WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal issues raised

  1. Ethical and legal issue raised by DNA fingerprinting in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, P

    1996-01-01

    As soon as DNA identification tests have been introduced as a new powerful tool in criminalistics and in paternity testing, this new technology has immediately aroused a mixture of ethical concerns, suspicion and interest among scientists and non-scientists. The major concerns about the so called 'DNA fingerprints' were related first to the possible constitution of data based by the police agencies for the purpose of identifying and investigating individuals as potential criminal suspects, and secondly to the risk of a widespread use without safeguards for private investigation as establishing paternity or the typing of a person for insurance companies. In this context, and in order to preserve civil liberties and the respect of individual privacy, the national Consultative Bioethics Committee advised, as early as 1989, the French government that DNA identification should be strictly limited to judicial use and performed by accredited laboratories. After a long debate, this recommendation has finally been adopted in July, 1994 by the French Parliament. As a result, France is presently the only member state of the European Union with such restricted legislation. This is not without raising difficulties in the implementation of the law, especially in the field of paternity testing where the demand is growing and can be satisfied in any other neighbour country.

  2. Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-08-19

    • Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking.

  3. Professional, legal, and ethical issues raised by behavioral screening for unescorted access to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.W.; Roiter, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potential professional, legal, and ethical liabilities are addressed concerning the overall process for unescorted access at nuclear power plants. The authors suggest means by which action can be taken to reduce liability on behalf of utilities, contractors, and behavioral evaluators. Three main points are discussed based on the authors' experience in conducting behavioral evaluations and defending those evaluations. The authors hope that the process of evaluation screening can become more professional and will be considered with the same quality controls as the selection of materials and the building of a nuclear power plant

  4. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  5. Legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues in cloud computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available a gap on reporting are on are legal , privacy, security, access and regulatory issues. This paper raises an awareness of legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues that are associated with the advent of cloud computing. An in...

  6. Legal issues in cash balance pension plan conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, J B

    2001-01-01

    Replacing a traditional pension with a cash balance plan raises a number of complicated and unsettled legal issues, including the protection of accrued benefits, the rate of benefit accrual, age discrimination and notice requirements. This article discusses those issues and concludes that routine conversions to cash balance plans appear to be legal both currently and into the foreseeable future.

  7. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  8. Copyright, the Internet, and Other Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasaway, Laura N.

    1998-01-01

    Copyright and other intellectual property issues have dominated discussions of legal issues surrounding the Internet. There are other issues of considerable importance that also attract attention. Five legal issues affecting the Internet are addressed: copyright, online service-provider liability, database protection, obscenity, and privacy. Cited…

  9. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. HTA and its legal issues: a framework for identifying legal issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.

  12. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  13. 7. Emerging Applications and Some legal Issues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Electronic Commerce - Emerging Applications and Some Legal Issues. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August 2001 pp 22-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. 7. Emerging Applications and Some legal Issues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Electronic Commerce - Emerging Applications and Some Legal Issues. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.

  15. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  16. Privacy and legal issues in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Rolf H

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.

  17. Legal issues in bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses some of the more common legal issues involved in bone marrow transplantation. These include malpractice claims, testing prospective donors for AIDS, sale of bone marrow, informed consent for both donor and recipient, and questions that arise when the donor is a child.

  18. Selected Legal Issues in Catholic Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Mary Angela

    This book examines legal issues that affect Catholic high schools. Chapter 1 discusses sources of the law and how fairness and due process, federal and state statutes, and various guidelines shape the law. Tort law, corporal punishment, search and seizure, defamation of character, and negligence are covered in chapter 2. Chapter 3 details issues…

  19. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  20. Protective force legal issues: the security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much discussion and some controversy on the legal issues faced by the Department of Energy's (DOE) protective forces in the performance of their security duties. These include the observance of legal proprieties in the arrest of non-violent demonstrators, the use of lethal weapons, and the extent of protective forces' authority to carry weapons and protect DOE's security interests offsite. In brief, the need to protect DOE's security interests may be in nominal conflict with other requirements. When faced with a potential conflict in requirements, we in the DOE security community must place first attention to the security mission -- to deter and prevent hostile acts

  1. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  2. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  3. Venturing into cyberspace - some legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahtan, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Issues regarding the use of the world-wide web by oil and gas companies were discussed. A series of overhead viewgraphs were used to illustrate general advertising and promotion issues including liability for links and frames, web site development agreements, and web site hosting agreements. The meaning of industry or product-specific advertising, trade mark infringement implications, the significance of foreign jurisdictions in operating a website, other significant website concepts, and the general principles of website development and attendant legal implications are explored

  4. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  5. Steganography: Forensic, Security, and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Warkentin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Steganography has long been regarded as a tool used for illicit and destructive purposes such as crime and warfare. Currently, digital tools are widely available to ordinary computer users also. Steganography software allows both illicit and legitimate users to hide messages so that they will not be detected in transit. This article provides a brief history of steganography, discusses the current status in the computer age, and relates this to forensic, security, and legal issues. The paper concludes with recommendations for digital forensics investigators, IT staff, individual users, and other stakeholders.

  6. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ?rape laws? began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ?rape and inclusion of ?marital rape? in the ambit of rape. Law Commis...

  7. Medico-legal issues in breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothaman, H.N.; Wilson, R.; Michell, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To identify medico-legal issues that occur in the diagnosis and radiological management of breast disease and to propose measures to reduce the risk of patient complaints and legal action in breast radiology and diagnosis. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was not applicable for this study. A retrospective study was undertaken and records of 120 medico-legal investigations over a 10 year period were examined. The reports were compiled by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The mean age of the patients represented in this study was 48.3 years. The main complaint in this series was a delay in diagnosis (92%) followed by inappropriate or inadequate treatment (8%). 81% of cases were patients who had presented to the symptomatic clinic. The main presenting symptom was a palpable lump (65%). Substandard care was cited in 49/120 cases (41%). The mean average delay in diagnosis was 15.6 months. Of the cases cited as substandard care, 61% were considered the fault of the radiologist and 14% considered the fault of the breast surgeon. Of the cases where the radiologist was considered to be at fault, microcalcification was the most common mammographic sign to be missed or misinterpreted (12/26 cases, 46%). Conclusion: The most common complaint in this series was delay in diagnosis with microcalcification being the main mammographic sign that was either not seen or misinterpreted by the radiologist. Clear and precise written protocols are recommended for all breast imaging practice to ensure that medico-legal investigations will be greatly reduced.

  8. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  9. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  10. ACTUAL ISSUES OF THE LEGAL REGIME OF ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the current issues of the legal regime of the Arctic. The author describes the situation around the Arctic region, the role of legal regulation in the development of the Arctic.

  11. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems

  12. Legal issues with wind farm stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcheson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Legal issues concerning wind power development and landowners were reviewed. Agreements with landowners present opportunities and risks for developers and land agents. Generally, a landowner agreement provides for a period of testing and an option to lease land for the purposes of installing and operating wind turbines. Provisions are used to set out the terms of the option and the lease; restrictions on use of the land by both parties; and the amount and method of payment. In order to establish a valid option to lease, it is necessary to have good and valuable consideration, certainty of terms and conditions, and compliance with statutes. If the term is too long or alienation of land appears too permanent, a transfer tax may be payable to the landowner. In Ontario, no land transfer tax is payable on a land lease if the term cannot exceed 50 years. Developers should expect basic terms to become public knowledge, and recognize that residents living near planned wind installations can use the local planning process to slow down or break a project, especially if they are concerned about negative environmental impacts such as noise. The arguments against wind farms on the basis of low frequency noise (LFN) are particularly damaging because they apply to all sites near human settlements, and the effects of LFN at inaudible levels have not been sufficiently studied to rule out the possibility of negative health effects. More comprehensive studies on the health effects of LFN are needed. Legal complications may also arise from wind theft, where one party with rights in a parcel of land erects a structure limiting the wind resource on an adjacent parcel of land without compensation. Further complications may arise from wind envy, where landowners may become envious of neighbours hosting turbine sites, while they must live with the sight and sound of the turbines without receiving compensation. Potential wind theft solutions include setback regulations; land pooling

  13. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: experiences of eight organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Demand for stakeholder involvement has become imperative in the field of radioactive waste management. Providing for fair and competent stakeholder involvement, however, raises several questions of practice, for example: How to address issues raised by stakeholders? How to take stakeholders' views into consideration if they are divergent or conflicting? This paper reviews eight case studies prepared for the Topical Session on Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders, aimed at analysing the impacts of stakeholder involvement on decisions in RWM organisations. The studies outline the experiences of the following organisations: Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC); Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO); Nuclear Waste Management Organisation of Japan (NUMO); Posiva, Finland; Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, Czech Republic (RAWRA); Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI); United Kingdom Environment Agency; United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Case study reports are included in the Annex of this volume. The paper outlines the main trends and lessons learned from the above case studies. The first section focuses on impacts of stakeholder involvement on specific RWM decisions regarding policy and process. Examples presented in the second section illustrate how stakeholders' concerns may influence general decision-making practices and organisational behaviour. In the third section various approaches to handling divergent stakeholder views are introduced. The paper concludes with recommendations extracted and derived from the eight reports. (author)

  14. Gas purchasing -- Business, legal, and contracting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krathwohl, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    While the daily newspapers and radio are full of articles and advertisements concerning the impending opening up of the electric industry to customer choice of supplier, little attention is being given to choice in the natural gas markets. The fact is, however, that except for California and some scattered pilot programs, retail electric markets are not yet open and even the imminent deadlines for retail access may prove to be illusory. For example, Rhode Island retail electric markets, by law, were open to competition July 1, 1997 but a month later less than a handful of customers had chosen alternative suppliers. In contrast, customers everywhere are already able to choose their own gas supplier, other than the local gas utility that had supplied all customers for so many years. With this new freedom of choice comes not only a number of benefits, but also risks. This article seeks to provide customers some guidance in obtaining such benefits and avoiding the risks. Ultimately, that is accomplished through a careful selection process, best done by means of an RFP with expert assistance, and through a negotiated gas contract. Before addressing specific contracting issues one must understand the legal and regulatory framework which governs the transportation of the natural gas

  15. The legal personality of TNC: the issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleimanov M.R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article describes different approaches in definition of transnational corporation’s legal personality. The reviewed approaches have become available for the last fifty years and they contain completely opposite views on the legal personality of TNC. The methods of analyze, synthesis, ranging have been used during preparation of this article.

  16. Legal issues confronting the occupational physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kenneth S; Kleper, Ann-Louise

    2002-01-01

    Occupational physicians are frequently participants in a legal arena in which the interests of the patient are in conflict with those of the patient's employer. What is best for the patient may be viewed as financially burdensome or damaging to the employer. Pressures may be brought to bear upon the doctor, who is also concerned with furthering business relationships with the employer, to take action that is inimical to the patient's well-being. This article addresses legal liability and ethical responsibility in three situations: (1) when limitations or constraints are placed upon the physician's professional judgment in treating the patient; (2) when demands are made upon the physician to release medical information regarding a patient; and (3) when the physician is asked to perform a medical evaluation for purposes of litigation.

  17. Legal issues in the transboundary movement of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2000-01-01

    The transboundary movement of radioactive waste is a politically sensitive issue, which implies the raising of complex legal questions. Transborder transportation may be governed by various national jurisdictions on its way from the State of origin via the transit States to the State of destination. The overall goal to be achieved is safe management during all the necessary steps of transport, handling, storage and disposal. Far-reaching approximation or harmonization of national law applicable is to be aimed at in order to facilitate transboundary movement. Article 27 of the 1997 Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) provides for a regime which, in principle, is appropriate. However, there are still open questions and, perhaps, lacunae remaining. Low risk materials exempt or released from regulatory control create specific problems owing to the fact that there are no agreed exemption or clearance levels which could be the base for unified legal provisions. The carrier may face different levels from State to State. The movement of radioactive waste by sea or air outside national jurisdictions is governed by the rules of Public International Law, especially by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which in major parts is a codification of existing International Customary Law. During transport on the high seas, the ship is under the jurisdiction of the State under which flag she is sailing. If the nuclear cargo is loaded onto a ship sailing under the flag of a non-contracting party to the Joint Convention, there may be legal problems with regard to whether and to what extent the Joint Convention is applicable, even if the State of origin or the State of destination is a contracting party to the Joint Convention. If a nuclear incident occurs during the movement of the waste, complicated questions of nuclear liability law will have to be solved. As far as the

  18. Selected legal and institutional issues related to Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, V. P.

    1979-06-01

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), an attractive alternative to traditional energy sources, is still in the early stages of development. To facilitate OTEC commercialization, it is essential that a legal and institutional framework be designed now so as to resolve uncertainties related to OTEC development, primarily involving jurisdictional, regulatory, and environmental issues. The jurisdictional issues raised by OTEC use are dependent upon the site of an OTEC facility and its configuration; i.e., whether the plant is a semipermanent fixture located offshore or a migrating plant ship that provides a source of energy for industry at sea. These issues primarily involve the division of authority between the Federal Government and the individual coastal states. The regulatory issues raised are largely speculative: they involve the adaptation of existing mechanisms to OTEC operation. Finally, the environmental issues raised center around compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as well as international agreements. 288 references.

  19. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.

  20. Legalization of Educational Public Policies: Analysis of Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urá Lobato Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a critical analysis of the issue of legalization of public policies that deal with the right to education. Therefore, the literature review will be made, as well as an analysis of some precedents of the Supreme Court on the issue of legalization of this fundamental right. At the end, it will be shown that the right to education generates citizens the subjective rights of audience immediately, the effectiveness of this right.

  1. Marijuana-Perinatal and Legal Issues With Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krening, Cynthia; Hanson, Keri

    Although still illegal at the federal level, marijuana has been legalized for medical and/or recreational use in 29 states, causing a dynamically changing legal and social landscape. While the legalization of marijuana at the state level provides criminal protection for use by adults, there remain civil legal implications for families brought about by mandated reporting laws. Mandated reporting requirements have not been updated to account for the movement toward legalization, risking overload of community child protection resources. There is little evidence to inform development of guidelines and protocols for screening, educating, testing of mothers and newborns, and reporting. There are perinatal issues in this evolving environment as well. Discriminatory testing, length of time the drug remains in the system, potential for compromised provider-patient relationships, inconsistent education and referrals, breastfeeding during marijuana use, punitive or legal interventions that may have a negative psychosocial impact on a new family, and the risk for development of community standards of care based on opinion rather than science are just a few of the issues realized after marijuana legalization. These legal and perinatal issues are discussed in detail, along with considerations for practice and policy in caring for cannabis-exposed pregnant women and newborns.

  2. Software Piracy: A Look at Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, David

    1986-01-01

    Addresses several differences between computer software and books that affect copyright-related issues. Discussion covers durability of the physical medium, dilemma of backup copies, software licensing agreements, integrity of honest customers, and policy suggestions for libraries that have or are considering microcomputer labs and are concerned…

  3. Legal Issues in Educational Technology: Implications for School Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses several legal issues involving the use of educational technology: Freedom of speech, regulation of Internet material harmful to minors, student-developed Web pages, harassment and hostile work environment, staff and student privacy, special education, plagiarism, and copyright issues. Includes recommendations for addressing technology…

  4. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…

  5. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient′s death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship.

  6. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  7. The issue of euthanasia in Greece from a legal viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsos, Polichronis; Njau, Samuel N; Vlachou, Maria

    2010-04-01

    Modern Greek society appears to be split regarding the legalization of euthanasia. The Greek Orthodox Church maintains a negative attitude. Research shows that some forms of euthanasia are carried out "behind closed doors". There is no specific legal provision. The government avoids bearing the political cost of regulating this marginal issue. According to the dominant view of Criminal Law jurists, some forms of euthanasia are considered permissible de lege lata, under certain conditions. The safety of the concurrence of these conditions, safeguarding of the acceptability of forms that are considered permissible and - mostly - the need to regulate the prohibited forms in exceptional cases, all force the legislators to promptly fill any legal vacuums.

  8. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video. There is a......Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video....... There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...

  9. Transsexualism: Clinical Features and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the epidemiological data is generally obtained from the patients that applied for gender reassignment surgery, it is known that transsexualism is not seen as rarely as it was estimated in the past and should be evaluated in detail because of its psychological and social consequences. Etiology remains to be unclear and biological and psychosocial factors are thought to be responsible for its development. Gender identity stabilizes approximately in 3-4 ages and it is impossible to change it after these ages. For this reason the aim of treatment approaches is to improve the conformity of individuals to their identity and life, but not to change the gender identity. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health [WPATH] published a guideline including standards of care [SOC] and SOC provide clinical guidance in follow-up and treatment of transsexual individuals. There is a detailed code in civil law about gender reassignment but when this code implemented strictly, the use of it is very limited and it is clear that a new arrangement is needed in this issue.

  10. Legal issues in power sale contract negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) is the foundation of the cogeneration industry. However, few cogeneration projects could be financed on the basis of PURPA alone. PURPA guarantees project owners the right to sell power at the purchasing utility's Avoided Cost, whatever that may be from time to time. However, the development and financing of a cogeneration project requires a secure and dependable income stream, not a mere guarantee of the right to receive the spot price for power. Accordingly, developers have found that a formal power sale contract with the purchasing utility is a prerequisite to successful project development. This paper summarizes some current issues in power sale contract negotiation, with a particular emphasis on contract terms which shift risks from the utility and its ratepayers to the developer. Many of these trends originally appeared before the advent of competitive bidding systems, but most will continue to affect power sale contracts under competitive bidding, and under IPP project development as well

  11. Legal aspects of the risks raised by nanotechnologies in the field of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot-Mazères, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The major breakthroughs achieved in nanotechnologies open new avenues in the field of healthcare--aid to diagnosis, upgrading medical treatment efficacy, development of regenerative medicine--but they are also associated with risks, hence the increasing need of legislation. So far very little research work has been conducted on this technology whose applications are still limited and whose potential hazards are not yet clearly apprehended. The more and more frequent uses of nanoparticles in medical imaging and in current research projects dealing with tissue engineering or RFID raises the following question: is the current legislative framework relevant in light of the specificities of nano-objects? The challenge is twofold: the legal approach must encompass the nanometric element itself as a "legal object" but it must include the use of nanotechnologies and their final aims. There is still some degree of uncertainty concerning the innocuity of nanoparticles so that the use of nanoelements in aid to medical diagnosis and in clinical trials must take into account and anticipate the potential harmful effects on patients and on biomedical research teams. But due to the fact that a clear understanding of nanoparticles as specific objects with new features is still missing, the existing regulations on chemical substances, medicinal products, medical devices or cosmetics do not seem to be appropriate. So considering nanoparticles as "singular" legal objects is a prerequisite requiring an approach based on the precautionary principle. Misusing nanotechnologies in the medical field is also a cause for great concern. Threats on individual freedom and on private life as well as on human identity are real and they raise recurring questions. The possible deviations in the use of these techniques, the temptations to "trespass the limits" are also common to info technologies and to biotechnologies but the threats triggered by the nanotechnologies are enhanced by the

  12. Venous thromboembolism during air travel: does the existing evidence raise legal implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroforou, A; Michalodimitrakis, E; Koutsias, S; Mavrophoros, D; Giannoukas, A D

    2009-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged sitting during air travel has been reported in the medical literature. The aim of this article was to review whether the existing evidence can raise ethical concerns and grounds for legal implications. Review of the pertinent literature. Long duration air travel is linked with venous thromboembolism in susceptible individuals. However, the jurisdictions in countries that have adopted the Warsaw Convention 1929 and its amendment at Hague in 1955 have invariably based their approach on whether venous thromboembolism developed after air travel is an ''accident'' under the provision of article 17. Not only this has failed to be proven under various jurisdictions but also inaction, including not warning of the risk and not giving advice on the precautions that would minimise that risk have not been considered sufficient to rank venous thromboembolism as an ''accident''. While there is scientific evidence to support that long-haul flights may predispose to the development of venous thromboembolism in susceptible individuals, there is a clear trend in various jurisdictions that the airline carrier does not incur liability under the Warsaw convention. Nevertheless, the existing scientific evidence raises ethical concerns on the need for information and advice on prevention to those passengers at risk from the airline companies.

  13. Contemporary Legal Issues in Electronic Commerce in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TI Akomolede

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has no doubt added a great deal to the quality of human life today. It has knitted the world together as a global village. Many difficulties which hampered international and even national commercial transactions in the past have now been consigned to the dust-bin of history. The emergence of electronic commerce is as a result of the creation of the internet, through which commercial transactions are conducted between parties from different parts of the world and who may never see themselves in their lifetimes. However, the emergence of electronic commerce has also brought with it a number of legal and socio-economic problems, especially in the developing nations such as Nigeria – problems which pose significance challenges to the legal regime of electronic commerce in those countries. This paper examines these legal issues within the context of the current legal and regulatory framework for electronic commerce in Nigeria.

  14. Money Laundering. Aspects of Legal and Criminal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina DUMITRACHE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing objectively various techniques and methods of money laundering, both in classical and modern ways, by presenting case studies from the legal practice in Romania, in an attempt to clarify a number of issues related to the complexity of this crime, current and future tendencies of financial criminals for laundering proceeds of crime. Also, according to the analysis of comparative law performed in the last chapter, we highlighted a number of similarities and differences between the Romanian legislation and the legislative laws of other states, surprising the forms and effects of money laundering on the studied national systems as well as highlighting the measures for preventing and fighting against these crimes adopted by the analyzed legal systems. The comparative approach of the criminal and legal framework of preventing and combating money laundering is essential for the Romanian legal system efficiency in this matter.

  15. Raising the issue of DNAR orders in vascular surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Rachel; Webb, Hannah; Hartley, Matthew; Brooks, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The Tracey Report has recently raised the status of Do Not Attempt Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders in the hospital setting.[1] Guidelines are in place both nationally and locally to provide advice to clinicians on when to discuss DNACPR, and the approach to be taken. There was concern that on a busy regional vascular surgery unit, discussion of resuscitation status was not regular practice. Consequently, some patients were at risk of being inappropriately resuscitated, particularly out of hours. The North Bristol Somerset and Gloucester DNAR decision tree[2] was the tool used to decide whether a patient should have a documented discussion and/or a DNACPR form completed. We correlated the outcome of the decision tree with the presence of a DNACPR form or documented resuscitation discussion. Baseline measurements from all vascular inpatients on the vascular surgery unit demonstrated that only 27% had a DNACPR form or documented discussion in concordance with the DNACPR Decision Tree outcome. The aim of this project was to increase the proportion of patients with concordance of the DNACPR decision tree outcome with documented discussion or DNACPR form. The following three simple interventions raised concordance from 27% to 64% of patients on the vascular surgery unit. 1. Including resuscitation status of each patient as a column in the doctors daily handover. 2. Posters in staff only areas to highlight the meaning of DNACPR and raise awareness of the DNACPR decision tree. 3. Educational meeting surrounding DNACPR with the vascular surgery consultants, led by a care of the elderly consultant . This project has highlighted how raising awareness around DNACPR increases discussion amongst the clinical team surrounding resuscitation status of a patient. Consequently, this enables discussion to be had with patient and their family.

  16. Domestic violence: legal issues for health care practitioners and institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, A

    1996-01-01

    If health care practitioners and institutions became familiar with legal options available to survivors of domestic violence, they could better facilitate their patients' access to potentially life-saving recourses. Such options include calling the police and obtaining civil protection orders and bringing custody, divorce, and support actions. Provider awareness of legal obligations and other legal considerations that arise when handling domestic violence cases is important for patient care and the practice of good risk management. Examples of such issues include domestic violence protocol requirements, documentation of abuse, and repercussions of mandatory reporting laws. Health care providers should work in collaboration with community domestic violence programs in educating staff on issues pertaining to domestic violence and in crafting policies that promote patient safety and autonomy.

  17. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Cyberspace in the Curricula: New Legal and Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethers, J. Steven

    1998-01-01

    Finds that most journalism and mass communication programs integrate legal and ethical issues surrounding cyberspace and interactive media into existing courses, especially into ethics and communication law courses, but also into introductory survey courses, communication technology, and reporting classes. Details reasons why some programs do not…

  19. Comment: Legal Issues regarding the NBE Guideline on Diaspora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment examines the legality of Guideline No. FIS/01/2016 issued by the National Bank of Ethiopia (on November 1st, 2016) regarding the relinquishing of shares in banks owned by foreign nationals of Ethiopian origin. It is argued that at the time of the auction, an Ethiopian born foreign national remains to be the ...

  20. Student Disciplinary Issues: A Legal Compendium. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Valerie L., Ed.

    This compendium provides an overview of selected codes of student conduct, a selection of annotated legal decisions and important law review articles, and various National Association of College and University Attorney (NACUA) outlines on the issue of student discipline in both academic and nonacademic contexts. Part 1 lists nonacademic codes of…

  1. 1/24 CONTEMPORARY LEGAL ISSUES IN ELECTRONIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    especially in developing nations such as Nigeria, which issues pose significant challenges to the legal regime of ... stage in the supply chain, whether within an organisation, between businesses, between businesses and ..... And Case Analysis" 2001 (4) Logistics Information Management 14-23. Potchefstroom Electronic ...

  2. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  3. Gulf of Mexico oil disaster: some legal issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, C.; Lefcovitch, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify and briefly examine the legal issues that arose out of the BP oil spill (also known as Deepwater Horizon oil spill) in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 which resulted in loss of life and adversely affected the shore of Florida, United States on America through environmental damage and cost in livelihood to firms and families.

  4. [Neuroscience in the Courtroom: From responsibility to dangerousness, ethical issues raised by the new French law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, G-M; Moulin, V; Gasser, J

    2015-10-01

    In the past few years, spectacular progress in neuroscience has led to the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field, the so-called "neurolaw" whose goal is to explore the effects of neuroscientific discoveries on legal proceedings and legal rules and standards. In the United States, a number of neuroscientific researches are designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics and a case-law has already been developed. In Europe, neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal courtrooms, as part of psychiatric testimony, nourishing the debate about the legal implications of brain research in psychiatric-legal settings. Though largely debated, up to now the use of neuroscience in legal contexts had not specifically been regulated by any legislation. In 2011, with the new bioethics law, France has become the first country to admit by law the use of brain imaging in judicial expertise. According to the new law, brain imaging techniques can be used only for medical purposes, or scientific research, or in the context of judicial expertise. This study aims to give an overview of the current state of the neurolaw in the US and Europe, and to investigate the ethical issues raised by this new law and its potential impact on the rights and civil liberties of the offenders. An overview of the emergence and development of "neurolaw" in the United States and Europe is given. Then, the new French law is examined in the light of the relevant debates in the French parliament. Consequently, we outline the current tendencies in Neurolaw literature to focus on assessments of responsibility, rather than dangerousness. This tendency is analysed notably in relation to the legal context relevant to criminal policies in France, where recent changes in the legislation and practice of forensic psychiatry show that dangerousness assessments have become paramount in the process of judicial decision. Finally, the potential interpretations of neuroscientific data

  5. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Developing nursing knowledge: practice issues raised from four philosophical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C L

    1995-01-01

    Analysis and comparison of emerging perspectives in nursing on some of the key issues of practice theory can create an enhanced vision of the discipline. Four philosophy-of-science perspectives--realism, relativism, interpretivism, and humanism--are catalysts for fruitful insights about practice. However, together they generate more questions than they answer, both from each perspective and from the intersection of the assumptions of the four philosophies about the nature of knowledge. The nature of knowledge for practice emerges from examining how the philosophical basis and the derived practice theories address such issues as the phenomena of the discipline, environment, teleology, and nursing theoretical frameworks. This is the time for good debate and collaborative knowledge-building among scholars of various persuasions within a milieu of ethos, pathos, and logic.

  7. Legally protecting and compelling veterinarians in issues of animal abuse and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, I A

    2010-06-01

    The majority of veterinarians recognise their important role and responsibility to society and animal welfare in the detection and reporting of suspected abuse of animals and humans. In spite of the existing moral, ethical, and legal duties applied to veterinarians, they face substantial barriers that prohibit them from fulfilling their professional role in handling cases of suspected abuse. With increasing public and legal attention on issues of animal welfare, the non-fulfillment of these duties places the profession and its members at considerable risk of public criticism and adverse legal accountability. The issue is raised here that the veterinary profession in New Zealand needs to provide a clear policy statement and take pro-active measures that provide practical enforceable solutions to these existing barriers and legal risks. Such an initiative will assist in ensuring that all registered members consistently fulfil their obligations, and are legally protected while doing so. Veterinary counterparts overseas already provide a legislative immunity for their veterinarians who report suspected abuse as part of a mandated duty to report. Implementation of such a duty has significant benefits for all veterinarians, including the requirement for education and effective support systems. In the absence of such a mandatory duty, intermediary measures can be introduced, demonstrating social responsibility and commitment by the profession to their existing duty of care.

  8. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  9. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Nearshore Service Transfers in the EU: Legal and Economic Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Kedziora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second decade of the XXI century, the rapid growth of service offshoring industry can be observed in Poland and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Such international corporate transformations wield significant influence on economies and societies of the states involved. The legal issues regulating international services migrations are among the most demanding managerial challenges at the pre-transition phase (i.e. before the commencement of a transition project which is supposed to successfully relocate processes from one country to another, and are directly linked to the sociological and economic aspects of the multidimensional changes in transnational business environments. The paper presents the review of selected legal issues regulating international process transfers within the European Union (EU, in the light of the economic and social conditions that are important for the offshoring industry’s managerial community at the pre-transition phase.

  11. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  12. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.

  13. Electrons without borders: legal issues in exporting power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcheson, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Miller Thomson LLP provides a range of personal and business law legal services to a variety of projects, particularly those involving renewable energy generation. This paper discusses the legal issues the company has faced in exporting power. There are three ways to export electricity, sale of environmental attributes/carbon credits across borders, via existing transmission facilities and via new transmission facilities. Authorizations by the relevant provincial entity are required to export via the existing transmission. To export power across into the US, permission is needed from both the National Energy Board (NEB) and from the US authorities. The history and the process of obtaining this permission through the NEB are discussed in detail. The approvals and considerations necessary to transport power through new transmission facilities and sale of environmental attributes are given in detail. The paper concludes that a special project is needed with unique opportunities to make the export of power the destination for all production.

  14. Researchers and experts faced with legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.; Pirard, P.; Hubert, P.

    1998-01-01

    In France, radon has emerged as a public health issue mainly at the initiative of scientists. Public authorities are currently considering regulations but for a long time scientists faced the radon issue alone. As a consequence, scientists were involved and are still involved in producing knowledge, in informing about their results, in giving advice to various bodies and individuals, and in participating in the process of technical standardization. These functions are identified in the paper in order to sketch out a typology of different situations, formal and informal, in which researchers transformed into experts are called to collaborate. During their missions related to radon, experts are exposed to 'legal risks', particularly in terms of civil liability or 'professional' responsibility and even criminal responsibility. They face legal difficulties because their roles are not clearly defined. Such difficulties will be also described in this paper, because they are symptomatic of the lack of a legal framework for public scientific expertise. Indeed, there is a growing need to involve scientific experts in decision-making in the field of public health. At the same time, however, there is increased protest against the technocratic nature of public decision-making. We observe an increase in the attribution of blame and penal responsibility in French society, as shown in the 'contaminated blood' case in which not only blood suppliers but also public officials and now politicians have been or are being prosecuted. Radon, which is a domestic risk whose reduction relies entirely on homeowners, is sui generis in many ways. Nevertheless, in an analysis of scientists' roles/actions and of the legal difficulties they meet, radon can be used to illustrate the problems that arise as expertise is developed about new risks. (authors)

  15. The cloud security ecosystem technical, legal, business and management issues

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon the expertise of world-renowned researchers and experts, The Cloud Security Ecosystem comprehensively discusses a range of cloud security topics from multi-disciplinary and international perspectives, aligning technical security implementations with the most recent developments in business, legal, and international environments. The book holistically discusses key research and policy advances in cloud security - putting technical and management issues together with an in-depth treaties on a multi-disciplinary and international subject. The book features contributions from key tho

  16. Imaging of body packing: errors and medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers.

  17. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Proposed REDD+ project for the Sundarbans: Legal and institutional issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Karim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sundarbans, a Ramsar and World Heritage site, is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world covering parts of Bangladesh and India. Natural mangroves were very common along the entire coast of Bangladesh. However, all other natural mangrove forests, including the Chakaria Sundarbans with 21,000 hectares of mangrove, have been cleared for shrimp cultivation. Against this backdrop, the Forest Department of Bangladesh has developed project design documents for a project called ‘Collaborative REDD+ Improved Forest Management (IFM Sundarbans Project’ (CRISP to save the only remaining natural mangrove forest of the country. This project, involving conservation of 412,000 ha of natural mangrove forests, is expected to generate, over a 30-year period, a total emissions reduction of about 6.4 million tons of CO2. However, the successful implementation of this project involves a number of critical legal and institutional issues. It may involve complex legal issues such as forest ownership, forest use rights, rights of local people and carbon rights. It may also involve institutional reforms. Ensuring good governance of the proposed project is very vital considering the failure of the Asian Development Bank (ADB funded and Bangladesh Forest Department managed ‘Sundarbans Biodiversity Conservation Project’. Considering this previous experience, this paper suggests that a comprehensive legal and institutional review and reform is needed for the successful implementation of the proposed CRISP project. This paper argues that without ensuring local people’s rights and their participation, no project can be successful in the Sundarbans. Moreover, corruption of local and international officials may be a serious hurdle in the successful implementation of the project.

