempter status. Results suggest that the interpersonal theory has promise in application to suicide in prison populations, but more work is needed to develop a self-report measure of acquired capability, particularly as it relates to prisoners.
Jaramillo Gutiérrez, Mónica Rocío; Silva Vallejo, Carolina; Rojas Arango, Bibiana Patricia; Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo
Suicidal behavior shows high numbers in prison population; hence, the following research was developed, which aimed to identify the sociodemographic, family, personal and imprisonment factors that are associated with suicidal ideation in inmates of a prison of Antioquia, Colombia. A cross descriptive study was carried out. It was applied the Suicide Orientation Inventory Test ISO-30, as well as a survey, in order to investigate sociodemographic, family and imprisonment aspects of a group of 154 inmates. Univariate and bivariate analysis were applied to the collected data by using Excel and OpenEpi programs. 14.9% had high suicidal ideation. By analyzing the distribution of high suicidal ideation in the variables studied, it was found that the highest rates occurred in those who had previous attempts, 61.1%; a history of domestic violence, 50.0%; no schooling, 33.3%; those with a family history of suicide, 28.6%; and those without a definite sentence 22.9%. A significant association was found between the ideation and having committed previous suicide attempts (Pintervention programs. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina
About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....
Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.
In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary
This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)
This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.
” strategy as well as the ways of its promotion by analyzing past and current relationships between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The first part of this article tries to identify the customary rules of the ancient ...
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.
Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen
This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.
A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...
This guide to boundary surveying provides landowners, land surveyors, students and others with the necessary foundation to understand boundary surveying techniques and the common legal issues that govern boundary establishment. Boundary surveying is sometimes mistakenly considered a strictly technical discipline with simple and straightforward technical solutions. In reality, boundary establishment is often a difficult and complex matter, requiring years of experience and a thorough understanding of boundary law. This book helps readers to understand the challenges often encountered by boundary surveyors and some of the available solutions. Using only simple and logically explained mathematics, the principles and practice of boundary surveying are demystified for those without prior experience, and the focused coverage of pivotal issues such as easements and setting lot corners will aid even licensed practitioners in untangling thorny cases. Practical advice on using both basic and advanced instruments ...
Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to
Murphy, Tonia Hap
This article is intended for business law and legal environment instructors who want to help students understand how they might react when presented with an ethical conflict, no matter how big or how small. The article discusses not only the compelling ethical issues that may arise in reneging cases, but also legal issues. The article provides…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Mario Julian Martinez-Bernache, Inmate... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Igor Bobel, Inmate -67253-066, FCI Loretto... of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45 days from the date of this... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706); 18 U.S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Juan Narcizo Oyervides-Campos, Inmate... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...
Sembiring, E.; Ginting, Y.; Saragih, R. H.
Syphilis has been known to increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. Epidemiologic studies showed that HIV transmission is 3-5 times higher in people with syphilis.Hence, in this current study, the factors associated with syphilis-seropositive and HIV infection were evaluated.This study used cross-sectional study. This study included inmates at Lubuk Pakam prison in November 2016. After interviewing participants’ demographics and risk behaviors, blood samples were obtained to be tested for HIV and syphilis, using the Rapid Test tool of HIV 3 methods and One STEP Syphilis Anti TP-Test. A total number of 1,114 inmates were included in this study, consisted of 1,081 male (97%) and 33female (3%). Ten inmates were HIV-positive (0.9%), whereas 70 inmates were syphilis-seropositive (6.3%).Based on multivariate-analyses, high-risk sexual behaviors associated with the increased risk of syphilis-seropositive of up to 8.31 times (p=0.002). HIV status also portrayed higher risk of syphilis-seropositive compared to non-HIV participants (3.98 fold, p=0.019). In HIV incidence, found that high-risk sexual behaviors also significantly increased the risk of HIV (7.69 fold, p=0.003). Syphilis-seropositive was also highly associated with HIV risk (5.09 fold, p=0.019).Syphilis and HIV showed a close association with several shared contributing factors.
Miller, Karla S.; Knutson, John F.
A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 prison inmates. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Stephen Glen Guerra, Inmate 98595-279, FCI... Glen Guerra (``Guerra''), was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Guerra was convicted of intentionally and...
Mosqueda-Gomez, Juan L.; Macias-Hernandez, Alejando; Sierra-Madero, Juan G.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Beyrer, Chris
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012). Methods Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011–2012). We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection. Results We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6–5.9). Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%). Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5–23.4), sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7–81.7) and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1–3.9), but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration
Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012.Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012. We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection.We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9. Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%. Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4, sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7 and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9, but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection.The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during
Nilesh Arjun Torwane
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of prediagnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, that is, jail inmates residing in the same Central Jail locality was also assessed to compare the psychiatric subjects. An 18 item questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among study subjects. Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised of 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 nonpsychiatric inmates. Among all psychiatric inmates, about 57.4% of inmates had a diagnosis of depression, 14.8% had psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia, and 12.3% had anxiety disorder. A total of 77% study inmates, which comprised of 87.7% psychiatrics and 66.4% nonpsychiatrics had a habit of tobacco consumption (smokeless or smoking. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common tobacco related practices among psychiatric inmate population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the hazards of tobacco consumption and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.
І. M. Alieksieieva
Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts
Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...
Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.
. The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...
Full Text Available Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires.In this sample, obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 was already frequent in women (18.2% but rather scarce for men (11% at prison entry. Incarceration worsened the rate of obesity in both genders (21.2% and 16.7% respectively. At the time of study, abdominal obesity estimated through waist circumference was particularly prevalent in women (69.7% versus men (27.8% and metabolic syndrome was detected in 33% of female against none in male inmates. Abdominal obesity was associated with female sex (p<0.03, low physical activity (p<0.05 and eating disorder (p = 0.07 in univariate analyses. Low physical activity remained significant as an explanatory factor of higher abdominal obesity in multivariate analysis. A marked difference between genders was found for practice of physical activity with a higher proportion of women compared to men being inactive (37.9% vs. 11.8% and fewer women being very active (17.2% vs. 41.2%.This study revealed that a significant proportion of women of this correctional institution combined established obesity, a metabolic syndrome and very little practice of physical activity which put them at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, obesity should be better surveyed and treated in prison, especially for female inmates. Increased physical activity, adapted to obese women, would be the first mean to decrease
João Maurício Adeodato
Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.
Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl
This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.
