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Sample records for legal factors special

  1. Special Education in America: Its Legal and Governmental Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The text presents six chapters on the legal and governmental bases of special education. In the Introduction, F. Weintraub and J. Ballard cite the legislative and litigative history of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and briefly address information sources on such policy issues as procedural safeguards, underserved…

  2. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  3. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P specializing in a single sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  4. The Work Performed within Special Legal Labour Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Prior Work Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. Results An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contr act so different from other contracts. Value We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by this types of labour performed in different legal labour relations.

  5. 7 CFR 29.1059 - Special factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special factor. 29.1059 Section 29.1059 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1059 Special factor. A symbol or term authorized to be used with specified grades. Tobacco to which a special factor is applied may meet the general specifications but which has a peculiar...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2299 - Special factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special factor. 29.2299 Section 29.2299 Agriculture... Special factor. A symbol or term authorized to be used with specified grades. Tobacco to which a special factor is applied may meet the general specifications but has a peculiar side or characteristic which...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3057 - Special factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special factor. 29.3057 Section 29.3057 Agriculture... Special factor. A symbol or term authorized to be used with specified grades. Tobacco to which a special factor is applied may meet the general specifications but has a peculiar side or characteristic which...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2551 - Special factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special factor. 29.2551 Section 29.2551 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2551 Special factor. A symbol or term authorized to be used with specified grades. Tobacco to which a special factor is applied may meet the...

  9. Legal culture as a factor of social stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Akulich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.

  10. [Relevant factors in medico-legal prognosis of whiplash injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Amadeo; Puig, Luisa; Mansilla, Joaquina; Idiaquez, Itziar

    2003-07-12

    Whiplash injury (WI) is commonly evaluated in medico-legal practice. With the aim of knowing the determining factors of WI's medico-legal prognosis, a prospective and observational study was carried out. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who were clinically observed and evaluated in the Medico-Legal Clinic of Barcelona were studied. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiographic and evolutive factors were analyzed. We included 120 patients with a mean age of 35.6 (14) years (range, 4-74), with a homogeneous male/female distribution. An earlier cervical pathology was detected in 10% of patients; none of them had previous psychiatric pathology. 95% corresponded to road-traffic accident cases and there were 5 aggression cases. Over 50% of cases involved a rear-end collision. All patients had neck pain, almost 25% had headache and 13% had paresthesia. According to the Whiplash Association Disorders clinical classification, distribution in grades (G) was: G I 51%, G II 32% and G III 17%. Patients reported recovery within a mean time of 71.6 (46) days (range, 4-244), with 51,2 (45) no working days (range, 0-180 days). The 52% of the patients rest with complains. According to the recovery time, the following medico-legal prognostic factors were identified: age (p legal prognostic factors were age, being females, severity of initial clinical symptoms, previous cervical pathology and abnormal cervical MRI/CT.

  11. The Law in the Special Education Literature: A Brief Legal Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2014-01-01

    Author Perry Zirkel writes in this article that given the central role of law in special education, exemplified by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), it is fitting that the literature is replete with refereed journal articles specific to the legal dimension of various key issues of professional practice. He feels, however,…

  12. 7 CFR 29.3547 - Special factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special factor. 29.3547 Section 29.3547 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3547 Special factor. A symbol or term authorized to designate a peculiar side or...

  13. CULTURAL AND LEGAL FACTORS OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE IDEOLOGY OF STATE-BUILDING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Krasnokutskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.

  14. Justice, legal validity and the force of law with special reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to account for this coherence Dooyeweerd developed a theory in which both the ... On this basis the difference between law and justice is specified by ... legal principles and the regulatively deepened (disclosed) principles of legal ...

  15. Novel shifts in memory research and their impact on the legal process: introduction to the special issue on memory formation and suggestibility in the legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Petrila, John P

    2013-01-01

    The functioning and frailties of memory are frequently at the centerpiece of much expert testimony about the reliability of eyewitness accounts. Although we have much knowledge about how false memories and suggestibility can affect testimonies, the contributions in this special issue show that when using a sound theoretical framework, novel directions in this field can surface. The papers in this issue can broadly be divided into contributions that are related to: (1) the exact determinants of false memory and suggestibility; (2) new paradigms in legal psychology; (3) positive consequences of memory illusions; and (4) developmental false memory research. Collectively, these contributions have the potential to provide novel shifts in memory research and push this field beyond its current boundaries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Punishment and Aversive Stimulation in Special Education: Legal, Theoretical and Practical Issues in Their Use with Emotionally Disturbed Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    Seven papers from a 1978 conference focus on the use of punishment in special education programs for emotionally disturbed students. In "The Legal Status of the Use of Corporal Punishment and Other Aversive Procedures in Schools," F. Wood and K. Lakin review laws, regulations, and court decisions that bear on the legality of the use of…

  17. Legal basis of the environmental impact assessment - with special regard to the question of public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbguth, W.

    1992-01-01

    The article examines by way of example the compatibility of the national procedural law of the E/A with constraints imposed by EC law. All the isolated questions that remain unsolved point to a principal shortcoming in the implementation of the E/A. The strategy of incorporating the E/A into the existing regulations of the legal landscape of the Federal German Republic wherever possible must inevitably lead to violations and discrepancies of legal dogma, which at first sight appear partial but upon closer scruting prove to be of a fundamental nature. This has been underscored by the functional discrepancy between public participation as provided by the directive and the participation of national procedural law. Taking this into account there appears no way around a principal reorientation in the near future. This will mean complementing the forms of participation that are derived from constitutional considerations and oriented to legal impact with forms derived from the duties of a welfare state. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. The Vietnamese legal and policy framework for co-management in special-use forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KimDung, Nguyen; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Co-management has been introduced into Special Use Forests (SUFs) of Vietnam for more than 10 years. However, the extent to which Vietnamese laws and policies support co-management remains unclear. This paper reviews existing policies and laws from the national to commune levels and assesses their

  19. We, the People of the World... Special Programs in Citizenship Education: Comparative Legal Systems. SPICE V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Julia P., Ed.; Moulden, Richard G., Ed.

    This compilation of over 40 lesson plans on various topics in law related education was written by classroom teachers from around the United States who had participated in the fifth of an annual series called Special Programs in Citizenship Education (SPICE)--weeklong institutes devoted to learning about different cultures and laws. Called SPICE V…

  20. The Law and Special Educational Needs in Ireland: Perspectives from the Legal Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sheila; Clarke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines parents' struggle to secure adequate educational resources for their child(ren) with special educational needs within the Irish State system. The authors challenge the view that legislation facilitates practical advances that are meaningful to individual families. This small-scale exploratory study reports the findings from…

  1. Legal and Ethical Issues of Persons with Special Needs in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiwe, C. C.; Omiegbe, Odirin

    2014-01-01

    Persons with special needs have innate abilities and when properly harnessed through proper education would be able to contribute ultimately to their development as well as that of the society they reside in terms of political, social, economic and technological development. Before such group of persons can be properly educated there is the dire…

  2. factors affecting antenatal care service utilization in yem special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jhon

    assess antenatal care utilization and factors that affect it in Yem Special Woreda, South Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A ... A pre-tested structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio- ..... model and access to medical care: does it.

  3. The Economic Nature of Factoring and its Legal Manifestation in the Bulgarian Legislation and the Convention on International Factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia P. DIMITROVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The factoring is a sophisticated financial technique and management service designed to facilitate the use of trade credit. This article illustrates the basic factoring services and namely: financing, credit protection, accounting (ledgering and collection of receivables. It is emphasized, that factoring as a legal phenomenon includes two contracts: a contract for sale of goods or for supply of services between the supplier and its customers (debtors, on the one hand, and a factoring contract between the supplier and the factor, on the other hand.

  4. The Vietnamese Legal and Policy Framework for Co-Management in Special-Use Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen KimDung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Co-management has been introduced into Special Use Forests (SUFs of Vietnam for more than 10 years. However, the extent to which Vietnamese laws and policies support co-management remains unclear. This paper reviews existing policies and laws from the national to commune levels and assesses their facilitation of co-management in SUFs. The review demonstrates there is support for co-management, albeit scattered and uncoordinated across a range of policies and laws. Modifications to policy on ownership and use rights would support the development of SUF co-management. Additionally, clearer legislative underpinning for benefit sharing in SUFs could better incentivize the participation of local people and private sector actors to engage in more effective co-management arrangements.