  19. Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies…

  20. Legal and Ethical Issues around Incorporating Traditional Knowledge in Polar Data Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge of the polar region is a unique blend of Western scientific knowledge and local and indigenous knowledge. It is increasingly recognized that to exclude Traditional Knowledge from repositories of polar data would both limit the value of such repositories and perpetuate colonial legacies of exclusion and exploitation. However, the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within repositories that are conceived and designed for Western scientific knowledge raises its own unique challenges. There is increasing acceptance of the need to make these two knowledge systems interoperable but in addition to the technical challenge there are legal and ethical issues involved. These relate to ‘ownership’ or custodianship of the knowledge; obtaining appropriate consent to gather, use and incorporate this knowledge; being sensitive to potentially different norms regarding access to and sharing of some types of knowledge; and appropriate acknowledgement for data contributors. In some cases, respectful incorporation of Traditional Knowledge may challenge standard conceptions regarding the sharing of data, including through open data licensing. These issues have not been fully addressed in the existing literature on legal interoperability which does not adequately deal with Traditional Knowledge. In this paper we identify legal and ethical norms regarding the use of Traditional Knowledge and explore their application in the particular context of polar data. Drawing upon our earlier work on cybercartography and Traditional Knowledge we identify the elements required in the development of a framework for the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within data infrastructures.

  1. Illegal oral care: more than a legal issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Jean, Joanes; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2010-12-01

    Affordable, safe and appropriate oral care, including preventive services, is not available for large parts of the world's population. In many low- and middle-income countries patients have to rely on a range of illegal oral care providers who are often socially accepted and part of the cultural context. Although filling a gap in service provision for poor populations, illegal provision of oral care is a serious public health problem, resulting in situations of low-quality care and risks for patients. It is a complex phenomenon going far beyond the legal context. It should be seen as a symptom of underlying health system and society deficits, ranging from lack of access to care and health inequities to problems of governance and law-enforcement. This paper analyses the problem based on the country case of Guyana, explores the public health, legal, professional, social, economical and ethical dimensions of the problem and proposes a differential view on illegal practice by grouping illegal oral care situations in four broad categories; each of them requiring different solutions to tackle underlying issues leading to the problem of illegal oral care.

  2. LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE SHARIAH ADVISORY COUNCIL IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhashimah Mohd Yasin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has always aspired to be the hub for Islamic banking and finance. Various measures have been, and are being, carried out to promote Malaysia as an international Islamic banking and financial centre. As the backbone for this, the national Shariah Advisory Council (SAC has been established under the auspices of the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958 (CBMA. Under the CBMA, the SAC has been conferred a statutory function as the authority for the ascertainment of Islamic law for the purposes of Islamic banking, as well as business and other types of Islamic financial businesses. In 2009, the CBMA 1958 was replaced and repealed. With the coming into force of the CBMA 2009, the role and functions of the SAC was reinforced and upgraded in terms of appointments of members and, most importantly, that the Shariah rulings pursuant to any reference made to the SAC by the Civil court or arbitrator concerning Shariah matters shall be binding on the Islamic financial institutions as well as on the court and any arbitrator. The issue of whether or not the SAC is the final arbiter on Islamic banking and finance disputes or, in other words, there is no longer a process of judicial review where it involves Shariah matters, will be the highlight of this paper. To what extent does the post CBMA 2009 solve the binding nature of the SAC upon the Civil courts of Malaysia as its rulings and directives are only relevant to ‘Shariah’ issues? What would be the situations if the issues of the Islamic banking and finance cases are deemed not to amount to a ‘Shariah’ issue, but are purely on banking, land matters or contractual interpretations? Has there any actual legal reform been brought about by this amendment or is it merely a cosmetic changes? If the court were to be bound by the SAC rulings, does this not usurp the independence of the judiciary which is the corner stone of the principle of separation of powers between the executive, the legislature and

  3. Legal issues in clouds: towards a risk inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemame, Karim; Barnitzke, Benno; Corrales, Marcelo; Kiran, Mariam; Jiang, Ming; Armstrong, Django; Forgó, Nikolaus; Nwankwo, Iheanyi

    2013-01-28

    Cloud computing technologies have reached a high level of development, yet a number of obstacles still exist that must be overcome before widespread commercial adoption can become a reality. In a cloud environment, end users requesting services and cloud providers negotiate service-level agreements (SLAs) that provide explicit statements of all expectations and obligations of the participants. If cloud computing is to experience widespread commercial adoption, then incorporating risk assessment techniques is essential during SLA negotiation and service operation. This article focuses on the legal issues surrounding risk assessment in cloud computing. Specifically, it analyses risk regarding data protection and security, and presents the requirements of an inherent risk inventory. The usefulness of such a risk inventory is described in the context of the OPTIMIS project.

  4. Legal issues relating to the Ontario FIT contract - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the legal issues related to the Ontario FIT contract, which includes the FIT waiver agreement, WTO challenge, FIT extension, political risk assessment and issues related to unforeseen events beyond human control (force majeure). The risk of termination of the FIT waiver is omitted for convenience by OPA but timing implications relating to the FIT waiver are included. The binding agreement for supply of generating equipment is also presented and the term sheet for turbine equipment and bill of purchase being understood as binding agreements is questioned. Political risks relate to existing contracts, lawsuit risks and changes to the REA process. Change in government and the implications of minority government can be added to the political risks. A successful WTO challenge has been assumed and the possible implications are discussed. Some of them include risk to FIT contracts already issued; changes in DC requirements and in FIT contract pricing and re-pricing of construction and turbine equipment supply contracts if DC requirements are relaxed.

  5. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Ajayi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons.

  6. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, S O; Raji, Y; Salako, B L

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons.

  7. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  8. Alcohol consumption among high-risk Thai youth after raising the legal drinking age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Patel, Shivani A; Galai, Noya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Limaye, Rupali J; Manowanna, Sutassa; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, A

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine and alcohol are the leading substances abused by Thai youth. In 2008 the government passed laws that limited alcohol availability and increased the legal drinking age from 18 to 20. We assessed whether the law reduced drinking among methamphetamine-using 18-19 year olds in Chiang Mai. The study compares drinking patterns among methamphetamine smokers aged 18-19 years (n=136) collected prior to the legal changes, to a comparable post-law sample (n=142). Statistical tests for differences between the pre- and post-law samples on problem drinking and recent drinking frequency and drunkenness were conducted. Logistic regression modeled the relative odds of frequent drunkenness, controlling for demographic characteristics. A high prevalence of problematic drinking was present in both samples, with no difference detected. The post-law sample reported a significantly higher median days drunk/month (9 vs. 4, p≤0.01); in adjusted analysis, frequent drunkenness (>5.5 days/month) was more common in the post-law compared to pre-law period in the presence of other variables (AOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3, 3.9). Post-law participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the law's components. The study suggests that the new laws did not reduce drinking among high-risk, methamphetamine-smoking 18-19 year olds; rather, the post-law period was associated with increased drinking levels. The data indicate that the law is not reaching high-risk under-aged youth who are at risk of a number of deleterious outcomes as a result of their substance use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES OF LEGAL PERSONALITY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW. FACTUAL AND NORMATIVE PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    MATEJ SAVIĆ

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with current theoretical issues of international legal personality. Special attention is paid to the growing conflict between the factual and normative dimensions of general legal capacity of subjects of international law. Contemporary trends and respective theoretical concepts are analyzed, especially regarding actual processes and challenges that are imposed in the definition of legal personality in international law.

  10. Orbital Debris: Technical and Legal Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    legal, political, and economic consequences of orbital debris are described. The current technical and legal controls on the creation of debris...well as quantification of the level of risk posed by it. Part III catalogs some of the many technical, legal, political, and economic consequences...magnetic field and concentrate in two doughnut -shaped (torus) areas around the equator; these regions are called the Van Allen radiation belts.20 The

  11. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  12. Homicidal violence during foreign military missions - prevention and legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Okulate

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The study involved Nigerian soldiers engaged in peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Yugoslavia. Using case illustrations, the study sought to describe patterns of homicidal violence among soldiers from the same country or soldiers from allied forces, and to suggest possible reasons for the attacks. Design and setting. Nigeria was actively involved in peacekeeping missions in Liberia between 1990 and 1996. During this period, intentional homicidal attacks occurred among the Nigerian military personnel. Post- homicidal interviews conducted among the perpetrators were combined with evidence obtained at military courts to produce the case studies. Subjects. Six Nigerian military personnel who attacked other Nigerians or soldiers from allied forces, with homicidal intent. Results. Possible predisposing and precipitating factors for these attacks were highlighted. The possibility of recognising these factors before embarking on overseas missions was discussed, so that preventive measures could be instituted as far as possible. Finally, medico-legal implications of homicide in the military were discussed. Conclusions. A certain degree of pre-combat selection is essential to exclude soldiers with definite severe psychopathology. A clearly defined length of duty in the mission areas and adequate communication with home could reduce maladjustment. Health personnel deployed to mission areas should be very conversant with mental health issues so that early recognition of psychological maladjustment is possible.

  13. Preventing medico-legal issues in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bevinahalli N Raveesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient–doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has made it like any other business, and the medical profession is increasingly being guided by the profit motive rather than that of service. On the other hand, a well-publicized malpractice case can ruin the doctor's career and practice. The law, like medicine, is an inexact science. One cannot predict with certainty an outcome of cases many a time. It depends on the particular facts and circumstances of the case, and also the personal notions of the judge concerned who is hearing the case. The axiom “you learn from your mistakes” is too little honored in healthcare. The best way to handle medico-legal issues is by preventing them, and this article tries to enumerate the preventive measures in safeguarding the doctor against negligence suit.

  14. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaram Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS, while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.

  15. Legal issues of biomedical assisted reproduction: Reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available National laws represent a combination of customary and ethical, but also political and other opinions in a society. Particularly delicate, are the laws regulating the issue of assisted reproduction. In this area, broad social acceptance of legal solutions is an essential prerequisite for their use, while achieving the consent of the majority, especially the consensus is extremely difficult, almost impossible. As much as the laws seek to implement those views that are predominant, the adopted solutions will always remain incapable of granting wishes to a certain number of people. These persons, in an understandable effort to realize their desire for an offspring at any cost, will not hold back from seeking help at any place, even if it meant going to distant destinations and extracting large sums of money. In fact, many patients go to other countries which set less restrictive rules in the field of assisted reproduction, and it appears that in the near future we could not expect a reduction of this trend. This phenomenon, which is in theory called reproductive tourism, has long been a reality that one can see as a problem, while others view it as an irreplaceable solution. This paper seeks to highlight the main causes of this phenomenon, but also to try and give an answer as to, whether reproductive tourism should be prevented (and how or actually its maintenance in force reduces moral conflict in society through a mechanism that recognizes the right of everyone to a considerable extent of free will in decision making regarding the most significant issues which offspring certainly is.

  16. Do Legal Issues Deserve Space in Specialty Medical Journals ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Neeraj

    2016-02-01

    Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues affecting their profession. Of concern to all Physicians is the judgment in a recent case where the NCDRC has stated that if MD Medicine Physicians write Physician & Cardiologist on their letterhead it is Quackery. What is MD Medicine degree holder in India qualified and trained to treat ? These are issues which need debate and that can only be initiated once we recognize that there is a problem. Either an MD Medicine is a cardiologist or he is not. If he is then it is the bounded duty of the Association of Physicians of India to challenge this judgment in a higher court of law and seek clear guidelines from MCI as well as Supreme Court on the issue. Editors of Specialty journals have a responsibility of selecting the best articles from those which are submitted to them to be published. Ultimately space in these journals is limited and hence the responsibility to select is enormous and simultaneously reason for rejection of an academic paper also has to be substantial. The question is "do issues which are not core to the specialty concerned deserve space in these?" Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues effecting their profession. Surgical specialties specially obstetricians and their associations have to some extent recognized the problem and taken steps to address the issue specially as regard PCPNDT Act.1 Physicians are more complacent and regard the Consumer Protection Act (CPA) 19862 and problems associated with it to primarily concern the surgical specialties. What is forgotten is that the maximum penalty of 6.08 crore plus interest of 5.5 cr has been awarded in case involving a patient treated primarily by a physician and on whom no surgical procedure was performed.3 It has also to be realized that there is no limit on the amount of compensation which can be asked for under CPA.2 Compensations have been awarded by National

  17. On the Legal Issues of Teaching Evolution in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively teach evolution to all students, even those resistant to learning evolution, science teachers may question the extent to which religion can legally be discussed in the public high school science classroom. Evolution is taught from a variety of approaches, each of which has legal implications. Four approaches to teaching…

  18. Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.; Guieze, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations [fr

  19. The pitfalls in arbitration and litigation of nuclear power plant disputes - issues raised by cases involving nuclear steam generator failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Achilles' Heel for successful power plant operations for pressurized water nuclear reactors has been the performance of nuclear steam generators. Steam generators have been replaced or plans for replacement have been announced at nuclear plants in Belgium, France, Brazil, Korea, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia and the United States. The cost of replacing these massive components can exceed US $ 100 million for each plant. This problem of component failures has thus far spawned thirteen legal actions against the original equipment manufacturer, involving over 70 steam generators, in international arbitration and United States (U.S.) Federal Courts. Other claims by utilities, both in the United States and in Europe, have been settled short of litigation. The case for liability of the component designer and manufacturer involves issues of fact relating to materials, corrosion mechanisms, the effects of water purity and temperature on corrosion, system integration with the component, potential safety issues, predictions of component life based on corrosion rates, and the efficacy of remedial actions. The manner in which these issues are raised before an arbitral tribunal and before a U.S. District Court judge and jury are very different. This paper will discuss some of the competing considerations involved in the two different systems for dispute resolution. (author)

  20. Theoretical Issues of Legal Regulation of Municipal Solid Waste Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Altynbekkyzy Alua; Bekezhanov Dauren Nurzhanovich

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of comparative analysis of legal regulation of environmental protection is due to several reasons. Firstly, it expands the boundaries of interpretation of legal norms and acts of environmental law. Secondly, it allows relying on experience in the latest achievements of legislative activity in developed countries. Thirdly, taking into consideration the legislative mistakes of other countries, it helps to avoid similar mistakes in the process of improving Kazakh legislation. And f...

  1. Exclusive contracts in the hospital setting: a two-edged sword, part 1: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Robert M

    2007-05-01

    Hospitals routinely enter into contracts with radiology groups for the right to be the exclusive provider of radiology services at the facility in exchange for the group agreeing to provide and manage all aspects of that service within the hospital. These "exclusive contracts" generally result in the radiology department and associated equipment being closed off to physicians who are not part of the contracting group. Exclusive contracts are generally considered to be good for physicians who have them and bad for those excluded by them. In fact, while exclusive contracts offer obvious benefits to the physicians who receive them and obvious disadvantages for those who are excluded, they also present pitfalls for physicians in the chosen group. Part I of this article discusses the legal issues raised by exclusive contracts. Although these agreements appear to be anti-competitive, most courts have rejected antitrust challenges to exclusive contracts. Excluded physicians have had much greater success in attacking exclusive contracting arrangements on breach of contract and procedural/due process grounds. Exclusive contracting arrangements can also raise concerns under the Medicare-Medicaid anti-kickback statute if the contracting physicians are required to pay consideration or accept less than fair market value compensation in exchange for exclusive contracts. These agreements can also raise issues under the Stark II physician self-referral law if the contracting physicians are in a position to refer Medicare or Medicaid patients to the hospital. Part II of this article will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of exclusive contracts for physicians covered and not covered by such contracts, as well as strategies for avoiding them or minimizing their potential adverse impact. It also will discuss specific provisions of exclusive contracts that should be included or avoided.

  2. Legal issues of computer imaging in plastic surgery: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A E; Dagum, P; Koch, R J; Newman, J P

    1997-11-01

    Although plastic surgeons are increasingly incorporating computer imaging techniques into their practices, many fear the possibility of legally binding themselves to achieve surgical results identical to those reflected in computer images. Computer imaging allows surgeons to manipulate digital photographs of patients to project possible surgical outcomes. Some of the many benefits imaging techniques pose include improving doctor-patient communication, facilitating the education and training of residents, and reducing administrative and storage costs. Despite the many advantages computer imaging systems offer, however, surgeons understandably worry that imaging systems expose them to immense legal liability. The possible exploitation of computer imaging by novice surgeons as a marketing tool, coupled with the lack of consensus regarding the treatment of computer images, adds to the concern of surgeons. A careful analysis of the law, however, reveals that surgeons who use computer imaging carefully and conservatively, and adopt a few simple precautions, substantially reduce their vulnerability to legal claims. In particular, surgeons face possible claims of implied contract, failure to instruct, and malpractice from their use or failure to use computer imaging. Nevertheless, legal and practical obstacles frustrate each of those causes of actions. Moreover, surgeons who incorporate a few simple safeguards into their practice may further reduce their legal susceptibility.

  3. Theoretical Issues of Legal Regulation of Municipal Solid Waste Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynbekkyzy Alua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of comparative analysis of legal regulation of environmental protection is due to several reasons. Firstly, it expands the boundaries of interpretation of legal norms and acts of environmental law. Secondly, it allows relying on experience in the latest achievements of legislative activity in developed countries. Thirdly, taking into consideration the legislative mistakes of other countries, it helps to avoid similar mistakes in the process of improving Kazakh legislation. And finally, it is the starting point for multilateral and bilateral cooperation in the field of environmental law.

  4. Legal issues associated with preparing for a nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Developing and implementing a national programme for the civilian use of nuclear energy means embarking on the use of a Janus-faced form of energy. We all know that nuclear energy implies both extraordinary benefits and extraordinary risks. This fact requires a legal framework appropriate to cope with both elements of nuclear power. Legislators and State authorities have to establish a sound balance between risks and benefits. That is not at all an easy task. While excluding or limiting risks requires severe legal control mechanisms, the benefits can only fully be enjoyed if the legal framework ensures freedom of research and of economic and industrial development including the guarantee of property ownership and of investments. Combining both opposite poles seems like trying to square the circle. In case of a conflict between promotion and protection, there is no doubt that the protection against nuclear risks has to prevail. Therefore this aspect of nuclear law will be mainly dealt with in this presentation. Establishing a legal framework to tame the hazards of nuclear energy is a much more challenging task for law-makers than providing a legal basis for promoting the use of nuclear energy. With regard to the promotion of nuclear energy, States enjoy a broad range of discretion and may use a great number of legal and non-legal instruments to support the development of a nuclear programme. From a legal point of view, promoting nuclear energy does not require a specific regime. However, it does require a specific regime to control the risks of nuclear energy. States preparing for a nuclear energy programme have to be aware that the use of nuclear energy is not an exclusively national matter. In particular the risk associated with nuclear energy extends beyond national borders. Using the benefits also needs international cooperation in many fields including, e.g., research or fuel supply. Today a network of multilateral and bilateral international treaties exists

  5. Legal issues in the development of geopressured-geothermal resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, D.B.; Rogers, K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The legal issues are discussed in two areas: legal scholarship and legal support. Scholorship is distinguished from support by concentration on abstract analyses of issue that include resource definition, ownership, taxation, and multistate reservoirs. Support is based entirely on those legal tasks called up by the technical work schedule in the areas of Resource Assessment, Advanced Research and Technology, Institutional and Environmental, and Resonance Utilization. The legal section will, in the future, make recommendations and implement procedures designed to assist in the rapid and orderly development of the resource. The PERT (Program Evaluation Review Techniques) chart for sequencing of legal scholarship and support tasks is included. An oral presentation on geothermal resources in Texas, a resource model for the resource utilization section, and some excerpts from legislation pertaining to geothermal energy are provided in an Appendix. (MCW)

  6. Legal Issues Affecting Faculty and Administration in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Larry E.; Reddick, Thomas L.

    Legal aspects of college teaching and administration are discussed. The faculty and college are liable by tort law for students in three ways: intentional acts or interference, strict liability, and negligence. Intentional acts include improperly installed or dangerous equipment, while strict liability cases usually occur where fault is not…

  7. Reefer madness: legal & moral issues surrounding the medical prescription of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R E

    2000-01-01

    California, Arizona, and several other states have recently legalized medical marijuana. My goal in this paper is to demonstrate that even if one grants the opponents of legalization many of their contentious assumptions, the federal government is still obligated to take several specific steps toward the legalization of medical marijuana. I defend this claim against a variety of objections, including the claims: that marijuana is unsafe, that marijuana cannot be adequately tested or produced as a drug, that the availability of synthetic THC makes marijuana superfluous, and especially that legalizing medical marijuana will increase recreational use by 'sending the wrong message.' I then go on to argue that given the intransigent position of the federal government on this issue, state governments are justified in unilaterally legalizing medical marijuana as an act of civil disobedience. A large portion of this paper consists of an extensive response to the objection that legalizing medical marijuana will 'send the wrong message'--which I take to be the primary impediment to legalization. This objection basically claims that the consequences of withholding legalization (especially preventing increased recreational use) are superior to those of legalizing medical marijuana. I argue that legalization is justified even if one were to grant both that the harms of legalization outweighed its benefits and that utilitarianism is true. This requires a subtle and somewhat extended discussion of utilitarian moral and political theory.

  8. The legal and ethical issues in the techniques of blood transfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the legal and ethical issues that may arise and the principles that should be considered in the clinical practice for the transfusion of red blood cells and plasma into adults and children. Generally, the legal and ethical principles that apply to the medical transfusion therapy are not different from those ...

  9. Situation Analysis of Medico-Legal Issues in Asmara, Eritrea, in 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: : A total of 144 respondents were interviewed; 75 clients, 54 health workers and 15 legal practitioners. The most common medico-legal issues identified in the Study are road traffic accidents, rape, homicidal injury and suicide, question of paternity, age determination, abortion, medical record asked by court, ...

  10. Legal Issues Affecting Libraries and Librarians: Employment Law, Liability and Insurance, Contracts, and Problem Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Joseph J.; Shuman, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This fourth lesson in a continuing education course on legal issues affecting libraries and librarians discusses the library's rights and legal responsibilities in the areas of censorship and intellectual freedom, the Freedom of Information Act and patron privacy, problem patrons, and ethical considerations of library services. (14 references)…

  11. Legal issues of extended practice: Where does the responsibility lie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttress, Susan J. [MSc Professional Development, School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Frederick Road, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.buttress@salford.ac.uk; Marangon, Tim [Programme Leader MA Healthcare Law/LLB Health Law, Salford Law School, Lady Hale Building, University of Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The development of new roles in healthcare has been developing rapidly since even before the publication of the NHS Plan in 2000. The driving forces have encouraged the blurring of traditional professional role boundaries and the development of extended roles in practice in which health professionals have adopted tasks out of their normal scope of practice. This paper examines the legal implications of such actions and highlights the importance of recognising the legal responsibility of taking on tasks beyond their recognised role. The case law applicable to this area is discussed and applied to clinical negligence cases that could arise from practice that is beyond the scope of professionals within their field and appropriate conclusions are drawn.

  12. Legal issues related to postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo Young; Kim, Min Ji; Kang, So Ra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently, development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) after surgery is frequently being followed by legal action in Korea, as consequences may be fatal. In the current study, we assessed possible countermeasures that medical teams can take when faced with conflicting opinions on responsibility for PTE. Methods A retrospective analysis of claims handled by the Supreme Court and subordinate courts, from 1999 to 2015, was performed. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and critical legal points from the recorded judgments along with any liability limitations on surgeons. Results After reviewing cases between 1999 and 2015, a total of 18 cases were analyzed. There were no cases in which the surgeon was held accountable between 1999 and 2002. From 2003, there were instances of the surgeon being held accountable, with a peak of cases in 2013. Legal standards applied in judicial decision-making related to appropriate use of preventive measures, operation characteristics, doctor's reaction towards symptom occurrence, obligation of postoperative medical care, and duty of explanation. Conclusion The courts in Korea have changed their position from one of denying doctors' liability to one of enforcing responsibility for PTE. Surgeons are therefore being held responsible with greater frequency, depending on the details of the case. Lessons can be learnt from precedents that can be incorporated into medical education and training programs with the aim of reducing both major PTE complication rates and litigation costs. PMID:27904854

  13. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.

  14. Telemental Health for Children and Adolescents: An Overview of Legal, Regulatory, and Risk Management Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory M; Luxton, David D

    2016-04-01

    The use of technology to provide telemental healthcare continues to increase; however, little has been written about the legal and regulatory issues involved in providing this form of care to children and adolescents. This article reviews existing laws and regulations to summarize the risk management issues relevant to providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents. There are several legal and regulatory areas in which telemental health clinicians need to have awareness. These areas include: 1) Licensure, 2) malpractice liability, 3) credentialing and privileging, 4) informed consent, 5) security and privacy, and 6) emergency management. Although legal and regulatory challenges remain in providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents, it is possible to overcome these challenges with knowledge of the issues and appropriate risk management strategies. We provide general knowledge of these key legal and regulatory issues, along with some risk management recommendations.

  15. Legal and Policy Issues Regarding Niche Charter Schools: Race, Religion, Culture, and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Fox, Robert A.; Buchanan, Nina K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of ethnocentric or culturally oriented niche charter schools have opened around the country. These ethnic or culture-oriented models raise legal and policy concerns about church/state entanglement as well as concerns about diversity. Indeed, there has already been litigation focused on racial and ethnic aspects of charter schools…

  16. Legal, regulatory & institutional issues facing distributed resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes legal, regulatory, and institutional considerations likely to shape the development and deployment of distributed resources. It is based on research co-sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and four investor-owned utilities (Central & South West Services, Cinergy Corp., Florida Power Corporation, and San Diego Gas & Electric Company). The research was performed between August 1995 and March 1996 by a team of four consulting firms experienced in energy and utility law, regulation, and economics. It is the survey phase of a project known as the Distributed Resources Institutional Analysis Project.

  17. Legal issues in amending nuclear rules and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear rules and regulations are composed of a multitude of provisions, benchmarks, etc. of different origins and different levels of legal quality. The Safety Criteria and Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants published in the 'Bundesanzeiger' (Federal Gazette) by the competent federal ministry after consultation of the competent highest state authorities are of particular importance. The Safety Criteria were adopted by the States Committee for Atomic Energy on October 12, 1977 and published in the 'Bundesanzeiger'. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) intends to revise and amend the contents of the safety criteria and guidelines applying to nuclear power plants. The question underlying this article is this: In what legal way can such an 'amendment' be achieved in a permissible fashion? This leaves out of consideration the question of the contents and applicability of amended provisions, such as the question to what extent amended regulations can also be applied to the nuclear power plants already licensed and in operation, or whether the concept of finality and the constitutional ban on retroactive effect or other constitutional or paramount rules contain restrictions on the contents of such regulations. Solely the question of a permissible amending procedure is under study. (orig.)

  18. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A

    2013-01-01

    development and application of nanoproducts, inspite of fact, that these relationships have a significant financial segment. Thus, according to the Federal Act from December 13, 2010 'About federal budget for 2011 year and the period of 2012 and 2013 years' the expenses for realisation of program 'The infrastructure development of nano industry in Russian Federation for 2008-2011' were 250 milliard of Russian rubbles. The profound analyses of the current legal systems has demonstrated that nowadays the main legal regulation in nano sphere consist of some range of frame documents (accentuated by the author). Thereby, one of the most dynamic and developed field of innovative activities in Russian Federation – nanotechnology – is left out of environmental and legal area of protection and that is might lead to the raising level of ecological risks at the stage of creation and application nano products to the environment and humans' health. During the analyses of annual norms of the Report OECD 'Nano technologies: the Environment, health and safety' the conclusion is following – 2010 Russia has an extremely low degree of conceptual realization of the program in the sphere of forming the policy connected with nanotechnology and its impact on the environment and also a lack of implementations of norms into the national legal systems in terms of the assessment criteria of nano safety EHS (Environmental, Health and Safety) and ELSI (Ethical, Legal and Social Issues). To the great regret, there is no independent and precise legal act about the ways to creat and apply nano products with the certain definitions and principles and, more importantly, with the level of legal obligations and responsibility. This gap is not possible to fill by just altering and editing the existed legal acts due to the lack of the state Russian regulation. Thus, one of the most dynamic fields of innovative activities – nano technologies – is practically out of the regulation. It might lead to an

  19. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    development and application of nanoproducts, inspite of fact, that these relationships have a significant financial segment. Thus, according to the Federal Act from December 13, 2010 "About federal budget for 2011 year and the period of 2012 and 2013 years" the expenses for realisation of program "The infrastructure development of nano industry in Russian Federation for 2008-2011" were 250 milliard of Russian rubbles. The profound analyses of the current legal systems has demonstrated that nowadays the main legal regulation in nano sphere consist of some range of frame documents (accentuated by the author). Thereby, one of the most dynamic and developed field of innovative activities in Russian Federation - nanotechnology - is left out of environmental and legal area of protection and that is might lead to the raising level of ecological risks at the stage of creation and application nano products to the environment and humans' health. During the analyses of annual norms of the Report OECD "Nano technologies: the Environment, health and safety" the conclusion is following - 2010 Russia has an extremely low degree of conceptual realization of the program in the sphere of forming the policy connected with nanotechnology and its impact on the environment and also a lack of implementations of norms into the national legal systems in terms of the assessment criteria of nano safety EHS (Environmental, Health and Safety) and ELSI (Ethical, Legal and Social Issues). To the great regret, there is no independent and precise legal act about the ways to creat and apply nano products with the certain definitions and principles and, more importantly, with the level of legal obligations and responsibility. This gap is not possible to fill by just altering and editing the existed legal acts due to the lack of the state Russian regulation. Thus, one of the most dynamic fields of innovative activities - nano technologies - is practically out of the regulation. It might lead to an increase of

  20. Awareness of medico-legal issues among medical and dental college health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modem medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. The fundamental values of medicine insist that the doctors should be aware about the various medico-legal issues which help in proper recording of medical management details. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge on Medico-legal Issues among Medical and Dental College Health Professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. Materials & Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among health professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. A total o f320 health professionals (163 medical and 157 dental participated in the study. A structured, closed ended, self-administered questionnaire was used for collection of data. Chi-square test was used to compare the awareness of medico-legal issues between medical and dental health professionals. Results: Among the 320 health professionals, 87.4% of medical and 76.1% of dental professionals were aware about the informed consent, 18.8% of medical and 5.7% of dental professionals had awareness about COPRA and only 14.3% of medical and 7.6% of dental professionals had awareness regarding the Medico-legal programs/courses. Conclusions: The results illustrated that the participants had little awareness on medico-legal issues. Hence there is an urgent need to update the understanding of these issues to be on a legally safer side.

  1. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  2. Legal and ethical issues in telemedicine and robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2006-07-01

    Modern medical concerns with telemedicine and robotics practiced across national or other jurisdictional boundaries engage the historical, complex area of law called conflict of laws. An initial concern is whether a practitioner licensed only in jurisdiction A who treats a patient in jurisdiction B violates B's laws. Further concerns are whether a practitioner in A who violates a contract or treats a patient in B negligently incurs liability in B, A, or both, and, if treatment lawful in A is unlawful in B, whether the practitioner commits a crime. Judicial procedures are set by courts in which proceedings are initiated, but courts may decline jurisdiction due to inconvenience to parties. If courts accept jurisdiction, they may apply their own substantive legal rules, but may find that the rules of a conflicting jurisdiction should apply. Cross-border care should not change usual medical ethics, for instance on confidentiality, but may mitigate or aggravate migration of specialists.

  3. Issues on raising a bilingual child in Costa Rica: a myth or a reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Quesada Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with main issues concerning bilingualism and bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA. A review of the literature is presented on how children learn languages. In addition, this paper summarizes what bilingualism is and addresses how the One-parent One-language (OPOL and the Minority Language at Home (ML@H methods work. The paper includes sample testimonies of Itzel, a three-year-old child, raised with these methods. It also illustrates samples of her code-switching and code-mixing as part of her evolution in bilingual first language acquisition. Based on this evolution, there is some evidence that a child can become bilingual under foreign language conditions. Finally, the article reflects on the decisive role that dedication, consistency and effort have as crucial components to accomplish BFLA.