Swan, Holly; Hiller, Matthew L; Albizu-García, Carmen E; Pich, Michele; Patterson, Yvonne; O'Connell, Daniel J
The prevalence of HIV among U.S. inmates is much greater than in the general population, creating public health concerns and cost issues for the criminal justice system. The HIV Services and Treatment Implementation in Corrections protocol of the NIDA funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies cooperative tested the efficacy of an organizational process improvement strategy on improving HIV services in correctional facilities. For this paper, we analyzed efficacy of this strategy on improving inmate awareness and perceptions of HIV services. The study used a multi-site (n=28) clustered randomized trial approach. Facilities randomized to the experimental condition used a coach-driven local change team approach to improve HIV services at their facility. Facilities in the control condition were given a directive to improve HIV services on their own. Surveys about awareness and perceptions of HIV services were administered anonymously to inmates who were incarcerated in study facilities at baseline (n=1253) and follow-up (n=1048). A series of one-way ANOVAs were run to test whether there were differences between inmates in the experimental and control facilities at baseline and follow-up. Differences were observed at baseline, with the experimental group having significantly lower scores than the control group on key variables. But, at post-test, following the intervention, these differences were no longer significant. Taken in context of the findings from the main study, these results suggest that the change team approach to improving HIV services in correctional facilities is efficacious for improving inmates' awareness and perceptions of HIV services.
O'Sullivan, S T
Deliberate and recurrent foreign body ingestion is a common problem among institutionalised patients. We review our experience with 36 cases of deliberate foreign body ingestion by prisoners or psychiatric patients, thirty of whom were institutionalised at the time of ingestion. Symptoms were frequently severe in the prison inmate group but, in contrast, psychiatric patients presented with few, if any, symptoms. A majority of objects pass spontaneously or remain in situ without complication. Twenty-four patients were discharged following initial evaluation and without specific treatment. Eight of these were reviewed electively and discharged within one week. Twelve patients were admitted for observation, seven of whom were discharged within 48 hrs. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in four patients and an intragastric foreign body identified in two cases. Laparotomy was performed in two cases for unresolving mechanical intestinal obstruction. Management should be conservative when possible, with surgery indicated only for complications.
Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J
Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA.
Sorensen, Jonathan R; Vigen, Mark P; Woods, S O; Williams, Bradley D
The current study presents the results of an analysis of serious and assaultive prison rule violating behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH). Data on prison rule violations were collected from a sample of 189 inmates convicted of IPH in a large, southern prison system. The study focused on the degree of continuity in violent behavior among IPH offenders from the community to the prison setting. The current study tested hypotheses derived from both the feminist perspective (FP) and the general violence perspective (GVP). As a group, IPH offenders were better behaved in prison than other incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby offering some support for the FP. However, the lower level of assaultive behavior among the group was not universal. Characteristics associated with continued violent offending in the prison environment were the same as those found in previous studies of incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby lending greater support to the GVP. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hass, Aida Y; Saxon, Caryn E
The application of criminal justice sanctions is often misguided by a failure to recognize the need for a comprehensive approach in the transformation of offenders into law-abiding citizens. Restorative justice is a growing movement within criminal justice that recognizes the disconnect between offender rehabilitative measures and the social dynamics within which offender reentry takes place. By using restorative approaches to justice, what one hopes of these alternative processes is that the offenders become reconnected to the community and its values, something rarely seen in retributive models in which punishment is imposed and offenders can often experience further alienation from society. In this study, the authors wish to examine factors that contribute to failed prisoner reentry and reintegration and explore how restorative reintegration processes can address these factors as well as the needs, attitudes, and perceptions that help construct and maintain many of the obstacles and barriers returning inmates face when attempting to reintegrate into society.
Proctor, Steven L; Hoffmann, Norman G; Allison, Steve
The present study sought to evaluate the influence of interactive journaling on criminal recidivism and identify significant predictors of recidivism among a sample of 183 male inmates incarcerated in a local jail facility randomly assigned to either an interactive journaling condition or a control group. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, had their current offense indicate substance involvement, and had a minimum of one previous arrest in the prior 12 months. The recidivism rate (51%), in terms of subsequent bookings within a 12-month period, for the journaling group was significantly lower than the recidivism rate (66%) for the control group, χ(2)(1, 183) = 4.13, p journaling vs. placebo), and employment status. Interactive journaling appears to show promise as a brief treatment intervention strategy for substance dependence in local jail settings and may have the potential for reducing recidivism.
After the events of September 11, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) which has been called the 'Counter-Terrorism Code' of the world, because it creates legal obligations for all 192 Member States of the United Nations. UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004) and 1735 (2006) as well as a defined set of 13 global treaties constitute the universal legal framework against terrorism which must be implemented in a manner consistent with international human rights obligations. Basically, these 13 treaties as well as Resolution 1373 are international criminal law instruments. Within this universal legal framework, the framework against nuclear terrorism is constituted by Resolution 1540, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which entered into force in 1987, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings which is in force since 2001. These three legal instruments will be supplemented by the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, an amendment to the CPPNM and two Protocols amending the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, once these instruments, all of which were adopted in 2005, enter into force. The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assists countries which are in need of legislative assistance for the drafting of appropriate counter-terrorism laws that duly take into account the obligations contained in Resolution 1373, the United Nations sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban as well as in the 13 universal conventions for the prevention and the suppression of terrorism, including the CPPNM and the new International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. UNODC/TPB has also
Rodica Diana APAN
Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
Koboević, Žarko; Komadina, Pavao; Kurtela, Željko
This paper deals with the rules and regulations pertaining to the protection of the marine environment from the pollution by vessel’s sewage. There is an international perspective on legal regulations dealing with this matter, but the sensitive marine environment has not been properly covered. Some maritime countries have set forth their own and more strict regulations to provide for a more efficient protection of their marine environments. Having compared the international legal regulations ...
Lobato, Mark N; Reves, Randall R; Jasmer, Robert M; Grabau, John C; Bock, Naomi N; Shang, Nong
Recently, a short-course treatment using 60 daily doses of rifampin and pyrazinamide was recommended for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). To determine the acceptability, tolerability, and completion of treatment. Observational cohort study. Five county jails and TB outreach clinics for homeless populations in three cities. Study staff enrolled 1,211 patients (844 inmates and 367 homeless persons). Sites used 60 daily doses of rifampin and pyrazinamide, an approved treatment regimen for LTBI. Types and frequency of drug-related adverse events and outcomes of treatment. Prior to treatment, 25 of 1,178 patients (2.1%) had a serum aminotransferase measurement at least 2.5 times the upper limit of normal. Patients who reported excess alcohol use in the past 12 months were more likely than other patients to have an elevated pretreatment serum aminotransferase level (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 6.1; p = 0.03). Treatment was stopped in 66 of 162 patients (13.4%) who had a drug-related adverse event. Among 715 patients who had serum aminotransferase measured during treatment, 43 patients (6.0%) had an elevation > 5 times the upper limits of normal, including one patient who died of liver failure attributed to treatment. In multivariate analyses, increasing age, an abnormal baseline aspartate aminotransferase level, and unemployment within the past 24 months were independent risk factors for hepatotoxicity. Completion rates were similar in jail inmates (47.5%) and homeless persons (43.6%). This study detected the first treatment-associated fatality with the rifampin and pyrazinamide regimen, prompting surveillance that detected unacceptable levels of hepatotoxicity and retraction of recommendations for its routine use. Completion rates for LTBI treatment using a short-course regimen exceeds historical rates using isoniazid. Efforts to identify an effective short-course treatment for LTBI should be given a high priority.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran.