  5. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

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    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  6. Regulation of Specialized Metabolism by WRKY Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluttenhofer, Craig; Yuan, Ling

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are well known for regulating plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, much less is known about how WRKY TFs affect plant-specialized metabolism. Analysis of WRKY TFs regulating the production of specialized metabolites emphasizes the values of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. WRKYs with conserved roles across plant species seem to be essential in regulating specialized metabolism. Overall, the WRKY family plays an essential role in regulating the biosynthesis of important pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, biofuel, and industrial components, warranting considerable attention in the forthcoming years. PMID:25501946

  7. Nine demographic factors and their relationship to attitudes toward abortion legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D S; Barnett, L D

    1972-03-01

    The 1967 Gallup Poll on attitudes toward abortion legislation taken for the Population Council was studied by multivariate analysis of 9 demographic factors: age, family income, occupation of household head, race, section of the country, sex, city size, education and religion. The poll was taken in two waves that totaled 6,065 cases (after weighting for a representative sample and elimination of "don't know" and "no answer" responses). The question asked for approval or disapproval of the legalization of abortion for the four "hard" reasons: mother's health, rape, incest, or expected child deformity. The analysis revealed that age, family income, occupation of household head, race, section of the country, and sex did not in themselves have an effect on attitudes towards abortion legalization, though they sometimes were an influence in combination with other variables. Significant statistical correlations were found between approval of abortion legalization and increasing city size and higher educational level. Abortion approval also increases along a religious scale from Jewish-Protestant-Catholic. The most significant theoretical conclusion of the study was that 6 of the 9 factors were not influential on abortion attitudes and the remaining 3 did not have strong predictive-explanatory power as expected. Re-examination of the causes of abortion attitudes is needed.

  8. Institutional, Financial, Legal, and Cultural Factors in a Distance Learning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Rachel; Haseley, Dennis

    2015-06-01

    As psychoanalytic institutes evolve, adapting to the contemporary financial and social environment, the integration of new technologies into psychoanalytic education presents opportunities for expansion to candidates residing beyond the usual geographic boundaries. While the teaching of analytic content through distance learning programs appears to be relatively straightforward, factors including legalities, traditional mind-sets, and cross-cultural issues need to be considered as complicating the situation, as illustrated by one U.S. institute's distance learning initiative with a group in South Korea. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  9. Human factors engineering applications in the testing of the legal weight truck cask transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.C.; Peck, M. III; Sealock, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) will collect performance data to be used in limited human factors engineering analysis of the light weight tractor as a component of the legal weight truck cask transport system. The Management and Operating contractor will provide an analysis and comparison of limited data on driver behavior and subjective driver evaluations of the light weight tractor performance versus that of a heavier baseline tractor. A significant difference in performance data would suggest that given tractor configurations affect driver behavior differently

  10. Coping patterns in special school staff: demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Dudenhöffer, S; Claus, M; Kimbel, R; Letzel, S; Rose, D-M

    2016-03-01

    Teachers' mental health is commonly discussed in organizational health studies, but studies in special schools are rare. Work-related coping and experience patterns (WCEPs) have been shown to be associated with mental health and intentions to leave. The influence of organizational factors on coping patterns has not been examined. To assess the distribution of WCEPs in special school staff and to identify potential influencing factors. We surveyed a sample of teachers and educational staff in 13 German special schools using the WCEP questionnaire and COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Of 245 teachers and 417 educational staff contacted, 114 teachers (47%) and 252 educational staff (60%) responded, an overall response rate of 55% (366/662). Coping patterns of special school staff were classified as unambitious (30%), excessively ambitious (7%), resigned (17%), healthy-ambitious (12%) or unclassifiable (34%). Furthermore we found several significant relations with demographic and organizational factors. For example, the resigned pattern is associated with age [Exp(B) 1.12; 95% CI 1.05-1.19], emotional demands [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.12], work-family conflict [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10] and bullying [Exp(B) 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08]. Since emotional and social factors are associated with risky (excessively ambitious or resigned) and unambitious coping patterns in special school teachers and educational staff, interventions should focus on them. Further research could explore causal relations and observe the development of coping styles over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Factors forming opnion on marijuana legalization in Poland among group of students from medical and technical college faculty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts.

  12. 50 CFR 23.60 - What factors are considered in making a legal acquisition finding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Treaty require a Management Authority to make a legal acquisition finding before issuing export permits... before issuing certain CITES exemption documents. (b) Types of legal acquisition. Legal acquisition refers to whether the specimen and its parental stock were: (1) Obtained in accordance with the...

  13. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.

  14. Socioeconomic Factors for Sports Specialization and Injury in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; Holt, Daniel B; LaBella, Cynthia R; Dugas, Lara R

    2018-05-01

    The effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on rates of sports specialization and injury among youth athletes has not been described previously. Young athletes from lower socioeconomic status will have lower rates of sports specialization and subsequently lower risk of overuse injuries. Cohort study. Level 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with uninjured athletes presenting for sports physicals at primary care clinics between 2010 and 2013. Participants completed surveys on training patterns. Electronic medical records provided injury details as well as patient zip code, race, and health insurance type. SES was estimated from zip codes. The sample was divided into SES tertiles. Analysis of variance and multivariate regression were used for continuous variables, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore relationships between risk factors and injury. Of 1190 athletes surveyed, 1139 (96%) had satisfactory SES data. Compared with low-SES athletes, high-SES athletes reported more hours per week spent playing organized sports (11.2 ± 6.0 vs 10.0 ± 6.5; P = 0.02), trained more months per year in their main sport (9.7 ± 3.1 vs 7.6 ± 3.7; P sports (64.8% vs 40.0%; P sports to free play increased with SES. Accounting for age and weekly organized sports hours, the odds of reporting a serious overuse injury increased with SES (odds ratio, 1.5; P sports specialization, more hours per week playing organized sports, higher ratio of weekly hours in organized sports to free play, and greater participation in individual sports. As SES increases, young athletes report higher degrees of sports specialization, greater participation in individual sports, and more serious overuse injuries.

  15. Factors predicting physical activity among children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Yee, Chu Tang; Chung, Paul J

    2013-07-18

    Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  16. Legal Culture Viewed as a Factor of Civil Society Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya V Zubova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the civil society and its development in Russia in connection with the notion of legal culture. The legal culture is integral to people's social activities and it is inextricably intertwined into the system of social relations as a result of the regulatory control of the activity, the ranking and regulation of the public intercourse based on the law. The legal culture is uniquely positioned for exercising strong influence upon an individual since it involves competence, adherence and respect for the legal standards expressing the accumulated moral and political requirements of the society.

  17. Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Complexities of A Specialized Legal Item: The ‘True And Fair’ Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Zanola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our contribution is that of analysing the possible linguistic and cross-cultural contexts where the hendiadys true and fair was born, and exploring the meaning implications of the same ‘formula’ during the centuries. We start from the hypothesis that true and fair is a hendiadys, to show that the two terms take strength and completeness one from the other, so as to generate an only complex meaning, whose original usage was, last but not least,  a literary and poetical one. The analysis of the hendiadys moves from the non-legal to the legal context, following steps of the etymological and lexical research methodology.

  18. Interactive Effect of Immigration-Related Factors with Legal and Discrimination Acculturative Stress in Predicting Depression Among Asian American Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; Schulz, Amy Jo; Neighbors, Harold W; Griffith, Derek M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the impact of discrimination and legal acculturative stress on Major Depression Episode lifetime among Asian American immigrants. It further examined the role of immigration related-factors (age at immigration, reason for immigration, and years spent in the U.S.) on the relationship of acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) high discrimination and legal acculturative stress were associated with Major Depression Episode lifetime; (2) age at immigration buffered the relationship of discrimination acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime as well as the relationship of legal acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime; and (3) years spent in the U.S. buffered the relationship of discrimination acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime only. These findings highlight the complex relationship of factors that impact the mental health of the Asian American immigrants.