  4. [The flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy report: medico-legal issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosini-Désert, V; Morin, J-M; Fournier, C; Similowski, T; Vergnon, J-M

    2010-09-01

    The flexible bronchoscopy report is one of the tools permitting exchange of medical information in respiratory medicine and is an integral part of the medical record. Currently, there is no consensus on its content, and consequently, there are no recommendations. A survey was carried out involving experts from the Groupe d'Endoscopie de Langue Française (GELF--Endoscopy Research Group of the French Language Society of Pneumology) and a lawyer from the legal affairs and patient's rights department of the Paris public hospital system. Thirty-four questions distributed in eight chapters were asked in an eight-part questionnaire covering: 1) general administration, 2) environmental safety, 3) medical and anatomical description of the examination, 4) tolerance/complications of the examination, 5) conclusion, 6) image and video sequence capture, 7) administrative data for archiving, 8) disposable elements used during the examination. The results showed as many areas of convergence as they did divergence, between physicians, and between physicians and lawyer. Collective consideration is required to harmonize the writing of bronchoscopy reports, to provide a tool that is not only consensual and complete, but also valid and sound from the medicolegal viewpoint. Copyright © 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

    2012-01-01

    User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation.

  6. Legal Issues in Educational Management in Nigeria | Fayokun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction of issues of law and schooling are becoming more pronounced by the day as our society continues to witness significant and rapid socio-political and economic changes. In an age that is globally infused with the concern for individual rights, there is of recent an emergence of local court cases as a ...

  7. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  8. Massively parallel sequencing and the emergence of forensic genomics: Defining the policy and legal issues for law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Nathan; McNevin, Dennis; Kelty, Sally F; Walsh, Simon J; Robertson, James

    2018-03-01

    Use of DNA in forensic science will be significantly influenced by new technology in coming years. Massively parallel sequencing and forensic genomics will hasten the broadening of forensic DNA analysis beyond short tandem repeats for identity towards a wider array of genetic markers, in applications as diverse as predictive phenotyping, ancestry assignment, and full mitochondrial genome analysis. With these new applications come a range of legal and policy implications, as forensic science touches on areas as diverse as 'big data', privacy and protected health information. Although these applications have the potential to make a more immediate and decisive forensic intelligence contribution to criminal investigations, they raise policy issues that will require detailed consideration if this potential is to be realised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the scope of the issues that will confront forensic and user communities. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.

  9. [Current issues in legal cases of compensation for healthcare malpractice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Tamás; Barzó, Tímea

    2014-09-21

    dogmatic and practical problems related to this topic. Another important area of current analysis is the institution of injury fees, which replaced the reimbursement of non-pecuniary damages. The mere fact of infringement allows setting injury fees. Taking into consideration the current resources in staff and equipment available in healthcare, this regulation may promote claims for injury fees impartial. Consequently, courts will have to apply other criteria when judgment in 'trivial cases', which might not require legal assessment, is delivered.

  10. Knowledge and Perceptions of Health Workers' Training on Ethics, Confidentiality and Medico-Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnie, Bernard Asamoah; Forson, Paa Kobina; Opare-Addo, Mercy Naa Aduele; Appiah-Poku, John; Rhule, Gyikua Plange; Oduro, George; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Donkor, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Health care delivery in recent times has become more complicated, as patients expect health personnel to not only provide professional services but be accountable as well. It is thus imperative that health personnel are aware of their responsibility to the patient and also sensitive to medico legal issues if quality health care is to be assured. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of health care workers on their training in ethics, confidentiality and medico-legal issues. It was expected that the results would inform policy on the training of the health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among some categories of health workers (Doctors, Nurses and Health care assistants) at the Accident and Emergency directorate of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on ethics, confidentiality and medico- legal issues. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 16. A total of 103 health care workers were enrolled on the study representing 96% response rate. The study revealed that 74% had knowledge on ethics, confidentiality and medico- legal concepts; and 35.4% of the respondents indicated that health workers attitudes to ethics, confidentiality and medico- legal concepts was inadequate. About 28.3% indicated that their attitudes were good while 26.3% indicated attitudes were adequate with only 2% indicating that attitudes were very good. Nearly, 49% of the respondents also indicated that training on medico-legal issues should be taught during formal training and also on-the-job. Knowledge of health workers on ethics confidentiality and medico-legal issues is high and their perceptions are positive. However, regular training to update their knowledge will be necessary in order to ensure continuous improvement of the quality of health care delivery.

  11. Beliefs and expectancies in legal decision making: an introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Bornstein, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    This introduction describes what the co-editors believe readers can expect in this Special Issue. After beliefs and expectancies are defined, examples of how these constructs influence human thought, feeling, and behavior in legal settings are considered. Brief synopses are provided for the Special Issue papers on beliefs and expectancies regarding alibis, children's testimony behavior, eyewitness testimony, confessions, sexual assault victims, judges' decisions in child protection cases, and attorneys' beliefs about jurors' perceptions of juvenile offender culpability. Areas for future research are identified, and readers are encouraged to discover new ways that beliefs and expectancies operate in the legal system.

  12. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform.

  13. Legal Issues of Intellectual Property Rights and Licensing for E-Learning Content in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpouyan, Azadeh; Razavi, Ghassem Khadem

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the legal rules of intellectual property rights (IPR) in networked e-learning. Its purpose is to act as an awareness-raising device about IPR, especially in the public-sector e-learning community in the UK, by describing the relevant aspects of IPR, providing legal guidance on IPR in e-learning, especially on the use of…

  14. Increasing adolescent vaccination: barriers and strategies in the context of policy, legal, and financial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; English, Abigail; Davenport, Amy F; Stinnett, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    To increase understanding of the policy, legal, and financial issues influencing efforts to achieve high rates of adolescent vaccination. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with 49 key informants in nine states, five jurisdictions, and at the national level. We elicited: (a) experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal vaccine programs; (b) perspectives on policy, legal, and financing issues influencing adolescent vaccine program effectiveness; and (c) strategies to increase rates of adolescent vaccination. Common and informative themes were identified by content analyses. Participants reported that barriers to adolescent vaccination included: public concerns (insufficient knowledge, negative attitudes, safety concerns, controversy); practitioner concerns (insufficient knowledge or ambivalence about recommendations); delivery issues (insufficient access to or use of healthcare, vaccines not at healthcare site or part of routine care); minor consent issues; cost/financing issues; and lack of coordination in timing of vaccine recommendations, supply, and financing. Many barriers and promising strategies for overcoming them vary depending on adolescent age. For example, concerns about providing vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted diseases are less frequent with respect to older adolescents; issues of consent vary widely between 11 and 25 years of age; and financial barriers/potential solutions vary by age. We develop a framework to address policy, legal, and financial issues influencing adolescent vaccination based on adolescent age. A comprehensive description of factors influencing adolescent vaccination reveals variation based on age. A framework that incorporates this complexity may enhance strategies to increase rates of vaccine delivery to adolescent populations.

  15. Were ethical and legal issues violated, or was the book Mandela's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Were ethical and legal issues violated, or was the book Mandela's Last Days censored? M.A. Sathar. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  16. Ethical Issues and Legal Constraints to the Freedom of Information Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, there are legal constraints that can hinder the smooth operation of the act. Such constraints need to be dismantled immediately. Besides, there is a great need to address various ethical issue that may equally arise among media practitioners in the course of operating within the limits of the law, posing great ...

  17. Gender-Based Pay Disparities in Intercollegiate Coaching: The Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, John; Glazier, Michael S.; Evans, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the legal issues surrounding pay disparities between men and women in intercollegiate coaching, including how courts have treated disparate wage claims under the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and Title IX, and the defenses used by institutions. Offers suggestions for defending claims and a detailed review of…

  18. Implementing CDM projects. A guidebook to host country legal issues; CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curnow, P. (Baker and McKenzie, London (United Kingdom)); Hodes, G. (UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) continues to evolve organically, and many legal issues remain to be addressed in order to maximise its effectiveness. This Guidebook explains through case studies how domestic laws and regulatory frameworks in CDM Host Countries interact with international rules on carbon trading, and how the former can be enhanced to facilitate the implementation and financing of CDM projects. (author)

  19. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  20. Human Resource Regulation and Legal Issues: Web Sites for Instructional and Training Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, John; Mayfield, Milton; Mayfield, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a set of useful Web sites for enhancing and supplementing human resource courses and training programs, especially those that deal with the legal and regulatory aspects of the human resources (HR) function. These Web sites provide valuable information on pertinent HR compliance issues as well as information…

  1. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to treatment, public health, legal, and ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethical and legal issues in caring for asylum seekers and refugees in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, M; McDonald, L; Brook, G; Murphy, S

    2004-11-01

    Inward migration to the UK remains topical and controversial as numbers continue to increase. Many immigrants have specific health care needs and may shoulder a large burden of infectious disease. Imposition of legal constraints can have a huge impact on the medical care afforded to immigrants. Currently UK policy is to treat, free of charge and with NHS resources, those who fulfil specific criteria. However an increasing number are being asked to pay for their treatment. Many health care professionals are confused as to current legal restrictions and require guidance on the associated ethical issues. We concentrate on provision of care to HIV positive individuals and use cases to illustrate some of the issues. However these issues are equally pertinent to practitioners in all branches of medicine.

  3. Involving Parents/Family in Treatment during the Transition from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Rationale, Strategies, Ethics, and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Cecilia M W; Rostain, Anthony L

    2017-04-01

    The progression from adolescence to adulthood is a time of tremendous change, characterized by issues of identity formation, autonomy, and shifting relationship dynamics. The family is embedded in all aspects of this transition and serves as both a protective support and a limiting factor, a complicated duality that raises psychological, ethical, and legal issues. This article discusses the influence of familial factors and provides assessment strategies for evaluating the family in relation to treatment of transitional age youth. It is increasingly evident that family engagement is a significant contributor to outcomes for transitional age youth seeking mental health treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Disciplining handicapped students: legal issues in light of Honig v. Doe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, L

    1989-01-01

    Court decisions interpreting the effect of the education for All Handicapped children Act on traditional forms of public school discipline have raised many question. This article reviews these decisions and confirms that most forms of minor disciplinary remedies remain available to educators so long as they are also used with nonhandicapped students. However, many legal problems arise with expulsion and long-term, or indefinite, suspensions of handicapped students, especially in the light of the recent Supreme court ruling regarding the expulsion of handicapped students.

  5. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  6. Treating transsexuals in India: History, prerequisites for surgery and legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Richie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their clinical practice came across transsexual patients, who were determined to get their gender affirmed by undergoing a change of sex. This motivated the authors to review the literature extensively regarding transsexualism and report their experience. Opinions were taken from legal luminaries practicing in related fields. They also took inputs from several patients who were at various stages of psychiatric analysis and hormone therapy and also those, who had completed their treatment procedures. A paucity of the Indian inputs in medical literature concerning transsexualism was noted by the authors They also found deficiencies in the Indian Law, as applied to the individuals undergoing gender affirmation surgery (GAS. In this paper they have enumerated these deficiencies. Though GAS has been legally allowed in U.K. since 1967, in America since 1972, and in various other countries, Indian Laws are silent on the issue. An Indian surgeon dealing with transsexual patients is faced with a number of issues like consent for the procedure, safe guarding the surgeon or gender team from future litigation. Another issue is postoperative sexual and legal status of the patient. Present Indian Laws regarding marriage, adultery, sexual and unnatural offences, adoptions, maintenance, succession, labour and industrial laws will require modifications when dealing with these individuals and protecting their rights. Authors have tried to deal with all these issues that an individual surgeon faces when he manages a transsexual patient.

  7. Treating transsexuals in India: History, prerequisites for surgery and legal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richie; Murarka, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Authors in their clinical practice came across transsexual patients, who were determined to get their gender affirmed by undergoing a change of sex. This motivated the authors to review the literature extensively regarding transsexualism and report their experience. Opinions were taken from legal luminaries practicing in related fields. They also took inputs from several patients who were at various stages of psychiatric analysis and hormone therapy and also those, who had completed their treatment procedures. A paucity of the Indian inputs in medical literature concerning transsexualism was noted by the authors They also found deficiencies in the Indian Law, as applied to the individuals undergoing gender affirmation surgery (GAS). In this paper they have enumerated these deficiencies. Though GAS has been legally allowed in U.K. since 1967, in America since 1972, and in various other countries, Indian Laws are silent on the issue. An Indian surgeon dealing with transsexual patients is faced with a number of issues like consent for the procedure, safe guarding the surgeon or gender team from future litigation. Another issue is postoperative sexual and legal status of the patient. Present Indian Laws regarding marriage, adultery, sexual and unnatural offences, adoptions, maintenance, succession, labour and industrial laws will require modifications when dealing with these individuals and protecting their rights. Authors have tried to deal with all these issues that an individual surgeon faces when he manages a transsexual patient. PMID:20368863

  8. Treating transsexuals in India: History, prerequisites for surgery and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richie; Murarka, Anil

    2009-07-01

    Authors in their clinical practice came across transsexual patients, who were determined to get their gender affirmed by undergoing a change of sex. This motivated the authors to review the literature extensively regarding transsexualism and report their experience. Opinions were taken from legal luminaries practicing in related fields. They also took inputs from several patients who were at various stages of psychiatric analysis and hormone therapy and also those, who had completed their treatment procedures. A paucity of the Indian inputs in medical literature concerning transsexualism was noted by the authors They also found deficiencies in the Indian Law, as applied to the individuals undergoing gender affirmation surgery (GAS). In this paper they have enumerated these deficiencies. Though GAS has been legally allowed in U.K. since 1967, in America since 1972, and in various other countries, Indian Laws are silent on the issue. An Indian surgeon dealing with transsexual patients is faced with a number of issues like consent for the procedure, safe guarding the surgeon or gender team from future litigation. Another issue is postoperative sexual and legal status of the patient. Present Indian Laws regarding marriage, adultery, sexual and unnatural offences, adoptions, maintenance, succession, labour and industrial laws will require modifications when dealing with these individuals and protecting their rights. Authors have tried to deal with all these issues that an individual surgeon faces when he manages a transsexual patient.

  9. Raising awareness of new psychoactive substances: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity screening of 'legal high' packages containing synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Margarida; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; Dias da Silva, Diana; Gaspar, Helena; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The world's status quo on recreational drugs has dramatically changed in recent years due to the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), represented by new narcotic or psychotropic drugs, in pure form or in preparation, which are not controlled by international conventions, but that may pose a public health threat comparable with that posed by substances listed in these conventions. These NPS, also known as 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs', are typically sold via Internet or 'smartshops' as legal alternatives to controlled substances, being announced as 'bath salts' and 'plant feeders' and is often sought after for consumption especially among young people. Although NPS have the biased reputation of being safe, the vast majority has hitherto not been tested and several fatal cases have been reported, namely for synthetic cathinones, with pathological patterns comparable with amphetamines. Additionally, the unprecedented speed of appearance and distribution of the NPS worldwide brings technical difficulties in the development of analytical procedures and risk assessment in real time. In this study, 27 products commercialized as 'plant feeders' were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was also evaluated, for the first time, the in vitro hepatotoxic effects of individual synthetic cathinones, namely methylone, pentedrone, 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Two commercial mixtures ('Bloom' and 'Blow') containing mainly cathinone derivatives were also tested, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was used as the reference drug. The study allowed the identification of 19 compounds, showing that synthetic cathinones are the main active compounds present in these products. Qualitative and quantitative variability was found in products sold with the same trade name in matching or different 'smartshops'. In the toxicity studies performed in

  10. Ethical and legal issues in the clinical practice of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Romero, Marcos; Vazquez-Naya, Jose Manuel; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since it was conceived, the notion of primary care has been a crucial concept in health services. Most health care is provided at this level and primary care clinicians have an essential role, both in terms of disease prevention and disease management. During the last decades, primary health care has evolved from a traditional paternalistic model, in which patients played the role of passive recipient of care, towards a situation in which patients are partners involved in the decision making-process. This new context opened a considerable number of new ethical and legal aspects, which need to be comprehensively analyzed and discussed in order to preserve the quality of primary health care all around the world. This work reviews the most important ethical and legal issues in primary health care. Legislation issues are explained in the context of the Spanish Health Services.

  11. Traumatic spinal cord injuries – epidemiologic and medico-legal issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hanganu Bianca; Velnic Andreea Alexandra; Petre-Ciudin Valentin; Manoilescu Irina; Ioan Beatrice Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries represent a special category of injuries in traumatic pathology, with high morbidity and mortality, which justify their analysis with the aim to identify useful aspects in order to prevent and treat them. We therefore performed a retrospective study on 426 cases in order to analyze epidemiology and medico-legal issues related to spinal cord injuries. The studied items regarded socio-demographic aspects (gender, age, home region), type of lesions (vertebral, spinal cord, a...

  12. Legal and policy issues associated with monitoring employee E-mail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, M.A.; Rither, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program for monitoring outgoing e-mail to insure compliance with company policies, particularly those regarding protection of trade secrets and proprietary information, and to comply with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) procedures for protecting Export Controlled Information (ECI). Electronic communication has allowed companies to enhance efficiency, responsiveness and effectiveness. E-mail allows employees to transmit all types of data to other individuals inside and outside of their companies. The ease with which information can be transmitted by e-mail has placed trade secrets, proprietary information, and other sensitive data at risk from inadvertent disclosure by employees. As employers attempt to protect their interests through measures such as monitoring e-mail, they may expose themselves to liability under federal and state laws for violating employee privacy. Business use of e-mail has proliferated so rapidly that the federal and state legal systems have not been able to adequately address the issues arising out of its use in the workplace.

  13. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs. It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2 as well as the object (3 of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

  14. Legal and Policy Issues for LGBT Patients with Cancer or at Elevated Risk of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean R

    2018-02-01

    To understand the major legal and policy issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients. LGBT health policy research. Major policy issues include discrimination, lack of cultural competency and clinically appropriate care, insurance coverage, family recognition, and sexual orientation and gender identity data collection. Nurses play a major role in providing affirming and competent care to LGBT cancer patients. Using correct names and pronouns with transgender patients, and collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data can send an affirming message to LGBT patients, as well as inform decision support and preventive screenings, and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LEGAL ISSUES IN SHARI’A PAWN GOLD PRACTICE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastuti Abubakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years there is a trend of applying Islamic concept in Indonesia’s economic system and it has implications to existing legal system whereby new legal system should accommodate the changes. One of the institutions that uses both conventional and shari’a system in Indonesia is  pawning as an alternative financing mechanism, particularly for micro and consumption sectors. In practice, the function of pawning as financing instrument has shifted into investment by continuously doing pawning and buying. As a result, people who really need fund for financing are not facilitated.  The current regulation has allowed this practice for banks, pawnshops and financial institutions to offer pawn gold that is not for financing activity but for investment activity. Therefore, it raised  a question whether this activity is complying with the shari’a principles. What kind of regulations that can make the function of pawning back to its original purpose as financing mechanism. This study uses normative juridical approach by using secondary data from the legal resources, with specification of research methods using descriptive analysis whereas data are qualitatively described. The findings from this study reveal that the practice of pawning gold in Indonesia has not been fully consistent with the pawning function, therefore; it requires appropriate regulation so that the original function as the alternative financing for households and small medium enterprises (SMEs is not shifted to gold investment vehicles. Pawning gold is expected to be complementary to the businesses and households in terms of financing that cannot be fulfilled by the banks and other financial institutions.   Keywords: Pawn Gold, Legal Pawning, Shari’a

  16. [Legal and technical issues of formalin disposition in association with autopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M; Yoshida, K

    2001-07-01

    The Ministry of Public Welfare notified on the disposition of formalin, which was used in the histological examination in association with forensic or pathological autopsy. However, those who concerned on the issue had not known exactly how they dispose formalin. The news on the illegal disposition of formalin from our department drew attention to the legal disposition of formalin. These situations led us to investigate the legal and technical aspects of formalin disposition. We examined the legally-described methods such as oxidation, incineration and activated sludge processes and other methods such as formose, supercritical water oxidation, and wet oxidation processes. From legal point of view, we must process poisonous formaldehyde into non-poisonous products under the control of The Poisonous and Peleterious? Substances Control Law. Additionally, the products are under the control of The Sewage Water Law and Water Pollution Control Law, particularly in terms of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). After careful investigation, we tentatively conclude that incineration method is the best at present, though the supercritical oxidation and wet oxidation processes may be better in order to cope with the worldwide movement toward the control of environmental hormones and warm climate.

  17. Ethical issues raised by private practice physiotherapy are more diverse than first meets the eye: recommendations from a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Anne; Drolet, Marie-Josée; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapy in private practice differs from physiotherapy practised in a public setting in several ways, the most evident of which is the for-profit nature of private physiotherapy clinics; these differences can generate distinct and challenging ethical issues. The objectives of this article are to identify ethical issues encountered by physiotherapists in private practice settings and to identify potential solutions and recommendations to address these issues. After a literature search of eight databases, 39 studies addressing ethical issues in a private practice context were analyzed. A total of 25 ethical issues emerging from the included studies were classified into three main categories: (1) business and economic issues (e.g., conflicts of interests, inequity in a managed care context, lack of time affecting quality of care); (2) professional issues (e.g., professional autonomy, clinical judgment, treatment effectiveness, professional conduct); and (3) patients' rights and welfare issues (e.g., confidentiality, power asymmetries, paternalism vs. patient autonomy, informed consent). Recommendations as to how physiotherapists could better manage these issues were then identified and categorized. The physiotherapy community should reflect on the challenges raised by private practice so that professionals can be supported-through education, research, and good governance-in providing the best possible care for their patients.

  18. Review of legal and institutional issues in the use of decentralized solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1980-04-01

    The legal and institutional issues involved in the use of decentralized solar energy systems are examined for the purpose of advising government planners and policymakers, the solar industry, solar researchers, and prospective solar users of present and potential impediments and incentives to solar commercialization. This information was gathered primarily through a comprehensive literature review, with supplementary data provided through interviews with representatives of organizations active in the solar field. Five major issue areas were identified in the course of this study: (1) prohibitions on the use of solar equipment, (2) regulation of the production and placement of solar systems, (3) access to sunlight, (4) financial incentives and impediments to the use of solar technologies, and (5) the public utility-solar user interface. Each can be important in its impacts on the incidence of solar usage. The major actors involved with the issues identified above represent both the private and public sectors. Important private sector participants include solar manufacturers and installers, labor unions, lending institutions, utility companies, solar users themselves, and other community property owners. In the public sector, local, state, and federal governments are all capable of acting in ways that can influence the solar commercialization effort. Implementation options are available for all levels of government seeking to take an active role in addressing the previously mentioned legal and institutional issues. The appropriate actions will vary from federal to state to local governments, but each level can be important in removing existing barriers and creating new incentives for solar use.

  19. Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

    2014-06-01

    Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Legal issues in E-commerce and E-contract in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uarda Roshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development of e-commerce is an important element of national economy. Being a new important sector, e-commerce can only flourish where there is a good infrastructure, both legal and technological, which is attractive to consumers and business. So the need for rules and principles facilitating e-commerce has become increasingly evident, too. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the regulatory framework, legal issues and the challenges in the development of electronic commerce in Albania.

  1. Participation of Public Benefit Organizations in Income Tax – Financial and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musiałkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is a legal analysis of the participation of public benefit organizations in personal income tax. The author defines public benefit organizations, indicating the conditions that they need to meet in order to be able to participate in the personal income tax. Broad considerations relate to the analysis of the legal structure of the 1% tax deduction, its scope and the procedures for transfer of funds from the State budget to eligible entities. The article also presents the scale of the issues against the background of the practical functioning of the public finances. The article summarizes the reflection on the rationality and the essence of the transfer of public funds to public benefit organizations.

  2. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  3. Foreign and Foreign-Born Engineers in the United States: Infusing Talent, Raising Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    Immigrants have provided a transfusion of new talent throughout U.S. history to support the nation's economic and cultural growth and development. The absorption of these successive groups of immigrants has often been accompanied by issues associated with their integration into the work force and society. In recent years, there has been a marked…

  4. Turnitin.com: Teachers' Perspectives of Anti-Plagiarism Software in Raising Issues of Educational Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy; Carr, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    Issues of academic plagiarism in educational institutions are often played out in the public arena. Media reports that "scandals" occur in universities where plagiarism has gone undetected, or unpunished can undermine public faith in the academic integrity of higher education. Antiplagiarism software has been successfully marketed to…

  5. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Japan on the Determination of Blood Relationship via DNA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Waki

    2017-01-01

    DNA paternity testing has recently become more widely available in Japan. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues surrounding (1) the implementing agency, whether the testing is conducted in a commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) setting or a judicial non-DTC setting, and (2) the implementation conditions and more specifically the legal capacity of the proband (test subject). Literature research in Japanese and English was conducted. Some countries prohibit commercial DNA testing without the consent of the proband or her or his legally authorized representative. But as in some cases, the results of DTC paternity testing have proven to be unreliable. I propose a complete prohibition of DTC DNA paternity testing in Japan. In many cases of paternity testing, the proband is a minor. This has led to debate about whether proxy consent is sufficient for paternity testing or whether additional safeguards (such as a court order) are required. In cases where commercial DNA testing has been conducted and the test results are produced in court as evidence, the court must judge whether or not to admit these results as evidence. Another important issue is whether or not paternity testing should be legally mandated in certain cases. If we come to the conclusion that DNA test results are the only way to conclusively establish a parent-child relationship, then our society may prioritize even more genetic relatedness over other conceptions of a parent-child relationship. This prioritization could adversely affect families created through assisted reproductive technology (ART), especially in situations where children are not aware of their biological parentage. This paper argues for a complete prohibition of DTC DNA paternity testing in Japan, and highlights that broader ethical and legal deliberation on such genetic services is required.

  6. LLW Notes Supplement, May/June 1994: Ward Valley, California: Legal issues in summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Lovinger, T.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a digest of the major issues raised by the petitioners for the superior court's consideration and of the responses to those issues that were supplied by the state respondents. The issues have been extracted from a joint memorandum filed by the petitioners on March 9. The responses are taken from the state respondents' April 6 memorandum. The superior court's decision about the merit of each issue - as reported in the court's May 4 order - is also included. This information is necessarily summary in nature. Persons interested in a detailed explanation of these lawsuits are directed to the parties' memorandums of March 9 and April 6, as well as to the court's May 4 order

  7. Ethical, legal and social issues of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gordon; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Haynatzki, Gleb; Cook, Cynthia; O'Brien, Richard L; Houtz, Lynne E

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in exploring gene-environment interactions in the etiology of diseases in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Our experience working with the Sudanese immigrant population in Omaha, NE, makes clear the pressing need for geneticists and federal and local funding agencies to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research with such vulnerable populations. Our work raises several questions. How does one design research with African immigrant participants to assure it is ethical? Many immigrants may not understand the purposes, risks and benefits involved in research because of low literacy rates, one of the results of civil wars, or concepts of biologic science foreign to their cultures. Is it possible to obtain truly informed consent? Do African immigrants perceive genetic research using them as subjects as racist? Is genetic research on minorities "biopiracy" or "bio-colonialism?" In our experience, some Sudanese immigrants have challenged the legality and ethics of genetic studies with profit-making as an end. We have concluded that it is essential to educate African immigrant or any other non-English-speaking immigrant participants in research using lay language and graphic illustrations before obtaining consent. Cultural proficiency is important in gaining the trust of African immigrants; profit-sharing may encourage their participation in genetic research to benefit all; involvement of African immigrant community leaders in planning, delivery and evaluation using the community-based participatory research approach will facilitate healthcare promotion, health literacy education, as well as genetic research. It is crucial to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

  8. Responses to Issues Raised by Industry on Clean Air Act Implementation Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Iatrogenic splenic injury: review of the literature and medico-legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feola Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic splenic injury is a recognized complication in abdominal surgery. The aim of this paper is to understand the medico-legal issues of iatrogenic splenic injuries. We performed a literature review on PubMed and Scopus using iatrogenic splenic or spleen injury and iatrogenic splenic rupture as keywords. Iatrogenic splenic injury cases were identified. Most cases were related to colonoscopy, but we also identified cases related to upper gastrointestinal procedures, colonic surgery, ERCP, left nephrectomy and/or adrenalectomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, vascular operations involving the abdominal aorta, gynecological operation, left lung biopsy, chest drain, very rarely spinal surgery and even cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There are several surgical procedures that can lead to a splenic injury. However, from a medico-legal point of view, it is important to assess whether the cause can be attributed to a technical error of the operator rather than being an unpredictable and unpreventable complication. It is important for the medico-legal expert to have great knowledge on iatrogenic splenic injuries because it is important to evaluate every step of the first procedure performed, how a splenic injury is produced, and whether the correct treatment for the splenic injury was administered in a judgment.

  10. Iatrogenic splenic injury: review of the literature and medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, Alessandro; Niola, Massimo; Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Graziano, Vincenzo; Paternoster, Mariano; Pietra, Bruno Della

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic splenic injury is a recognized complication in abdominal surgery. The aim of this paper is to understand the medico-legal issues of iatrogenic splenic injuries. We performed a literature review on PubMed and Scopus using iatrogenic splenic or spleen injury and iatrogenic splenic rupture as keywords. Iatrogenic splenic injury cases were identified. Most cases were related to colonoscopy, but we also identified cases related to upper gastrointestinal procedures, colonic surgery, ERCP, left nephrectomy and/or adrenalectomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, vascular operations involving the abdominal aorta, gynecological operation, left lung biopsy, chest drain, very rarely spinal surgery and even cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There are several surgical procedures that can lead to a splenic injury. However, from a medico-legal point of view, it is important to assess whether the cause can be attributed to a technical error of the operator rather than being an unpredictable and unpreventable complication. It is important for the medico-legal expert to have great knowledge on iatrogenic splenic injuries because it is important to evaluate every step of the first procedure performed, how a splenic injury is produced, and whether the correct treatment for the splenic injury was administered in a judgment.

  11. Legal Issues Related to Donation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.

  12. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: issues raised when offering preterm infants of Muslim families donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.

  13. Public health at the vicinity of nuclear installations: how to address the raised issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchery, Jean-Claude; Leuregans, Vincent; Catelinois, Olivier; Chambon, Paul; Chenal, Christian; Demet, Michel; Demet, Valerie; Gazal, Suzanne; Laurier, Dominique; Morichaud, Jean-Pierre; Petitfrere, Michael; Rollinger, Francois; Sene, Monique

    2012-01-01

    This document is proposed by a work-group which gathered the IRSN, public local information commissions and the French Health Survey Institute (InVS). It is designed to be a methodological document on the benefits and limits of health analysis tools with respect to real situations. The first part discusses the implementation of a public health survey, its approach, its modalities and how its results are published. The second part deals with methodological issues for the definition of the specifications of a public health survey, and its protocol. Thus, it discusses how releases in the environment are to be addressed (releases from nuclear installations and from other activities involving radioactivity), the different pathologies to be studied, the existing health data and survey tools (mortality and cancer incidence data, medical-administrative data), and the possible survey types (descriptive or analytical epidemiological surveys) and their limitations

  14. When a patient refuses life-saving care: issues raised when treating a Jehovah's Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Megan L; Jenq, Grace Y; Brewster, Ursula C

    2011-10-01

    Patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses frequently cross the path of nephrologists when they are acutely ill in the intensive care unit and stable in the long-term setting. It is important that we as a group have a rudimentary understanding of their philosophy about blood transfusion so that we can be proactive in their management. We use a case as a launching point to discuss the origins of the faith and the decision to refuse blood, as well as potential therapeutic strategies that can be used to improve the care of these patients. Improvement in our understanding as physicians will facilitate a more productive conversation with our patients about a complex and emotional issue. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia part I--terminology and historical overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Under German criminal law, euthanasia assisted by the attending physician involves the risk of criminal prosecution. However, in the absence of clear legal provisions, the law concerning euthanasia has been primarily developed by court rulings and jurisprudential literature in the last 30 years. According to a traditional classification there are four categories of euthanasia: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. However, there is still no generally accepted definition for the general term "euthanasia". The development of the law on the permissibility of euthanasia was strongly influenced by the conflict between the right of self-determination of every human being guaranteed by the Constitution and the constitutional mandate of the state to protect and maintain human life. The decisions of the German Federal Court of Justice on euthanasia in the criminal trials "Wittig" (1984), "Kempten" (1994) and "Putz" (2010) as well as the ruling of the 12th Division for Civil Matters of the Federal Court of Justice (2003) are of special importance. Some of these decisions were significantly influenced by the discussions in the jurisprudential literature. However, the German Bundestag became active for the first time as late as in 2009 when it adopted the 3rd Guardianship Amendment Act, which also contains provisions on the legal validity of a living will independent of the nature and stage of an illness. In spite of the new law, an analysis of the "Putz" case makes it especially clear that the criminal aspects of legal issues at the end of a person's life still remain controversial. It is to be expected that this issue will remain the subject of intensive discussion also in the next few years.