Full Text Available According to the explanatory memorandum of the Government as well as to the favorable opinion of the Legislative Council, the Law no. 270/2010 relate mainly to the correlation the OUG no. 51/2008 on legal aid in civil matters, by covering in detail the circumstances and the conditions for granting legal aid as well as the organization of the activity of granting such assistance. From the perspective of European law, the Legislative Council appreciated that the new law is placed within the sphere of the legislation as regulated at the European Union level, that are circumscribed to the European Area of freedom, security and justice, within the European legislation reserved to the judicial cooperation in civil matters.In this material we will analyze the following issues: granting legal aid in criminal matters, in which defense is mandatory according to the dispositions in the Criminal Procedural Code; granting legal aid in any other causes except criminal ones, as modality to grant public legal aid, according to the law; legal aid throughout a lawyer, granted at the request of the organs of the local public administration; appointing the lawyer for legal aid; extra-judiciary legal aid; competences of the bars regarding legal aid; the department for the coordination of legal aid; services of legal aid; legal aid registry; payment for the activity of legal aid and extra-judiciary legal aid.
Berlingher Remus Daniel
Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.
Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches
In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...
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The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)
Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral
Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor of law schools; The educational legislation Questions of legal education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences about the teaching of law, the methodological approach and the didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.
depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...
An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)
textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted
Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...
Upton, Maranda A; Carwile, Tabitha M; Brown, Kristina S
Last statements have been a common practice as part of capital punishment as far back as the 1300s in Europe. In the United States, the first execution occurred in 1608, and currently, 32 states have the death penalty. In 1991, Missouri integrated death row inmates into the general prison population, which makes this population unique compared with other death row populations across the United States. This article is a qualitative study on the themes found in the last statements of 46 capitally punished inmates in Missouri from 1995 to 2011. The purpose of this study was to determine if capital punishment inmates being housed in the general population had an impact on an inmate's last statement prior to execution. Three domains emerged from these last statements: life, death, and execution. The most common theme identified was love while the least common theme was acceptance. The themes found in this research were consistent with previous studies which looked at inmates executed in Texas where inmates sentenced to capital punishment are separated from the general prison population. Implications, limitations, and future research areas are discussed.
Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In-depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.
Narag, Raymund E; Lee, Sou
Utilizing intensive interview data from inmates in one of the most overcrowded and underresourced jails in Metro Manila, Philippines, this article explores the origins and roles of inmate pangkats (a derivative of gangs) in jail management. Responding to institutional deficiencies, such as police misconduct and court case delays, and structural shortages, such as lack of space, operational resources, and personnel, this article investigates how the pangkats supplement jail management and help keep the jail operations afloat. Specifically, this article documents how the pangkats put out fires: their intricate roles in mitigating pains of imprisonment, conflict mediation, order maintenance, and instilling discipline among their members. This article also details the emergence of a give-and-take relationship that develops between and among the pangkats and jail officials that are reflective of the Philippine sociocultural realities. Implications to theory on prison community and policy on gang management in a developing country context are discussed.
Angelo, Joseph A
aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of
Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær
Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....
Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field is going to be the strengthening of the bond between international investments and environmental protection. It is insisted on the attitude that our law needs to approach adequately to the matter of legal valorization of the environmental protection issue. This requires the creating of a complex, coherent approach that should be based on adequate legal superstructure and amendments to the existing Law on Foreign Investments. The main direction of changes implies that the current obligation of foreign investors in this field should be raised onto a higher level and foreign investments should be placed in the function of accomplishing of the concept of sustainable development. However, such an approach has to be accompanied by appropriate mechanism of control and supervision in the given field, if its full effectiveness is to be achieved.
Houser, Kimberly; Belenko, Steven
Most female inmates have mental health, substance use, or co-occurring disorders (CODs), which can create greater difficulty adjusting to incarceration and higher rates of prison misconduct. The response of prison officials to institutional misbehaviors has important implications for female inmates' experiences while incarcerated, their likelihood of parole, and the clinical course of their condition. This article examined whether disciplinary actions are more severe for women with CODs. Data were provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections for all female state prison inmates incarcerated between January 1, 2007, and July 30, 2009 (N = 2,279). The final sample of 211 women included those who had committed a minor misconduct during their incarceration. Disorder categories were created based on intake assessments, and multivariate models were estimated to determine the effect of disorder category on whether the prison imposed a severe or minor disciplinary response to the misconduct. The odds of receiving severe disciplinary responses to minor misconduct was significantly greater for women with CODs than those with the singular disorders of mental illness or substance abuse disorders, or those with no disorders. Findings suggest correctional institutions are responding in a punitive manner to the symptomatic manifestations of CODs in female inmates. These findings suggest the importance of screening instruments in correctional settings that assess for the presence of dual disorders. In addition, correctional administrators must implement training protocols for correctional officers and staff on the complexity of CODs and the ability to identify behavioral and emotional symptoms associated with this vulnerable subset of the offender population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Olaitan, Sulaiman A; Shmaila, Hanif; Sikiru, Lamina; Lawal, Isa U
Background Incarceration has been associated with reduced physical activity. However, physical inactivity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore, to evaluate the incidence and relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration in of inmates in Kano-Nigeria prisons. Method A cross-sectional study was done to determine the relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration ...
Altintas, Merih; Bilici, Mustafa
To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Several historical items were more common in females than in males including family history of psychiatric disease (23.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.048), a personal history of psychiatric disease (51.0% vs. 29.0%, p first crime (24.9 ± 8.9 years vs. 30.3 ± 9.2 years, p first offense (β = 0.772, p first offense. In conclusion, our findings revealed a high prevalence of and significant associations among childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric problems in a cohort of incarcerated females and males. A psychiatric background, childhood trauma characterized by sexual abuse and violent crimes were found to be predominant in female prison inmates, whereas a criminal background with a younger age at first offense and frequent previous convictions, substance use and sexual crimes were more prevalent among male prison inmates. Our findings indicate a potential link between childhood traumatization and criminal behavior in terms of subsequent offending but not in terms of severity of the subsequent offense. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kinyanjui Daniel WC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Criminal activity and social problems are recognized as important outcomes of substance use and abuse. Little research has been carried out on substance use among prison inmates in Kenya. General population surveys that have examined drug use usually omit this ‘hidden’ population which may offer insight into drug related morbidity and invaluable preventive measures. This study is set out to determine the lifetime prevalence and factors associated with substance use, including the most frequently used substances, among inmates at a government prison in Western Kenya. Methods Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study, using the WHO model questionnaire and an additional drug use and effects questionnaire among prisoners at the Eldoret Government of Kenya (GK prison, Kenya. Setting: Study was carried out at the Eldoret G.K. prison, with a population of 1325 (1200 males and 125 females inmates. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety five prisoners, who gave consent, were selected, consisting of 271 males (68.6% selected by simple random sampling, and 124 females (31.4% enrolled consecutively due to their small number. The mean age was 33.3 years (18–72, s.d. 9.8 while the mean number of years of formal education was 8.4 (0–15, s.d. 3.4. Results Lifetime prevalence of substance use was 66.1%, while that of alcohol use was 65.1%. Both were significantly associated with male gender, urban residence and higher level of education. The lifetime prevalence of cigarette use was 32.7% while 22.5% admitted to chewing tobacco. Factors significantly associated with tobacco use were male gender, urban residence, being unmarried, younger age, lack of income in the past year. The prevalence of cannabis use was 21%, and this was associated with male gender, urban residence, being unmarried, and being a student in the past year. Other substances used included amphetamines (9.4%, volatile inhalants (9.1%, sedatives (3.8%, tranquillizers (2
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery
Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.