  19. Collaboration in Special Education: Its History, Evolution, and Critical Factors Necessary for Successful Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration in education is seen as a legal mandate, best practice in teacher practice, and necessary for the inclusion of children with special needs. Over the years, there have been a number of evolutionary incarnations of the collaborative model, each possessing various ingredients identified as important, if not essential, components of a…

  20. Administrative and legal factors of customs clearance for components and spare parts imported for repair of ships in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Едуард Борисович Хачатуров

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is investigated an influence of administrative and legal factors of customs clearance when moving goods across customs borders for repair of marine ships in Ukraine. It is studied the existing regulatory base of legal acts governing order implementation of the customs procedures in the supply completing and spare parts for the shipbuilding industry. It is proposed an application of the customs regime of temporary import for goods to these groups, and, if necessary, use loyalty measures with the aim of ensuring timely production

  1. Navigating Special Education in Charter Schools Part I: Understanding Legal Roles and Responsibilities. Authorizing Matters. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2007-01-01

    Special education and related services are mandated by the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and related state special education policies. Policies and procedures associated with implementing IDEA can be complex, cumbersome and time consuming. IDEA is founded on the notion that a free appropriate public education is a…

  2. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  3. Legal consequences of the special development plan 'power plant sites' on regional planning and on guidelines for building plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Special Development Plan 'Power plant sites' was made compulsory by the regulation given by the Land government in Juli 1976. For extending the energy supply system this Special Development Plan intends to provide a sufficient amount of power plant sites suitably located with regard to present and future consumption centres and permitting a cooling by means of river water while safeguarding the interests of water resources policy. The Special Development Plan established in accordance with the articles 25 and 27 of the planning law of the Land lays down that 14 specified areas are to be kept free from utilization purposes which could be opposed to the realization of power plant projects. Thus the securing of these (potential) sites has become an objective of area planning and planning of the Land in the sense of article 5 paragraph 4 of the Federal law on area planning. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Individualized education programme in special programme of education – an effective work plan or merely a legal requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Stergar, David

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate thesis presents the development of Individualized Education Programmes (hereinafter IEP) at the Education, Work and Care Centre Dobrna. The theoretical part deals with the legislation in the field of IEP development and placement of children with special needs, the guidelines for IEP development, and the characteristics of people with mental health disorders and autism spectrum disorders at the Education, Work and Care Centre Dobrna. The empirical part of the thesis p...

  5. Death penalty support for special offender populations of legally convicted murderers: juveniles, the mentally retarded, and the mentally incompetent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Heide, Kathleen M; Cochran, John K

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently re-examined the constitutionality of the death penalty in the context of two of three special offender populations of murderers (juveniles, mentally retarded, and mentally incompetent). The Court reaffirmed the imposition of the death penalty for juveniles 16 and 17, while reversing itself on the mentally retarded. In reaching its decision, the Court relied on society's "evolving standards of decency." Using Likert-type items, this study is the first to have prospective jurors assess support for the death penalty for these specific offender groups. The public's support for the execution of each of the groups is then compared with existing case law. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that, as expected, the levels of support for the applicability of capital punishment to the various special offender populations are much lower than that for the general adult offender. Moreover, these findings are congruent with the holdings of the Court with one notable exception: a slight majority of respondents supported executing the mentally incompetent. Reasons for the public's apparent departure from the Supreme Court holding prohibiting the execution of mentally incompetent convicted murderers are discussed. The Court's continued role in protecting marginalized populations from "cruel and unusual punishment" is explored in the context of strong public sentiment demanding justice and finality despite changes in offenders' mental capacity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A critical review of legal framework as a factor of coops development: Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary cooperative movement must rest on the original cooperative principles that were confirmed and modernized by the Congress of International Co-Operative Alliance held in Manchester in 1995. Development of coops legislative framework in Serbia has a long history and presently the matter of cooperatives is governed by the federal Law on Cooperatives adopted in 1996. The text analyzes the extent to which a legislative framework can be an incentive for and/or impediment to cooperatives' operation in Serbia, and what sort of results can be expected from a modernized and improved legal framework. Interview of key players in the coop sector was one of the research methods. Other methods include historical, comparative analysis and case study. The paper includes four parts: a historical and legal background of development of coops in Serbia; b legislative framework; c successful case study and d framework for further development. The paper also analyses cooperatives within the environment of social enterprises and evaluates their role in the social inclusion process.

  7. Factors influencing urban special education teachers' commitment, job satisfaction, and career plans

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Mary Beth

    1992-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates coupled with critical personnel shortages in special education have augmented the need for research in teacher attrition/retention. Retaining quality personnel in special education teaching is vital to assuring that students with disabilities receive an appropriate education. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth exploration of factors influencing urban special education teachers' career plans. To gain a better understanding ...

  8. Individual and Contextual Factors Related to Secondary Special Education Teachers' Reading Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.; Chiu, Ming Ming; Roberts, Carly A.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports findings from an initial investigation of the impact multiple individual and contextual factors have on secondary special educators' reading instructional practices. Data from 577 special educators from 221 school districts in a large Midwestern state were collected via an online and paper survey and analyzed using…

  9. Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Reuse the Criminal Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…

  10. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  11. Factores asociados con la búsqueda del servicio de interrupción legal del embarazo en la Ciudad de México, 2010 Factors associated with the seeking of legal induced abortion services in Mexico City in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Figueroa-Lara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados con la búsqueda del servicio de interrupción legal del embarazo (ILE en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un diseño casos-controles. Usuarias del servicio de ILE fueron definidas como casos, y usuarias de control prenatal con 13 o más semanas de gestación con un embarazo no deseado constituyeron los controles. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística condicional. RESULTADOS: Los años de escolaridad (RM=1.47, IC:1.04-2.07, la ocupación (estudiante, RM=7.31, IC:1.58-33.95; tener empleo remunerado, RM= 13.43, IC:2.04-88.54 y número de interrupciones de embarazo previas (RM=11.41, IC:1.65-79.07 se asociaron con la búsqueda de ILE. El factor de mayor peso fue la ocupación; las mujeres que trabajan tuvieron 13.4 veces mayor posibilidad de demandar el servicio de ILE. CONCLUSIONES: En el contexto de la Ciudad de México, mujeres con más educación y participación laboral activa utilizan más los servicios de ILE. Se requieren estrategias dirigidas a incrementar el uso de estos servicios por mujeres menos favorecidas.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the seeking of the legal-interruption-pregnancy (LIP services in Mexico City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a case-control design. Users who utilized the LIP were defined as cases, while users of the antenatal care service with gestational age 13 or more weeks and who reported having an unwanted pregnancy were defined as controls. Logistic regressions were fitted to estimate odds ratios. RESULTS: Higher level of education (OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.04-2.07, women's occupation (being student OR=7.31, 95% CI:1.58-33.95; worker OR=13.43, 95% CI:2.04-88.54, and number of previous abortions (OR=11.41, 95% CI:1.65-79.07 were identified as factors associated with the lookup of LIP. CONCLUSIONS: In Mexico City context, empowered women with a higher level of education, or having a work activity are the users of LIP services

  12. An Update on the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia with a Special Reference to Clinically Important Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, Ahmed; Aboraya, Ahmed Sayed; Manseur, Hader; Manchester, Johnna; France, Cheryl; Border, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness which poses a tremendous burden on the families, caregivers and the society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia with a special attention to the clinically important risk factors such as drug abuse, hormonal factors and the new advances in genetic…

  13. Factors that affect general practice as a choice of medical speciality: implications for policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Amit; Ladyshewsky, Richard; Trumble, Stephen

    2017-11-28

    Objective This article critically appraises the range of personal, professional and social factors that affect the choice of speciality across medical students, prevocational doctors, general practice registrars and general practitioners. Methods This qualitative study applied constructs from the fields of decision theory and career theory to better understand the complex nature of choosing a speciality. In all, 47 in-depth interviews were conducted with participants at different stages of their career cycle. The data was codified and analysed using NVivo to identify key factors that influenced speciality choice. Results The research identified 77 individual findings influencing general practice as a choice of medical speciality. These were distilled into a matrix to show that factors such as money, prestige and peer interaction did not have a compelling effect, whereas clinical and academic role models, flexibility, work-life balance, scope of practice, connection with patients, training environment and practical opportunities did. Conclusion The findings indicate that the decision in relation to the choice of medical speciality is a complex cognitive process that is undertaken within a personal, social and professional context particular to each individual. What is known about the topic? Current literature aims to quantify changes in attitudes towards choice of speciality or the effect of particular variables in isolation while ignoring the complexity of this decision process and how the numerous variables compare with each other. What does this paper add? The present study is the first intergenerational research on this topic in the Australian context and the paper dismisses the role of prestige and remuneration as key drivers of choice in picking general practice as a speciality, noting that money is merely a 'hygiene factor'. What are the implications for policy makers? A policy framework outlining 10 key principles is presented to assist policy makers seeking