  16. Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.

  17. International legal and political issues associated with the export/import of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear power can be achieved by most nations only through international commerce that has been shaped by political considerations and implemented through legal instruments. The end product is a structure of legal agreements designed to implement the basic political and commercial decisions that are required for any nation to enter the nuclear power arena. The IAEA Statute, the Non-Proliferation Treaty and regional nuclear agreements have reflected the international political consensus concerning nuclear power. In recent years, however, events have occurred that in all probability will result in additional international arrangements. It is expected that the increase in terrorist activities will result in greater physical protection commitments, that concern for weapons proliferation will result in further definition of sanctions, and that such troublesome issues as double labelling of materials will be discussed by the international community. In areas such as bilateral agreements between nations, commercial arrangements and export licences, this is a period of rethinking, renegotiating, and readjusting. The result is a degree of uncertainty and lack of stability that could so jeopardize the potential for nuclear transfers that the nuclear energy option may not vest. While there always will be questions and issues, it is essential to settle some of the key problems without delay so that nuclear benefits can be realized. (author)

  18. Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Raised by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    to the interpretation of a scene whether or not music is used diagetically or non-diagetically? How important is the role of the presence or absence of a musical soundtrack to a correct understanding of a scene? Is it of consequence whether or not the music is written specifically for a scene or is antecedently......Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Rasied by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film. When music occurs in the soundtrack of a film or television show, it can either be attributed to a source within the narrative, so that the characters can hear it, or it can...... be "background" music, available to the viewer, but not to the characters. In this presentation, we will explore the complex of issues related to meaning and interpretaiton raised by diagetic v non-diagetic use of music in television and film. Matters to be addressed include: How is it of significance...

  19. Learning Lessons from the Past: Legal Issues Arising from Ireland's Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Kilkelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inquiries have played an important role in telling the stories of children abused and neglected in Ireland in situations of family abuse, clerical abuse and institutional abuse. The inquiries – associated with the name of the chairperson (Ryan or by their geographical remit (Dublin, Ferns, Cloyne, Kilkenny and Roscommon – serve to vindicate the rights of the children affected and to identify the failure of the authorities to protect children from harm. They also make numerous recommendations as to how children’s treatment can be improved. Although each inquiry had varying terms of reference, scope and status, together they address a wide range of issues of both specific and general significance to the issue of child protection. Focus is clearly placed on how child protection practice can be improved but many of the inquiries also comment on the legal framework and make recommendations for the reform of various aspects of child protection law and policy. This paper argues that the legal implications of these inquiries can be reduced to three overarching issues: the legislative provision for the mandatory reporting of child abuse; the need for robust and effective inspection mechanisms to ensure the protection of children, and the issue of constitutional law reform. The analysis shows that these measures are neither straightforward nor a panacea to the intractable problem of providing effective protection to children from abuse. However, taken with the other recommendations identified in the child abuse reports, they represent the beginning of a lasting legacy for the victims of abuse so tragically failed by their families, by the state and by society at large.

  20. Ethical issues raised by the treatment of gender-variant prepubescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jack; Pula, Jack

    2014-09-01

    Transgender issues and transgender rights have become increasingly a matter of media attention and public policy debates. Reflecting changes in psychiatric perspectives, the diagnosis of "trans-sexualism" first appeared in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems in 1975 and shortly thereafter, in 1980, in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Since that time, international standards of care have been developed, and today those standards are followed by clinicians across diverse cultures. In many instances, treatment of older adolescents and adults is covered by national health care systems and, in some cases, by private health insurance. Most recently, the Medicare ban on coverage for gender reassignment surgery was lifted in 2014. In contrast to the relative lack of controversy about treating adolescents and adults, there is no expert clinical consensus regarding the treatment of prepubescent children who meet diagnostic criteria for what was referred to in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 as gender identity disorder in children and now in DSM-5 as gender dysphoria. One reason for the differing attitudes has to do with the pervasive nature of gender dysphoria in older adolescents and adults: it rarely desists, and so the treatment of choice is gender or sex reassignment. On the subject of treating children, however, as the World Professional Association for Transgender Health notes in their latest Standards of Care, gender dysphoria in childhood does not inevitably continue into adulthood, and only 6 to 23 percent of boys and 12 to 27 percent of girls treated in gender clinics showed persistence of their gender dysphoria into adulthood. Further, most of the boys' gender dysphoria desisted, and in adulthood, they identified as gay rather than as transgender. In an effort to clarify best treatment practices for transgender individuals, a recent American Psychiatric Association Task Force on the Treatment of

  1. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    theory and practice. Along with its usage in graduate and postgraduate education, "Climate" is used as a framework for a developed basic information course on climate change for common public. In this course basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are described for non-specialists. The course will also include links to relevant information resources on topical issues of Earth Sciences and a number of case studies, which are carried out for a selected region to consolidate the received knowledge.

  2. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: ethical and legal issues in feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Baird Schwartz, Denise; Posthauer, Mary Ellen

    2013-06-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians (RDs) should work collaboratively as part of the interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. RDs have an active role in determining the nutrition and hydration requirements for individuals throughout the life span. When individuals choose to forgo any type of nutrition and hydration (natural or artificial), or when individuals lack decision-making capacity and others must decide whether or not to provide artificial nutrition and hydration, RDs have a professional role in the ethical deliberation around those decisions. Across the life span, there are multiple instances when nutrition and hydration issues create ethical dilemmas. There is strong clinical, ethical, and legal support both for and against the administration of food and water when issues arise regarding what is or is not wanted by the individual and what is or is not warranted by empirical clinical evidence. When a conflict arises, the decision requires ethical deliberation. RDs' understanding of nutrition and hydration within the context of nutritional requirements and cultural, social, psychological, and spiritual needs provide an essential basis for ethical deliberation. RDs, as health care team members, have the responsibility to promote use of advanced directives. RDs promote the rights of the individual and help the health care team implement appropriate therapy. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AVIATION LEGAL ISSUES IN INDONESIA AND THAILAND: TOWARDS BETTER PASSENGERS’ RIGHTS IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Aditya Nugraha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aviation business in the ASEAN region has shown significant growth during the last decade. With the enactment of ASEAN Open Skies, there is no doubt that intra-ASEAN flights will continue to increase rapidly with Indonesia and Thailand experiencing significant effects from such development. Considering current rapid market capitalization, there is an urgency to establish equilibrium between commercial and passengers’ rights. Flight delays, cancellations, and denied boarding, either on domestic or international flights, are the main airline passengers’ rights issues that are always relevant and must be kept up-to-date with recent developments. In the context of the so-called integrated ASEAN skies, the urgency to establish a uniform legal framework on passengers’ rights has become essential. Learning from the current international legal framework, namely the Warsaw Convention, the Montreal Convention, and EU Regulation No. 261/2004, they could present the source of best solution. Considering that the latter was established by another regional initiative, it could be a particularly valuable guide for ASEAN, even though the current integration level of the EU and ASEAN are quite different. Also of importance, the bomb threat hoax phenomenon within Indonesia and Thailand shall also be discussed. Passengers’ rights must also be protected against the implications of such irresponsible acts.

  4. Ethical, legal and social issues in restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and suppression of identity in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    Human genetic identification has been increasingly associated with the preservation, defence and reparation of human rights, in particular the right to genetic identity. The Argentinian military dictatorship of 1976-1983 engaged in a savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance, torture, assassination and appropriation of children of the disappeared with suppression of their identity. The ethical, legal and social nuances in the use of forensic genetics to support the right to identity in Argentina included issues such as the best interest of children being raised by criminals, the right to learn the truth of one's origin and identity, rights of their biological families, the issue of voluntary versus compulsory testing of victims, as well as the duty of the state to investigate crimes against humanity, punish perpetrators and provide justice and reparation to the victims. In the 30 years following the return to democracy in 1984, the search, localization and DNA testing of disappeared children and young adults has led, so far, to the genetic identification of 116 persons who had been abducted as babies. The high value placed on DNA testing to identify victims of identity suppression did not conflict with the social consensus that personal identity is a complex and dynamic concept, attained by the interaction of genetics with historical, social, emotional, educational, cultural and other important environmental factors. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics within a developing set of ethical and political circumstances.

  5. Using the Emanuel et al. framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Physician unions--an ethical and legal issue in health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, B K

    2000-12-01

    The controversial issue of physicians' unions has been revived in the past few years by the economic juggernaut of managed care. The uproar of legal and ethical dilemmas surrounding the creation of physician unions centers around self-employed physicians, their formal employment relationship to HMOs under the National Labor Relations Act, and the ramifications of exempting physicians from current antitrust laws. Will physician collective bargaining increase competition and equalize the power between physicians and HMOs so that the quality of patient care improves? This report discusses relevant laws and the history of physicians' unionization, reviews contemporary thought and present policies on physician unionization, and comments on alternatives and new policies that could be created in order to resolve this dilemma.

  7. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Witten, Karen

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. In retrospect stakeholders questioned the decision to approve strong synthetic cannabinoid smoking products, noting their health risks because of product formulation, inconsistent manufacturing practices and smoking as the means of administration. Industry actors claimed the decision to approve synthetic cannabinoid smokeable products prevented potentially safer products from gaining market share. The system for withdrawing approved products which were subsequently found to be harmful was criticised for the poor quality of data available, limited engagement with health professionals and the slowness of product withdrawal. Many of the problems with the regime were attributed to the urgency under which the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act was established and implemented. The selection of 'safer' products, implementation of the product monitoring system, and engagement with health professionals may have benefited from more time and resources. An incremental approach to establishing the new market may have made the regulatory management of the new regime more workable. [Rychert M, Wilkins C, Witten K. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  9. Outsourcing medical data analyses: can technology overcome legal, privacy, and confidentiality issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumen, Bostjan; Heričko, Marjan; Sevčnikar, Andrej; Završnik, Jernej; Hölbl, Marko

    2013-12-16

    Medical data are gold mines for deriving the knowledge that could change the course of a single patient's life or even the health of the entire population. A data analyst needs to have full access to relevant data, but full access may be denied by privacy and confidentiality of medical data legal regulations, especially when the data analyst is not affiliated with the data owner. Our first objective was to analyze the privacy and confidentiality issues and the associated regulations pertaining to medical data, and to identify technologies to properly address these issues. Our second objective was to develop a procedure to protect medical data in such a way that the outsourced analyst would be capable of doing analyses on protected data and the results would be comparable, if not the same, as if they had been done on the original data. Specifically, our hypothesis was there would not be a difference between the outsourced decision trees built on encrypted data and the ones built on original data. Using formal definitions, we developed an algorithm to protect medical data for outsourced analyses. The algorithm was applied to publicly available datasets (N=30) from the medical and life sciences fields. The analyses were performed on the original and the protected datasets and the results of the analyses were compared. Bootstrapped paired t tests for 2 dependent samples were used to test whether the mean differences in size, number of leaves, and the accuracy of the original and the encrypted decision trees were significantly different. The decision trees built on encrypted data were virtually the same as those built on original data. Out of 30 datasets, 100% of the trees had identical accuracy. The size of a tree and the number of leaves was different only once (1/30, 3%, P=.19). The proposed algorithm encrypts a file with plain text medical data into an encrypted file with the data protected in such a way that external data analyses are still possible. The results

  10. U.S. financing for international independent power production projects: Legal and business issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, J.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental changes are occurring in the capital and project development markets both domestically and internationally. In the United States, the capital market has undergone dramatic changes recently, characterized by clubbed debt structures, uncertain pricing spreads, and declining leverage ratios. In response, project sponsors and their investment bankers have created innovative debt and equity structures to attract investors while at the same time minimizing project risk and preserving the flexibility for the project to operate optimally. The structure of a project financing, either U.S. or international, will vary depending on (1) the differing project management/control concerns, financial goals and risk profiles of the developer, equipment and fuel suppliers, bank lenders and equity sources, (2) regulatory issues, such as compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) in the U.S. and similar national utility legislation in the host foreign country, and (3) the tax implications of a given structure to the project owner, lender, and equity supplier. In response to these investor-specific goals and/or constraints, various forms of project structures have been developed. The focus of this paper is on legal and business issues which arise in international project finance, using U.S.project finance as a model that expresses the risk profile that U.S. financial institutions are accustomed to and overlaying the unique risks that are added to project financing which are international in nature

  11. Evolving legal framework of corporate governance in India – issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar GUPTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investors now started considering corporate governance as very essential factor before investment especially in view of the unstable environment in the securities market. It is considered that good corporate governance inspires, strengthens and maintains investor’s confidence by ensuring company’s commitment to higher growth and profits. Corporate Governance has become a major concern for global economies particularly the transition world. Sound corporate governance is extremely important for transition economies for creation of the key institutions, the private corporations, which drive the successful economic transformation to a market based economy, effective allocation of capital and development of financial markets, attracting foreign investment and making a contribution to the process of national development. The Corporate Governance issue has emerged primarily because of the growing importance of corporations in the national economies and their interaction with the international agencies and institutions. This paper presents the current scenario of corporate governance in India, the evolving legal framework and identified the major issues and challenges that need to be addressed to implement an effective system of corporate governance in India.

  12. Procurement activities required by the nuclear program developed by nuclearelectrica national company- technical issues versus public acquisitions legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatamanu, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    Public procurement is one of the areas of the single market where the results of the liberalization drive have not yet measured up to expectations. This communication presents some technical issues versus public acquisition legal issues and suggests ways and means of improving contract award procedures. Procurement area includes the acquisition of goods, services and works, thus assumption not only for purchasing equipment, components, spare-parts or materials, but also hiring of the contractors or consultants to carry out services and works. Procurement is related to the function of management of supply, which encompasses aside range of planning function, coding and classification, stockholding policies, store-keeping, stores accounting, etc. but it is also related to the hiring of contractors or consultants for work or services. As an answer to the challenge of the increasing market globalization it has been developed the ISO quality system, within 9000 family of standards. The very intensive competition for all market clients, either locally or globally, encouraged development of a new concept of quality management systems. Due to its specificity of activity and with respect to the rules and legislation requirements imposed either by the internal Romanian Laws and Regulations or/and by international market rules and constrains, the development, construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant shall be performed in a controlled condition and based on specific authorizations obtained by the Owner of the NPP from the Romanian Regulatory Authorities. The experience, accumulated by over 10 years of operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 by our company, demonstrates the high importance of the Quality Management System that imposes the quality of the components installed on the plant, the services and the works developed to assure a safety operation of the nuclear unit, with a strongly dependence by the procurement system established for purchasing of goods, services and

  13. The Use of Ascorbic Acid as a Food Additive: Technical-Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvara, Michele; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Celano, Giuseppe; Disanto, Chiara; Pagliarone, Cosimo Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is an organic compound belonging to the family of monosaccharide. It is highly soluble in water, and is often called one of the secrets of the Mediterranean diet. Its use is widespread in the food industry is also important, having always been exploited for its antioxidant and stabilising ability. Many indeed are the additive formulations that take advantage of these properties. The purpose of this paper is to explain the characteristics that make ascorbic acid an important food additive and to emphasise the technical and legal issues related to its use in food productions. In particular, in the course of this employment, laws and scientific studies have been applied to the resolution of a lawsuit, having as its object the use of ascorbic acid in preparations of ground beef sold at a butcher shop. The views expressed in court by the technical consultant have led to the acquittal of the accused, in the light of the demonstrated and proven non-toxicity of the molecule and the use of a mixture of additives for the production of sausage. The European and national legislations, supported by numerous scientific studies, define the possible use of ascorbic acid according to the principle of quantum satis, and it can be used in foods for children. Our work aims to represent further evidence of the safety of use of ascorbic acid as a food additive, and – as confirmed by the legal decision reported – it wants to bring out the prospects for use of ascorbic acid for technological purposes even by registered establishments. PMID:27800425

  14. [Legal and medico-legal issues in adolescent medicine. A critical review of the present regulation and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R

    2001-02-01

    During the last years the Italian Government has taken many different initiatives to protect the adolescents rights to benefit from physical, psychical and social well-being. In particular, various projects concerning the promotion and the support of the school, the family, sport, mass-media, judicial and medical infrastructures, have been organised, promoted and financed. However, it is not always possible to assure a real safeguarding of teenagers rights; this especially happens because the problem concerning the autonomous capacity of minors to consent (or non consent) to the medical treatment is much debated. However, many contradictions still persist about the effective duration of the pediatric age. All the same, it must be noted that the Legislator apparently realised that not only the physical, psychological and social maturity proceed by steps, but also the legal capacity.

  15. Legal and Institutional Issues of Transportable Nuclear Power Plants: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    jointly the international and national actions required for ensuring the sustainability of nuclear energy through innovations in technology and/or institutional arrangements. A transportable nuclear power plant (TNPP) is a factory manufactured, transportable and relocatable nuclear power plant which, when fuelled, is capable of producing final energy products such as electricity and heat. Introducing a TNPP may require fewer financial and human resources from the host State. However, the deployment of such reactors will face new legal issues in the international context which need to be resolved to enable the deployment of such reactors in countries other than the country of origin. The objective of this report is to study the legal and institutional issues for the deployment of TNPPs, to reveal challenges that might be faced in their deployment, and to outline pathways for resolution of the identified issues and challenges in the short and long terms. It is addressed to senior legal, regulatory and technical officers in Member States planning to embark on a nuclear power programme or to expand an existing one by considering the introduction of a TNPP

  16. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  17. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel

  18. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Water Framework Directive : Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting water quality under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  19. Harassment, Bullying, and Discrimination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Legal Issues for North Carolina Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Will

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to inform students, parents, school personnel, and officials of the legal issues related to harassment, bullying, and discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. This report describes existing research on the current school climate for LGBT youth as well as the harmful effects of…

  20. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Habitats and Birds Directives: Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting habitats and species under the Habitats and Birds Directives, versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  1. Cloning: A Review on Bioethics, Legal, Jurisprudence and Regenerative Issues in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nabavizadeh, Seyedeh Leila; Mehrabani, Davood; Vahedi, Zabihallah; Manafi, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law...

  2. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders in the development of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) is to ensure the safe disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste. In order to fulfil this task RAWRA, in addition to the operation of radioactive waste repositories in the Czech Republic, coordinates all those activities relating to the construction of a deep geological repository. This long-term goal implies first creating and then building upon the public's confidence in the decision making process and the project as a whole as well as in RAWRA as a competent and efficient implementer since clearly public acceptance is an essential condition for a successful final outcome. Since its establishment in 1997 RAWRA has been looking for ways in which to inform the public about its activities and how to involve the various stakeholders in the development process. The communication tools employed to achieve this goal have, to date, depended on the specific stage of the process but RAWRA has aimed at a continuous improvement in its activities; consequently a large number of changes have been made to RAWRA's policy and approach in recent years. This paper, which aims to describe RAWRA's dialogue with stakeholders (mainly local communities), provides examples of the way in which issues raised by stakeholders concerning a repository are reflected in RAWRA's approach. (author)

  3. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Historical, Ethical, and Legal Issues Associated With Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration. PMID:25031978

  4. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-01-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable populations grows as advances in biomarker technology make the identification of genetic predisposition and susceptibility markers of both exposure and outcome more attainable. In this article, the principles derived from the ethical theory of utilitarianism provide the basis for principle-based ethical analysis. In addition, the four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social justice--are considered for biomarker studies. The need for a context in which ethical analysis is conducted and from which prevailing social values are shown to drive decisions of an ethical nature is emphasized; these include statutory regulation and law. Because biomarker studies can result in more harm than good, special precautions to inform research participants prior to any involvement in the use of biomarkers are needed. In addition, safeguards to maintain the privacy of data derived from biomarker studies must be developed and implemented prior to the application of these new technologies. Guidelines must be expanded to incorporate ethical, social, and legal considerations surrounding the introduction of new technologies for studying susceptible populations and individuals who may be vulnerable to environmental exposures. PMID:9255569

  5. Traumatic spinal cord injuries – epidemiologic and medico-legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanganu Bianca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries represent a special category of injuries in traumatic pathology, with high morbidity and mortality, which justify their analysis with the aim to identify useful aspects in order to prevent and treat them. We therefore performed a retrospective study on 426 cases in order to analyze epidemiology and medico-legal issues related to spinal cord injuries. The studied items regarded socio-demographic aspects (gender, age, home region, type of lesions (vertebral, spinal cord, association with other trauma, circumstances leading to trauma (cause of the injury, season, data regarding hospitalization (medical condition at the hospital admission, number of days of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, imaging exploration level and data resulting from autopsy (diagnosis, toxicological examination. Most of our results are consistent with literature data, except for some epidemiological items, which might be explained with cultural differences, life style and inhomogeneous population. Based on our results, the general conclusion is the need for prevention campaigns, focusing on road traffic accidents and falls (especially in elderly as the main causes of spinal cord injuries.

  6. Intimate partner violence: counseling, community resources, and legal issues for IPV victims and perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    The family physician's office is a potentially safe place to discuss intimate partner violence (IPV). RADAR (Remember to ask routinely, Ask directly [in private], Document findings, Assess safety, Review options) is a tool for identifying and responding to IPV. Physicians should ask permission to document abuse, consider using a body map, and ensure confidentiality. They should also assess immediate safety by asking about weapons in the home, children's safety, and the likelihood that the perpetrator will harm him- or herself or others. Federal privacy laws require physicians to inform patients about health information disclosure. Because mandatory reporting varies by state, physicians should communicate clearly the office's responsibilities. Interventions are based on an advocacy model that requires appropriate training and establishment of links to community-based resources. Brief advocacy includes providing information cards, whereas intensive intervention includes IPV education, danger assessment, prevention options, safety planning, and community referrals. The Stages of Change Model may help physicians understand a patient's readiness and ability to make a change. For the IPV survivor who has left an abusive partner, physicians should be aware of the challenges of safety, health, legal, and financial issues; protection orders are a possible safety strategy. The most common intervention for perpetrators is a batterer intervention program. Couples counseling by family physicians is contraindicated. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  8. Changes in minors’ gambling on slot machines in Finland after the raising of the minimum legal gambling age from 15 to 18 years: A repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisamo Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM – The legal gambling age in Finland was raised from 15 to 18 years in 2010, but slot machines were given a transition period that ended with the full law coming into effect on 1 July 2011. The widespread accessibility of slot machines and their popularity among youth led us to consider how age limit was enforced in the Finnish gambling monopoly system and to analyse how underage gambling on slot machines changed after the raising of the minimum age.

  9. Novel shifts in memory research and their impact on the legal process: introduction to the special issue on memory formation and suggestibility in the legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Petrila, John P

    2013-01-01

    The functioning and frailties of memory are frequently at the centerpiece of much expert testimony about the reliability of eyewitness accounts. Although we have much knowledge about how false memories and suggestibility can affect testimonies, the contributions in this special issue show that when using a sound theoretical framework, novel directions in this field can surface. The papers in this issue can broadly be divided into contributions that are related to: (1) the exact determinants of false memory and suggestibility; (2) new paradigms in legal psychology; (3) positive consequences of memory illusions; and (4) developmental false memory research. Collectively, these contributions have the potential to provide novel shifts in memory research and push this field beyond its current boundaries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory.

  11. Legal Handbook on School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…

  12. Linked health data for pharmacovigilance in children: perceived legal and ethical issues for stakeholders and data guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Yvonne Marina; Bond, Christine B; Francis, Jill J; Haughney, John; Helms, Peter J

    2014-02-12

    The inclusion of the Community Health Index in the recording of National Health Service (NHS) contacts in Scotland facilitates national linkage of data such as prescribing and healthcare utilisation. This linkage could be the basis for identification of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to report the views of healthcare professionals on data sharing, ownership and the legal and other applicable frameworks relevant to linkage of routinely collected paediatric healthcare data. Qualitative study using semistructured face-to-face interviews addressing the study aims. Purposive sample of professional stakeholders (n=25) including experts on ethics, data protection, pharmacovigilance, data linkage, legal issues and prescribing. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed using a framework approach. Participants identified existing data sharing systems in the UK. Access to healthcare data should be approved by the data owners. The definition of data ownership and associated legal responsibilities for linked healthcare data were seen as important factors to ensure accountability for the use of linked data. Yet data owners were seen as facilitators of the proposed data linkage. Twelve frameworks (legal, regulatory and governance) applicable to the linkage of healthcare data were identified. A large number of potentially relevant legal and regulatory frameworks were identified. Ownership of the linked data was seen as an extension of responsibility for, or guardianship of, the source datasets. The consensus emerging from the present study was that clarity is required on the definition of data sharing, data ownership and responsibilities of data owners.

  13. [Information on legal issues in health technologies: methodological proposal to identify them in a systematic and comprehensible manner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Sigrid; Rixen, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Rules and regulations form the framework of Health Technology Assessments. Legal issues are directly associated with the technology (as patents/licenses) or to the patients and their basic rights (as autonomy). In order to identify the regulations of interest as well as the relevant publications in a systematic and transparent way a specific methodological approach is required. In the absence of adapted methods, our objective was to develop a methodological approach to the systematic retrieval of information on legal issues. No publications on adapted methods could be identified. We therefore developed a procedure following the workflow of information retrieval for effectiveness assessments. This workflow consists of 8 steps: 0. pre-search: identification of the relevant rules, regulations and patient-related issues, 1. translation of the search question, 2. concept building, 3. identification of synonyms, 4. selection of relevant information sources, 5. design of the search strategies, 6. execution and quality check, 7. saving the results and reporting. There are numerous publications on legal issues associated with health technologies. Specifically adapted procedures are qualified to identify them in a systematic and transparent manner using the appropriate sensitivity and precision. A wider application seems to be reasonable in order to further test its practicality against more topics and to modify the proposed method if indicated. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Social media in the health-care setting: benefits but also a minefield of compliance and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Richard E; McNeese, Libra G; Feld, Lauren D; Feld, Andrew D

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the past 20 years, the rising use of social media has revolutionized health care as well as other businesses. It allows large groups of people to create and share information, ideas, and experiences through online communications, and develop social and professional contacts easily and inexpensively. Our Gastroenterology organizations, among others, have embraced this technology. Although the health-care benefits may be many, social media must be viewed through a legal lens, recognizing the accompanying burdens of compliance, ethical, and litigation issues. Theories of liability and risk continue to evolve as does the technology. Social media usage within the medical community is fraught with potential legal issues, requiring remedial responses to meet patients' needs and comply with current laws, while not exposing physicians to medical malpractice and other tort risks.

  15. Methodological, political and legal issues in the assessment of the effects of nanotechnology on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Schulte, Paul A; Riediker, Michael; Fatkhutdinova, Liliya; Bergamaschi, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raise questions among the scientific community and public health authorities about their potential risks to human health. Studying a prospective cohort of workers exposed to ENMs would be considered the gold standard for identifying potential health effects of nanotechnology and confirming the 'no effect' levels derived from cellular and animal models. However, because only small, cross-sectional studies have been conducted in the past 5 years, questions remain about the health risks of ENMs. This essay addresses the scientific, methodological, political and regulatory issues that make epidemiological research in nanotechnology-exposed communities particularly complex. Scientific challenges include the array of physicochemical parameters and ENM production conditions, the lack of universally accepted definitions of ENMs and nanotechnology workers, and the lack of information about modes of action, target organs and likely dose-response functions of ENMs. Standardisation of data collection and harmonisation of research protocols are needed to eliminate misclassification of exposures and health effects. Forming ENM worker cohorts from a combination of smaller cohorts and overcoming selection bias are also challenges. National or international registries for monitoring the exposures and health of ENM workers would be helpful for epidemiological studies, but the creation of such a registry and ENM worker cohorts will require political support and dedicated funding at the national and international levels. Public authorities and health agencies should consider carrying out an ENM awareness campaign to educate and engage all stakeholders and concerned communities in discussion of such a project. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The Child Abuse Matter and the Major Role Played by the Teacher: Issues Raised by a Pilot Focus Group Sample of Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalaki, Elena

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of attention is now being paid to issues raised by child abuse. Recent reports, enquiries and relevant agencies have all recognized the important role played by teachers in aiding the detection and prevention of child abuse, due to their close everyday contact with children. The result of the ideas presented in the present work was…

  17. Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Health Technology Assessment for Prenatal/Preconceptional and Newborn Screening: A Workshop Report

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, B.K.; Avard, D.; Entwistle, V.; Kennedy, C.; Chakraborty, P.; McGuire, M.; Wilson, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening programs have been a focus of recent policy debates that have included attention to ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSIs). In parallel, there has been an ongoing discussion about whether and how ELSIs may be addressed in health technology assessment (HTA). We conducted a knowledge synthesis study to explore both guidance and current practice regarding the consideration of ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening. As the...

  18. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  19. Reducing the Density and Number of Tobacco Retailers: Policy Solutions and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-02-01

    Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy

  20. Legal clinic gender sensitive method for law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.

  1. Legal aspects of biobanking as key issues for personalized medicine & translational exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    This perspective article, which has is cuyrrently undergoing peer review by the medical journal “Personalized Medicine”, deals with the legal aspects of biobanking and points towards the concerns, interest, and choices that should be considered when establishing and operating a biobank. It focuses...... the legal framework for biobanking and in particular for the challenges posed by PM. We conclude that any decisions as to the design of the regulatory environment should follow a process that takes account of the values, hopes and concerns of all stakeholders involved. In particular, we stress...

  2. Insulin Administration in Catholic Schools: A New Look at Legal and Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…

  3. Forcing the few: Issues from the South African Reserve Bank's legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SA Reserve Bank is a public company with shareholders in terms of the South African Reserve Bank Act, No. 90 of 1989 (Republic of South Africa 1989). This article considers shareholding in the SA Reserve Bank against the background of legislative amendments promulgated in 2010 and legal action instituted by the ...

  4. The no-nonsense guide to legal issues in web 2.0 and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Oppenheim, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Offers an advice on getting the most out of web 2.0 and cloud computing. This book features practical working tool that makes the relevant legal principles simple to understand for those with little or no experience and common problems quick to solve when you're struggling with daily deadlines.

  5. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  6. Brain imaging tests for chronic pain: medical, legal and ethical issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen D; Flor, Herta; Greely, Henry T; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Mackey, Sean; Ploner, Markus; Pustilnik, Amanda; Tracey, Irene; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Wager, Tor D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic pain is the greatest source of disability globally and claims related to chronic pain feature in many insurance and medico-legal cases. Brain imaging (for example, functional MRI, PET, EEG and magnetoencephalography) is widely considered to have potential for diagnosis, prognostication, and prediction of treatment outcome in patients with chronic pain. In this Consensus Statement, a presidential task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain examines the capabilities of brain imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pain, and the ethical and legal implications of its use in this way. The task force emphasizes that the use of brain imaging in this context is in a discovery phase, but has the potential to increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of chronic pain, inform the development of therapeutic agents, and predict treatment outcomes for use in personalized pain management. The task force proposes standards of evidence that must be satisfied before any brain imaging measure can be considered suitable for clinical or legal purposes. The admissibility of such evidence in legal cases also strongly depends on laws that vary between jurisdictions. For these reasons, the task force concludes that the use of brain imaging findings to support or dispute a claim of chronic pain - effectively as a pain lie detector - is not warranted, but that imaging should be used to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain.

  7. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers' perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers' legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients' control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale.

  8. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers’ perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers’ legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients’ control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale. PMID:27755563

  9. LEGAL ISSUES IN THE ANNULMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL AWARD IN THE HIMPURNA AND KARAHA BODAS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Nurhayati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement of international arbitral award in Indonesia is still lacking. Some annulments of the award have occurred in Indonesia. The Himpurna and Karaha Bodas are two notorious cases that show the annulment of the international arbitral awards by a court in Indonesia. However, several legal issues have arisen on this annulment, because the judges in their decision relied on a wrong interpretation to the provision of the United Nation Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards 1958 (the New York Convention, and the parties agreement. This paper will analyse the error of the Indonesian court in annulling the Himpurna and Karaha Bodas awards. This paper will then demonstrate the judges’ misinterpretation to the New York Convention provision concerning refusal and annulment of foreign arbitral award. This paper ultimately will suggest how to create a proper legal environment in Indonesia to apply international arbitration.

  10. Limiting youth access to tobacco: comparing the long-term health impacts of increasing cigarette excise taxes and raising the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John

    2007-03-01

    Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes.