In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,
National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.
In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…
Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.
Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations
Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…
Macdonald, R. St. J.
Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)
Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"
Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís
The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.
Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)
Kulauzov Maša M.
Full Text Available The article sheds light on provisions of Codes of Civil Procedure of 1853 and 1860 concerning ordinary legal remedies. As this matter was codified for the first time, a necessity of amending and supplementing some provisions soon emerged. Those amendments and supplements, along with original provisions were examined in this paper. The author also deals with regulations on jurisdiction of Court of Appeal, Court of Cassation and Supreme court. Types and categories of ordinary legal remedies were scrutinized, as well as strict time limits within one should lodge an appeal and proper grounds for making an appeal. The author also responds to questions under which circumstances are ordinary legal remedies allowed, and what types of decisions a higher court can make after reviewing the correctness and reasonableness of a decision issued by a lower court. Shortly after enactment of the Code of 1853 it appeared that judicial procedure is too complicated, expensive and ineffective due to too many legal remedies and legal jurisdictions. That is the reason why the Supreme court as the highest court within the hierarchy of legal jurisdictions and as final court of appeal was abolished in 1860, when new Code of Civil Procedure had been passed. New codification envisaged Court of Appeal as second instance court and, at the same time, court of last resort. Regarding legal remedies, Code of 1860 introduced appeal as sole ordinary legal remedy.
One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
de Albuquerque, Ana Cecília Cavalcanti; da Silva, Débora Maria; Rabelo, Deyse Caroline Cabral; de Lucena, Waldenia Agny Torres; de Lima, Paloma Cássia Silva; Coelho, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte; Tiago, Guilherme Gustavo de Brito
Prison inmates are more vulnerable to HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) due to risk factors such as needle sharing and unprotected sex with homosexuals. The aim of this work was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/2) and syphilis among male inmates in Caruaru, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed between May and July 2011, when 1,097 inmates at a prison in Caruaru were assessed by means of interviews and blood sample collection for performing the respective tests. The prevalence was 1.19% for HIV infection and 3.92% for syphilis. HIV infection showed a statistically significant association (p homosexuality and blood transfusions. With respect to HIV status and syphilis, factors related to sex life were statistically significant (p <0.05). The prison population is a high risk group for the diseases investigated. The prevalence rates identified indicate the need to implement prevention programs, helping to contain such diseases in this particular population group.
Full Text Available The article examines the phase of aggressive behavior, deprivation, among the inmate's age group of Nigerian prison. However, the study elaborated the meaning of aggressive behavior; factors contributed to aggressive behavior, theory of aggressive behavior, literature review, method of information collection and data analysis. Therefore, prison setting can instigate aggressive behaviors, especially in Nigeria, where inmates are deprived of their particular right and are treated brutality in some instances studies shows, that Nigerian prisons are not adequately organized and made do as such, inmates are exposed to all kinds of atrocity. It should be noted that a condition of privation and lack of societal well-being especially among people being in an isolated environment as in the case with most prisons in Nigeria can degenerate to frustration and aggression which in turn can result in dangerous situations such as riots/ violence in the prisons. Aggression can lead to violence that may be adaptive under certain conditions regarding natural selection. That is most obviously the case regarding attacking prey to obtain food, or in anti-predator defense. The results showed that there is significant difference between the levels of aggressiveness with respect to the classes of age groups. Recommendation will be discussed further.
Sifunda, Sibusiso; Reddy, Priscilla; Braithwaite, Ronald L; Stephens, Torrance; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart
To inform future intervention programmes, the purpose of this paper is to explore the psychosocial and contextual determinants of intention to reduce risky sexual behaviour amongst inmates in South African prisons. A cross sectional study using interviewer administered questionnaires was conducted with 357 inmates across four prison facilities in South Africa that were involved in a pre-release health education intervention for parolees in two provinces. About 65 per cent of participants were first time offenders. Almost 50 per cent were unemployed prior to arrest and 66 per cent were married at time of incarceration. Self-efficacy, general life skills efficacy and sexual communication were the strongest predictors of intention to reduce risky behaviour upon release. High intenders were significantly different from low intenders in their self-efficacy, sexual communication, attitudes towards condom use and the perceived norm of sex being a non-utilitarian transaction. One of the key limitations is the low literacy levels amongst prison inmates. Data also relied heavily on self reports of behaviours that may have occurred prior to the participants being incarcerated. It is concluded that the exploration of subpopulation specific behavioural determinants is a critical step in the development of effective, contextually-relevant, health education interventions.
Gorar, Z.A.; Zulfikar, I.
Objective: To assess the proportion of sero positivity of Hepatitis C amongst the prison inmates in the jails of Sindh. Methods: A cross sectional HCV sero prevalence survey was done at 14 out of 19 prisons in the Sindh province from November 2008 to January 2009. A team of Pathologist, phlebotomist and laboratory technician took the blood sample of the inmates inside the correctional facility; the blood was centrifuged at the spot and brought back to the pathology laboratory on same day in cold chain i.e. a temperature-controlled supply chain. Serum was analyzed on third generation ELISA for HCV antibodies. Standard ethical considerations were properly followed. Results: A total of 9508 prison inmates were approached. Refusal rate was 20%. Remaining, 7539 prisoners were screened at 14 out of 19 jails in Sindh. HCV antibody positive were 965 making the proportion of sero positivity 12.8% (95% C.I. 8.92% - 12.92%). Higher sero positivity in the jails of northern Sindh jails was identified. Conclusions: Hepatitis C prevalence in the prison population of Sindh is higher than the national prevalence of 4.9% amongst general population. However it is lower than that reported from correctional facilities of developed countries. Hepatitis prevention and control activities in the correctional facilities of Pakistan need to be institutionalized. (author)
Gorar, Zulfikar Ali; Zulfikar, Imrana
To assess the proportion of seropositivity of Hepatitis C amongst the prison inmates in the jails of Sindh. A cross sectional HCV seroprevalence survey was done at 14 out of 19 prisons in the Sindh province from November 2008 to January 2009. A team of Pathologist, phlebotomist and laboratory technician took the blood sample of the inmates inside the correctional facility; the blood was centrifuged at the spot and brought back to the pathology laboratory on same day in cold chain i.e. a temperature-controlled supply chain. Serum was analyzed on 3rd generation ELISA for HCV antibodies. Standard ethical considerations were properly followed. Atotal of 9508 prison inmates were approached. Refusal rate was 20%. Remaining, 7539 prisoners were screened at 14 out of 19 jails in Sindh. HCV antibody positive were 965 making the proportion of seropositivity 12.8% (95% C.I. 8.92% - 12.92%). Higher seropositivity in the jails of northern Sindh jails was identified. Hepatitis C prevalence in the prison population of Sindh is higher than the national prevalence of 4.9% amongst general population. However it is lower than that reported from correctional facilities of developed countries. Hepatitis prevention and control activities in the correctional facilities of Pakistan need to be institutionalized (JPMA 60:476; 2010).