  14. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  15. Predicting discharge in forensic psychiatry: the legal and psychosocial factors associated with long and short stays in forensic psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas; Querengässer, Jan; Fontao, María Isabel; Hoffmann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In Germany, both the number of patients treated in forensic psychiatric hospitals and the average inpatient treatment period have been increasing for over thirty years. Biographical and clinical factors, e.g., the number of prior offences, type of offence, and psychiatric diagnosis, count among the factors that influence the treatment duration and the likelihood of discharge. The aims of the current study were threefold: (1) to provide an estimate of the German forensic psychiatric patient population with a low likelihood of discharge, (2) to replicate a set of personal variables that predict a relatively high, as opposed to a low, likelihood of discharge from forensic psychiatric hospitals, and (3) to describe a group of other factors that are likely to add to the existing body of knowledge. Based on a sample of 899 patients, we applied a battery of primarily biographical and other personal variables to two subgroups of patients. The first subgroup of patients had been treated in a forensic psychiatric hospital according to section 63 of the German legal code for at least ten years (long-stay patients, n=137), whereas the second subgroup had been released after a maximum treatment period of four years (short-stay patients, n=67). The resulting logistic regression model had a high goodness of fit, with more than 85% of the patients correctly classified into the groups. In accordance with earlier studies, we found a series of personal variables, including age at first admission and type of offence, to be predictive of a short or long-stay. Other findings, such as the high number of immigrants among the short-stay patients and the significance of a patient's work time before admission to a forensic psychiatric hospital, are more clearly represented than has been observed in previous research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Education in the family as a factor of pedagogical correction of legal consciousness in juvenile probation and parole, including registered in criminal-executive inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gud M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "legal consciousness of minors", the peculiarities of its formation in adolescence, and a pedagogical process of correction of legal consciousness adolescents in conditions of serving criminal sentences, when registration with the penal inspection. Analyzes one of the factors of correction of legal consciousness – raising in the family of convicted minors consisting on the account in the criminal-Executive inspection. The specifics of family upbringing and their impact on the efficiency of re-socialization of minors consisting on the account in criminally-executive inspection, as well as reducing recidivism. Examples of departmental statistics on the role of the family in preventing delinquency and crime among convicted adolescents. The basic directions of improvement of family education in the framework of the activities of employees of criminally-executive inspections.

  17. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  18. Special Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Brienne

    2017-01-01

    Special education teachers are in high demand and greatly needed to meet the needs of the growing population of students qualified for special education services under the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004. The increasing attrition rates of special education teachers are a social justice issue that needs attention. The…

  19. Burnout and stress factors in special education teachers who provide extra professional support

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik Janežič, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In the thesis, we discuss the work of special education teachers, who provide extra professional support to children in need. Limitations and weaknesses of their work are also reviewed. Many factors, including changes in the general system of education, parents’ high expectations, unpleasant classroom circumstances, high amount of work tasks and employment uncertainty are just a few of the factors that lead to higher amounts of work-related stress and burnout syndrome. The purpose of the thes...

  20. "...because I am something special" or "I think I will be something like a guinea pig": information and assent of legal minors in clinical trials – assessment of understanding, appreciation and reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to assess and evaluate the capacities for understanding, appreciation and reasoning of legal minors with psychiatric disorders and their parents and their competence to consent or assent to participation in clinical trials. The beliefs, fears, motivation and influencing factors for decision-making of legal minors and parents were also examined. Methods Using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR, an instrument developed for adults whose capacities to consent are unclear, we provided information about clinical trials and assessed understanding, appreciation and reasoning. We adapted this tool for legal minors and examined 19 children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 15 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADHD combined with oppositional defiant disorder (DSM-IV 314.00/314.01/312.8 enrolled in clinical trials. Parents were also examined using the MacCAT-CR. Results Facts such as the procedures involved in trials or their duration were well understood by legal minors, but more abstract issues like the primary purpose of the trial were not understood by children and adolescents or by many parents. Legal minors also had difficulties understanding the nature of placebo and the probability of receiving placebo. Children's and adolescents' decisions were influenced by fears about their disorder worsening and by problems in their relationship with their parents. Parents wanted the best therapy for their children in order to minimize problems in school. Conclusion Legal minors and parents need to be informed more precisely about specific issues like placebo and the primary purpose of trials. In general, the reasoning of children and adolescents was influenced by their experience with their disorder and decision making was based on reasonable arguments. Their fears were based on everyday experiences such as school performance or family relationships.

  1. "...because I am something special" or "I think I will be something like a guinea pig": information and assent of legal minors in clinical trials – assessment of understanding, appreciation and reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelch, Michael; Singer, Hanneke; Prestel, Anja; Burkert, Jessica; Schulze, Ulrike; Fegert, Jörg M

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess and evaluate the capacities for understanding, appreciation and reasoning of legal minors with psychiatric disorders and their parents and their competence to consent or assent to participation in clinical trials. The beliefs, fears, motivation and influencing factors for decision-making of legal minors and parents were also examined. Methods Using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), an instrument developed for adults whose capacities to consent are unclear, we provided information about clinical trials and assessed understanding, appreciation and reasoning. We adapted this tool for legal minors and examined 19 children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 15 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD combined with oppositional defiant disorder (DSM-IV 314.00/314.01/312.8) enrolled in clinical trials. Parents were also examined using the MacCAT-CR. Results Facts such as the procedures involved in trials or their duration were well understood by legal minors, but more abstract issues like the primary purpose of the trial were not understood by children and adolescents or by many parents. Legal minors also had difficulties understanding the nature of placebo and the probability of receiving placebo. Children's and adolescents' decisions were influenced by fears about their disorder worsening and by problems in their relationship with their parents. Parents wanted the best therapy for their children in order to minimize problems in school. Conclusion Legal minors and parents need to be informed more precisely about specific issues like placebo and the primary purpose of trials. In general, the reasoning of children and adolescents was influenced by their experience with their disorder and decision making was based on reasonable arguments. Their fears were based on everyday experiences such as school performance or family relationships. PMID:19175905

  2. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  3. Individual and hospital-specific factors influencing medical graduates' time to medical specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Karl-Arne; Hagen, Terje P

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies of gender differences in relation to medical specialization have focused more on social variables than hospital-specific factors. In a multivariate analysis with extended Cox regression, we used register data for socio-demographic variables (gender, family and having a child born during the study period) together with hospital-specific variables (the amount of supervision available, efficiency pressure and the type of teaching hospital) to study the concurrent effect of these variables on specialty qualification among all 2474 Norwegian residents who began specialization in 1999-2001. We followed the residents until 2010. A lower proportion of women qualified for a specialty in the study period (67.9% compared with 78.7% of men, p specialization qualification (p specialization: working at university hospitals (regional) or central hospitals was associated with a reduction in the time taken to complete the specialization, whereas an increased patient load and less supervision had the opposite effect. Multivariate analysis showed that the smaller proportion of women who qualified for a specialty was explained principally by childbirth and by the number of children aged under 18 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction: Re-Igniting Critical Race In Canadian Legal Spaces: Introduction To The Special Symposium Issue Of Contemporary Accounts Of Racialization In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Senthe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Osgoode Hall Law School, York University’s Challenging Conventions! Speaker Series organized Re-Igniting Critical Race: A Symposium on Contemporary Accounts of Racialization in Canada on November 2, 2012.  The symposium sought to explore critical race theory and its praxis within the Canadian legal academy by inviting emerging scholars and practitioners to engage with the scholarship of Professor Patricia Williams.

  5. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarze, J

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present.

  6. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW) [de

  7. Exploring Individual and Structural Factors Associated with Employment Among Young Transgender Women of Color Using a No-Cost Transgender Legal Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Rosentel, Kris; Bak, Trevor; Silverman, Michael; Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura; Kipke, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual and structural factors associated with employment among young transgender women (TW) of color. Sixty-five trans women of color were recruited from the Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund to complete a 30-min interviewer-assisted survey assessing sociodemographics, housing, workplace discrimination, job-seeking self-efficacy, self-esteem, perceived public passability, and transactional sex work. Logistic regression models revealed that stable housing (structural factor) and job-seeking self-efficacy (individual factor) were significantly associated with currently being employed. Our findings underscore the need for multilevel approaches to assist TW of color gain employment.