  11. Exploring Contemporary Legal Issues in Schools from a Social Justice Frame: The Need for Ongoing Professional Development and Training for Practicing Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, David A.; Perreault, George; Sparkman, William; Thornton, Billy W.; Barclay, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Most educational leadership preparation programs include classes designed to provide a broad survey of legal issues in the profession. Soon after these future leaders complete course requirements, their knowledge base can be outdated. We discuss, through relevant research along with theoretical and actual case studies, contemporary legal issues…

  12. Legal and ethical issues of using brain imaging to diagnose pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Davis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pain, by definition, is a subjective experience, and as such its presence has usually been based on a self-report. However, limitations of self-reports for pain diagnostics, particularly for legal and insurance purposes, has led some to consider a brain-imaging–based objective measure of pain. This review will provide an overview of (1 differences between pain and nociception, (2 intersubject variability in pain perception and the associated brain structures and functional circuits, and (3 capabilities and limitations of current brain-imaging technologies. I then discuss how these factors impact objective proxies of pain. Finally, the ethical, privacy, and legal implications of a brain-imaging–based objective measure of pain are considered as potential future technological developments necessary to create a so-called “painometer test.”

  13. Bite marks in forensic dentistry: a review of legal, scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, B R

    1995-02-01

    Bite marks are an important and sometimes controversial aspect of forensic odontology. The discipline has recently received considerable attention in the media and in scientific realms. Although there are many cases in which bite mark evidence has been critical to the conviction or exoneration of criminal defendants, there is continuing dispute over its interpretation and analysis. This article explores the legal and scientific basis of bite mark evidence.

  14. Practitioner-Raised Issues and End-of-Life Care for Adults with Down Syndrome and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The author interviewed a small group of practitioners working in intellectual disability and palliative care settings about their perceptions of a number of end-of-life issues related to people with Down syndrome who were affected by dementia. The study, which took place in Scotland, identified a number of issues and perceptions expressed by the…

  15. Cloning: A Review on Bioethics, Legal, Jurisprudence and Regenerative Issues in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyedeh Leila; Mehrabani, Davood; Vahedi, Zabihallah; Manafi, Farzad

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful. Of course, it should be taken into accounts that all are possible if the religion orders human cloning in the view of jurisprudence and is considered as permission. In other words, although the religious order on human cloning can be an absolute permission based on the strong principle of permission, it is not unlikely that in the future, corruption is proved to be real for them, Jurists rule it as secondary sanctity and even as primary one. If it is proved, the phenomenon is considered as example of required affairs based on creation of ethical, social and medical disorders, religious and ethical rulings cannot be as permission for it, and it seems that it is a point that only one case can be a response to it and it needs nothing but time.

  16. Cloning: A Review on Bioethics, Legal, Jurisprudence and Regenerative Issues in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyedeh Leila; Mehrabani, Davood; Vahedi, Zabihallah; Manafi, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful. Of course, it should be taken into accounts that all are possible if the religion orders human cloning in the view of jurisprudence and is considered as permission. In other words, although the religious order on human cloning can be an absolute permission based on the strong principle of permission, it is not unlikely that in the future, corruption is proved to be real for them, Jurists rule it as secondary sanctity and even as primary one. If it is proved, the phenomenon is considered as example of required affairs based on creation of ethical, social and medical disorders, religious and ethical rulings cannot be as permission for it, and it seems that it is a point that only one case can be a response to it and it needs nothing but time. PMID:27853684

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research - a South African perspective. A Dhai, J Moodley, D J McQuoid-Mason, C Rodeck. Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological ...

  18. Ethical and legal issues involved in the pro-active collection of personal information with the aim of reducing online disclosure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available aims to highlight some of the major ethical and legal issues when pro-actively collecting personal information, through a South African case study, to assist in reducing the amounts of personal information being disclosed online....

  19. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Legal and regulatory issues regarding classification and disposal of wastes from actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of actinide radioelements in spent nuclear fuel from civilian power reactors is potentially attractive because the resulting wastes might be acceptable for disposal using systems which are considerably less costly than a deep geologic repository. At present, there are no legal or regulatory prohibitions to seeking alternatives to a geologic repository for disposal of such wastes. However, additional laws and regulations would be needed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been reluctant to alter the current framework for radioactive waste management, in which geologic repositories or near-surface facilities are the only disposal options established in law and regulations unless a compelling need for alternatives with intermediate waste-isolation capabilities is demonstrated. There are also important technical considerations which are not encouraging with regard to the development of intermediate disposal systems for wastes from partitioning and transmutation of actinides in civilian spent fuel. First, the wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products. Second, defense reprocessing wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides. Thus, in developing the legal and regulatory framework for alternative disposal systems, there is a need to establish maximum concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides that would be acceptable for intermediate disposal. 19 refs

  1. BOT Contract through the optics of Albanian legal provisions - Issues of the implementation and transfer framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entela Prifti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The last years have resulted in an increase of concession contracts in Albania, followed by a revised modern legal framework. Beside the debate on whether the government should perform most of the activities itself instead of giving them to the private sector through a concession contract, the concession contracts are nowadays a reality and as such they should be studied and analysed carefully. The scope of this article is limited to the provisions of the Albanian legislation and its approach to the international provisions regarding BOT (build – operate - transfer concession contract. A detailed analyse will drive to the conclusionas to what extent the Albanian concession legislation does compile with the international accepted principles of Public Private Partnership concerning mainly implementation and transfer phase of a BOT contract. Albanian Public Private Partnershiplegislation has gone through many revisions and amendments during the last twenty years, resulting in a challenging situation for everybody that deals with any aspects of a concession. Having a detailed understanding of the legal provisions is indeed the core element toward a successful implementation process of any concession, resulting in the highest profitability for concession parties, the public entity and the private investor, and consequently culminating to the best interest of the population.

  2. On the Issue of Legal Regulations of Criminal Responsibility for Pedophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors focus on the issues of criminal law regulation responsibility for crimes against sexual integrity of minors. Here are submitted for consideration the problematic crimes qualification issues and offered the ways of their solution by the enforcer before making the appropriate alterations in the criminal legislation, or official clarification of the Plenum of the RF Supreme Court

  3. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  4. Ethical and legal issues arising from complex genetic disorders. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Lori

    2002-10-09

    The project analyzed the challenges raised by complex genetic disorders in genetic counselling, for clinical practice, for public health, for quality assurance, and for protection against discrimination. The research found that, in some settings, solutions created in the context of single gene disorders are more difficult to apply to complex disorders. In other settings, the single gene solutions actually backfired and created additional problems when applied to complex genetic disorders. The literature of five common, complex genetic disorders--Alzheimer's, asthma, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and psychiatric illnesses--was evaluated in depth.

  5. Medical and legal issues related to brachial plexus injuries in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAbee, Gary N; Ciervo, Carman

    2006-04-01

    Injuries to the brachial plexus in neonates present a malpractice dilemma not only for physicians who provide obstetric care, but also for those who administer immediate postnatal treatment for newborns who have these injuries and comorbid medical conditions. Although trauma remains the probable etiology for many brachial plexus injuries, other, nontraumatic etiologies need to be considered. The authors review current medical and legal principles related to brachial plexus injuries-principles that are of concern to all practitioners who provide obstetric and newborn care. They also make a number of recommendations for practitioners to reduce the risk of malpractice lawsuits related to these injuries. Among these recommendations are increasing one's awareness of nontraumatic origins; making sure that appropriate testing (eg, electromyography) is performed for infants whose conditions fail to improve within several months after birth; and taking a proactive role in discussing brachial plexus injuries with patients' families.

  6. Confidentiality in genetic testing: legal and ethical issues in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, B M

    1993-01-01

    This comparative legal study on confidentiality in genetic testing examines three levels of communication of genetic information: the personal; the familial; and the institutional third parties. At the first two levels, it is argued that the approach is one that recognizes genetic individuality and reciprocity within the physician-patient relationship without legislative interference. This stands in contrast to the possible use of genetic information by economic third parties or, even, that of the state with respect to the DNA profiling of the genetic identity of criminals, the approach for both areas being the promulgation of 'genetic-specific' or human rights legislation with the hope of preventing discrimination. This rush to constrain the impact of genetic information through legislation is criticized since it may well lead to further stigmatization. The author proposes the promotion of the concept of genetic privacy within the broader rubric of informational self-determination.

  7. The ethical and medico-legal issues of trauma care | Hardcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ethical issues confront trauma clinicians on a daily basis. This article highlights the similarities of trauma ethical dilemmas to those faced by other emergency care providers and takes the reader through the inpatient aspects of trauma care.

  8. Legal issues relating to the use of surrogate mothers in the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Moral and Legal Issues Surrounding Terminal Sedation and Physician Assisted Suicide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradley, Constance

    2002-01-01

    Assisted suicide has been an issue for terminally ill patients for many years. This is because patients who suffer from terminal illnesses are forced to make difficult choices at the end of their lives...

  10. Illegal formation (creation, reorganization of a juridical person: issues of qualification and legal regulation of liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Aleksandrovna Egorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the disposition of part 1 of Article 173.1 of the Russian Criminal Code and comments to this Article to identify their shortcomings to consider problems of practical application of Article 173.1 and to formulate proposals on legislation improvement aimed at increasing the efficiency of counteraction to illegal formation of a juridical person. Methods a combination of general scientific induction deduction analysis and synthesis and specific scientific formallegal comparative legal sociological content analysis methods. Results the paper proposes an analysis of Article 173.1 of the Criminal Code and the current state of law enforcement practice on criminal cases concerning the illegal formation creation reorganization of a juridical person. Basing on empirical material the authors show the problems in classification of these crimes. The authors conclude that the unsatisfactory results of the struggle against quotshortlivedquot companies result mainly from the imperfection of the existing criminal law and prove the need for decriminalization of these crimes simultaneously establishing administrative liability for such acts and excepting Article 173.1 from the Criminal Code or changing its content. Scientific novelty basing on the existing legal norms modern scientific literature on the topic and materials on applying Article 173.1 of the Russian Criminal Code the article studies the signs of illegal formation creation reorganization of a juridical person which cause the greatest difficulties in the crime qualification and sets out the author39s proposals on legislation improvement in particular an exemplary article of the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation on formation creation reorganization of quotshortlivedrdquo companies. Practical value the judgments and conclusions contained in the article can be used in lawmaking activities for the development of draft laws on introducing changes and amendments to the

  11. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Coghlan

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica. Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety

  12. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  14. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  15. Legal issues of the natural gas regulation; Aspectos juridicos da regulacao do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Adriano; Nunes, Alessandro; Nascimento, Juliana; Gois, Luciana; Jardim, Mariana; Moura, Tacio; Campos, Vitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The present essay analyses a new type of economic intervention of the Brazilian State, by means of overcoming his interventionist position with the opening to private wealth. This creates the need of State fiscalization, which is done by creating the regulatory agencies. Focussing the current regulatory model, the role ANP plays is distinguished in its regulatory, fiscalization and fomenter of gas-related activities functions, established as federal scope. Equally important is the analysis of state sphere activities and guardianship assigned by the Constitution, in its article 25, para. 2nd, to states that now need forensic basement to be able to explore the local service of canalized gas. In this context, a comparative model of the role played by the state regulatory agencies has been created concerning the states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. It is, therefore, perceivable, by means of this study, the necessity to review the current regulatory model and legal dispositions, which, because of its lack of peculiarity, leaves gaps that will be filled in by this regulatory agent. (author)

  16. Ethical and legal issues regarding the action and knowledge of orthodontists before civil liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíza Valéria de Abreu Maia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ethical and legal conducts of orthodontists regarding the professional/patient relationship, documentation used and degree of knowledge on the professional liability during the exercise of their specialty. This study sought to assess whether the time since graduation of the dentist as an expert interfered with their knowledge degree about the dental professional liability. The object population of the present study consisted of 56 dental surgeons, specialized in orthodontics, from the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The research was carried out using a survey addressed to these professionals, and descriptive statistics of the data. Chi-square test was used to check independence between factors and comparisons of proportions.  100% interviewed professionals request orthodontic documentation prior to the start of treatment; 71.5% request final documentation; 91% professionals affirmed they file this documentation; however, only 21.4% keep records for over 20 years; and most professionals (86% use some sort of contract at the start of treatment, and a small percentage (30.4% regard the liability of orthodontists as objective. It can be concluded that the interviewed professionals should acquire a higher level of knowledge regarding the professional liability and current legislation involving dental surgeons.

  17. Summary of Key Issues Raised in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Baker, Justin; Birnbaum, Michael L; Christensen, Helen; De Choudhury, Munmun; Mohr, David C; Muench, Fred; Schlosser, Danielle; Titov, Nick; Kane, John M

    2018-01-16

    Technology provides an unparalleled opportunity to remove barriers to earlier identification and engagement in services for mental and addictive disorders by reaching people earlier in the course of illness and providing links to just-in-time, cost-effective interventions. Achieving this opportunity, however, requires stakeholders to challenge underlying assumptions about traditional pathways to mental health care. In this Open Forum, the authors highlight key issues discussed in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) meeting-held October 13-14, 2016, in New York City-that are related to three identified areas in which technology provides important and unique opportunities to advance early identification, increase service engagement, and decrease the duration of untreated mental and addictive disorders.

  18. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content, and behaviour in waste organisations, the Finnish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, Timo

    2004-01-01

    Over the years, when the site selection for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland was prepared, stakeholders frequently influenced the process. These inputs are shortly described in the following review. Import and export of nuclear waste was prohibited by the Parliament in 1994. Although in the beginning of 1990's it was expected that Finland would join EU and consequently the prohibition was needed to prevent potential waste import from EU and also for the sake of balance, the export as well, there was also requests by the green party to stop spent fuel transports from Loviisa power plant to Russia. Issue of prohibition of waste transports was, however, first taken up by Bellona in Nordic council in the beginning of 1990's strongly arguing the banning on transports. Later on the minister that represented Finland in Nordic Council brought up the issue in Finnish Government. When compiling the Environmental Impact Assessment program report, Posiva organised public interaction meetings in each of the site investigation municipalities. In these occasions local people brought up their concerns about the final disposal project. For instance, impact of final disposal to the image of municipality and to consumption of local farm products was discussed. Subsequently, these issues were introduced to social studies covered in the Environmental Impact Assessment report. Concept of retrievability was not originally a part of final disposal concept. When the Regulator (STUK) introduced the safety requirements, the Green minister in the Government insisted retrievability to be included in the requirements. In the final version of safety requirements, retrievability was a precondition for final disposal. When Posiva compiled the Environmental Assessment Program report for final disposal project, long-term storage of spent fuel was not assessed as a zero alternative for final disposal. This deficiency was noticed in a statement given by Finnish Environment

  19. Legal Translation in context Professional Issues And Prospects: Series New Trends In Translation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Correa Santos Townsend

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhando as tendências mundiais na tradução jurídica e forense, a compilação Tradução Legal em contexto: questões profissionais e Perspectivas Futuras. Série Novas Tendências em Estudos da Tradução é um livro editado por Albi e Ramos, tradutores juramentados na Europa. A obra revela o estado da arte na atividade de tradutores profissionais no direito público e no direito privado, particularmente na União Europeia. Aprofundando pesquisas já existentes, o livro resulta de um projeto internacional, iniciativa do departamento de Tradução e Interpretação da Universidade de Genebra. Não se pode reclamar, na Europa, de falta de opções de leituras sobre o tema nos últimos anos. O que é mais notável nesta compilação é o foco à tradução jurídica aplicada, com especial atenção ao trabalho do tradutor e detalhes da instituição para a qual trabalha, ao invés de concentrada nos resultados do texto-alvo em comparação com o texto original, como outros livros anteriormente já fizeram. Outro ponto relevante é a diretiva da UE (União Europeia 2010/64/EU, que determina o direito à interpretação e tradução em processos criminais sob a jurisdição da UE, conferindo mais valor a certos capítulos deste livro em face à variedade de assuntos que examina.

  20. Implementation of minimal invasive gynaecological surgery certification will challenge gynaecologists with new legal and ethical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanos, V; Socolov, R; Demetriou, P; Kyprianou, M; Watrelot, A; Van Belle, Y; Campo, R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of a certification / diploma program in Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS) is expected to improve surgical performance, patient’s safety and outcome. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA) and the ESHRE Certification for Reproductive Endoscopic Surgery (ECRES) provides a structured learning path, recognising different pillars of competence. In order to achieve a high level of competence a two steps validation is necessary: (a) the individual should be certified of having the appropriate theoretical knowledge and (b) the endoscopic psychomotor skills before entering in the diploma programme reflecting the surgical competence. The influence of such an educational and credentialing path could improve safety and offer financial benefits to the hospitals, physicians and healthcare authorities. Moreover the medicolegal consequences can be important when a significant amount of surgeons possess the different diplomas. As the programs are becoming universally accessible, recognised as the best scientific standard, included in the continuous medical education (CME) and continuous professional development (CPD), it is expected that a significant number of surgeons will soon accomplish the diploma path. The co-existence and practice of both non-certified and certified surgeons with different degrees of experience is unavoidable. However, it is expected that national health systems (NHS), hospitals and insurance companies will demand and hire doctors with high and specific proficiency to endoscopic surgery. When medico-legal cases are under investigation, the experts should be aware of the limitations that individual experience provides. The court first of all examines and then judges if there is negligence and decides accordingly. However, lack of certification may be considered as negligence by a surgeon operating a case that eventual faces litigation problems. Patients’ safety and objective preoperative

  1. Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Brief Survey of Developmental, Operational, Legal, and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to be attuned to public awareness of battlespace operations and any implicit promise of war without casualties. Enabled by ubiquitous social media ...U.S. Army Tank- Automotive Command (TACOM) and DARPA work on the Ad- vanced Ground Vehicle Technology and the Naval Ocean Systems Center work on Ground...mainstream discussions regarding military unmanned systems and AWS are dominated by issues related to the use of armed drones. Popular media fo- cuses on

  2. Legal and tax issues of Eastern European oil and gas investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeh, D.

    1994-01-01

    In considering petroleum investment in Eastern Europe, the broad issues of the rule of law, the national constitutions of the various states and their court systems, which affect business generally, are presented. Some specific problems are then discussed. These include ownership of property and privatisation, foreign investment, taking of security, insolvency and taxation. Russia is included as part of Eastern Europe and receives special emphasis because of its importance in the petroleum scene and the particularly acute problems it faces. (UK)

  3. Commercial product exploitation from marine microbial biodiversity: some legal and IP issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichet, Camille; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Yaakoubi, Sefia El; Bloch, Jean-François

    2010-09-01

    The biodiversity found in the marine environment is remarkable and yet largely unknown compared with the terrestrial one. The associated genetic resource, also wide and unrevealed, has raised a strong interest from the scientific and industrial community. However, despite this growing interest, the discovery of new compounds extracted from marine organisms, more precisely from microorganisms, is ruled by a complex legislation. The access and transfer of genetic resource are ruled by the Convention on Biological Diversity. One of the three core objectives of this convention is to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits generated by the use of genetic resources and to split these benefits between the different stakeholders. From the discovery of a microorganism to the commercialization of a product, three main stakeholders are involved: providers of microorganisms, e.g. academic institutes, the scientists who will perform R&D on biodiversity, and the industrial companies which will commercialize the final product arising from the R&D results. This article describes how difficult and complex it might be to ensure a fair distribution of benefits of this research between the parties. © 2010 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Topical Session on 'Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders: Impacts on Process, Content and Behaviour in Waste Organisations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At its 5. meeting in June 2004, the FSC held a topical session aimed at reviewing how organisations are adapting to the new outreach and decision-making context. Eleven organisations from eight countries provided the relevant information, which are collected in these proceedings. Learning and adapting to societal requirements - and organising institutions accordingly - is one of the main aspects of the future programme of work of the FSC. This topical session on 'Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders: Impacts on Process, Content and Behaviour in Waste Organisations' provides useful material for future initiatives as well as a source of information to interested stakeholders and practitioners. It focused on how regulators and implementers responded and are restructuring to respond to stakeholders' concerns, issues and needs regarding radioactive waste management

  5. Drug-related deaths with evidences of body packing: Two case reports and medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Simone; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Straccamore, Marco; Umani Ronchi, Federica; De Mari, Guido Maria; Ciallella, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. For both cases, forensic examination and toxicological analysis of drug packages and biological samples were carried out. Authors also wants to highlight the main medico-legal issues that commonly arise in cases of suspected or ascertained body packers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) in Gambling Disorder and Its Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Nariakira

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimated the prevalence rate of gambling disorder to be 4.8 percent of the population. This rate is outstandingly higher than other countries with prevalence rates between 0.25 and 2.0 percent. It is also estimated that no fewer than 5 million Japanese suffer from the disease. In the last two years, 100 new patients visited the author's clinic. On an average, they started gambling at the age of 19.7 years, and incurring debt at the age of 25.8 years. They first visited the clinic at an average age of 38.2 years, and the average amount they had spent on gambling up to that point was 13 million yen. Twenty percent of them had taken some legal measures to reduce their burden from debts before seeking treatment. Sixty percent of pathological gamblers exclusively played pachinko and slot machine games. Patients who did not play on such machines accounted for no less than 2 percent of cases. This is not surprising, considering the fact that Japan has nearly 4.6 million pachinko and slot machines, which account for two thirds of the total electric gaming machines in the world. Japanese legislation does not regard pachinko and slot machines as gambling, but merely as gaming. Therefore, pachinko companies have no restrictions as such to promote their market. They can advertise freely in newspapers and TV commercials. Pachinko halls are filled with lighting, sounds, and visual effects to stimulate and excite gamblers. The harmful effects of gambling disorder include depression, loss of employment and friends, marital discord, fraud, embezzlement, theft in the family, and theft from non-family members. The most helpful therapy involves attending self-help group sessions at least once a week. One of the best-known self-help groups is Gamblers Anonymous (GA); there are 162 GA groups in Japan. The author believes there should be one GA group for every city across the nation. Unfortunately, psychiatrists, who should be taking

  7. Legal Implications of E-Commerce: Basic Issues, Initiatives and Experiences in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Mueller

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview on the major issues that have to be taken into account when formulating e-commerce-related laws and regulations and introduces two model laws relating to e-commerce and e-signatures which were created by the United Nations Commission of International trade Law. The paper has a closer look at e-commerce developments in Asia and the Pacific and gives an overview of the state of implementation of e-commerce laws. In conclusion, it discusses the e-ASEAN Reference...

  8. Ethical, legal, and social issues in health technology assessment for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, B K; Avard, D; Entwistle, V; Kennedy, C; Chakraborty, P; McGuire, M; Wilson, B J

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening programs have been a focus of recent policy debates that have included attention to ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSIs). In parallel, there has been an ongoing discussion about whether and how ELSIs may be addressed in health technology assessment (HTA). We conducted a knowledge synthesis study to explore both guidance and current practice regarding the consideration of ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening. As the concluding activity for this project, we held a Canadian workshop to discuss the issues with a diverse group of stakeholders. Based on key workshop themes integrated with our study results, we suggest that population-based genetic screening programs may present particular types of ELSIs and that a public health ethics perspective is potentially highly relevant when considering them. We also suggest that approaches to addressing ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening may need to be flexible enough to respond to diversity in HTA organizations, cultural values, stakeholder communities, and contextual factors. Finally, we highlight a need for transparency in the way that HTA producers move from evidence to conclusions and the ways in which screening policy decisions are made. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Claudio, Jaime O; Rachul, Christen; Wang, Jean C Y; Minden, Mark D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-03-08

    Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw consent and nearly all wanted to be

  10. Atypical real estate objects: legal regime and control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal concept of immovable things raises controversy in legal practice. Determining and understanding the definition of real estate, the complexity and diversity of these objects, a growing appearance of so-called atypical properties (such as sport stadiums, roads, boreholes, analyzing legislation and judicial practice of this field – all these issues call for a deep study of this topic. There is a conflicting arbitration practice, the subject of which is the learning of the legal nature of atypical real estate (for instance, asphalt playgrounds, car parks, fences, wells. The object of the research is the learning of the legal status of atypical real estate.

  11. Rethinking ethical and legal issues at the end of life in the U.K. and Brazil: a role for solidarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla A Arena; Gallagher, Ann; Jago, Robert; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2013-12-01

    There are currently high profile debates about legal and ethical aspects of end of life care and treatment in the U.K. and Brazil. Unlike some other jurisdictions, neither country has legalised assisted dying or euthanasia. We argue that it is timely to consider the issues from the perspectives of an evolving concept in bioethics, that of solidarity.

  12. Morally sensitive issues and cross-border movement in the EU. The cases of reproductive matters and legal recognition of same-sex relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, Nelleke Renate

    2015-01-01

    Within the European Union there is considerable diversity in morally sensitive issues like legal recognition of same-sex relationships and reproductive matters such as abortion, assisted human reproduction and surrogacy. Cross-border movement within the EU exposes and affects this diversity, as it

  13. The Issue Animal in the Perspective of the Federal Supreme Court and the "Regulatory Aspects Of Legal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Chalfun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze the legal nature of nonhuman animals in the doctrine of Animal Law, legal order and position of the Federal Supreme Court based on judgments that deal with conflict between cultural manifestation and cruelty to animals. Brazilian legislation calls for a multiplicity of positions on the legal nature of animals, which may influence positively or negatively the treatment accorded to them. It can be seen that in the STF the predominance of two understandings: anthropocentric, equivalent to good, while of another biocentric, moral consideration as to the animals and possibility of change of the legal nature.

  14. The issues of legal basis in proceedings for the repayment of subsidies granted from the budget of local government units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miernik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the paper is the analysis of amendments introduced with the Public Finance Act of 27 August 2009 which entered into force on 1 January 2010 with regard to the procedure applicable for determining the amounts of subsidies subject to repayment. The author points out a certain paradox noticeable under the new legal regime: on the one hand, the legislator intended to regulate in a systemic way the issues of public finance, including those investigated by the author; on the other hand, however, the legislator provoked certain doubts in the construal of the provisions with regard to the mode of adjudication in matters for subsidy repayment, which doubts were absent when the previous Public Finance Act of 30 June 2005 had been in force. This concerns in particular the absence of delegation of powers to a body of the local government unit to issue an administrative decision in case of failure to repay the subsidy within the statutory time limit. The paper discusses the issues of application of Articles 60-67 of the Public Finance Act in the context of time limits for the subsidy repayment, as well as Article 169(6 of the said Act in conjunction with the substance of Article 252 of the said Act, and points out regulatory deficiencies in the latter case, i.e. with regard to the procedural mode when the subsidy is not repaid within the specified time limit, if the subsidy was granted from the budget of a local government unit. The author presents both the theory and the case law, pointing out discrepant opinions which seem to prefer either the path of the administrative law or the path of the civil law, and all of it despite quite a considerable period that lapsed since the entry into force of the new provisions. In conclusion, the author places herself with the supporters of the administrative law adjudications for the solution of the issues in question, admitting however the necessity for the legislator to adjust the discussed

  15. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content, and behaviour in waste organisations: the Swedish radiation protection authority's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, there is a strong involvement for contributing to and for developing the work in the process aimed at building the Swedish repository sites of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear wastes. The discussions in the focus groups showed that: - the participants had substantial comments on the content and the shaping of the guidelines which will be of use to SSI (one of the Swedish authorities) in the current work; - involved participants' needs for knowledge, as well as their comments, reach far beyond the outline of the guidelines. One can find questions on basic concepts and technical details of measurements as well as on issues of legal, health related, organisational and social aspects and consequences, ranging from today and far into the distant future. This will be of use for building an information database that can place radiation protection criteria concerning final disposal into a broader context. SSI plans to put forward a draft of the guidelines to be discussed further in the municipalities, followed by discussions with other actors. The guidelines are planned to be ready at the end of 2004

  16. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  17. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; LeGrandeur, Jane; Caulfield, Timothy

    2010-03-23

    Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years.This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In

  18. Strengthening national coal transitions to raise climate ambition. Issue Brief. Part of the 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal' Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    The issue of coal transitions is coming into focus in both national and international climate policy discussions. There are several drivers of this. At one level, the Paris Agreement marked a significant shift in the pace, scope and ambition of global climate change mitigation action. Consequently, it is now clear that coal will need to play a more and more diminished role in the global energy mix in the coming decades, despite carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. It is also increasingly clear that non-climate policy-related factors, such as rapid declines in the cost of renewable energy and battery storage, will continue to challenge the previously strong role of steam coal in the global energy mix (Randall, 2015). The business-as-usual scenario is therefore evolving quickly and the downside risks to coal demand appear to be increasing. The accumulation of these factors has in turn led to a call for an assurance of 'just transition', especially from stakeholders-notably coal sector workers and their communities-whose economic livelihoods depend on the future of an industry that will be in decline. In this context, parties to the UNFCCC will be called upon via the Facilitative Dialogue of 2018 to re-evaluate the adequacy progress and subsequently to revise their levels of ambition in their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). This moment presents an important opportunity for governments to raise the overall ambition of their policies on coal transition. But how should they do this? (author)

  19. Raising Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    21 December 2003Dust storms are a common occurrence on the extremely arid planet, Mars. However, very rarely do we get to see the actual process of dust being lifted off the martian surface to feed these dust storms. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image captures some of the dust-raising process in action. The picture shows a shallow trough with large, ripple-like dunes on its floor. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. Puffy, billowy clouds of dust obscure some of the surface from view. Closer inspection shows streamers of dust, streaking from left/upper left toward right/lower right, down near the surface of the planet. It is in these streamers that dust is being lifted from the ground. This image is located near 29.6oS, 73.1oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  20. THE ISSUE OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE LEGAL REGULATION OF CERTIFICATION OF GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyktoriia Cherevatiuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal directions of optimization of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation, by realization of analysis of rules, procedure and subjects of registration of civil air ships and permissive system in Ukraine, USA, and also in the countries of the European concord.  Exposure of factors that restrain development of general aviation in Ukraine and grant to suggestion in relation to the improvement of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation. Methods: the use of approach of the systems allowed to reveal basic directions of optimization of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation of Ukraine, being base on experience of leading countries of the world. Results: in the article attention is accented on the lacks of the legal adjusting of Ukrainian general aviation,  in particular, to the legislative vagueness of concept of general aviation that limits her development in direction of realization as commercial and substantially narrows the spectrum of possibilities for her subjects, and also does this sector of aviation economically unattractive. Substantially absence of the ramified classification of air ships complicates the legal adjusting, what took into account sizes of air ship, engine, condition of take off the plane and landings, distance of flights, carrying capacity and other. The questions of optimization of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation touch simplification of procedure of certification for ultralight , being base on experience of the USA, Canada, and also some countries of Europe. Discussion: authors offer the ways of optimization of the legal adjustment of certification of air ships of general aviation of Ukraine.

  1. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  2. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    river, in the atmosphere and into boreholes in the permafrost, at different locations and various distances from the river and the upstream lake. Hydrological information was collected as well (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and isotopic profiles; river flow rates). Soil properties were studied in pits (e.g. thermal conductivity, soil humidity and temperature measurements). More recently GPR studies were conducted along river profiles complementing the dataset. This new study site is introduced and the major results are presented as well as the main issues raised and future perspectives.

  3. The Concordance of Multilingual Legal Texts at the WTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Bradly J.

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism is a sensitive and complex subject in a global organisation such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). In the WTO legal texts, there is a need for full concordance, not simply translation. This article begins with an overview of the issues raised by multilingual processes at the WTO in the negotiation, drafting, translation,…

  4. Protecting the foundation and magnificent edifice of the legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protecting the foundation and magnificent edifice of the legal profession: Reflections on Thukwane V Law Society of the Northern Provinces 2014 5 SA 513 (GP) ... proper person" to be admitted and readmitted to the roll of attorneys raise important and interrelated issues demanding definitive and systematic consideration.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological development, gene action, and the production of transplantable tissue and organs that could be effective in reversing or curing currently irreversible ...

  6. The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In mid-July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which allowed 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs') to be approved for legal sale. In early May 2014, following public protest, the Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act (PSAA) was passed banning animal testing of psychoactive products, potentially making the new regime unworkable. To investigate strategies to overcome the impasse created by the animal testing ban. Solutions to the impasse were investigated using 'scenario' and 'stakeholder' analysis. Legislation, parliamentary debates, and regulatory statements related to the PSA and animal testing were reviewed. Strategies to resolve the impasse were discussed with stakeholders including the Psychoactive Substances Regulatory Authority (PSRA) officials, health officials, a legal high industry lawyer, and a leading legal highs manufacturer. This process generated six possible scenarios and five decision-making criteria of key importance to major stakeholders. Scenarios were then evaluated based on feedback from the industry and regulators. The six scenarios were: (1) pragmatic modification of the animal testing ban; (2) waiting until new non-animal test models are internationally accepted; (3) use of non-validated replacement test methods; (4) judicial challenge of the animal testing ban; (5) 'creative compliance' by only presenting human clinical trial results; and (6) philosophical re-conceptualisation of the 'benefits' from psychoactive products. Options 1 and 5 appear to be the most attractive overall solutions. However, both rely on a new political consensus and astute framing of the issues by political communicators. Political decision makers may be happy to accept Scenario 2 which would impose significant delays. A 'failed' pharmaceutical product with psychoactive effects may have the test data required to be approved under Scenarios 1 and 5. Ultimately, the pleasurable benefits from psychoactive products may need to be

  7. Using Critical Literacy to Explore Genetics and Its Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues with In-Service Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael L.; Melancon, Megan E.; Kleine, Karynne L. M.