Nidich, Sanford; O’Connor, Tom; Rutledge, Thomas; Duncan, Jeff; Compton, Blaze; Seng, Angela; Nidich, Randi
Context Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues. Objective To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditationa (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates. Design One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group. Main Outcome Measures The Trauma Symptom Checklist and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered at baseline and four-month posttest. Results Significant reductions in total trauma symptoms, anxiety, depression, dissociation, and sleep disturbance subscales, and perceived stress in the TM group were found compared with controls (all p values < 0.001). The high-trauma subgroup analysis further showed a higher magnitude of effects in the TM group compared with controls on all outcomes, with Cohen effect sizes ranging from 0.67 to 0.89. Conclusion Results are consistent with those of prior studies of the TM program in other populations and its effects on trauma symptoms and perceived stress. PMID:27723444
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Lisett D. Páez Cuba
Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.
Goldberg, Rose Carmen
This Note is an examination of mentally ill inmates' constitutional right to treatment. It has significant doctrinal and practical implications. In terms of doctrine, the Supreme Court has created distinct standards for the minimum levels of care for inmates (Estelle) and the civilly committed mentally ill (Youngberg). Under this framework mentally ill inmates are constitutionally equivalent to inmates generally, but are entitled to less care than the civilly committed even if they suffer the same illness. This Note explores this gap through the lens of equal protection and argues that mentally ill inmates are similarly situated to the civilly committed. It further contends that inmates constitute a "discrete and insular minority" and thus the standard establishing their right to care should be subject to strict scrutiny. This Note finds that Estelle fails this test. Practically, this Note brings visibility to a consequential area of the law neglected by scholarship. Over half of inmates are mentally ill and yet treatment in prisons is inadequate. The literature at the intersection of health, criminal justice, and constitutional rights has not constructively considered how doctrine should be changed to protect the wellbeing of this vulnerable population. Scholars have also provided little oversight of the judicial administration of justice in this field; there are few reviews of how judges actually apply treatment rights standards. This Note lessens this blind spot by exposing how courts fail to properly distinguish between different standards. This Note proposes that the most promising antidote to the Estelle-Youngberg double standard, counterintuitively, is not the creation of a uniform standard. A standard that puts mentally ill inmates on equal footing with the civilly committed would solve the doctrinal puzzle, but would be subject to Youngberg's inherent flaws and the judicial malpractice in this area. Recognizing the deficiencies of a purely judicial remedy
Federal agencies have worked to develop scientific integrity policies to promote the use of scientific and technical information in policymaking, reduce special-interest influences, and increase transparency. Following recent allegations of agency misconduct, these policies are now more important than ever. In addition to setting standards, scientific integrity policies also provide avenues for whistleblowers to complain about perceived violations. While these policies have their shortcomings (which may differ by agency), they are also one of the better available options for upholding principles of scientific integrity within the federal government. A legal perspective will be offered on what sorts of issues might rise to the threshold to make an official complaint, and the process of actually making a complaint. Other legal avenues for complaining about scientific integrity violations will also be discussed, such as complaints filed with the U.S. Office of Special Counsel or an agency's Office of Inspector General, and bringing the matter to federal court.
Saad, Toni C
This article describes and evaluates the Belgian euthanasia experience by considering its practice and policy, both before and after the formal decriminalisation of euthanasia in 2002. The pre-legal practice of euthanasia, the evolution of euthanasia legislation, criticism of this legislation, the influence of politics, and later changes to the 2002 Act on Euthanasia are discussed, as well as the subject of euthanasia of minors and the matter of organ procurement. It is argued that the Belgian euthanasia experience is characterised by political expedition, and that the 2002 Act and its later amendments suffer from practical and conceptual flaws. Illegal euthanasia practices remain a live concern in Belgium, something which nations who are seeking to decriminalise euthanasia should consider. Copyright © 2017 by the National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent and Disabled, Inc.
Online law dictionaries based on traditional linguistic and text linguistic approaches do not fully satisfy the needs for help lawyers, students and professional translators have in specific types of situation. This state of affairs can be remedied by re−assessing the practical and theoretical...... foundations of online dictionaries in light of the technical options available for online information tools combined with modern lexicographic principles. The above discussion indicates that the legal database is a repository of structured data serving online dictionaries that search for data in databases...... or specific legal matters in cognitive situations. The theoretical foundation and practical implications of this type of online law dictionaries enable lexicographers to make dictionaries that satisfy the needs of lawyers, students and translators for practical information tools....