  8. On two special values of temperature factor in hypersonic flow stagnation point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.; Bilchenko, N. G.

    2018-03-01

    The hypersonic aircraft permeable cylindrical and spherical surfaces laminar boundary layer heat and mass transfer control mathematical model properties are investigated. The nonlinear algebraic equations systems are obtained for two special values of temperature factor in the hypersonic flow stagnation point. The mappings bijectivity between heat and mass transfer local parameters and controls is established. The computation experiments results are presented: the domains of allowed values “heat-friction” are obtained.

  9. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors in special education teachers and teacher's aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Wong, Man-Ting; Yu, Yu-Chung; Ju, Yan-Ying

    2016-02-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher's aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants' background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390), students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287), and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties), were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851) and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945) resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher's aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work-related injuries.

  10. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  11. Trabalho infanto-juvenil: motivações, aspectos legais e repercussão social Child and adolescent labor: factors, legal aspects, and social repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Cruz Neto

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A população infanto-juvenil constitui-se hoje em um dos segmentos mais prejudicados pelo acirramento dos problemas sócio-econômico-culturais que o País enfrenta. O não oferecimento por parte do poder público de uma rede de ensino de qualidade e universal, a concentração de renda, os baixos salários, o desemprego e a desestruturação das famílias são fatores que vêm afetando diretamente a trajetória de vida de crianças e adolescentes, abrigando-os a inserirem-se precocemente no mercado de trabalho, no qual seus direitos como "cidadãos em condições especiais de desenvolvimento" são seguidamente vilipendiados. O presente artigo objetiva fornecer subsídios para a erradicação do trabalho infantil e para a adequação da atividade laboral juvenil ao preconizado pela legislação brasileira. Para isso, procura levantar na Constituição Federal, na Consolidação das Leis Trabalhistas e no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente as situações em que estas atividades são ­ ou não ­ permitidas, dirimindo as possíveis divergências existentes entre estes instrumentos jurídicos e analisando seus aspectos sociais.Children and youth are currently one of the population segments most heavily jeopardized by the worsening of social, economic, and cultural problems in Brazil. Factors such as lack of government support for a sound, universally accessible school system, income concentration, low wages, unemployment, and family dysfunction have direct impacts on the life histories of children and adolescents, forcing them to join the labor market early, where their rights as "citizens with special developmental conditions" are routinely ignored. This article aims to provide support for the eradication of child labor and the adaptation of adolescent labor to the terms of the pertinent Brazilian legislation. To this end, the article reviews the Federal Constitution, Consolidated Labor Laws, and Statute for Children and Adolescents to

  12. Awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors, Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleto, Ayele; Markos, Jote

    2015-03-17

    Unsafe abortion has been recognized as an important public health problem in the world. It accounts for 14% of all maternal deaths in sub-Saharan African countries. In Ethiopia, 32% of all maternal deaths are accounted to unsafe abortion. Taking the problem of unsafe abortion into consideration, the penal code of Ethiopia was amended in 2005, to permit safe abortion under a set of circumstances. However, lack of awareness on the revised penal code is a major barrier that hinders women to seek safe abortion. The aim of this study is to assess awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors in Harari region, eastern Ethiopia. Institution-based descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 762 female students who are attending five higher educational institutions in Harari Region. Systematic sampling method was used to identify study participants from randomly selected colleges. Self administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 statistical packages. Frequency, percentage and ratio were used to describe variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to control confounders and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with awareness of female students to legalization of abortion. 762 study participants completed the survey questionnaire making the response rate 90.2%. Only 272 (35.7%) of the respondents reported that they have good awareness about legalization of safe abortion. Studying other fields than health and medicine [AOR 0.48; 95%CI (0.23, 0.85)], being the only child for their family [AOR 0.28; 95%CI (0.13, 0.86)], having no boy friend [AOR 0.34; 95%CI (0.12, 0.74)], using family planning [AOR 0.50; 95%CI (0.13 and 0.86)], being 25 years or older [AOR 1.64; 95%CI (1.33, 2.80)] were significantly associated with awareness

  13. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  14. On the Determinants of Intra-industry Trade: Specialization and Relative Factor Endowments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives a general relationship among intra-industry trade, specialization, and gravity. This relationship holds in any two-country trade model under assumptions that are frequently adopted in theoretical trade models. Using this general relationship, we can take an integrated approach to the theory of intra-industry trade. In two-good, two-factor models, this relationship implies that the intensity of intra-industry trade is decreasing in the difference in factor proportions and is increasing in the product of per-worker GDPs. Thus, the popular assertion that a negative correlation between the intensity of intra- industry trade and the difference in factor proportions supports monopolistic competition is groundless. Using panel data on bilateral trade flows, we estimate these relationships. We find that the negative correlation between intra-industry trade and specialization is quite robust. We also find a robust positive correlation between intra-industry trade and the product of per-capita GDPs.

  15. A National Perspective: An Analysis of Factors That Influence Special Educators to Remain in the Field of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Lautrice M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze factors that influence special educators to remain in the field of education. School administrators are perplexed by the large number of teachers who decide to leave the field of education after three years. The retention rates of special educators' require school administrators to focus on developing a…

  16. Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in population with special needs in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Muppa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Malocclusion plays an important role in the overall oral health of an individual because it is associated with periodontal disease, temporomandibular disorders and may be complicated by an individual′s disparity. Careful attention to malocclusion in children with special needs leads to a considerable improvement in the quality-of-life. The objective of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with determinant factors in individuals with special needs in South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 844 individuals with special needs and their mothers at eleven institutions in South India. Data were collected based on the questionnaire given to the mothers and dental examination carried out on the children. The nutritive and non-nutritive oral habits were obtained from the reports of the mothers. Clinical examination recorded the following: Class I, Class II, Class III, anterior crowding, anterior spacing, deep bite, open bite, and anterior cross bite. Statistical analyses of data were performed using Chi-square test. Results: Results at the end of the study revealed anterior crowding in 27.37% of the total sample size, deep bite in 20.5%, Class I in 14.34%, anterior spacing in 12.9%, Class II in 9.95%, Class III in 5.33%, anterior cross bite in 4.98% and open bite in 4.62%. Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in individuals with special needs is associated with the type of disability and it is more in males than females. Mentally disabled individuals had higher frequencies of all types the malocclusion. Prevalence of anterior crowding was higher compared to other types of malocclusion followed by deep bite.

  17. Psychiatric legal investigation for sickness benefits due to disability at the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis, capital city of the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Roberto; Damas, Fernando Balvedi

    2015-01-01

    To describe the profile of insured individuals that filed claims for sickness benefits and compare the results of the administrative and legal investigations. This case series included 114 insured persons that filed lawsuits against the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social, INSS). They underwent psychiatric examinations required by the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis from August to December 2010. Mean age was 47 years, and participant age ranged from 24 to 64 years. Most insured individuals were women (79%), and most were employed (67.5%) and self-employed (26.5%) workers. Mean contribution time was 99.9 months, ranging from 8 to 352 months. Mean benefit duration was 20.4 months, ranging from 2 to 97 months. The most prevalent category of workers was service workers, store and supermarket salespeople (54.4%), followed by administrative workers (19.3%). Only 17 participants were found to be unable to work after benefit cessation, a 14.9% mismatch between administrative and legal investigations. The most frequent diagnoses were mood disorders (59.6%) and anxiety disorders (17.5%).

  18. Psychiatric legal investigation for sickness benefits due to disability at the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis, capital city of the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Figueredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of insured individuals that filed claims for sickness benefits and compare the results of the administrative and legal investigations.Method: This case series included 114 insured persons that filed lawsuits against the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social, INSS. They underwent psychiatric examinations required by the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis from August to December 2010.Results: Mean age was 47 years, and participant age ranged from 24 to 64 years. Most insured individuals were women (79%, and most were employed (67.5% and self-employed (26.5% workers. Mean contribution time was 99.9 months, ranging from 8 to 352 months. Mean benefit duration was 20.4 months, ranging from 2 to 97 months. The most prevalent category of workers was service workers, store and supermarket salespeople (54.4%, followed by administrative workers (19.3%.Conclusions: Only 17 participants were found to be unable to work after benefit cessation, a 14.9% mismatch between administrative and legal investigations. The most frequent diagnoses were mood disorders (59.6% and anxiety disorders (17.5%.