    2010-01-01

    The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by…

  8. Legal assessment tool (LAT): an interactive tool to address privacy and data protection issues for data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Krauth, Christian; Bergmann, René; Karakoyun, Töresin; Woollard, Astrid; Schluender, Irene; Braasch, Benjamin; Eckert, Martin; Ohmann, Christian

    2016-07-07

    In an unprecedented rate data in the life sciences is generated and stored in many different databases. An ever increasing part of this data is human health data and therefore falls under data protected by legal regulations. As part of the BioMedBridges project, which created infrastructures that connect more than 10 ESFRI research infrastructures (RI), the legal and ethical prerequisites of data sharing were examined employing a novel and pragmatic approach. We employed concepts from computer science to create legal requirement clusters that enable legal interoperability between databases for the areas of data protection, data security, Intellectual Property (IP) and security of biosample data. We analysed and extracted access rules and constraints from all data providers (databases) involved in the building of data bridges covering many of Europe's most important databases. These requirement clusters were applied to five usage scenarios representing the data flow in different data bridges: Image bridge, Phenotype data bridge, Personalised medicine data bridge, Structural data bridge, and Biosample data bridge. A matrix was built to relate the important concepts from data protection regulations (e.g. pseudonymisation, identifyability, access control, consent management) with the results of the requirement clusters. An interactive user interface for querying the matrix for requirements necessary for compliant data sharing was created. To guide researchers without the need for legal expert knowledge through legal requirements, an interactive tool, the Legal Assessment Tool (LAT), was developed. LAT provides researchers interactively with a selection process to characterise the involved types of data and databases and provides suitable requirements and recommendations for concrete data access and sharing situations. The results provided by LAT are based on an analysis of the data access and sharing conditions for different kinds of data of major databases in Europe

  9. The management, privacy and medico-legal issues of electronic CPAP data in Australia and New Zealand: Electronic CPAP data management in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieca, John; Hamilton, Garun S; Meaklim, Hailey

    2017-08-01

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). CPAP monitoring systems allow tracking of patient CPAP adherence and treatment efficacy, by measuring residual sleep-disordered breathing, hours of CPAP use, and mask leak etc. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) published a position paper in 2013 highlighting issues of interpreting CPAP data such as a lack of consistency between CPAP manufacturers data algorithms, legal implications of CPAP data and implications for CPAP adherence. This paper extends on this work by investigating these issues in an Australasian context. A review of current literature on CPAP monitoring systems, privacy and security of CPAP data for major Australasian CPAP providers, and CPAP adherence was undertaken. A legal review was also commissioned for issues related to privacy and security of CPAP data. CPAP manufacturers' utilize different algorithms for respiratory event detection and clinicians need to be aware the implications for interpreting CPAP data. Australasian CPAP manufacturers have created security/privacy policies with the intent to follow relevant legislation to protect patients' CPAP data, however they do need to be constantly reviewed and updated to avoid data breaches and changes to agreements. No guarantees can be provided by the Australasian Sleep Association on CPAP manufacturers' compliance with these policies and there is the potential for some degree of liability for physicians and CPAP providers associated with CPAP data. Lastly, providing patients with feedback on their CPAP usage and OSA management appears to have positive influence CPAP adherence. CPAP data provides many opportunities to increase OSA patient care and to help patients self-manage this chronic condition. However, issues relating to lack of standardization of CPAP parameters, privacy, security, and legal implications will need to be managed in this changing technologic and

  10. Law and Management of a Counseling Agency or Private Practice. The ACA Legal Series. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    This monograph addresses laws that govern the business and management of mental health practices. The preface warns that this book only raises legal issues, concentrates on federal law, and does not exhaust the issues and information on any topic. A glossary of terms such as "burden of proof,""fiduciary,""negligence," and "torts" is presented.…

  11. Legal issues relating to the feed-in of biogas under the Gas Network Access Ordinance; Rechtsfragen der Biogaseinspeisung nach der GasNZV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappert, Holger; Johannsen, Sven Leif Erik [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the authors' view, the legislature has set itself ambitious goals in regulating the feed-in of biogas into the natural gas grid. Aside from the economic considerations that are leading investors to prefer other investment opportunities there are also a number of unresolved technical issues relating to the feed-in of biogas. Furthermore, network operators find themselves confronted with considerable legal uncertainty as they process grid connection applications, i.e. in the time interval from application submission until contract conclusion. In spite of being allowed only 3 months for processing connection applications, grid operators are required to bind themselves to a high degree in approving an application. This is a particular cause of difficulty given the as yet unresolved technical problems and is accordingly subject to controversy. In those difficult cases where it not possible to guarantee year-round feed-in of biogas into the grid because of unavailability of deodorant plants that would be needed for the ability to backfeed biogas into upstream grids, resolution would often nevertheless be possible if it was clearly indicated that use of a ''bypass solution'' as a means of ensuring overall cost-effectiveness would be accepted as a capacity-enhancing measure for purposes of cost allocation. This would provide grid operators a way of reliably circumventing the technical difficulties associated with deodorisation, enabling them to connect biogas production plants to the grid without having to deal with these technical issues which still await their final resolution. Under the law currently in force there is no legal impediment, subject to the specifics of the individual case, to accepting a bypass solution as a capacity enhancing measure. It would help grid operators in obtaining legal certainty, and ultimately promote investment in biogas projects, if the legislature were to clarify these issues in the Gas Network Access Ordinance.

  12. “What happens to my Facebook profile when I die?” : Legal Issues Around Transmission of Digital Assets on Death

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lilian; Harbinja, Edina

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to explore some of the major legal issues pertaining to transmission of digital assets on death. “Digital assets” within this chapter are defined widely and not exclusively to include a huge range of intangible information goods associated with the online or digital world: including social network profiles e.g. on Facebook, Twitter, Google + or Linked In; emails, tweets, databases etc; in-game virtual assets (e.g., as bought, found or built in worlds such as Second Life, Wor...

  13. 78 FR 33843 - Request for Comments on Issues Related to Incidental Findings That Arise in the Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... requesting public comment on the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by incidental findings that arise... specific bioethical, legal, and social issues related to potential scientific and technological advances... have to actively look for certain incidental findings; Best practices, methods, and mechanisms for...

  14. Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (NG-T-3.2). Basis for Evaluation - Legal, safety, security, safeguards issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2010-01-01

    A framework for achieving high levels of nuclear safety and security worldwide Builds upon: Legal Instruments; Use of IAEA SSs and security guidance; Harmonization of national regulations; Exchange of knowledge, experiences & regulatory practices and Multinational cooperation and safety reviews. The IAEA is the depository of many key international conventions and legal agreements. All countries with operating nuclear power plants are now parties to the Convention. The main objective of Convention on Nuclear Safety is to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international cooperation including, where appropriate, safety related technical co-operation. All practical efforts must be made to prevent and mitigate nuclear or radiation accidents. The primary means of preventing and mitigating the consequences of accidents is “defence in depth”. Safety assessments are to be carried out and documented by the organization responsible for operating the facility, are to be independently verified and are to be submitted to the regulatory body as part of the licensing or authorization process. Licensing process must be well-defined, clear, transparent and traceable. The public should be given an opportunity to provide their views during certain steps of the licensing process

  15. Resource allocation on the frontlines of public health preparedness and response: report of a summit on legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Daniel J; Taylor, Holly A; Hodge, James G; Links, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    In the face of all-hazards preparedness challenges, local and state health department personnel have to date lacked a discrete set of legally and ethically informed public health principles to guide the distribution of scarce resources in crisis settings. To help address this gap, we convened a Summit of academic and practice experts to develop a set of principles for legally and ethically sound public health resource triage decision-making in emergencies. The invitation-only Summit, held in Washington, D.C., on June 29, 2006, assembled 20 experts from a combination of academic institutions and nonacademic leadership, policy, and practice settings. The Summit featured a tabletop exercise designed to highlight resource scarcity challenges in a public health infectious disease emergency. This exercise served as a springboard for Summit participants' subsequent identification of 10 public health emergency resource allocation principles through an iterative process. The final product of the Summit was a set of 10 principles to guide allocation decisions involving scarce resources in public health emergencies. The principles are grouped into three categories: obligations to community; balancing personal autonomy and community well-being/benefit; and good preparedness practice. The 10 Summit-derived principles represent an attempt to link law, ethics, and real-world public health emergency resource allocation practices, and can serve as a useful starting framework to guide further systematic approaches and future research on addressing public health resource scarcity in an all-hazards context.

  16. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues related to the health data-warehouses: re-using health data in the research and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Eugenia; Barh, Anne; Brown, Dario; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research derived from the application of information and communication technologies in medicine operates in a context involving the globalization of collecting, sharing, storage, transfer and re-use of personal health data. Health data computerization within Clinical Information Systems (as Electronic Healthcare Records) should allow the re-use of health data for clinical research and public health purposes. One of the objects allowing the integration of healthcare and research information systems is the health data-warehouse (DWH). However, ethical-legal frameworks in force are not adapted to these DWHs because they were not conceived for re-using data in a different context than the one of their acquisition. For that matter, access modalities to data-warehouses must ensure the respect of patients' rights: information to the patient, as well as confidentiality and security. Through a bibliography research, some Ethical, legal and Social Issues (ELSI) have been identified: Patients' rights Modalities of implementation of the DWs; Solidarity and common good; Transparency and Trust. Comparative analysis between the Directive 95/46/CE and the "Proposal for regulation on protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data" shows that this regulation pretends allowing the re-use of key-coded data when aimed at a scientific purpose. However, since this new regulation does not align with the ethical and legal requirements at an operational level, a Code of practice on secondary use of Medical Data in scientific Research Projects has been developed at the European Level. This Code provides guidance for Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) and will help to propose practical solutions to overcome the issue of the re-use of data for research purposes.

  17. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part II--Help in the dying process, direct and indirect active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, physician-assisted euthanasia involves numerous risks for the attending physician under criminal and professional law. In the absence of clear legal provisions, four different categories of euthanasia have been developed in legal practice and the relevant literature: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The so-called "help during the dying process" by administering medically indicated analgesic drugs without a life-shortening effect is exempt from punishment if it corresponds to the will of the patient. If the physician omits to give such analgesic drugs although the patient demands them, this is deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The same applies if the physician administers analgesics against the will of the patient. Medically indicated pain treatment which has a potential or certain life-shortening effect (indirect active euthanasia) is permitted under certain conditions: if there are no alternative and equally suitable treatment options without the risk of shortening the patient's life, if the patient has given his consent to the treatment and if the physician does not act with the intention to kill. The deliberate killing of a dying or terminally ill patient for the purpose of ending his suffering (direct active euthanasia) is prohibited. This includes both deliberately killing a patient against or without his will (by so-called "angels of death") and the killing of a patient who expressly and earnestly demands such an act from his physician (killing on request/on demand). Physician-assisted suicide is generally not liable to punishment in Germany. Nevertheless, the action may be subject to punishment if the physician omits to rescue the life of an unconscious suicide victim. "Palliative sedation" is regarded as a special case. It may become necessary if certain symptoms in the terminal stage of a fatal disease unbearable for the patient cannot be controlled by any other

  18. Assisted reproduction involving gestational surrogacy: an analysis of the medical, psychosocial and legal issues: experience from a large surrogacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Shir; Lazer, Tal; Swanson, Sonja; Silverman, Jan; Wasser, Cindy; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Sojecki, Agata; Librach, Clifford L

    2015-02-01

    What are the medical, psychosocial and legal aspects of gestational surrogacy (GS), including pregnancy outcomes and complications, in a large series? Meticulous multidisciplinary teamwork, involving medical, legal and psychosocial input for both the intended parent(s) (IP) and the gestational carrier (GC), is critical to achieve a successful GS program. Small case series have described pregnancy rates of 17-50% for GS. There are no large case series and the medical, legal and psychological aspects of GS have not been addressed in most of these studies. To our knowledge, this is the largest reported GS case series. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Data were collected from 333 consecutive GC cycles between 1998 and 2012. There were 178 pregnancies achieved out of 333 stimulation cycles, including fresh and frozen transfers. The indications for a GC were divided into two groups. Those who have 'failed to carry', included women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF), recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and previous poor pregnancy outcome (n = 96; 132 cycles, pregnancy rate 50.0%). The second group consisted of those who 'cannot carry' including those with severe Asherman's syndrome, uterine malformations/uterine agenesis and maternal medical diseases (n = 108, 139 cycles, pregnancy rate 54.0%). A third group, of same-sex male couples and single men, were analyzed separately (n = 52, 62 cycles, pregnancy rate 59.7%). In 49.2% of cycles, autologous oocytes were used and 50.8% of cycles involved donor oocytes. The 'failed to carry' group consisted of 96 patients who underwent 132 cycles at a mean age of 40.3 years. There were 66 pregnancies (50.0%) with 17 miscarriages (25.8%) and 46 confirmed births (34.8%). The 'cannot carry pregnancy' group consisted of 108 patients who underwent 139 cycles at a mean age of 35.9 years. There were 75 pregnancies (54.0%) with 15 miscarriages (20.0%) and 56 confirmed births (40.3%). The pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth

  19. The Theory of Interpretation in Solving Contemporary Legal Issues: With A Focus on the Instrument of Ijtihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Albelahi Abdulrahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning, legal theory has concerned itself with the establishment of principles and precepts that govern the procedure of legal interpretation, from the initial stages of the judicial reasoning down to the promulgation of ruling and their implementation, Islam is a total way of life. Muslims are obliged to abide by the rules of Allah in every aspect of their lives, always and wherever they live. However, the actual rules of Allah as given in the Qur’an and the sunna are limited. The Qur’an contains only six hundred verses directly related to laws, and there are approximately two thousand hadiths. The function of interpretation is to discover the intention of the Lawmaker of the matter, therefore, interpretat primarily concerned with the discovery of that which is rot self-evident the objective of interpretation is to ascertain the intention c the Lawmaker with regard to what has been left unexpressed as a matter of necessary interference from the surrounding circumstances. Sometimes, the textual sources did not provide detailed guidelines in which to derive the law, and then the role of interpretation is important to determine the law. In Islamic law the role of Ijtihad undoubtedly important in order to meet new problems. But some of the Jurist contended that the role of Ijtihad had ended and we have to follow the rule that has been stated. An explanation given to this trend is that a point had been reached at which all essential question of law had been thoroughly discussed and further deliberation was deemed unnecessary. In Common law, man-made law and legislation are related to one another within a philosophy of law. Parliament makes law and it is the duty of the courts to give effect to them if properly enacted. While courts may rule that a particular statute or section is invalid for various reasons such as unconstitutionality, they cannot say, "We shall change this Act because it is not appropriate". That function belongs

  20. The evolution of a high-fidelity patient simulation learning experience to teach legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katharine V; Klaassen, JoAnn; Zimmerman, Christine; Cheng, An-Lin

    2013-01-01

    A transformative learning activity, in which students participated in a high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) scenario, was initiated to help students learn the importance of legal and ethical content in their clinical practice. The authors used the continuous quality improvement process to guide their HFPS implementation strategies from year to year. The plan, do, check, and act model served as the framework by which 3 consecutive years of HFPS evaluations were conducted and findings subsequently implemented. Evaluation data indicated that the HFPS was most effective at the end of the semester to review and apply previous content and that neither the role fulfilled by students in the scenario nor the actual participation in the scenario (vs. observation and participation in the debriefing) made a significant difference in students' pre- and posttest scores, student or faculty evaluations, or student perceptions of the HFPS experience. These findings ensured a quality learning experience for students and helped faculty address the logistics of accommodating an increasing number of students in the HFPS scenarios each year. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  2. Discrepancies in the evaluation of incapacity for work in a patient with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita between public pension fund and occupational medicine expert raise the issue of competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalić, Hrvoje

    2018-03-01

    Abstrat A 50-year-old female patient suffering from a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) took legal action against the Croatian Pension Insurance Institute (CPII) in an attempt to overturn their assessment that she was no longer capable of working as a seamstress but still capable of doing administrative jobs. Her claim was that she was not capable of doing any job at all. She was first diagnosed EBA in 2000, and the disease progressed slowly with intermittent remissions. In 2012, skin erosions appeared on her feet, followed by the loss of all toenails and lesions and infiltrations on the tongue and oral mucosa. Her whole body was covered in oozing wounds, she was in pain, and parts of her skin would stick to fabric while changing clothes or bandages. The most recent findings showed oesophageal stricture. She can consume only liquid food and is on the waiting list for receiving a feeding tube. The occupational health expert witness confirmed that the patient was generally incapable of work and was fighting her life. The judge and CPII lawyers fully accepted this report and the earlier assessment was overturned. To avoid incompetent assessments of working (in)capacity in the future, CPII and similar institutions should engage occupational medicine specialists to work in their assessment teams.

  3. Are the EU Member States Ready for the New Union Customs Code: Emerging Legal Issues On the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valantiejus Gediminas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the European Union has launched a new and ambitious project for the future regulation of international trade in the European Union and the rules of its taxation: since the 1 May 2016, the new Union Customs Code (UCC has entered into force. It revokes the old Community Customs Code (CCC, which was applied since 1992, and passed in the form of EU regulation sets brand-new rules for the application of Common Customs Tariff and calculation of customs duties (tariffs in all the EU Member States. It is oriented to the creation of the paperless environment for the formalisation of international trade operations (full electronic declaration of customs procedures and ensuring of a more uniform administration of customs duties in the tax and customs authorities of the Member States in the European Union. Therefore, the article raises and seeks to answer the problematic question whether the Member States of the European Union themselves are ready to implement these ambitious goals and does the actual practice of the Member States support that (considering the practice of the Republic of Lithuania. The research, which is based on the analysis of case law in the Republic of Lithuania (case study of recent tax disputes between the taxpayers and customs authorities that arose immediately before and after the entry into force of the UCC, leads to the conclusion that many problematic areas that may negatively impact the functioning of the new Customs Code remain and must be improved, including an adoption of new legislative solutions.

  4. Legislative and regulatory issues related to reusable launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Manfred K. A.

    1996-03-01

    The development of reusable launch systems with private investment funds for primarily commercial launch services raises a number of novel legal and regulatory issues. The issues discussed include requirements for a whole new spectrum of safety and environmental issues; new certification rules, procedures and oversight organizations; liability and jurisdiction definitions, taxation treatments; government commitments and/or participation in commercial enterprises; and international legal and business issues. The satisfactory solution to all of these issues is a necessary condition for the development and operation of reusable launch vehicles to be a viable commercial enterprise.

  5. Legal Protections in Public Accommodations Settings: A Critical Public Health Issue for Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean

    2015-09-01

    Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided legal protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not protect against discrimination based on gender identity in public accommodations settings such as transportation, retail stores, restaurants, health care facilities, and bathrooms. A 2013 survey of Massachusetts transgender and other gender minority adults found that in the past 12 months, 65% had experienced public accommodations discrimination since the law was passed. This discrimination was associated with a greater risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms in the past 30 days. Nondiscrimination laws inclusive of gender identity should protect against discrimination in public accommodations settings to support transgender people's health and their ability to access health care. Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in

  6. LEGAL FUNDS AND COLLECTIONS OF MODERN LIBRARIES: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Пестрецова

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising areas in the work of modern libraries that combine the traditional functions of the library with the functions of industry information centers is legal informing and information support of the law-making process. The globalization of the economy and political integration raise the issue not just about accumulation, processing, storage of national legal information, but also about the importance of literature collections on legal comparativistics, information support of transnational law. The article deals with the experience of foreign and domestic law libraries. Much attention is given to the main tasks and forms of legal libraries work, formation and development of legal funds and literature collections. The libraries that are charged with the functions the accumulation of legal resources suggests the active participation in this informational activity of the two types of libraries: the government libraries with the status of national that provide access to documents of national importance, carry out information support of political and legal processes. Another type of law libraries – academic, which providing the educational process and at the same time are centers of legal information, not only for the university community, but also for professional communities, regional authorities, civil society.

  7. The Impact of Legalizing and Regulating Weed: Issues with Study Design and Emerging Findings in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Priscillia E; Miles, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of the impact of medical and recreational marijuana laws rely on quasi- or natural experiments in which researchers exploit changes in the law and attempt to determine the impact of these changes on outcomes. This chapter reviews three key issues of causal inference in observational studies with respect to estimating of impact of medical or recreational laws on marijuana use-intervention definition, outcome measurement, and random assignment of study participants. We show that studies tend to use the same statistical approach (differences-in-differences) and yet find differential impacts of medical marijuana laws on adult use in particular. We demonstrate that these seemingly conflicting findings may be due to different years of analysis, ages of the study sample in each year, and assignment of jurisdictions to the control group versus treatment group.

  8. Legal perceptions of forensic DNA profiling part I: a review of the legal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.

  9. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part III--Passive euthanasia, comparison of international legislation, conclusions for medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The generic term "passive euthanasia" includes different issues dealing with the omission, discontinuation or termination of life-sustaining or life-prolonging medical treatments. The debate around passive euthanasia focuses on the constitutional right of self-determination of every human being on the one hand and the constitutional mandate of the State to protect human life on the other. Issues of passive euthanasia always require a differentiated approach. Essentially, it comes down to the following: In Germany, the human right of self-determination includes the right to prohibit the performance of life-sustaining treatments, even if this leads to the death of the patient. A physician who does not take life-sustaining treatment measures because this is the free will expressed by the patient is not subject to prosecution. On the other hand, if the physician treats the patient against his will, this can be deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The patient's will is decisive even if his concrete state of health does no longer allow him to freely express his will. In the Patient's Living Will Act of 2009, the German legislator clarified the juridical assessment of such constellations being of particular relevance in practice. A written living will of a person in which he requests to take or not to take certain medical treatment measures in case that he is no longer able to make the decision himself shall be binding for the people involved in the process of medical treatment. If there is no living will, the supposed will of the patient shall be relevant. In its judgment in the "Putz case", the German Federal Court of Justice ruled in 2010 that actions terminating a life-sustaining treatment that does not correspond to the patient's will must be limited to letting an already ongoing disease process run its course. In this context it is not important, however, whether treatment is discontinued by an active act or by omission. Under certain circumstances, the

  11. Economical, legal and political issues relating to the program for decommissioning the German Wismut uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, D.

    1995-01-01

    One of the world's largest uranium mining districts is located in the German states of Saxony and Thuringia. In 45 years of intense mining efforts, 220,000 metric tonnes of uranium were produced. This corresponds to approximately 13% of the world's post-war production. The legacy of this huge strategic mining operation is widespread damage to the environment and to humans. Financed by the federal budget and administered by the German Ministry of Economics (BMWi), the national WISMUT Corporation is now carrying out an internationally unique decommissioning and rehabilitation program. The aim is to reduce the threat to the environment to a minimum, to implement an ecologically difficult shutdown of underground and surface mining facilities, and to decontaminate former mining sites for suitable reuse. The results of nearly five years of rehabilitation work show that substantial progress has been achieved. Nevertheless, the project is subject to permanent crossfire in the political arena, mainly due to the wide public interest in issues focusing on the danger of radiation to the environment

  12. Scientific evidence and the toxic tort. A socio-legal study of the issues, expert evidence and judgement in Reay and Hope v. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Providing a socio-legal analysis of the issues, expert evidence and judgment in Reay and Hope v BNFL plc., the thesis offers an insight into the complexity of the toxic tort. Starting with an overview of the history of Sellafield, the thesis reflects on the scientific and epidemiological concerns surrounding the link between childhood cancer and nuclear installations. Drawing on scientific knowledge and epistemological considerations, the thesis moves on to the difficulties of verifying causation in science and the problems of establishing causation in law. Outlining the role of the expert witness and scientific expert evidence, the thesis proceeds with a case analysis, before broaching the thorny issue of judicial decision making and in particular, the difference between the 'discovery' and 'justification' process. Moving on to the Judgment in Reay and Hope, attention is given to the potential application of probability theory to the judicial decision making process. Lasting just short of one hundred days and including the testimony of numerous scientific experts, Reay and Hope marked new ground in a number of ways; it was the first personal injury claim to test the concept of genetic damage from radiation; the only time that a Queen's Bench Division Judge had been allocated a full-time judicial assistant, and one of the first trials to endorse a satellite video link for examination of international expert witnesses. As far as judicial management is concerned, the case was a forerunner in having Counsels' Opening Statements in writing in advance of the trial, as well as having written daily submissions of key issues from plaintiffs and defendants upon conclusion of oral evidence. The circumstances that led to the trial relate to events in excess of thirty to forty years ago when the fathers of Dorothy Reay and Vivien Hope were employed by the Defendants and their predecessors (the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) as fitters for the Sellafield Plant

  13. Yesterday's war; tomorrow's technology: peer commentary on 'Ethical, legal, social and policy issues in the use of genomic technologies by the US military'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas G; Moreno, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    A recent article by Maxwell J. Mehlman and Tracy Yeheng Li, in the Journal of Law and the Biosciences , sought to examine the ethical, legal, social, and policy issues associated with the use of genetic screening and germ-line therapies ('genomic technologies') by the US Military. In this commentary, we will elaborate several related matters: the relationship between genetic and non-genetic screening methods, the history of selection processes and force strength, and the consequences and ethics of, as Mehlman and Li suggest, engineering enhanced soldiers. We contend, first, that the strengths of genomic testing as a method of determining enrollment in the armed forces has limited appeal, given the state of current selection methods in the US armed forces. Second, that the vagaries of genetic selection, much like other forms of selection that do not bear causally or reliably on soldier performance (such as race, gender, and sexuality), pose a systematic threat to force strength by limiting the (valuable) diversity of combat units. Third, that the idea of enhancing warfighters through germ-line interventions poses serious ethical issues in terms of the control and ownership of 'enhancements' when members separate from service.

  14. Impact of human genome initiative-derived technology on genetic testing, screening and counseling: Cultural, ethical and legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottier, R.W.; Hodgin, F.C.; Imara, M.; Phoenix, D.; Lybrook, S. (Morehouse Coll., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Medicine); Crandall, L.A.; Moseley, R.E.; Armotrading, D. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Coll. of Medicine)

    1993-01-01

    Genetic medical services provided by the Georgia Division of Public Health in two northern and two central districts are compared to services provided in a district in which a tertiary care facility is located. Genetics outreach public health nurses play key roles in Georgia's system of Children's Health Services Genetics Program, including significant roles as counselors and information sources on special needs social services and support organizations. Unique features of individual health districts, (e.g., the changing face of some rural communities in ethnocultural diversity and socioeconomic character), present new challenges to current and future genetics services delivery. Preparedness as to educational needs of both health professionals and the lay population is of foremost concern in light of the ever expanding knowledge and technology in medical genetics. Perspectives on genetics and an overview of services offered by a local private sector counselor are included for comparison to state supported services. The nature of the interactions which transpire between private and public genetic services resources in Georgia will be described. A special focus of this research includes issues associated with sickle cell disease newborn screening service delivery process in Georgia, with particular attention paid to patient follow-up and transition to primary care. Of particular interest to this focus is the problem of loss to follow-up in the current system. Critical factors in education and counseling of sickle cell patients and the expectations of expanding roles of primary care physicians are discussed. The Florida approach to the delivery of genetic services contrasts to the Georgia model by placing more emphasis on a consultant-specialist team approach.

  15. Reproductive Hazards and Sex Discrimination in the Workplace: New Legal Concerns in Industry and on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A.

    1984-01-01

    The wide range of reproductive hazards encountered by university employees in a variety of job classifications are outlined, and the legal issues raised by possible employment discrimination claims and potential tort liability for reproductive injuries are discussed. Employer responses to the problem and public policy concerns are also examined.…

  16. The use of legal knowledge-based systems in public administration: what can go wrong?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Hugo; Prakken, Henry; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Bench-Capon, Trevor J.M.; Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Winkels, Radboud

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, practical applications of legal knowledge-based systems have become increasingly common. This raises the issue of their functioning in practice and their actual influence on the quality of decisions. In this paper we investigate to what extent incorrect decisions may be caused by

  17. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  18. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content and behaviour in the case of the Canadian nuclear waste management organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight how stakeholder input has shaped the work of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in both process and content. In 2002, NWMO was mandated by the Government of Canada to undertake a study of different approaches for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel, and to recommend an approach to the Government by November 15, 2005. Public consultations are an important part of this legislated mandate. In inviting broad dialogue and feedback from the public at large, experts, and other communities of interest, NWMO intends that its processes, the study and its recommendations will reflect the values and perspectives of Canadian society. The organization has adopted a reflective study approach, through which it deliberately seeks public input at each stage of study. A continuum of engagement activities provides for dynamic interaction between the engagement processes and the research and analysis. The insights gained from engagement are integrated into the NWMO's study, to continuously enrich the iterative learning process. NWMO has received a wide range of comments, insights and questions from face-to-face discussions, workshops, round-tables, written submissions and public opinion research. The sections that follow illustrate how this stakeholder input has helped to shape the organisation's public engagement plans, work-plan and the focus of the assessment that is now in progress. Going forward, issues and comments provided by different communities of interest will assist the assessment of the management approaches and help design NWMO's recommendation to the Government of Canada. (author)

  19. The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, B.

    1992-01-01

    The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court? The article examines questions of recourse to the competent court, problems concerning the admissibility of legal proceedings before the Federal Admininstrative Court, the competence of the Laender in performing administrative acts on behalf of the Federation, the effectiveness of legal protection and the relationship between the Laender and the Federation in terms of responsibility for constitutional rights. The legal protection offered by administrative law, against a directive of the Federal Government is wholly ineffective, as there is no legal position a Land could bring into play to defened itself against a directive leading to unlawful action. Inequites which thus occur can however be met via a dispute between the Federation and the Laender as provided by the constitution, as the content of a directive becomes relevant in attempts to exert influence on the competence issue. Ultimately the rulings of the Basic Law on competence serve to protect the citizen and the community against excesses. In this connection the constitutional rights in their capacity as negative competence rulings disqualify executive acts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  1. The legal issues of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    According to international law the Federal Republic of Germany has a right to claim compensations from the Soviet Union. This all the more as both states have signed the treaty of Nov. 13, 1979 which as part of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is known as the ''Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution''. By civil law victims may sue a Kiev court for compensations or else sue for damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is very unlikely that the reactor management itself will pay any damages. According to the Atomic Energy Law, paragraph 38, 2 and paragraph 34, 1 p. 2 victims in the Federal Republic of Germany may claim compensations up to a maximum of 1 billion marks from the Federal Government. However, compensations may only be sued for if attempts to sue a Soviet court have failed. Compensations must be claimed at the Federal Administrative Board in Cologne. (HP) [de

  2. Legal issues: office management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, M D

    1999-08-01

    Student health records, whether paper or electronic, are restricted and protected to a greater degree than are educational records. Some school health office software is designed to provide greater data protection than is possible in paper records. However, unless basic district and health office practices are established to prevent access to or corruption of electronic health data, technological safeguards will be useless. This article describes school and health office policies and practices that are necessary for the integrity, confidentiality, and security of student health information.

  3. Issues in Translating Legal Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Myrteza MURIÇI

    2016-01-01

    We live in a world which is globalized and where international relations are much more active than ever. As people do not speak common language, need for translation and interpreting is more crucial in this regard. We cannot think of close contacts among states, societies, people and businesses without the mediation of translation and interpreting than before. Thus, translation and interpreting have became crucial and are playing a very important role in human interactions. International law,...

  4. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  5. Punishment and Aversive Stimulation in Special Education: Legal, Theoretical and Practical Issues in Their Use with Emotionally Disturbed Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    Seven papers from a 1978 conference focus on the use of punishment in special education programs for emotionally disturbed students. In "The Legal Status of the Use of Corporal Punishment and Other Aversive Procedures in Schools," F. Wood and K. Lakin review laws, regulations, and court decisions that bear on the legality of the use of…

  6. "Sweatshop" Protests Raise Ethical and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Student activists have put pressure on colleges and universities to toughen licensing codes aimed at eliminating sweatshop labor for college apparel made in other countries, and have had some success. However, oversight of the codes among contractors in developing countries is logistically and economically problematic. (MSE)

  7. LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acord, H.K.

    1995-01-01

    The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture

  8. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may......The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  9. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2007-01-01

    becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may......The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  10. Comparative effectiveness research and big data: balancing potential with legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra; Thorpe, Jane Hyatt

    2015-01-01

    Big data holds big potential for comparative effectiveness research. The ability to quickly synthesize and use vast amounts of health data to compare medical interventions across settings of care, patient populations, payers and time will greatly inform efforts to improve quality, reduce costs and deliver more patient-centered care. However, the use of big data raises significant legal and ethical issues that may present barriers or limitations to the full potential of big data. This paper addresses the scope of some of these legal and ethical issues and how they may be managed effectively to fully realize the potential of big data.