Developing and implementing a national programme for the civilian use of nuclear energy means embarking on the use of a Janus-faced form of energy. We all know that nuclear energy implies both extraordinary benefits and extraordinary risks. This fact requires a legal framework appropriate to cope with both elements of nuclear power. Legislators and State authorities have to establish a sound balance between risks and benefits. That is not at all an easy task. While excluding or limiting risks requires severe legal control mechanisms, the benefits can only fully be enjoyed if the legal framework ensures freedom of research and of economic and industrial development including the guarantee of property ownership and of investments. Combining both opposite poles seems like trying to square the circle. In case of a conflict between promotion and protection, there is no doubt that the protection against nuclear risks has to prevail. Therefore this aspect of nuclear law will be mainly dealt with in this presentation. Establishing a legal framework to tame the hazards of nuclear energy is a much more challenging task for law-makers than providing a legal basis for promoting the use of nuclear energy. With regard to the promotion of nuclear energy, States enjoy a broad range of discretion and may use a great number of legal and non-legal instruments to support the development of a nuclear programme. From a legal point of view, promoting nuclear energy does not require a specific regime. However, it does require a specific regime to control the risks of nuclear energy. States preparing for a nuclear energy programme have to be aware that the use of nuclear energy is not an exclusively national matter. In particular the risk associated with nuclear energy extends beyond national borders. Using the benefits also needs international cooperation in many fields including, e.g., research or fuel supply. Today a network of multilateral and bilateral international treaties exists
Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F; Mosqueda-Gomez, Juan L; Macias-Hernandez, Alejando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Beyrer, Chris
We studied the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated risk behaviors in the prison state system of Guanajuato, Mexico between September 2011 and February 2012. Blood samples were drawn from adult inmates in all State prisons who agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. Data on risk behaviors were collected by using self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV, and HCV infection was 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.2-1.1], 0.7% (95% CI = 0.4-1.0), 0.4 (95% CI = 0.04-0.74), and 4.8 (95% CI = 3.6-5.9), respectively. Female inmates had a higher prevalence of HIV (1.5% vs. 0.6%, p = .05), whereas male inmates had a higher prevalence of HCV (1% vs. 5%, p = .008). Twenty percent (n = 443, 95% CI = 15-26) of the participants were tattooed during incarceration, and most of them were tattooed with recycled materials. Around 60% (57%, 95% CI = 49-65) used drugs before incarceration, and 9.2% (n = 205) used injected drugs. During incarceration, 30% (95% CI = 23-39) used drugs and 43 continued injecting (20% of users). Consistent condom use was low among men before incarcerations but decreased by half during incarceration. The highest consistent condom use before incarceration was among men who have sex with men (MSM) (17.7%, 95% CI = 14-22), but it decreased (9%, 95% CI = 3-14) during incarceration. The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis in these inmates is higher than that of the local adult population. Most inmates had sex in prison, but few used condoms consistently. Access to condoms is apparently harder for MSM. Interventions to increase condom use, reduce use of shared or recycled materials for tattooing and injecting drugs, and treatment for drug abuse are needed.
Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.
The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.
Bierie, David M
Physical conditions of prisons have been at the center of long-standing debates in correctional policy and research. Many argue prisons should be unpleasant to deter future offending and motivate prosocial change among inmates. Others believe harsh conditions inhibit effective treatment and, perhaps, make offenders worse. Little progress in these debates has emerged, primarily because few studies exist that have tested propositions coming from either camp. This study draws on survey data collected from a random sample of staff at each of the 114 federal prisons operating in 2007. Staff perceptions of noise, clutter, dilapidation, and privacy were combined to reflect physical conditions of each prison (aggregated to the prison level). Operational data measuring serious violence was used to create a count of serious assaults at each prison over the same time period referenced in the staff survey. Utilizing a Poisson framework, the data showed that poor physical conditions of prisons correspond to significantly higher rates of serious violence. Implications for theory and policy are discussed.
Baillargeon, Jacques; Hoge, Stephen K; Penn, Joseph V
The purpose of the paper is to discuss the formidable challenges to community reentry and reintegration faced by U.S. prison inmates with serious mental illness and to describe various strategies for improving transitional services for these individuals. We review epidemiologic data supporting the high prevalence of severe mental illness in U.S. prisons as well as the historical factors underlying the criminalization of the mentally ill. The importance and challenges of providing adequate psychiatric care for mentally ill prisoners during their incarceration are discussed. We also review the numerous psychosocial and economic challenges confronting these individuals upon their release from prison, such as unemployment and vulnerability to homelessness, as well as specific barriers they may encounter in attempting to access community-based mental health services. We follow with a discussion of some of the more promising strategies for improving the transition of the mentally ill from prison to the community. In the final sections, we review the evidence for a relationship between serious mental illness and recidivism and briefly discuss emerging alternatives to incarceration of the mentally ill.
Falk, Örjan; Sfendla, Anis; Brändström, Sven; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra
Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population. The majority of offenders scored distinctively high on trait aggression. There were moderate to strong associations between the personality dimensions and each of the subscales of LHA (Aggression, Self-directed Aggression and Antisocial behavior). These associations were stronger in the female offender sample. Trait aggression could be best explained by a model, which included male gender, younger age, high novelty seeking temperament and low character maturity. Our results suggest that therapies aiming at strengthening self-governance and increasing cooperativeness (focusing on character maturity) may alleviate aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Breiner, Mary J; Tuomisto, Laura; Bouyea, Elizabeth; Gussak, David E; Aufderheide, Dean
A training partnership was established with the Florida Department of Corrections in 2003, and over the ensuing years, art therapy graduate student interns from Florida State University's Graduate Art Therapy Program have been placed in local prisons at different times. Recently, the art therapy interns worked closely with the supervising psychologist in one prison to alleviate and redirect aggression by integrating cognitive-behavioral techniques with art therapy directives. The art therapy interns and the psychologist developed a curriculum using a combination of workbook exercises and art tasks to develop and increase the participants' anger management skills, the Art Therapy Anger Management Protocol. This article provides an overview of art therapy in prison, the cognitive-behavioral approach to anger management with prison inmates, and how art therapy was used to support this approach. Examples of completed art tasks designed to correspond with the workbook curriculum are presented. Overall, this article presents the successful collaboration between the psychologist and art therapists and demonstrates how they facilitated improvement in the participants' anger management skills through this program.
Calcaterra, Susan L; Beaty, Brenda; Mueller, Shane R; Min, Sung-Joon; Binswanger, Ingrid A
Social stressors are associated with relapse to substance use among people receiving addiction treatment and people with substance use risk behaviors. The relationship between social stressors and drug use/hazardous drinking in former prisoners has not been studied. We interviewed former prisoners at baseline, 1 to 3 weeks post prison release, and follow up, between 2 and 9 months following the baseline interview. Social stressors were characterized by unemployment, homelessness, unstable housing, problems with family, friends, and/or significant others, being single, or major symptoms of depression. Associations between baseline social stressors and follow-up drug use and hazardous drinking were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Problems with family, friends, and/or significant others were associated with reported drug use (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.18-7.67) and hazardous drinking (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05-6.87) post release. Further research may determine whether interventions and policies targeting social stressors can reduce relapse among former inmates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ignatyev, Yuriy; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Priebe, Stefan; Mundt, Adrian P
The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, construct and criterion validity of the Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) for prison inmates. A sample of 427 adult prisoners was assessed at admission to the penal justice system in the metropolitan region of Santiago de Chile using the SCL-90-R and the mini international neuropsychiatric interview. We tested internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. We examined construct validity using Principial Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (PCA and CFA) as well as Mokken Scale Analysis. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to examine external criterion validity against diagnoses established using structured clinical interviews. The SCL-90-R showed good internal consistency for all subscales (α=0.76-0.89) and excellent consistency for the global scale (α=0.97). PCA yielded a 1-factor structure, which accounted for 70.7% of the total variance. CFA and MSA confirmed the unidimensional structure. ROC analysis indicated useful accuracy of the SCL-90-R to screen for severe mental disorders. Optimal cut-off on the Global Severity Index between severe mental disorders and not having any severe mental disorder was 1.42. In conclusion, the SCL-90-R is a reliable and valid instrument, which may be useful to screen for severe mental disorders at admission to the prison system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...