  19. Effect of special environmental factors exerted on mechanical properties of CFRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Katsumi; Kaneda, Yoshiharu; Tani, Isao; Nakazaki, Koichi; Enomoto, Junzo; Murayama, Kunihiko; Nakano, Norihiko; Hasegawa, Sumiko; Fukuta, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    This research aims at clarifying the behavior of deterioration of composite materials in the special environment of single factor or compound factors, examining the similarity of the acceleration of deterioration to actual environment and extracting the singularity, and establishing the method of evaluating the properties to withstand environmental effect. In this study, the test on the exposure to various special environments, such as thermal shock, low temperature-high temperature cycle fatigue, electron beam irradiation and heat and vacuum, was carried out. An Instron type testing machine was used, and measurement was carried out at room temperature. The results of the examination of the change of properties due to the change of testing condition by thermal shock test, the electron beam irradiation test at 7.5 x 10 8 rad/h, and the examination of the degasing from CFRP by heat and vacuum test are reported. It was found that bending stress loading method was effective as an accelerated test method because the lowering of residual bending fracture strength was accelerated by thermal shock test. The mechanical properties of CFRP did not change by electron beam irradiation up to 5000 Mrad. The degasing from CFRP under heat and vacuum increased with rising temperature. (Kako, I.)

  20. Parents Representations of the Legal Socialization of Children

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    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children

  1. The Relationship Between Factors Related to Divorce Request and Mental Health Among Divorce Applicant Women Referred to Legal Medicine Organization in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Jalili

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between factors related to divorce request with mental health among divorce applicant women in order to understand the effect of these factors on women's mental health.Materials and methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 434 divorce applicant women who referred to legal medicine department of Ahvaz in 2013 based on convenience sampling. Information was collected by using researcher made questionnaire for factors affecting divorce and symptom checklist-25 (SCL-25 standard questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.18.Results: The results showed that among the social factors, life skills and communication, family and individual factors had a significant relationship with mental health among divorce applicant women (p < 0.05. No relationship was seen with economic and cultural factors affecting divorce request (p > 0.05.Conclusion: Regarding the negative effects of various causative factors of divorce on mental health of women including social, life skills, communication, family and individual factors strategies for prevention and reduction of these factors should be seriously considered for prevention and early treatment of mental health problems. These strategies include counseling before marriage, after marriage and during the divorce process.

  2. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  3. Factors affecting dance exercise performance in students at a special needs school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukiko; Hiramoto, Izumi; Kodama, Hideya

    2017-09-01

    In Japan, dance exercise has been introduced as a compulsory element of health and physical education, but there is a considerable discrepancy in the levels of performance among students with intellectual disability (ID) at special needs schools. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the factors affecting the performance of dance exercise in students with ID. A 4 month dance exercise program was implemented for junior high school students at a special needs school, and the performance of 32 students at 22 sessions was assessed quantitatively according to calorie use during exercise and performance proficiency score. The measures were compared according to gender, age, body mass index, diagnosis, and development quotient (DQ) score. Performance in many students improved with repetition and reached the highest attainment level at around the third month. Male gender and older age had a significant positive impact on calorie use, whereas diagnosis of Down syndrome and higher DQ score had a significant positive impact on proficiency score. Four students with poor performance were all female students with autism. This study provides some possible explanations for differences in the levels of dance performance among students with ID. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Special features of high-risk pregnancies as factors in development of mental distress: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Borba Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Approximately 22% of all pregnant women are classified as having high-risk pregnancies, which may involve feelings of vulnerability because of having a high-risk pregnancy, resulting in greater exposure to stressful feelings. Objective: To review aspects of high-risk pregnancy that can have a negative impact on the these women's mental health status. Method: Original articles were identified by conducting searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, followed by a manual search of references to select articles and additional bibliographic material. Articles from the last 22 years were included in the review (1992-2014. Results: Fifteen articles were found that specifically studied high-risk pregnancies and mental health outcomes. Women with high-risk pregnancies exhibited a significantly higher level of stress and reported negative emotions as they dealt with stress and had worse emotional status than women with normal pregnancies. Researchers found that hospitalized pregnant women had higher levels of anxiety than non-hospitalized women. Studies of women going through normal and high-risk pregnancies show that women with normal pregnancies had good self-perceived quality of life. Conclusion: Special features of high-risk pregnancies could be factors in development of mental distress, in addition to psychological and social factors. Therefore, only a biopsychosocial research study would be able to identify the factors that can affect the quality of mental health during high-risk pregnancy.

  5. The interface of legal and esthetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Smardon

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an overview of development of legal/policy factors affecting visual resource management. Review of major legal issues, court cases, laws and administrative decisionmaking reveals that the "action" regarding legal and aesthetic issues is currently in the public arena as managed by administrative agencies. Analysis of key court cases reveals that...

  6. Legal Information Sources: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Ronald C.

    This 25-page annotated bibliography describes the legal reference materials in the special collection of a medium-sized public library. Sources are listed in 12 categories: cases, dictionaries, directories, encyclopedias, forms, references for the lay person, general, indexes, laws and legislation, legal research aids, periodicals, and specialized…

  7. Legal Frame of Non-Social Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the

  8. Substance use among adolescents in special education and residential youth care : Prevalence, onset and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepper, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents attending special education for learning disabilities (SEL), special education for behavioural problems (SEB) and adolescents living in a residential youth care (RYC) institution present a complex risk profile including severe behavioural and emotional problems, deviant peer networks,

  9. RÉGIMEN ESPECIAL DE RECONOCIMIENTO DE LA PERSONALIDAD JURÍDICA DE DERECHO PÚBLICO EN LA LEY N19.638: MARCO LEGAL APLICABLE A LAS IGLESIAS CATÓLICA Y ORTODOXA The 19,638 act special regime for the recognition of public law personality: Legal regulation applicable to chatolic and orthodox chruches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Picó Rubic

    2012-01-01

    general regime for churches and religious groups lacking this personality by the time the law went into effect and, on the other hand, a special regime for churches that already had this personality that consisted of recognizing this preexisting legal personality, namely, the Roman, Catholic Apostolic Church and the Orthodox Church linked to the Antioch Patriarchy. This article deals with this special regime by shedding light on the legal framework, the direct sources and material context that presided over the regime creation process, and the effects of this regime. it also anticipates a coherent solution for the emerging interpretative issues. Particularly, it analyzes the legal regulation of the Catholic Church from the perspective of the Ecclesiastic Law of the Chilean State, as well as it proposes an interpretation regarding the legal situation of this church that takes aim at solving one of the most debated issues during the legislative process, whose effects lasts up to this day.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaye, Sintayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Tolessa, Daniel; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2018-04-24

    Metabolic syndrome is a multisystem disorder which coined to describe the recognized clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. This study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized hospital psychiatric ward from May 15 to July 16, 2015. A cross-sectional study design and consecutive sampling technique were used. A single population proportion formula was used to include a total of 360 psychiatric patients. An interview administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and some clinical data. Anthropometric data were collected based on standard guild line for anthropometric measurement. Five milliliter of venous blood was collected from ante-cubital fossa after overnight fasting for 8 h. Semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer (Temis Linear) was used for biochemical laboratory analysis. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS version-20 software. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the association between dependent and independent variables. P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant association. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients was 28.9%. Age greater than 30 years old (AOR: 5.2, CI: 2.3, 11.8, P. value metabolic syndrome among diabetic patients in the study area. The other independent variables such as family history of hypertension, chewing chat, Psychotropic drugs, duration of treatment, regularly eating fruits and vegetables had no statistically significant association with metabolic syndrome (P. value > 0.05). There was high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the psychiatric patients. Therefore; close assessment, management and treatment of metabolic syndrome among patients with psychiatry problem is