  11. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  12. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  13. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  14. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ..... Given that raised ICP is a serious and potentially life-threatening emergency, fast and reliable referral and transfer mechanisms should be established to ensure patients with this condition are effectively treated.

  15. Children's Difficulty with Raising: A Performance Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jinsun; Deen, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    This article explores English-speaking children's acquisition of raising structures with an experiencer (e.g.," John seems to Mary to be happy"). We review and address previously unnoticed issues in the methodologies of existing studies testing the acquisition of raising, thus providing a more reliable picture of children's abilities…

  16. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  17. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  18. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  19. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  20. 42 CFR 57.1511 - Opinion of legal counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indebtedness to the lender, stating that the credit and security instruments executed by the applicant are duly... memorandum or opinion of legal counsel with respect to the legality of any proposed note issue, the legal authority of the applicant to issue the note and secure it by the proposed collateral, and the legality of...

  1. Adam Nash: legally speaking, a happy ending or slippery slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockin, Susan

    2001-01-01

    The birth of Adam Nash, following IVF and then preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on the resulting 15 embryos to find which would be a potential bone marrow match for his older sibling, suffering from Fanconi's anaemia, is the first reported case of genetic selection of an embryo to save the life of an existing person. The case has stirred debates worldwide over the appropriateness and implications of using the technique for this and related purposes. Legally, it is suggested that embryos are indeed entitled to special respect because of their potential for life, but certain principles must not be overlooked, and the Nash case was wholly within acceptable legal principles. The legal perspective offered here concludes: (i) while embryos are entitled to certain protections, the mere fact that they are extracorporeal raises the danger that the rights and protections assigned to them will be wrongly elevated over the legally protected procreation rights of the adults who create them; (ii) divorce litigation involving "custody" of embryos is not a direct parallel and legal analogies must be distinguished; (iii) the status of embryos must be carefully defined; and (iv) a national or international, multi-disciplinary body should be created to grapple with the developing issues and uses that are sure to follow.

  2. Owning the tooth: exploring the ethical and legal issues relating to the use of extracted human teeth in dental education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Acl; Dracopoulos, S A

    2017-06-01

    Extracted human teeth have been used to practice operative techniques for a very long time. As a natural surrogate for a live tooth in vivo, their use has traditionally been very important for the development of skills in trainee dentists, as well as their qualified colleagues who wish to practise existing or new skills. As synthetic alternatives develop greater authenticity, alongside a society in which many retain their natural dentition well into old age, the current paradigm relating to how extracted teeth in dental education are used needs to be revisited. An ethical and legal dilemma that must be addressed within dental education relates to where and how teeth may be sourced. This article will seek to question whether there is a legal or ethical requirement to gain consent for the use of extracted teeth from patients, as well as exploring the status of whether extracted dental tissue can be considered to be the property of either patient or surgeon. Whilst synthetic alternatives are being utilized more frequently in education, it is unlikely that they will completely replace extracted natural teeth in the immediate future. It is therefore imperative that their use complies with legal doctrine and contemporary ethical thought. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  4. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  5. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  6. Civil Legal Services and Medical-Legal Partnerships Needed by the Homeless Population: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.

  7. Neuroethics: the ethical, legal, and societal impact of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Martha J

    2012-01-01

    Advances in cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience raise a host of new questions concerning the ways in which neuroscience can and should be used. These advances also challenge our intuitions about the nature of humans as moral and spiritual beings. Neuroethics is the new field that grapples with these issues. The present article surveys a number of applications of neuroscience to such diverse arenas as marketing, criminal justice, the military, and worker productivity. The ethical, legal, and societal effects of these applications are discussed. Less practical, but perhaps ultimately more consequential, is the impact of neuroscience on our worldview and our understanding of the human person.

  8. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    see bilateral legal transaction whose subject is the future legacy or exactly specified legal issue from legacy, which aims to voluntarily change the law and customs of the established circuit of heirs, who partially performed legal effects among the living, and partly in case of death, the one that differs from the legacy through its irreversibility, we will then find its roots with the Franks and the Langobards, while its first clear shapes and forms we will find as early as XIII century. If we start from this initial premise, bearing in mind that different nations in different historical epochs attained a certain level of cultural, economic and legal emancipation, it is possible to draw another conclusion. It is the fact that disposal of assets in case of death, which meant some form of approval of the one in whose favour assets were disposed (what we would call today a bilateral legal transaction, has always preceded legacy as a unilateral legal transaction. Further on, it means that affatomia and thinx, as well as Morgengabe, can be considered roots in Germanic contractual inheritance law. But if we follow the development of an idea, abstracting the inevitable differences, Babylonian nudunu, Islamic vassijet, donatio mortis causa (from Babylon, through the Spartan and Roman law, to the Mirror of the Saxons, Vergabungen of the Schwabenspiegel, especially the Roman mancipatio familiae last will, can all equally be regarded as the roots of the contractual inheritance.

  9. Legal issues in governing genetic biobanks: the Italian framework as a case study for the implications for citizen's health through public-private initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piciocchi, Cinzia; Ducato, Rossana; Martinelli, Lucia; Perra, Silvia; Tomasi, Marta; Zuddas, Carla; Mascalzoni, Deborah

    2018-04-01

    This paper outlines some of the challenges faced by regulation of genetic biobanking, using case studies coming from the Italian legal system. The governance of genetic resources in the context of genetic biobanks in Italy is discussed, as an example of the stratification of different inputs and rules: EU law, national law, orders made by authorities and soft law, which need to be integrated with ethical principles, technological strategies and solutions. After providing an overview of the Italian legal regulation of genetic data processing, it considers the fate of genetic material and IP rights in the event of a biobank's insolvency. To this end, it analyses two case studies: a controversial bankruptcy case which occurred in Sardinia, one of the first examples of private and public partnership biobanks. Another case study considered is the Chris project: an example of partnership between a research institute in Bolzano and the South Tyrolean Health System. Both cases seem to point in the same direction, suggesting expediency of promoting and improving public-private partnerships to manage biological tissues and biotrust to conciliate patent law and public interest.

  10. Cosmetic surgery on children - professional and legal obligations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitipornchai, Leon; Then, Shih-Ning

    2011-07-01

    Public awareness and concern about cosmetic surgery on children is increasing. Nationally and internationally questions have been raised by the media and government bodies about the appropriateness of children undergoing cosmetic surgery. Considering the rates of cosmetic surgery in comparable Western societies, it seems likely that the number of physicians in Australia who will deal with a request for cosmetic surgery for a child will continue to increase. This is a sensitive issue and it is essential that physicians understand the professional and legal obligations that arise when cosmetic surgery is proposed for a child. This article reviews the current professional and legal obligations that physicians have to competent and incompetent children for whom cosmetic surgery has been requested. A case study is used to highlight the factors that Australian primary care physicians must consider before referring and conducting cosmetic surgery on children.

  11. Grandparents raising grandchildren: a primer for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, William; Adesman, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of key considerations relating to the physical and behavioral well-being of children raised by their grandparents. As the number of children being raised by their grandparents in the United States steadily increases, the needs of these families require greater attention. These children and their custodial grandparents face unique health, social, legal, and financial challenges. Children being raised by their grandparents are at higher risk for developmental and behavioral problems because of prior or current adverse family environments. Moreover, there is evidence that custodial grandparents may experience negative health, social, and financial outcomes that may constrain their ability to provide the best care for their grandchildren. Pediatricians should not only be aware of the medical and developmental status of children who are being reared by their grandparents, but also assess the needs, abilities, and potential limitations of these custodial grandparents. In addition to providing useful parenting advice and direct support to custodial grandparents, pediatricians should refer these families as needed to local grandparenting groups, social service agencies, experienced legal counsel, and relevant national organizations for support and guidance.

  12. Medicine beyond borders: the legal and ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie J

    2009-09-01

    The ease and affordability of international travel has contributed to the rapid growth of the healthcare industry where people from all around the world are traveling to other countries to obtain medical, dental, and surgical care while at the same time touring, vacationing and fully experiencing the attractions of the countries that they are visiting. A combination of many factors has led to the recent increase in popularity of medical tourism such as exorbitant costs of healthcare in industrialized nations, favorable currency exchange rates in the global economy, rapidly improving technology in many countries of the world and most importantly proven safety of healthcare in selected foreign nations. Nevertheless, the development of medical tourism has certainly awakened many ethical and legal issues, which must be addressed. Issues pertaining to malpractice, consumer protection, organ trafficking, alternative medicine and telemedicine need comprehensive legal regulatory framework to govern them. Ethical issues are also been raised by the promotion of medical tourism in particular those pertaining to doctor and patient relationship. A future, where medical law is subsumed into various legal and ethical dimensions, poses serious challenges for the practice and ethics of medicine.

  13. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    González Luna, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  14. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  15. €œLegal Boundaries of Online Advertising"

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkaynak, Gönenç; Yılmaz, İlay; Yeşilaltay, Burak

    2014-01-01

    This contribution discusses the legal framework of online advertising and common legal issues pertaining thereto. This paper also addresses the implementation of general legal provisions to online advertising issues in different jurisdictions and the diversity of approaches. It provides the legal boundaries that are specifically applicable to online advertising. The paper then provides a legal analysis on online advertising with a focus on Turkish laws and practice. In the conclusion, there a...

  16. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  17. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  18. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  20. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field is going to be the strengthening of the bond between international investments and environmental protection. It is insisted on the attitude that our law needs to approach adequately to the matter of legal valorization of the environmental protection issue. This requires the creating of a complex, coherent approach that should be based on adequate legal superstructure and amendments to the existing Law on Foreign Investments. The main direction of changes implies that the current obligation of foreign investors in this field should be raised onto a higher level and foreign investments should be placed in the function of accomplishing of the concept of sustainable development. However, such an approach has to be accompanied by appropriate mechanism of control and supervision in the given field, if its full effectiveness is to be achieved.

  1. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Ramos, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  2. Minors or suspects? A discussion of the legal and ethical issues surrounding the indefinite storage of DNA collected from children aged 10-18 years on the National DNA Database in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansel, Charlotte; Davies, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    There are currently over 250,000 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years who have their genetic information stored on the National DNA Database. This paper explores the legal and ethical issues surrounding this controversial subject, with particular focus on juvenile capacity and the potential results of criminalizing young children and adolescents. The implications of the adverse legal judgement of the European Court of Human Rights in S and Marper v UK (2008) and the violation of Article 8 of the Convention are discussed. The authors have considered the requirement to balance the rights of the individual, particularly those of minors, against the need to protect the public and have compared the position in Scotland to that of the rest of the UK. The authors conclude that a more ethically acceptable alternative could be the creation of a separate forensic database for children aged 10-18 years, set up to safeguard the interests of those who have not been convicted of any crime.

  3. Ethical issues in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    The study gives an overview of ethical questions raised by the progress of neuroscience in identifying and intervening in neural correlates of the mind. Ethical problems resulting from brain research have induced the emergence of a new discipline termed neuroethics. Critical questions concern issues, such as prediction of disease, psychopharmacological enhancement of attention, memory or mood, and technologies such as psychosurgery, deep-brain stimulation or brain implants. Such techniques are capable of affecting the individual's sense of privacy, autonomy and identity. Moreover, reductionist interpretations of neuroscientific results challenge notions of free will, responsibility, personhood and the self which are essential for western culture and society. They may also gradually change psychiatric concepts of mental health and illness. These tendencies call for thorough, philosophically informed analyses of research findings and critical evaluation of their underlying conceptions of humans. Advances in neuroscience raise ethical, social and legal issues in relation to the human person and the brain. Potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology to mentally ill and healthy persons have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm. Questions concerning underlying concepts of humans should be actively dealt with by interdisciplinary and public debate.

  4. The legal status of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, political attitudes in Germany towards the nuclear industry have been characterised less by consistency than by some major policy shifts, and the same can be said for the legislation born of these attitudes. Although a number of these about-turns were predictable, others were less so because of their dependence on external factors. What now looks likely to be the final decision to phase out the civil use of nuclear power in Germany by 31 December 2022 raises a whole host of legal questions. In particular, the procedure followed to implement this phase-out provides ample material for debates on questions of constitutionality. Further matters of jurisprudential interest include the agreements concluded with the nuclear industry before the final phase-out decision was taken and the chronologically close political about-faces themselves. Finally, a degree of legal uncertainty still surrounds not only the as yet still unresolved issue of final repositories but also the resurgent debate over the source of funding for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. After providing an overview of the initial situation and the problems arising in connection with Germany's phasing out of the civil use of nuclear energy, this paper will place these issues in their proper legal context before evaluating them and highlighting the connection between these points of nuclear law and the current upheaval in German energy policy. (author)

  5. Internet advertising and its legal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, Evgeniia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal aspects of Internet advertising. The main aim of this thesis is to define a legal code corresponding to this issue and to compare with the laws in Russia. The aim also is specify the efficiency of this legal aspects and review sufficiency of protection of consumers. Further explain the issue of spamming, find out its benefits to the retailer and negative aspects for consumers, and also to compare legal aspects of spamming with legislation in Russia.i

  6. Would it be legally justified to impose vaccination in Israel? Examining the issue in light of the 2013 detection of polio in Israeli sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin-Friedman, Shelly

    2017-10-30

    The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to decide that children who had been vaccinated with IPV would also be vaccinated with OPV. The decision sought to protect vulnerable Israeli individuals who were either not vaccinated with IPV or who suffered from an immune deficiency, to preserve Israel's status as a polio-free country, to prevent the virus' "exportation" into vulnerable polio-free countries, and to participate in the global efforts toward the eradication of polio. After a massive public persuasion campaign, 79% of the children born after 2004 were vaccinated as well as 69% of the children residing in central Israel. A 2014 State Comptroller Report stated that the Ministry of Health should draw conclusions from the low compliance rates in certain Israeli regions. The article seeks to examine the legal legitimacy of mandatory vaccination in the service of eradicating a contagious disease (as opposed to preventing a pandemic outbreak), which was one of the objectives in the 2013 Polio case. It more specifically relates to current Israeli law as well as to a hypothetical new public health law which would authorize health officials to oblige vaccination and enforce this through the use of criminal sanctions. Qualitative content analysis through the interpretation of court judgements, laws, legislative protocols, health ministry guidelines and documented discussions of the Advisory Committee on Infectious Diseases and Immunization. A mandatory vaccination backed by criminal sanctions in the service of the eradication of contagious diseases would probably be perceived as infringing on the constitutional right to autonomy to a greater extent than necessary according to Israeli law and case law precedents. There may be some added value inherent in a new public health law which would authorize health officials to oblige vaccination where nonrestrictive measures have been ineffective. However, the law should also

  7. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  8. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  9. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    time the work substantiates that law is reluctant to take account of the past decisions of the individuals and institutions they are reviewing. By looking only at the particular decision under review and not calibrating the posture of review on the basis of a history of decisions reviewing courts and other reviewing institutions embody the particularism that is a large part of the American legal tradition. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and educational activity when viewing the issues of legal judgments calibration.

  10. "Why can't I give you my organs after my heart has stopped beating?" An overview of the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues concerning organ donation after circulatory death in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Alberto; Abelli, Massimo; Azzoni, Giampaolo; Biancofiore, Gianni; Citterio, Franco; Geraci, Paolo; Latronico, Nicola; Picozzi, Mario; Procaccio, Francesco; Riccioni, Luigi; Rigotti, Paolo; Valenza, Franco; Vesconi, Sergio; Zamperetti, Nereo

    2016-03-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is a valuable option for the procurement of functioning organs for transplantation. Clinical results are promising and public acceptance is quite good in most western countries. Yet, although DCD is widespread in Europe, several problems still persist in Italy as well as in some other countries. This paper aims to describe the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues at stake, bearing in mind the particular situation created by Italian legislation. Currently, as regards DCD, Italy is somewhat different from other countries. Therefore, every effort should be made for the safe and effective implementation of DCD programs: uncontrolled DCD programs should be promoted and encouraged, within the framework of shared and authoritative rules. At the same time, we need to tackle the question of controlled DCD, promoting debate among all involved subjects regarding the fundamental issues of end-of-life care within protocols that best integrate the highest standard of care for the dying and the legitimate interests of those awaiting a life-saving organ.

  11. Analysing Discursive Practices in Legal Research : How a Single Remark Implies a Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Different linguistic theories of meaning (semantic theories) imply different methods to discuss meaning. Discussing meaning is what legal practitioners frequently do to decide legal issues and, subsequently, legal scholars analyse in their studies these discursive practices of parties, judges and

  12. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  13. Impact of human genome initiative-derived technology on genetic testing, screening and counseling: Cultural, ethical and legal issues. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottier, R.W.; Hodgin, F.C.; Imara, M.; Phoenix, D.; Lybrook, S. [Morehouse Coll., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Medicine; Crandall, L.A.; Moseley, R.E.; Armotrading, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Coll. of Medicine

    1993-03-01

    Genetic medical services provided by the Georgia Division of Public Health in two northern and two central districts are compared to services provided in a district in which a tertiary care facility is located. Genetics outreach public health nurses play key roles in Georgia`s system of Children`s Health Services Genetics Program, including significant roles as counselors and information sources on special needs social services and support organizations. Unique features of individual health districts, (e.g., the changing face of some rural communities in ethnocultural diversity and socioeconomic character), present new challenges to current and future genetics services delivery. Preparedness as to educational needs of both health professionals and the lay population is of foremost concern in light of the ever expanding knowledge and technology in medical genetics. Perspectives on genetics and an overview of services offered by a local private sector counselor are included for comparison to state supported services. The nature of the interactions which transpire between private and public genetic services resources in Georgia will be described. A special focus of this research includes issues associated with sickle cell disease newborn screening service delivery process in Georgia, with particular attention paid to patient follow-up and transition to primary care. Of particular interest to this focus is the problem of loss to follow-up in the current system. Critical factors in education and counseling of sickle cell patients and the expectations of expanding roles of primary care physicians are discussed. The Florida approach to the delivery of genetic services contrasts to the Georgia model by placing more emphasis on a consultant-specialist team approach.

  14. Raising Students' Perception of the Relevance of Science Teaching and Promoting Communication and Evaluation Capabilities Using Authentic and Controversial Socio-Scientific Issues in the Framework of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, Timo; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of different lesson plans dealing with authentic and controversial socio-scientific issues in the framework of climate change. These lesson plans orient themselves along the socio-critical, problem-oriented approach to science teaching. They deal with the use of bioethanol as an alternative fuel and with the…

  15. On legal requirements for construction of high temperature reactors (HTR) in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowacki, Tomasz R. [Ministry of Economic Development, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. for Regulatory Risk Assessment

    2017-08-15

    In the July 2016 issue of atw an article has been published on the legal obstacles to the construction of HTRs in Poland. The authors have raised a number of objections to the Polish law with the main thesis of the inability, or at least a significant impediment to the construction of such installations without significant legislative intervention. The main purpose of this text is to prove that the construction of HTRs based on the existing Polish laws and regulations is possible. In addition, the author intends to clarify the particular concerns expressed in the article regarding the particular legislation and correct improper statements and interpretations of the Polish nuclear law. The article deals only with strictly legal issues and does not take a stand on the technical feasibility and reality of ambitious plans for the construction of HTRs in Poland.

  16. On legal requirements for construction of high temperature reactors (HTR) in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, Tomasz R.

    2017-01-01

    In the July 2016 issue of atw an article has been published on the legal obstacles to the construction of HTRs in Poland. The authors have raised a number of objections to the Polish law with the main thesis of the inability, or at least a significant impediment to the construction of such installations without significant legislative intervention. The main purpose of this text is to prove that the construction of HTRs based on the existing Polish laws and regulations is possible. In addition, the author intends to clarify the particular concerns expressed in the article regarding the particular legislation and correct improper statements and interpretations of the Polish nuclear law. The article deals only with strictly legal issues and does not take a stand on the technical feasibility and reality of ambitious plans for the construction of HTRs in Poland.

  17. On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, K.; Hulst, Liesbeth

    In this paper we discuss some strengths, stumbling blocks, common mistakes, and controversial issues that can be important when conducting experiments in the legal domain. To this end, we first briefly introduce the experimental method and note some of its strengths when used in legal research

  18. Constitutionalising the Right Legal Representation at CCMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...

  19. Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

  20. Inbound medical tourism to Barbados: a qualitative examination of local lawyers' prospective legal and regulatory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Cohen, I Glenn; Adams, Krystyna; Whitmore, Rebecca; Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-07-28

    Enabled by globalizing processes such as trade liberalization, medical tourism is a practice that involves patients' intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical legal research on this issue is limited and seldom based on the perspectives of destination countries receiving medical tourists. We consulted with diverse lawyers from across Barbados to explore their views on the prospective legal and regulatory implications of the developing medical tourism industry in the country. We held a focus group in February 2014 in Barbados with lawyers from across the country. Nine lawyers with diverse legal backgrounds participated. Focus group moderators summarized the study objective and engaged participants in identifying the local implications of medical tourism and the anticipated legal and regulatory concerns. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Five dominant legal and regulatory themes were identified through analysis: (1) liability; (2) immigration law; (3) physician licensing; (4) corporate ownership; and (5) reputational protection. Two predominant legal and ethical concerns associated with medical tourism in Barbados were raised by participants and are reflected in the literature: the ability of medical tourists to recover medical malpractice for adverse events; and the effects of medical tourism on access to health care in the destination country. However, the participants also identified several topics that have received much less attention in the legal and ethical literature. Overall this analysis reveals that lawyers, at least in Barbados, have an important role to play in the medical tourism sector beyond litigation - particularly in transactional and gatekeeper capacities. It remains to be seen whether these findings are specific to the ecology of Barbados or can be extrapolated to the legal climate of other medical tourism destination countries.

  1. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  2. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  3. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    , feelings, people's ideas about law, its place and role in ensuring the freedom of the individual and other universal values. The level of assimilation by members of society of legal values (legal norms and principles, skills of lawful behavior, respect for law, etc., the degree of mastering them and their practical implementation is a legal culture. It is an integral part of the general culture of both the society as a whole and its member, demonstrating the level of rightness and legal activity of society. Conclusions. During the research it was proved that the formation and improvement of the legal consciousness and legal culture is required by student youth, as the main bearer of the intellectual and physical potential of the nation. The issues of formation of legal consciousness and legal culture of students acquires special significance; these categories of youth should be formed not only by professionals of high qualification, but also by highly moral, highly cultured and law-conscious citizens - the real elite of a civilized, democratic society declared by the Constitution of Ukraine.

  4. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  5. The 2014 Budget Act: Selected Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Budget Act for the year 2014 raises legal questions in the context of the provisions of the Constitution as well as the Public Finance Act from 2009. Polish constitutional provisions relating to the state budget may be described as too general. They specify the requirements with regard to the Budget Act only to a limited extent.

  6. European stem cell research in legal shackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.G.; de Vries, S.A.; Geijsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brustle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent

  7. Do ethics committees need a legal framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The question "do ethics committees need a legal framework" may then raise fundamental discussion in the case of developing countries: will an ethical framework bring them a better capacity to assume their task? And what should this task be if we consider the particularities of clinical research conducted in developing countries?

  8. Fund Raising After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Major implications for fund raising in higher education due to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 are discussed. A list of fund- raising resolutions includes: going back to basics and working harder; consequences of last year's donation rush; and answering questions on the new alternative minimum tax. (MLW)

  9. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  10. Forcible Rape: An Analysis of Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Traditionally, rape has been defined as "carnal knowledge of a woman by force and against her will." The test of force has been crucial, and consent deduced. Victims were assumed to be consenting parties unless criminal circumstances could be proved. Victims were oftened questioned about past sexual behavior. Current reform efforts have attempted…

  11. Legal issues concerning local governments / Vallo Olle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olle, Vallo, 1966-

    1997-01-01

    Valla/linna põhimääruse õiguslikust regulatsioonist, kohaliku omavalitsuse korralduse seadusest, äriseadustikust, munitsipaalettevõtete ümberkujundamisest ja nende õigusaktide väljunditest Tartu linna põhimääruses ning teistes Tartus tehtud õiguslikes otsustustes

  12. Space debris and related legal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferranderie, G.

    2001-10-01

    "We are now witnessing an extraordinary event, the first of the 21st century, the MIR space station's plunge to Earth, producing of course impressive fireworks, but also a massive amount of debris." The first launchings created the first space debris. Space debris is the immediate, logical consequence of the exploration and use of outer space (around the Earth) involving manmade objects. This situation will persist, making launching, exploration and use increasingly difficult and risky - unless we turn to the type of rocket dreamt up by Hergé for Tintin's trips to the Moon. Worldwide concern has been expressed in particular in the Vienna Space Millennium Declaration adopted at the Unispace Conference in Vienna in July 1999, with the contributions of the Space Law Workshop organised by the International Institute of Space Law (session eight).

  13. Malpractice and M edico-Legal Issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chairman, Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria(MDCN). The Medical and Dental Council exists for the pro- ... yond the health institution to the lawcourts, or to the Medical and Dental Tribunal, or to both. While .... base your provisional diagnosis on the evidence be- fore you. Avoid diagnosis by guesswork and inspi- ration.

  14. Adolescent Abortion: Psychological and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Findings from empirical research differ greatly from the Supreme Court's assumptions about psychological factors in adolescent abortion. Psychologists should preserve adolescent clients' privacy in counseling about pregnancy-related decisions. Government should encourage counseling services for pregnant adolescents and research on psychological…

  15. Space WARC 1985 - Legal Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    satellites. Currently, the major use of the geostationary orbit is for telecomunication 7satellites. From the geostatlonary orbit, a satellite can...by developing nations. For example, in the Nov. 1980 meeting of IWP 4/1 the only developing nations sending representatives were Brazil , D China...India, Italy, France, West Germany and Japan. Countries with plans for geostationary satellites Include Mexico, Brazil , Columbia, Israel, China, Algeria

  16. Road Transport Informatics, Institutional And Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    THE EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS OF TRANSPORT HAS ENDEAVOURED TO DETERMINE THE MAIN LINES OF THE POLICIES CALLED FOR IN ORDER TO APPLY THE NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROVISION OF ROAD TRAFFIC INFORMATION, AND THE COUNCIL?S ANNECY SESSIO...

  17. Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    Against Torture, April 28, 2006, available at http://www.state.gov/g/ drl /rls/68554.htm. 50 Benkert Declaration, supra footnote 32, at para. 6. See...proposed extradition to France), cert. denied, 130 S. Ct . 1002 (2010). 114 Zadvydas, 533 U.S. at 693 (“the Due Process Clause applies to all ‘persons...Edwards, 128 S. Ct . 2379 (2008). The right to self-representation applies only in preparation for trial and at trial. The Constitution does not

  18. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  19. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  20. Investment Activities within the Legal Framework of the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Ruchkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of legal regulation of investment activities within the framework of the WTO. It considers factors that promote the establishment of a favorable investment climate, including the availability of special legislation, an efficient law enforcement practice and, as noted by many experts, availability and clarity of the judicial mechanism for the protection of violated rights. Recent foreign experience is analyzed and some issues of investment dispute settlement are considered. The article also deals with issues concerning the formation of competitive relations that, in their turn, also constitute an important factor of a state’s investment appeal.Investment activities constitute a popular type of entrepreneurial activity. Every state, regardless of where it is located or its level of economic development, aims to increase its investment activities and raise foreign investment inflow. To do this they adopt national regulatory acts and sign bilateral agreements, multilateral agreements, and execute international legal acts in the area of investment activities. This results in the need for examination of legal regulation in this area. Russia joining the WTO has resulted in regular revisions of current legal regulation, in particular in the law on foreign investments.

  1. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent jurisdiction...

  2. Legal Analysis of EPC Contract of the Nuclear Reactor in the aspect of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Korea Nuclear Industry and R and D Institute obtained order of Nuclear Reactor construction from the UAE and the Jordan. Though the UAE's nuclear power plant and the Jordan's Research Reactor were different each other legal issues raised in EPC contract between employer and contractor had very close characters and similar suggestions. New nuclear country have not established all necessary entities regarding regulation and control and enacted laws yet. However, nuclear technology shall be transferred to the country that is ready to or have equipped all mandatory safeguard and safety. From the reality, nuclear specific issues such as the Nuclear Indemnity, Ownership of Intellectual property, Training program for operating technicians, and nuclear licensing are emerging in the EPC contract and finding consensus to the issues between both parties were time consuming work. Our studies will analysis the issues and try to find impartial guideline

  3. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  4. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  5. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  6. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  7. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  8. Ethical Issues in Consulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lois

    1980-01-01

    Identifies common ethical dilemmas that arise in performance technology consultant-client relationships and the difficulties both parties have in resolving them. Questions of integrity v ethics, legality v ethics, conflict of interest issues, contracts and fee issues, and ownership issues are addressed. (MER)

  9. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  10. Legal knowledge, needs, and assistance seeking among HIV positive and negative women in Umlazi, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Holness, David; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2016-01-22

    The rights of women and people living with HIV (PLHIV) are protected under South African law, yet there is a gap in the application of these laws. While there are numerous systemic and social barriers to women's and PLHIV's exercise of their legal rights and rights to access social services, there has been little effort to document these barriers as well as legal needs and knowledge in this context. 1480 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recruited from an antenatal clinic in Umlazi Township completed a questionnaire on legal knowledge, experience of legal issues, assistance seeking for legal issues, and barriers to seeking assistance. We compared the legal knowledge and experience of legal issues of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and described assistance seeking and barriers to assistance seeking among all women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had high levels of knowledge of their legal rights. There were few important differences in legal knowledge and experience of legal issues by HIV status. The most common legal issues women experienced were difficulty obtaining employment (11 %) and identification documents (7 %). A minority of women who had ever experienced a legal issue had sought assistance for this issue (38 %), and half (50 %) of assistance sought was from informal sources such as family and friends. Women cited lack of time and government bureaucracy as the major barriers to seeking assistance. These results indicate few differences in legal knowledge and needs between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in this context, but rather legal needs common among women of reproductive age. Legal knowledge may be a less important barrier to seeking assistance for legal issues than time, convenience, and cost. Expanding the power of customary courts to address routine legal issues, encouragement of pro bono legal assistance, and introduction of legal navigators could help to address these barriers.

  11. Raising Transnational Issues in a Multicultural Curriculum Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Irma M,

    2004-01-01

    The changing demographics of America's population increases the need for educators to develop multicultural curricula for the nation's schools. This article describes the efforts of a group of teachers to learn about the funds of knowledge of Mexican students by doing field research in a state in Mexico with one of the largest migrations to…

  12. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  13. Considerations on Legal and Philosophical Problems in Experimental Botany: The case of plant in vitro cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kleszcz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper consists of two parts. In the first, some issues related to the character of biological experiments conducted under in vitro cultures are portrayed. The relevant aspects of these procedures are explicated from the viewpoint of the experimental botanist. It is a case study for the considerations in the second part, which presents selected philosophical and legal issues involved in biological experiments from the general perspective of philosophical investigations concerning the problem of plants’ axiology. Obviously, the nature of the considerations is limited; not all important questions from the perspective of biology and philosophy have been raised. Nevertheless, the authors hope that the analyzed issues may be interesting for both biologists and philosophers.

  14. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  15. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phone, or texting—raises the risk of a crash. NIH-funded researchers analyzed the driving habits of both novice teen and experienced drivers. Vehicles were equipped with 4 cameras that recorded video whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, ...

  16. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  17. Primer on Legal Affairs for the School Business Official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.; Polansky, Harvey, Ed.; Wood, R. Craig, Ed.