Elena Codruta BADEA
In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...
A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.
Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D
the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...
Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A
To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.
Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.
In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise
J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)
textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since
Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina
This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.
To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,
The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...
Meyer, John W.
Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...
M. Bodig (Matyas)
textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…
In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid
Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov
Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...
The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...
... finding of willful misconduct or lack of good faith by contractor management in the case of third party... reimbursement of costs pending the outcome of the legal matter. Whether the Department makes conditional... officer. Time charged by law students should be scrutinized for its efficiency and have prior...
Willems, Kurt; Vernimmen, Jonas
The aim of this article is to describe the human rights obligations a State bears in educational matters with concerns to the current influx of refugees. The right to education is a fundamental human right guaranteed by many international treaties. As a result, the impression may arise that everyone, not only legal citizens but also all those…
Zirkel, Perry A.
The "Legal Audit Instrument for Public School Curriculum" described in this paper is intended for those making decisions in curricular matters. The instrument has been derived from court decisions that are based on the Federal Constitution, legislation, and regulations. Corresponding cases and provisions within each state will require…
Nguyen, AiVi; Dragga, Anthony
Free speech is fast becoming a hot-button issue at colleges across the country, with campus protests often mirroring those of the public-at-large on issues such as racism or tackling institution-specific matters such as college governance. On the surface, the issue of campus free speech may seem like a purely legal concern, yet in reality,…
Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V
In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.
This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.
Full Text Available Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors,the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the possibility of recovery of claim. Moreover the cargo mortgage regulations are, in some regards and aspects, contrary to general legal rules and hence subject to criticism.
Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty
On Monday 18 October, a little bit of legal history will be made when the first international tripartite agreement between CERN and its two Host States is signed. This agreement, which has been under negotiation since 2004, clarifies the working conditions of people employed by companies contracted to CERN. It will facilitate the management of service contracts both for CERN and its contractors. Ever since 1965, when CERN first crossed the border into France, the rule of territoriality has applied. This means that anyone working for a company contracted to CERN whose job involves crossing the border is subject to the employment legislation of both states. The new agreement simplifies matters by making only one legislation apply per contract, that of the country in which most of the work is carried out. This is good for CERN, it’s good for the companies, and it’s good for their employees. It is something that all three parties to the agreement have wanted for some time, and I...
Full Text Available Family Law passed in 1998 introduced the term domestic violence for the very first time in Croatian legal system. Article 118 of this Code contains explicit ban of if violent behavior of a spouse or other adult family member. Violation of this ban is, according to the article 362, a misdemeanor, and the sanction is up to 30 days of imprisonment. Article 118 is placed under section of parental care, subsection is Protection of rights and welfare of a child and minors. Entering article regarding family violence into this section and connecting violent behavior only to a spouse or other adult family member is dangerous, because of possibility for restrictive interpretation of this article in practice and giving protection only to children. However, in practice, although the implementation of this law started late, in June 1999, police mostly intervene and protect victims of domestic violence in all cases, no matter if it is a family with or without children. From January 1st 2001 violent behavior in a family is provided as criminal offence (article 215 of the Criminal Code. Sanction for this offence is from three months up to three years of imprisonment.
Full Text Available Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in the 1974 Marriage Law, because: First, the rejection of the majority of Muslims and the faction in Parliament because the interfaith marriage is against the aqidah (matters of faith of Islam; Second, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the marriage culture in Indonesia, because marriage contains legal, sociology and religious aspects; Third, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the theological teachings of religions in Indonesia that do not want interfaith marriages, such as Islam, Christianity, Protestantism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Furthermore, the interfaith marriage is inconsistent with the philosophical purposes of marriage in Indonesia where the purpose of marriage forms a happy and eternal family based on the One Supreme God.
This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.
As science and technology evolve in ways that increase our ability to inform the public of potentially destructive seismic activity, there are significant legal issues for consideration. Even though countries and even states within the United States have differing legal tenets that could either change or at least re-shape the outcome of specific legal questions that this session will be pondering, there are fundamental legal principals that will permeate. It is often said that the law lags behind society and in particular its technological developments. No doubt in the area of warning the public of impending destructive forces of nature or society, the law will need to do some catching up. The law is probably adequately developed for at least some preliminary discussion of the key issues. No matter the legal scheme, if there is a failure or perceived failure in the system to warn people of a pending emergencies, albeit an earthquake, tsunami, or other predictable event, those who are harmed or believe they are harmed will seek relief under the law. Every day there are situations wherein the failure to warn or to adequately warn is key, such as with faulty or defective consumer products, escaped prisoners, and police high-speed vehicle chases. With alert and warning systems for disaster, however, we have a unique set of facts. Generally, the systems and their failures occur during emergencies or at least during situations under apparently exigent circumstances when the disaster's predictability is widely recognized as less than 100 percent. The law, in particular United States tort law, has been particularly lenient when people and organizations are operating during compressed timeframes and their actions are generally considered necessary to address circumstances relative to public safety. The legal system has been forgiving when the actor that failed or appeared to fail was government. The courts have liberally applied the principal of sovereign immunity to
The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces ... Author Affiliations. E Arunan1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.
introduce effective theories that describe low energy excitations at high baryon density. Finally, we comment on the ... these conditions are maintained for essentially infinite periods of time and the material is quite cold. At low density ... exchange between quarks in a color anti-symmetric ¯3 state. High density quark matter is.
Lott, Kimberly; Jensen, Anitra
Being able to distinguish between physical and chemical changes of matter is a foundational chemistry concept that at first seems like a simple elementary concept to teach, but students often have misconceptions that hinder their understanding. These misconceptions are seen among elementary students, but these ideas are perpetuated throughout…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
ics of small satellite galaxies around large galaxies have shown that the luminous part of galaxies must be immersed in a huge halo of non-luminous matter, much larger than what the studies from rotation curves of spiral galaxies would suggest (see Part 1 of this article). These studies essentially use the same arguments.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...
interests include cinema, stamps and sketching. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Dark Matter. 1. What You See Ain'/ What You Got. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide.
Mojašević Aleksandar S.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes the (judicial mediation in Italy and Serbia from the legal and economic aspects. Given the fact that Serbia and Italy belong to the same legal system, that there are many similar problems in the regulation and implementation of mediation in practice, but also considering that Italy has gone a step further in the regulation of this legal institution primarily by introducing mandatory mediation, the aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the concepts and institutional forms of mediation in the two countries and, consequently, to observe if there are any legal solutions that Serbia could possibly adopt from the Italian legal system. We assume that the Italian experience in the regulation and implementation of mediation, and its mandatory form in particular, could serve as a solid basis for finding certain legal solutions that could potentially contribute to improving the efficiency of this legal institution in our country. The main finding is that the institutionalizing of mandatory mediation in specific disputes, primarily in disputes on civil and commercial matters, would improve the efficiency of mediation in Serbia.
Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...
Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Raharjo, Irvan; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung
In Indonesia, Toxoplasma and its associations with blood-borne viruses have been poorly studied. In order to study the association between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and blood-borne viral antibodies, blood samples from 497 participants (375 inmates from four prisons in Central Java, Indonesia and 122 HIV patients at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Surakarta, Indonesia) were tested for serological markers of Toxoplasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-1/2). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM positivity rates were 41.6% and 3.6%, respectively. One point two percent of participants was positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Sixteen point five percent, 11.3%, 2.6% and 2.8% of participants were positive for anti- Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HCV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgM combined with anti-HIV antibodes and anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with both anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was associated with anti-HIV (aOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.112-16.204, p = 0.034). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were associated with anti-HCV (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.749-4.538, p < 0.001) and history of injection drug use (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.905-5.093, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we recommend patients with HIV, HCV infection and injection drug users should be screened for Toxoplasma infection in Indonesia.
Mejía, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Saldívar, Gabriela
In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. This was a retrospective clinical study. A convenience sample of 112 women who entered the program's treatment groups consecutively for one year form part of the study. Information on traumatic events was obtained using some questions from the Initial Trauma Review. It explores whether the participant experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, disasters, automobile accidents, or witnessed violence under the age of 18. It also examines experiences as an adult, including sexual and physical abuse, attacks by others who are not intimate partners, and abuse by authorities. Revictimization in sexual abuse was found in 78.1% of participants. Significant differences were identified between women who had experienced a traumatic sexual event from a person five years their senior before the age of 18 and then suffered from sexual violence as an adult, and women who had never undergone either of these events (x(2) = 11.3, df 112/1, p = sentence and after release may contribute to preventing these women from become repeat offenders. Creating sources of work and halfway houses that continue the program to prevent relapses into substance use can help defend the human rights of this group of women and achieve social justice.
Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Full Text Available Sexual freedom, being one of the individual freedom, is protected by law whenever is violated and no matter what way take place, but controversy and lack of unanimous interpretation occur once the legal status of infrinfed rule and therefore the individual sentence. In this sense, we tried to highlight some aspects regards to the legal boundaries classification, and the new elements brought by the new Criminal code.
Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.
The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...
Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.
Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...
Kierski, W S
Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.
Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...
Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.
The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt
Cloney, T J
This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.
Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Over the past 15 years, political attitudes in Germany towards the nuclear industry have been characterised less by consistency than by some major policy shifts, and the same can be said for the legislation born of these attitudes. Although a number of these about-turns were predictable, others were less so because of their dependence on external factors. What now looks likely to be the final decision to phase out the civil use of nuclear power in Germany by 31 December 2022 raises a whole host of legal questions. In particular, the procedure followed to implement this phase-out provides ample material for debates on questions of constitutionality. Further matters of jurisprudential interest include the agreements concluded with the nuclear industry before the final phase-out decision was taken and the chronologically close political about-faces themselves. Finally, a degree of legal uncertainty still surrounds not only the as yet still unresolved issue of final repositories but also the resurgent debate over the source of funding for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. After providing an overview of the initial situation and the problems arising in connection with Germany's phasing out of the civil use of nuclear energy, this paper will place these issues in their proper legal context before evaluating them and highlighting the connection between these points of nuclear law and the current upheaval in German energy policy. (author)
The Effectiveness of a Tutor-Student (One-to-One) Method of Teaching Reading to Functionally Illiterate Inmates at the Illinois State Penitentiary, Menard Branch, Menard, Illinois. Correctional Educators Monograph Series, No. 1.
Dinges, Rodney F.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not adult prison inmates reading below the third-grade level can significantly increase their reading level by the use of a tutor-student teaching method, supplemented by the use of flashcards. The subjects in this study were 10 functionally illiterate adult prison inmates, selected on a…
Steffan, Jarrod S; Kroner, Daryl G; Morgan, Robert D
This study employed the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) to differentiate various types of dis-simulation, including malingered psychopathology and faking good, by inmates. In particular, the role of intelligence in utilizing symptom information to successfully malinger was examined. On admission to a correctional facility, 161 inmates completed the BPI under standard instructions and then again under instructions to fake good (n = 55) or to malinger psychotic (n = 35), posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 36), or somatoform (n = 35) psychopathology. Unlike symptom information, intelligence evidenced some support for increasing inmates' effectiveness in malingering, although there was no relationship between higher intelligence and using symptom information to successfully evade detection. Overall, the BPI was more effective in detecting malingered psychopathology than faking good. Implications for the detection of dissimulation in correctional and forensic settings are discussed.
Pendzich, Joanna; Maksymowicz-Mazur, Wanda; Pawłowska, Jolanta; Filipczyk, Łucja; Kulawik, Ilona; Zientek, Jerzy; Kozielski, Jerzy
There are more than 10 million prisoners in the world. Tuberculosis incidence is 10-100 times higher in prisoners than in the general population. Inmates have close contact with other prisoners and with prison workers and visitors, so tubercle bacilli may be easily spread. Most of the inmates come back to normal life and contact with the general population. The aim of the study was to assess active tuberculosis incidence among prisoners and homeless persons in the Silesia region. In total 897 people entered the study, of whom 720 were Silesian penitentiary system inmates, and 177 were homeless. BACTEC MGIT fast TB detection system and GenoType Mycobacteria Direct test were used. Drug susceptibility testing was done using SIRE KIT and PZA KIT. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 13 out of 897 persons (1.45%): in 11 out of 720 inmates (1.53%) and in 2 out of 177 homeless persons (1.13%). Data concerning drug susceptibility were obtained for 11 persons. M. tuberculosis strains isolated from eight persons were susceptible to four first-line antituberculosis drugs (streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol), while M. tuberculosis strains isolated from three persons were drug-resistant. One out of three isolated strains was resistant to ethambutol, but susceptible to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampin, and pirazynamide. The second strain was resistant to streptomycin and pyrazinamide but susceptible to isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. The third strain was susceptible to rifampin but resistant to the other four tested drugs. According to the obtained data, culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 100 times more frequent in the examined population than in the general population of the Silesia region in the same period of time. The health project enabled effective detection of tuberculosis in risk groups and should be continued in the following years. The set of the applied diagnostic methods allowed the detection of in the studied subpopulations people suffering from
Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.
Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June
Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte
Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.
Gullett, C. Ray
From a private process between unions and management, labor arbitration has become a matter for federal arbitrators to decide. The article traces this development through various federal court cases and legislation, particularly unfair labor practice charges under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. (MF)
The paper describes the framework (organic structure and legislation) in promotion of renewables in Honduras, the policies for promotion of the free market of energy, laws on environmental protection and law of electricity. Also describes treties and agreements suscribed by Honduras in these matters
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H
In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.
Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.
The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.
Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.
Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.