  11. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  12. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL-LEGAL RESEARCH OF THE PHENOMENON OF THE GENDER AS THE FACTOR OF THE SOCIAL STATUS OF THE UKRAINIAN WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. Under the conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the European community, there is an urgent need to restructure all social institutions, freeing them from all forms of discrimination, including on the basis of gender. Modern problems of the state's socioeconomic development require a new look at the functional roles of men and women, as well as the understanding that the political, economic, cultural future of society depends on overcoming gender stereotypes that are deeply rooted in the social and individual consciousness and inhibit social progress, and also the development of democracy. That is why, today, it is extremely important to study the issue of social influence and the role of women and determine their social status against the backdrop of the historical development of our state. Purpose. The article studies the emergence and adoption of the phenomenon of gender as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman in the historical, philosophical and legal realm. Methodology. In the research process the authors used the methods of analyzing and synthesizing historical sources to study the content and main provisions of philosophical concepts and legal norms that formed the social status of a Ukrainian woman at different historical periods of society development, with their subsequent comparison and generalization. Originality. The work further develops the theory of gender processes with the use of interdisciplinary approaches to the study of the phenomenon of gender in the historical, philosophical and legal field as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman, to critically re-evaluate the value guidelines on the construction of modern society and the formation of new ideas about the role and model of behavior of men and women and their interaction in society. Conclusions. For a long time, the social status of women was formed under the influence of philosophical views and concepts, slowly turned into

  13. Controlling Legal Risk for Effective Hospital Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jun Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the types of medical malpractice, medical errors, and medical disputes in a university hospital for the proposal of countermeasures that maximize the efficiency of hospital management, medical departments, and healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 55 closed civil lawsuits among 64 medical lawsuit cases carried out in Pusan National University Hospital from January 2000 to April 2013 using medical records, petitions, briefs, and data from the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee. Results: Of 55 civil lawsuits, men were the main plaintiffs in 31 cases (56.4%. The average period from medical malpractice to malpractice proceeding was 16.5 months (range, 1 month to 6.4 years, and the average period from malpractice proceeding to the disposition of a lawsuit was 21.7 months (range, 1 month to 4 years and 11 months. Conclusions: Hospitals can effectively manage their legal risks by implementing a systematic medical system, eliminating risk factors in administrative service, educating all hospital employees on preventative strategies, and improving customer service. Furthermore, efforts should be made to establish standard coping strategies to manage medical disputes and malpractice lawsuits, operate alternative dispute resolution methods including the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee, create a compliance support center, deploy a specialized workforce including improved legal services for employees, and specialize the management-level tasks of the hospital.

  14. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L. de

    1986-01-01

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  15. Supreme Court Position Regarding the Implementation of International Law Crimes of the Past in Spain: a Legal Analysis after Reports of the un Working Group on Enforced Disappearance, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the un Special Rapporteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chinchón Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the undeniable importance of the case, the judgment of the Spanish Supreme Court in the trial against Judge Baltasar Garzón accused of prevarication, having declared itself competent to investigate complaints for crimes committed during the Civil War and the Franco’s regime, it has had a determining significance: from then to now, the doctrine of the High Court has been almost literally followed by the remaining Spanish courts against any complaint concerning to crimes com- mitted before the last transition to democracy in Spain. This state of affairs has been repeatedly criticized by various bodies of the United Nations, expressly by the three that have visited Spain more recently: The UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of Non-Repetition. In this contribution will be presented and analysed transcendent positions defended by the Supreme Court regarding the application of international law to the past crimes in Spain and especially its configuration as crimes against humanity, the legal assessment about the enforced disappearance, and the validity and application of the 1977 Amnesty Law.

  16. The socio-psychological factors of family planning with special reference to Iran: a theoretical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, M T

    1995-03-01

    Iran's explosive population growth, which increases the country's population by about 1.9 million people annually, is causing a considerable strain on resources and the environment, and the coming generations will be facing a serious situation unless this trend is reversed. The strength of cultural values has not encouraged a declining population growth rate in parallel with the Iranian wave of modernization before and after the revolution. A special cultural revolution is the prerequisite for a demographic revolution. This study is placing main emphasis on the social and psychological factors involved in family planning. The general findings of surveys conducted so far demonstrate that few people know anything about family planning and methods of contraception. Social, cultural, and religious institutions seem to inhibit the expansion of family planning. Moreover, the lack of economic and social security promotes a large family size and prevents contraceptive use. However, social change in Iranian society will eventually be brought about by urbanization, industrialization, and education, and the ensuing modernization of values is expected to increase the use of contraceptives and lead to changes in the associated social and cultural institutions.

  17. Substance use and misuse in the Croatian Army Special Forces: prevalence and influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In addition to being a serious health-hazard, substance-use-and-misuse (SUM in military forces negatively infl uences physical fi tness and army readiness. The aim of this study was to defi ne the prevalence of SUM, which includes cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and multiple SUM (i.e. practice of daily smoking and harmful alcohol drinking, and factors infl uencing SUM in the Croatian Special Army Forces (SAF. Materials and Methods: We studied 73 SAF members. A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic and military-professionrelated data, and SUM factors. The associations between studied variables were established by the Chi2 test, and forward conditional logistic regression (FCLR. Results: With less than 40% of daily smokers, smoking was within expected values. Almost 80% of the examinees reported no binge drinking, while 54% reported harmful drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifi cation Test scale. Paternity and education level were negatively associated with daily smoking, while higher incidence of daily smoking was found for privates and those who practiced harmful drinking (all at p < 0.05. The FCLR demonstrated a higher risk of harmful alcohol consumption for younger commissioned offi cers (OR for military rank = 5.54, 95% CI: 2.19-13.99; OR for age = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.95. Conclusion: Although SUM incidence was not alarming compared to the overall population and the previously reported military data, additional efforts are necessary in order to decrease cigarette consumption. The study showed that protective/risk structure of the substance misuse in the military should be investigated specifi cally with regard to particular military services, corps, and socio-cultural environment.

  18. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  19. The Impact of Advertising and Other Factors on Referral Practices, with Special Reference to Lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Spurr

    1990-01-01

    This article provides an empirical analysis of the practices used in referrals of legal work made by one lawyer to another. I examine a major change in referral practices that has evidently been caused by four important changes in the market for lawyers -- the innovation of advertising by lawyers, an increase in the supply of lawyers, the enactment of no-fault insurance laws, and changes in the composition of personal injury claims.

  20. Risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints in non-specialized nurses, IC nurses, operation room nurses, and X-ray technologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Ellen; Krol, Boudien; van der Star, Lex; Groothoff, Johan

    Objectives: To gain more insight into the prevalence rates of musculoskeletal complaints of neck-shoulder and low back and to determine the relation between physical and psychosocial work-related risk factors and the complaints mentioned in non-specialized nurses, operation room nurses, Intensive

  1. Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas pisi Sackett) of peas in South Africa, with special reference to frost as a predisposing factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelema, B.H.

    1972-01-01

    In the beginning of the nineteen fifties bacterial blight caused much damage to pea crops in South Africa, particularly to those grown for seed production. A study has been made of the causal organism and the conditioning factors of the disease, special attention being paid to frost as a

  2. Platform economy in legal profession : An empirical study on online legal service providers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Platform economy breaks into the legal profession by pooling lawyers with different specializations into a simple user-friendly platform, consolidating the lower-tier supply side of the legal market and generating economy of scale. This paper is the very first empirical piece looking into China’s

  3. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  4. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  5. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  6. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  7. Features of legal mechanism environmental responsibility of citizens in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Шинкарьов

    2015-05-01

    assigned by the Constitution and the current environmental legislation; 2 the ability to voluntarily adhere to legal prohibitions; 3 in good faith execute obligations in living activities. Paper objective. The main forms of implementing the environmental responsibilities by  citizens are analyzed; the factors influencing them are defined. It was studied general theoretical understanding of the stages, as well as forms of the implementation of rules of law. Traditionally among the last there are: compliance and execution. A special form of implementation is application. Whereas the compliance - is the first and foremost (universal form by which all subjects of public relations execute their obligations (both active and passive. The implementation of environmental responsibilities of citizens in the form of the compliance is a good behavior, which is characterized by passive confinement of persons (or inaction on the infringement of the rules and bars which are set by regulations of the environmental       legislation.  The execution is expressed in commission of  actions provided  for by law by the subject. This is implementation of binding rules, however, the responsibilities are contained not only in the regulatory legal acts, but also in the contracts and individual documents. The application as a special form of the law implementation differs from the compliance and the execution that it is carried out by non-citizens, but only by those public authorities that are entitled to do so by law. The application of the law - it is an action of qualified government authorities or local authorities, which by law is delegated the right to apply ecological and legal regulations in order to implement the relevant environmental requirements, rules and prohibitions and they are provided if necessary (in case of violation mechanism of state coercion. Paper main body. It is noted that the legal arrangement for implementing environmental responsibilities is to be in: a the