    This book provides school business administrators with an introduction to a variety of legal issues relevant to their professional roles. The book is divided into three major sections: management issues, employment issues, and constitutional issues. The topics covered in the seven-chapter section on management issues include board and district…

  18. A CONSIDERATION OF ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN MULTI-SITE STUDIES CONSIDERACIÓN DE LOS TEMAS ÉTICOS Y LEGALES EN LOS ESTUDIOS MULTICÉNTRICOS CONSIDERAÇÃO DOS TEMAS ÉTICOS E LEGAIS NOS ESTUDOS MULTICÊNTRICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Loue

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant ethical and legal issues may arise in conjunction with the conduct of multi-site studies. For example, different cultures may have varying concepts of personhood. The United States, for instance, places significant emphasis on the autonomy of each individual, while many other societies rely to a greater degree on defining an individual with reference to his or her roles or relationships to others. These differing orientations may have implications for informed consent procedures and for the design of procedures to maintain confidentiality of the data and privacy of the participants. The development of procedures for the maintenance of confidentiality and privacy must also consider any differences in reporting requirements between the sites that relate to sexually transmitted diseases and child abuse. The implications of such differences for the conduct of multi-site studies are examinedEn relación con los estudios multicéntricos pueden surgir aspectos éticos y legales. Por ejemplo, culturas diferentes tienen conceptos distintos sobre las personas. Así, Estados Unidos enfatiza la autonomía del individuo, mientras que otras sociedades definen, en mayor grado, al individuo según sus roles o su relación con los demás. Estas orientaciones diferentes pueden influir en el proceso de obtener consentimiento informado y en el diseño de procedimientos para mantener la confidencialidad de los datos y la privacidad de los participantes. El desarrollo de procedimientos que garanticen la confidencialidad y la privacidad debe considerar, también, cualquiera diferencia entre los centros al informar los requisitos que tengan relación con enfermedades de transmisión sexual y con abuso de niños. Se examinan las inferencias de estas diferencias al realizar estudios multicéntricosNos estudos multicêntricos surgem questões éticas e legais. Por exemplo, culturas diferentes tem conceitos distintos sobre as pessoas. Assim, nos Estados Unidos

  19. The Attorney-Client Relationship as a Business Law-Legal Environment Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Murray S.

    2004-01-01

    Business school law courses should promote understanding of legal processes affecting business, help students learn to recognize legal issues and manage legal risks, increase ethical sensitivity, and help students to develop critical thinking skills. To this end, business law and legal environment textbooks tend to focus on ethical and legal…

  20. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Joly, Yann; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-10-01

    The biggest challenge in twenty-first century data-intensive genomic science, is developing vast computer infrastructure and advanced software tools to perform comprehensive analyses of genomic data sets for biomedical research and clinical practice. Researchers are increasingly turning to cloud computing both as a solution to integrate data from genomics, systems biology and biomedical data mining and as an approach to analyze data to solve biomedical problems. Although cloud computing provides several benefits such as lower costs and greater efficiency, it also raises legal and ethical issues. In this article, we discuss three key 'points to consider' (data control; data security, confidentiality and transfer; and accountability) based on a preliminary review of several publicly available cloud service providers' Terms of Service. These 'points to consider' should be borne in mind by genomic research organizations when negotiating legal arrangements to store genomic data on a large commercial cloud service provider's servers. Diligent genomic cloud computing means leveraging security standards and evaluation processes as a means to protect data and entails many of the same good practices that researchers should always consider in securing their local infrastructure.

  1. Global artificial photosynthesis project: a scientific and legal introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    With the global human population set to exceed 10 billion by 2050, its collective energy consumption to rise from 400 to over 500 EJ/yr and with the natural environment under increasing pressure from these sources as well as from anthropogenic climate change, political solutions such as the creation of an efficient carbon price and trading scheme may arrive too late. In this context, the scientific community is exploring technological remedies. Central to these options is artificial photosynthesis--the creation, particularly through nanotechnology, of devices capable to doing what plants have done for millions of years - transforming sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into food and fuel. This article argues that a Global Artificial Photosynthesis (GAP) project can raise the public profile and encourage the pace, complexity and funding of scientific collaborations in artificial photosynthesis research. The legal structure of a GAP project will be critical to prevent issues such as state sovereignty over energy and food resources and corporate intellectual monopoly privileges unduly inhibiting the important contribution of artificial photosynthesis to global public health and environmental sustainability. The article presents an introduction to the scientific and legal concepts behind a GAP project.

  2. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatric treatment: towards proposals for their use based on 'sharing' legal capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielby, Phil

    2014-06-01

    A 'Ulysses arrangement' (UA) is an agreement where a patient may arrange for psychiatric treatment or non-treatment to occur at a later stage when she expects to change her mind. In this article, I focus on 'competence-insensitive' UAs, which raise the question of the permissibility of overriding the patient's subsequent decisionally competent change of mind on the authority of the patient's own prior agreement. In "The Ethical Justification for Ulysses Arrangements", I consider sceptical and supportive arguments concerning competence-insensitive UAs, and argue that there are compelling reasons to give such UAs serious consideration. In "Decisional Competence and Legal Capacity in UAs", I examine the nature of decisional competence and legal capacity as they arise in UAs, an issue neglected by previous research. Using the distinctions which emerge, I then identify the legal structure of a competence-insensitive UA in terms of the types of legal capacity it embodies and go on to explain how types of legal capacity might be shared between the patient and a trusted other to offer support to the patient in the creation and implementation of a competence-insensitive UA. This is significant because it suggests possibilities for building patient support mechanisms into models of legal UAs, which has not addressed in the literature to date. Drawing on this, in "Using Insights from the Competence/Capacity Distinction to Enhance Patient Support in UAs", I offer two possible models to operationalize competence-insensitive UAs in law that allow for varying degrees of patient support through the involvement of a trusted other. Finally, I outline some potential obstacles implementing these models would face and highlight areas for further research.

  3. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  4. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  5. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  6. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance. - Highlights: • Ethical and legal challenges in governance of liquid biofuels and wood pellets. • EU sustainability criteria legal and ethical analysis—EU bioenergy policy options. • Analysis of interplay between carbon and non-carbon concerns and regulatory options. • Governance must cope with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

  7. Data Protection in Financial Technology Services (A Study in Indonesian Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Purnama Anugerah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is facing a new competitor, namely Financial Technology (Fin-tech. Fin-tech itself can be described as an industry composed of companies using a new tech-nology and innovation with available resources in order to compete in the marketplace of tradi-tional financial institutions and intermediaries in the delivery of financial services. In Indonesia, Fin-tech has been widely developed since the past 3 years. Fin-tech faces a new challenge as a new service for financial consumer which adapts to new ways of living in modern digital tech-nology era. Basically, Fin-tech offers three main categories such as payment, personal finance, and financing. In financing application there are peer to peer financing, social crowd funding, and loan marketplace. All of these kinds of application have some issues in legal framework and data protection due to the use of communication technologies such as internet, social networks, Smartphone, massive use of data with the Big Data, connected objects, etc. The use of big data and those new technologies create new opportunities for these sectors, and this development also raises significant data protection concerns. This paper discusses two legal issues of Fin-tech, the legal aspect, and the data protection.

  8. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Case Briefs in Legal English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Stĕpánka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A case brief can be described as a succinct summary of a case which specifies the facts, procedural history, legal issue(s, court decision and legal reasoning supporting the judgment, even though exact formats may vary. Case briefing is a demanding activity which is required from students during their law studies. The goal is to teach students to focus on the essential parts of the case and to obtain a thorough understanding of the case and the reasoning, which means the students need to employ their analytical and critical thinking skills.

  10. The Individual Limited Liability Company in the Brazilian Legal System and Portuguese Experience of Single Shareholder Private Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Duarte Vasques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this essay is to analyze aspects of individual limited liability company in the Brazilian legal system, which raises the issue of the requirement of minimum capital contribution to the company’s constitution. Therefore, we seek to expose initially the historical responsibility of the individual entrepreneur, and then the current context of Portuguese single shareholder private companies. After these considerations, we focus on addressing the situation of the individual entrepreneur in Brazil and the creation of a new species of corporation that guarantees the limitation of liability to the individual entrepreneur in a manner similar to the Portuguese experience.

  11. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  12. The challenge of raising ethical awareness: a case-based aiding system for use by computing and ICT students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Don; Rogerson, Simon; Ben Fairweather, N

    2005-04-01

    Students, the future Information and Communication Technology (ICT) professionals, are often perceived to have little understanding of the ethical issues associated with the use of ICTs. There is a growing recognition that the moral issues associated with the use of the new technologies should be brought to the attention of students. Furthermore, they should be encouraged to explore and think more deeply about the social and legal consequences of the use of ICTs. This paper describes the development of a tool designed to raise students' awareness of the social impact of ICTs. The tool offers guidance to students undertaking computing and computer-related courses when considering the social, legal and professional implications of the actions of participants in situations of ethical conflict. However, unlike previous work in this field, this tool is not based on an artificial intelligence paradigm. Aspects of the theoretical basis for the design of the tool and the tool's practical development are discussed. Preliminary results from the testing of the tool are also discussed.

  13. Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-10-01

    In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.

  14. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  15. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  16. INHERENT VICE & INSUFFICIENT PACKING CLAUSES FOR ALL RISKS INSURANCE POLICIES UNDER BRITISH INSTITUTE CARGO CLAUSES : legal issues arising from claims of loss during sea transportation of large technical equipments

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Analysis and presentation of this thesis is supported by studies of many relevant cases where the major arguments are set around the exclusion clauses concerning the ‘all risks cover’ policy as found in Institute Cargo Clauses. Two cases are especially emphasized, namely Mayban General Assurance BHD v. Alstom Power Plants Ltd. and Global Process Systems Inc v. Syarikat Takaful Malaysia Berhad , mainly because of the special nature of the subject matter insured in these cases. The legal i...

  17. Beyond Species: The Quest for an Adequate Legal Concept for Animals in Brazilian Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Nasser Cury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of the proper legal treatment of animals. To this end, we debunked the importance of the criterion of species for justifying the distinction between humans and animals. Then, we also sought to analyse the main ethical theories that overcome speciesism and its legal repercussions. We then discussed three theories, which are animal abolitionism, Kantian approach to animal rights and the utilitarian view. We addressed the differences between abolitionists, Kantian, and utilitarian bias regarding legal consideration of animals. Finally, we presented an alternative criterion to the current proposals regarding animal rights, which aims to overcome the dichotomy between things and persons on Law.

  18. Legal regulation of protection of animals against cruelty

    OpenAIRE

    Hasíková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Diploma thesis: Legal regulation of protection of animals against cruelty This diploma thesis deals with national and transnational legal regulation of the protection of animals against cruelty. It comprises of four chapters. First chapter concerns ethical grounds of given issue and it provides analysis of term "animal welfare". Second chapter contains the most significant transnational legal rules of the protection of animals against cruelty adopted within the Council of Europe or the Europe...

  19. The Opium Wars, Opium Legalization, and Opium Consumption in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey A. Miron; Chris Feige

    2005-01-01

    The effect of drug prohibition on drug consumption is a critical issue in debates over drug policy. One episode that provides information on the consumption-reducing effect of drug prohibition is the Chinese legalization of opium in 1858. In this paper we examine the impact of China's opium legalization on the quantity and price of British opium exports from India to China during the 19th century. We find little evidence that legalization increased exports or decreased price. Thus, the eviden...

  20. Legal and Regulatory Frameworks for Decommissioning and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Safe and efficient decommissioning and waste management requires clear structures for allocating responsibility and funding. Organisation of decommissioning and waste management activities and the regulatory environment within which those activities are undertaken should also allow the supply chain to prosper and, wherever possible, reduce barriers to international availability of resources and waste facilities. Radioactive waste treatment and disposal in particular raises both legal and political challenges to effective international co-operation, yet options for decommissioning and waste management are maximised where international barriers can be minimised. Added to this, international nuclear liabilities issues must be managed so as to avoid unnecessary deterrents to international mobility of capability within the decommissioning market. Contractual terms and insurance arrangements for international shipments of nuclear waste and materials will also need to take into account imminent changes to liabilities conventions, ensuring compliance and management of compliance costs (of both insurance and management time). This paper explores legal and commercial structures intended to support effective decommissioning and waste management and examines regulatory and commercial factors affecting the ability of facility operators to utilise internationally available capability. It focusses on: - strategic approaches developed in the UK to address decommissioning and waste management liabilities associated with the UK's first and second generation civil nuclear sites and comparison of those approaches with other jurisdictions with significant decommissioning liabilities; - liability and compliance risks associated with navigating international nuclear liabilities regimes in context of both mobility of decommissioning capability and international waste shipment; and - regulatory issues affecting international availability of waste treatment facilities, including

  1. Method for artificially raising mule deer fawns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Eighteen captive Rocky Mountain mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), nine hand-raised and nine dam-raised, were used to evaluate an artificial rearing procedure. Hand-raised fawns were fed whole cow's milk supplemented with a daily addition of pediatric vitamins. Feeding intervals and quantities fed increased with increasing age of fawns. Blood values, body weight and mortality were used to determine nutritional and physiological status of fawns. Dam-raised fawns had significantly higher (P < 0.05) hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and cholesterol levels than hand-raised fawns. Mean body weight and growth rate were also significantly higher (P < 0.001) in dam-raised fawns. High mortality, 67%, occurred in dam-raised fawns as compared to 33% in hand-raised fawns. Resultant tameness in hand-raised fawns facilitated treatment of disease and handling of animals in experimental situations.

  2. Environmental Awareness Raising through Universities--City Authorities' Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelest, Ksenia D.; Ionov, Victor V.; Tikhomirov, Leonid Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to the environmental awareness raising as a key issue of education for sustainable development. Youth Environmental Volunteers Movement in the area of coastal oil response operations in St. Petersburg is presented in this paper as a successful initiative in the field of environmental awareness through universities and city…

  3. Cohort Changes in Attitudes About Legalized Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephen J.; And Others

    Cohort changes in attitudes about the availability of legal abortions are traced over a 12-year period using data from seven national surveys. Contrary to the aging-conservatism hypothesis, trends in the direction of increasingly favorable attitudes between 1965 and 1973 and general stability thereafter characterize all cohorts. On this issue,…

  4. Legal Aspects of Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, William; Herbert, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A medical model is used to examine liability issues related to cardiac rehabilitation programs. Obtaining effective informed consent from patients, standardizing policies and procedures, and exercise prescription and monitoring are among the proposed elements of a risk management model for developing safe and legally defensible programs. (IAH)

  5. Issues of biomedically assisted fertilization before the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biomedicine has led to the birth of the first test-tube baby in 1978, and that event gave enormous impetus for further development of biomedically assisted fertilization, but also for the development of supporting legislation. Biomedically assisted fertilization and its application raises sensitive social and moral issues, so states retain their sovereign rights in this area and enact rules and regulations that reflect their national legislative policy. Comparative studies across Europe show that national legal acts are in force in many countries, but differences exist and states persist on them. Legal regulation of biomedically assisted fertilization provides legal security for individuals who are subjected to it, making easier the legal protection in cases where individual rights are violated. This paper presents two recent judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, the subject matter of which are issues of biomedically assisted fertilization, where legal remedy is sought under Article 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Both judgments are in favor of the states against which complaints are filed by individuals: the Court ruled that national regulations have not violated the right to respect for the individual's private life.

  6. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  7. Sexual Harassment in Employment: Legal Perspectives for University Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillar, Darrel Long

    Legal issues concerning sexual harassment on the job are considered to aid administrators of colleges and universities. The concept of sexual harassment is examined from a historical perspective, and the development of legal thought and solutions for harassment in employment settings is delineated. The nature and extent of harassment have been…

  8. Political and legal approach to contemporary local democracies collisions` studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Burya

    2017-04-01

    It has been underlined that heuristic potential of political and legal approach in political science research is based on the possibility to solve genuine issues that contain the means of the legal provision of political institutions and the impact of these institutions on the normative context.

  9. CURRENT PRACTICES AND MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF PRE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... As the legal system in our society advances, coupled with the widespread use of advanced information technology, it follows that majority of our patients would become conscious of their legal rights. Thus, the issue of litigation known to be very rampant in the western world may soon become the order of.

  10. Assessing the Legal Risks in Network Forensic Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losavio, Michael; Nasraoui, Olfa; Thacker, Vincent; Marean, Jeff; Miles, Nick; Yampolskiy, Roman; Imam, Ibrahim

    This paper presents a framework for identifying the legal risks associated with performing network forensics on public networks. The framework is discussed in the context of the Gnutella P2P network protocol for which the legal issues related to authorized access have not yet been addressed.

  11. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  12. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  13. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  14. Low-dose computed tomography for the detection of cocaine body packs. Clinical evaluation and legal issues; Niedrigdosis-Computertomografieprotokoll zur Detektion von Kokain-Bodypacks. Klinische Evaluation und rechtliche Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, G.; Bulla, S.; Baumann, T.; Langer, M.; Blanke, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Einhaus, D. [Kanzlei Dr. Einhaus und Partner, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To discuss the juridical basis for CT examinations of cocaine body packers and to evaluate the clinical implementation of a tube current reduction-based low-dose CT protocol. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed to discuss the legal basis regarding the problem, the procedures, the potential harm and the proportionality. Retrospective evaluation of 8 patients who had undergone a low-dose CT scan (body mass index < 25 kg/m{sup 2} 30 mAs; > 25 kg/m{sup 2} 60 mAs) during the time period from February until October 2009 in order to exclude or to assess remaining cocaine body packs was approved by the institutional review board. The detectability and condition of the body packs were analyzed. Effective doses were calculated. Results: German jurisdiction does not distinguish between plain film X-ray and CT examinations. Both plain film X-ray and CT examination require a judicial warrant. However, examination results might still remain valid if a warrant was not requested. In 8 examinations (30 mAs n = 3, 60 mAs n = 5, mean BMI 25.9 {+-} 3.2.) a total of 34 body packs were correctly identified. The mean density of the body packs was 74.4 {+-} 31.9 HU (range 17 - 154 HU) with a cocaine content between 22.5 % and 72.8 %. The mean estimated radiation dose was 2.23 {+-} 0.72 mSv. Conclusion: Although medical legal aspects do not specify the diagnostic procedure to be performed, the high diagnostic accuracy and applied radiation dose reduction could establish low-dose CT as the method of choice for detecting cocaine body packs, thereby potentially avoiding future legal problems. (orig.)

  15. Nanoethics and the breaching of boundaries: a heuristic for going from encouragement to a fuller integration of ethical, legal and social issues and science : commentary on: "Adding to the mix: integrating ELSI into a National Nanoscale Science and Technology Center".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Julio R

    2011-12-01

    The intersection of ELSI and science forms a complicated nexus yet their integration is an important goal both for society and for the successful advancement of science. In what follows, I present a heuristic that makes boundary identification and crossing an important tool in the discovery of potential areas of ethical, legal, and social concern in science. A dynamic and iterative application of the heuristic can lead towards a fuller integration and appreciation of the concerns of ELSI and of science from both sides of the divide.

  16. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  17. Protected by pluralism? Grappling with multiple legal frameworks in groundwater governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Threats to groundwater sustainability demand governance. However, groundwater governance regimes are developing incongruously across geographic levels. Therefore, this research raises the question, how does lack of consensus regarding principles of groundwater law manifest itself as legal pluralism

  18. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  19. Subordinate Mechanism of Legal Regulation of Relations in the Framework of the Contract Procurement System to Meet the Needs of the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Solomonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theoretical issues of legal regulation mechanism features of separate stages of public procurement. Conclusions about the legal nature of the type of legal regulation, its relationship with the peculiarities of the legal facts and legal relations are given.

  20. e-commerce in the electricity supply industry: legal setting and selected legal issues arising in doing one's business via the Web; E-Commerce in der Elektrizitaetzwirtschaft: rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen und ausgewaehlte Rechtsprobleme bei der Nutzung des Internets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genten, A.; Rosin, P. [RWE Plus AG, Essen (DE). Privat Kundenmanagement (Recht)

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that e-commerce will be increasingly applied in business relations of the international electricity supply industry. This is why the contribution here sets out the legal provisions effective within the European Union as well as in Germany. Examples are given to illustrate specific aspects. (orig./CB) [German] Es wird erwartet, dass auch in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft E-Commerce immer groessere Aufmerksamkeit findet. Demzufolge ist auch fuer die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft eine Auseinandersetzung mit den rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen und den Rechtsproblemen bei der Nutzung des Internets von Interesse. Die Abhandlung erlaeutert den Europaeischen Rechtsrahmen fuer E-Commerce und den nationalen Rechtsrahmen fuer E-Commerce. (orig./CB)

  1. The National Security Agency (NSA eavesdropping on Americans
    A programme that is neither legal nor necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmarak Khan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available On 16 December 2005, the New York Times reported that the President had authorized the National Security Agency (NSA to spy on Americans, inside the United States, without first obtaining a warrant from the secret FISA court. Although the President has described the NSA activities to be legal and critical to our national security, the programme has started a national controversy, raising questions over its legality and necessity. Consequently, there have been pending legal challenges, congressional investigations, and public outcry over the use of such expansive presidential authority. The legal community, including the American Bar Association, considers the programme illegal. The only district court that has addressed the issue has held it to be an unconstitutional programme that violates FISA. This comment highlights several reasons for why warrantless wiretapping is illegal and unnecessary. The comment also notes public policy reasons against presidential power that is not subject to any checks from Congress or review from the judiciary. Finally, it argues that the President needs to immediately cease the programme; asks Congress to take its oversight responsibility more seriously; and reasons that the judicial review protects against abuse.

  2. Concerns Over the Expansion of Artificial Intelligence in the Legal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Einhouse, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Cornell Law School J.D. Student Research Papers. 38 Advances in technology have surely made the practice of law more efficient, but looming advances in artificial intelligence should raise some concern about the price of this efficiency. Artificial intelligence programs already exhibit the capacity to replace the daily activities of some lawyers, which should raise some concern in the legal community, especially regarding legal ethics. Despite these concerns, the access to knowledge that arti...

  3. Social disadvantage, mental illness and predictors of legal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, C T; Aubry, T D; Arboleda-Florez, J; Wasylenki, D; Goering, P N

    2006-01-01

    The following study evaluates the complex association between legal involvement and mental illness. It describes a population of consumers of community mental health programs, comparing those with legal involvement to those without legal involvement, on a number of demographic, clinical and social indicators. It is a secondary analysis of data collected in studies making up the Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative (CMHEI) in the province of Ontario, Canada. Legal involvement was a significant issue among community mental health program consumers; about one in five consumers had at least some contact with the legal system in the preceding nine months. Legally involved consumers were more likely to be in receipt of social assistance and be unstably housed than those legally uninvolved. However, there were no significant differences between legally involved and uninvolved consumers with respect to severity of symptomatology, current medication use or number of hospitalization days in the past 9 months. A predictive model compared the differential impact of clinical and social determinants upon legal involvement. Analyses failed to uncover a significant relationship between severity of psychiatric symptomatology and legal involvement. Significant predictors of legal involvement included gender, race, drug use as well as housing instability, and receipt of social assistance. Legal involvement was attributable to factors other than the severity of mental illness; these results challenge assumptions that the most symptomatically severe consumers are most at risk of legal involvement. Accordingly, the rate of legal involvement in a sample of community mental health program users must be considered in a broad context, with particular emphasis on social disadvantage.

  4. Professional Issues In Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bott, Frank; Eaton, Jack; Rowland, Diane

    2000-01-01

    An comprehensive text covering all the issues that software engineers now have to take into account apart from the technical side of things. Includes information on the legal, professional and commercial context in which they work.

  5. Civil Law Legal Assistance; Lawyer’s Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    marital or cohabitation domicile. Sexual relations leading to conception. Maintenance of matrimonial domicile within the state. Possible "in rem...satisfied, superseded, materially amended or set aside. The member may raise that there is a legal impediment to the establishment of an involuntary

  6. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the e...

  7. [Bioethics in Latin America: legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.

  8. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  9. Applying legal principles to stimulate open standards: the role of forums and consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Folmer, E.J.A.; Huitema, G.B

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that openness in standards raises its quality level. This study is done not only from a technical business administration point of view but also from a legal perspective. It is shown that applying legal principles, in particular the principles of Good Governance can

  10. 75 FR 4742 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of California; Legal Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... used in agricultural operations in the growing of crops or raising of fowls or animals, from the..., that the 1979 submittal of the revised legal authority chapter represented a wholesale replacement of... revised legal authority was intended by ARB, and approved by EPA, as a wholesale replacement of the...

  11. Ethical or legal perceptions by dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, T K; Lange, B; Bower, C F; Purtilo, R B

    1988-03-01

    Perplexing ethical and legal concerns cross health professions and reach into many professions and vocations. Confidentiality is crucial not only to the health professional and the patient, but also to the lawyer and client, and the investigative reporter and the source. Reporting poor work or whistleblowing is a dilemma not only for dentists and other health care professionals, but also for the engineer, architect, and federal employee, among others. This survey of the ethical or legal perceptions of the dental practitioner supports two conclusions: perplexing situations are perceived as predominantly ethical rather than legal problems and the factor of age (number of years in practice) might affect this trend toward the ethical consideration of complicated issues. Understanding the nature of these and other perplexing situations requires that dental practitioners step beyond the confines of their practice and the boundaries of the dental profession to search for more effective ways of dealing with, and therefore living with, the realities of their practice.

  12. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  13. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  14. Commercial Concession: Issues of Conceptual Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomonov E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theoretical issues of correlation of terms used to refer to the agreement of commercial concession, as well as related issues arising from legal practice and theory of civil law

  15. Structural and Functional Model of Future Craftsmen Legal Competence Generation during Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantsev, Gennadij M.; Efanov, Andrei V.; Bychkova, Ekaterina Yu.; Moiseev, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the law-governed state institutions in Russia, development of civil society, need for neutralizing the legal nihilism and generation of public legal culture, state demand for legally competent specialists, representing the public and social value, justify the relevancy of the investigated issue, on the one hand. On the other hand, it…

  16. Legal decision-making by people with aphasia: critical incidents for speech pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues for speech pathologists when decision-making capacity for legal and related matters arose for their clients with aphasia, and to describe qualitatively the nature of these issues and the practices of the speech pathologists in these situations. The methodology was informed by the qualitative research paradigm and made use of the semi-structured interview methods developed for the Critical Incident Technique. Nine speech pathologists, with a range of clinical experience between three and 27 years, were interviewed by telephone, with verbatim notes being taken on-line by the interviewer. The speech pathologists described a total of 21 clients (15 male, six female) with acquired neurological communication disorders (including cerebral vascular accident, traumatic brain injury, and tumour) whose care had raised critical incidents for the speech pathologist in relation to legal and related matters. These verbatim notes were qualitatively analysed using NVivo qualitative analysis software. The main incidents related to legal decisions (for example, power of attorney, will-making), as well as decisions involving consent for medical treatment, discharge, accommodation, and business/financial decisions. In all but one of the incidents recounted, the issues centred on a situation of conflict between the person with aphasia and their family, friends or with the multidisciplinary team. The roles taken by the speech pathologists ranged from those expected within a speech pathology scope of practice, such as that of assessor and consultant, to those which arguably present dilemmas and conflict of interest, for example, interpreter, advocate. The

  17. Viveiros educadores como ferramenta de educação ambiental no Brasil e suas questões jurídicas. Educational plant nurseries as a tool for environmental education in Brazil and its legal issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gomes da ROCHA

    2014-06-01

    develop a support material for the creation of nurseries that are aware of its legal responsibilities. Through: theoretical and conceptual review of nurseries; search for information from government bodies and institutions related on seedling production; and the legal analysis of the legislation on seeds and seedlings, it was possible to conclude that there is no legal justification for the unfeasibility of Educational Plant Nurseries because there is no guarantee that this category of plant nurseries should be or not be exempt from the bureaucratic demands contained in the new Brazilian seeds and seedlings laws.

  18. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  19. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  20. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  1. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  2. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  3. Psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals: Exploring roles in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Treesa Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental health and legal problems are interlinked in many ways. People facing legal issues may develop mental health problems, and people with mental illness and family also face legal issues. In India, Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 gives provision for free legal aid services for the poor sections of society. Authors explain the roles of psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals. Social case work as a method of social work is suitable in legal aid services. Counseling, referrals, collateral contacts, advocacy and networking are major services from the social work perspective. Knowledge about laws and mental illness is essential for social workers to work in legal aid clinics (LACs.

  4. European stem cell research in legal shackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Myrthe G; de Vries, Sybe A; Geijsen, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brüstle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent was challenged and put before the European Court of Justice, which ruled that inventions involving the prior destruction of human embryos cannot be patented. The legal maneuvering around this case demonstrates that the future of stem cell-based patents in Europe remains unsettled. Furthermore, owing to the European Court's broad definition of hESC as 'any cell that is capable of commencing development into a human being,' novel technologies that could eliminate the need for hESCs, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are at risk of being included under the same ruling. Advances in the in vitro development of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may one day provide a direct developmental path from iPSC to oocyte and sperm, and, according to the European Court's reasoning, legally equate iPSCs with human embryos. In this review, we will briefly discuss the Brüstle v Greenpeace case and the implications of the European Court of Justice's ruling. We will identify potential risks for stem cell research and future therapeutics resulting from the broad legal definition of the human embryo. Finally, we will broach the current legal landscape, as this broad definition has also created great uncertainty about the status of human iPSCs.

  5. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  6. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish...

  7. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  8. Boundaries of the Battlefield: A Critical Look at the Legal Paradigms and Rules in Countering Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dorsey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper is a detailed report from the two-day symposium entitled The Boundaries of the Battlefield: A Critical Look at the Legal Paradigms and Rules in Countering Terrorism, which was convened in The Hague in January 2013. The conference covered a range of issues that are relevant in debates about using force in counter-terrorism operations against non-state actors. Specifically, this Paper elaborates on a number of key questions raised during the conference; these relate to the temporal and geographical limitations of armed conflict, the interplay between international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as well as the use of drones, the law enforcement approach to counter-terrorism and the possible need for a new framework for countering terrorism. The authors, Jessica Dorsey and Dr. Christophe Paulussen, supplement participants’ debates with detailed background information and theoretical discussions.

  9. Approaching ethical, legal and social issues of emerging forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) technologies comprehensively: Reply to ‘Forensic DNA phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes’ by Manfred Kayser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, V.; Wienroth, M.; M'charek, A.; Prainsack, B.; Williams, R.; Duster, T.; Heinemann, T.; Kruse, C.; Machado, H.; Murphy, E.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent special issue of the journal on new trends in forensic genetics, Manfred Kayser contributed a review of developments, opportunities and challenges of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). In his article he argues that FDP technologies - such as determining eye, hair and skin color - should be

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF NATURAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of legal communication within natural law. Law has an important role, in relation to civilization and legal culture and one of the means through which law influences both culture and civilization is legal communication. The patterns of legal communication should be analyzed from the perspective of all important schools of legal thought: natural law, legal positivism, historical school of law etc. In this paper, the perception of law, through legal communication, within natural law is discussed and analyzed, from the principles and statements of Aristotle to the writings of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, St. Thomas Aquinas and later to the theories of Hugo Grotius. This study also aims to prove that the difference between legal communication within the major schools of legal thought does not regard the essence of communication or the various principles of law, but merely the perception of law, which varies from one school of thought to another.

  11. Medical Marijuana Legalization and Marijuana Use Among Youth in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W; Biglan, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    While the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use has raised concerns about potential influences on marijuana use and beliefs among youth, few empirical studies have addressed this issue. We examined the association between medical marijuana patients and licensed growers per 1000 population in 32 Oregon counties from 2006 to 2015, and marijuana use among youth over the same period. We obtained data on registered medical marijuana patients and licensed growers from the Oregon Medical Marijuana Program and we obtained data on youth marijuana use, perceived parental disapproval, and demographic characteristics from the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey. Across 32 Oregon counties, the mean rate of marijuana patients per 1000 population increased from 2.9 in 2006 to 18.3 in 2015, whereas the grower rate increased from 3.8 to 11.9. Results of multi-level analyses indicated significant positive associations between rates of marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population and the prevalence of past 30-day marijuana use, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. The marijuana patient and grower rates were also inversely associated with parental disapproval of marijuana use, which decreased from 2006 to 2015 and acted as a mediator. These findings suggest that a greater number of registered marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population in Oregon counties was associated with a higher prevalence of marijuana use among youth from 2006 to 2015, and that this relationship was partially attributable to perceived norms favorable towards marijuana use.

  12. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  13. Legal Risk Associated with Electronic Funds Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulah, Samahir

    2014-01-01

    The past thirty years have seen rapid advances in the technological component of banking services and as a consequence new legal issues have come to the fore, especially with regard to Electronic Fund Transfers (EFTs) which are now used to transfer money around the world, and have made fund transactions between payers and payees easier, faster and more secure. The method involves risks for both banks and customers, due to the possibility of unauthorized payments risks, credit and insolvency p...

  14. Lawfare: The Legal Front of the IDF

    OpenAIRE

    Avihai Mandelblit

    2012-01-01

    Lawfare is closely linked to the theme of this issue of Military and Strategic Affairs: the challenges facing the regular armies of law-abiding nations engaged in asymmetrical confrontations in densely populated civilian urban areas. Therefore, as part of its preparations for the challenges it may have to face in the future, particularly in this type of fighting, the IDF must give the proper weight to the legal front that is likely to develop as an integral part of the same confrontation.

  15. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  16. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  17. The College President's Role in Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.

    The role of the college president as one of the chief actors in academic fund raising is examined against the background of today's period of financial caution and increased competition for philanthropic support. The paper first provides an overview of the state of the art of fund raising and some ways in which college and universities have…

  18. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  19. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.