  8. Complementary Feeding Practice of Mothers and Associated Factors in Hiwot Fana Specialized Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Girma, Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background:- In developing world infant and child mortality remain quite high. Malnutrition remains one of the main public health problems in Ethiopia that contributing to 53% of infant and child mortality. Over one third of under-five mortality is caused by under nutrition related to inadequate complementary feeding. Child feeding behaviors are an evidence that having important for a children intellectual, health and survival. Therefore, the objective of the study was to assess of complementary feeding practice of mothers to their young child. Method:- Cross sectional study design was conducted to assess complementary feeding practice of mothers to their young children in Hiwot Fana specialized hospital in January 2013. Two hundred mothers to child pairs were participate in the study to assess their timely initiation practice of complementary feeding and associated factors. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaire for face to face interview method. Descriptive statistics, binary and multiple logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results: The prevalence of timely initiate of complementary feeding was 60.5%. Nineteen percent of mothers were initiating complementary feeding early (before 6 months). The reason for too early initiation of complementary feeding was lack of knowledge and perceived inadequate breast milk production by mothers were 17(47.2%), 11(30.6%) respectively. Mothers have male child three times more likely timely initiate complementary feeding than female child [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.2, 7.3]. This might be due to traditional gender norm that discriminate female feeding “female eat little talk little” this might start at early age life. Conclusion: More than half of them initiated complementary feeding timely which was low. The main reason reported by the mothers for early initiation of complementary feeding was lack of knowledge. Mothers who have male child were three times more likely timely initiate

  9. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  10. Demographic Factors Associated with the Early Identification of Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Buddin, Richard; Pham, Chung; Cho, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Early and accurate identification of special needs, coupled with an appropriate course of treatment and educational plan, is important to academic progress, in particular for economically disadvantaged children with fewer family resources to catch up if they fall behind. A first step in improving mechanisms to promote early identification is to…

  11. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors in special education teachers and teacher’s aides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. Methods A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Results Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher’s aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants’ background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390, students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287, and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties, were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851 and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945 resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. Conclusions The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher’s aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work

  12. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  13. A Student Selected Component (or Special Study Module) in Forensic and Legal Medicine: Design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of an optional module as an addition to the medical undergraduate core curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Wilkinson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The General Medical Council (United Kingdom) advocates development of non-core curriculum Student Selected Components and their inclusion in all undergraduate medical school curricula. This article describes a rationale for the design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine. Reference is made to the available evidence based literature pertinent to the delivery of undergraduate medical education in the subject area. A Student Selected Component represents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the legal aspects of medical practice, to raise the profile of the discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine amongst undergraduate medical students and to introduce students to the possibility of a future career in the area. The authors refer to their experiences of design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine at their respective Universities in the Republic of Ireland (Galway) and in the United Kingdom (Oxford). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  15. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  16. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  17. The Legal Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied

  18. Accuracy Of The Place Of Crimes Determination As A Factor Of The Structure Of Special Part Of The Criminal Code Of The Russian Federation Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga V. Pantyuxina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the problem of nonobservance of logical and legal means, receptions and rules of the separate structures of crimes in the structure of criminal law placement which breaks systemacity of the Special part on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is raised. Questions of crimes regulated in articles 138.1, 214, 226.1, 240 and 242.2 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in the structure of the Special part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is researched and analyzed. Researching their objects and a number of signs of the objective party, authors focus attention on the shift of priorities in these structures of crimes from the public relations regulated in them into the favor of less significant out of what the failure to place their criminal and legal material in the Special part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Discrepancy of objects in crimes regulated by articles 138.1 and 242.2 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation to the patrimonial and specific objects of the groups of crimes in which they are located in this connection, due to what it is offered to move them to other groups of crimes. Analysis of crimes structures regulated in the article 214, 226.1 and 240 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation led to the conclusion that is reasonable to allocate independent structures of crimes and to define other legal niches of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, other than those in which they are located.

  19. The dominant factors affecting agricultural land use (rice field change in Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sabari Yunus

    2013-07-01

    The research shows that the period of 1980 - 2000 in Yogyakarta Special Province has indicated very significantly the increase in population, the development of road and the extension of built up area. For the time being, agricultural land mainly in Sleman Regency, Bantul Regency and Yogyakarta Municipality has decreased. Sleman regency performed the largest decrease of rice field and followed after then by Bantul regency and Yogyakarta Municipality. The regency of Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul have experienced reverse phenomenon i.e. the increase of rice field during this period. Individually or simultaneously, three variables used in this research (number of people, road's length and built up area have significantly influenced the agricultural land use.

  20. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  1. Legal terminology in African languages | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various aspects regarding the present project (such as financing, time-schedule, training and terminological problems encountered) are treated. Keywords: legal terminology, sociolinguistic factors, terminology development, african languages, indigenous languages, multilingualism, subject fields, terminology, translation, ...

  2. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  3. Constipation in specialized palliative care: factors related to constipation when applying different definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsén, E; Milberg, A; Jaarsma, T; Friedrichsen, M

    2016-02-01

    For patients in palliative care, constipation is primarily a result of opioid treatment. Impacts from other factors related to constipation in palliative care are rarely studied. The aim was to identify factors related to constipation in patients in palliative care, and then to compare these factors between patients with different types of constipation and patients without constipation. Cross-sectional data on constipation was collected with a 26-item questionnaire from 485 patients in 38 specialist palliative care units in Sweden. Three different constipation groups were used; MC ONLY, PC ONLY, and MC & PC. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios. Patients with hospitalized, bed-restricted, in need of personal assistance for toilet visits, and of having a poor fluid intake. Patients with the perception of being constipated, PC ONLY, (n = 93) had higher odds of having poor appetite, hemorrhoids, hard stool, more opioid treatment, less laxative treatment and of being more dissatisfied with constipation information. Patients with both constipated, MC & PC, (n = 78) had higher odds of having cancer- disease. There were several significant factors related to constipation with higher odds than opioid- treatment, for patients in palliative care, such as; hard stool, cancer diagnosis, dissatisfaction with information, low fluid intake, hemorrhoids, bed restriction, hospitalization, and need of personal assistance for toilet visits.

  4. ABCE1: A special factor that orchestrates translation at the crossroad between recycling and initiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mancera-Martínez, E.; Brito Querido, J.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Simonetti, A.; Hashem, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 10 (2017), s. 1279-1285 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05394S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ABCE1 * cryo-EM * ribosome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2016

  5. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    of lymphographically involved regions), histologic subtype, B-symptoms, number of involved regions, mediastinal involvement, pretreatment ESR, sex, age, laparotomy, and substage were examined in multivariate analysis. With regard to disease-free survival, total tumour burden (intraabdominal and peripheral...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  6. Oblique-Length Contraction Factor in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. One shows that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.

  7. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  8. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  9. Development Factors of Shipping Industry Special Zone to Support Regional Innovation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Budi Santoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The central government has established the industry road map through MP3EI to support the shipbuilding industry. The region of Surabaya, Gresik, Lamongan and Tuban areas will be developed as the national shipping industry. The purpose of this study is to f ormulate the shipbuilding industry development cooperation to support the development of regional innovation systems. The goal and objectives are to identify the type of support the shipbuilding industry in Lamongan, to obtain a general picture of the existing condition of shipbuilding industries and the subsequent descriptive analysis to identify factors that influence the development of the shipbuilding industry. The method is using a theoretical review of the literature and the descriptive analysis of the results of depth interviews with stakeholders in Lamongan. The results of this study are the factors that influence the development of the shipbuilding industry.

  10. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  11. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I

    1988-01-01

    143 patients with Hodgkin's disease stage III (65 PS III, 78 CS III) were treated with radiotherapy alone (33 patients), combination chemotherapy alone (56 patients), or radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy (54 patients). They were followed till death or from 7 to 191 months. Prognostic fac...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  12. Towards enhanced public access to legal information : A proposal for official networked one-stop legal information websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitee, Leesi Ebenezer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This article identifies the publishing of fragments of legal information on multiple, isolated official legal information websites (OLIWs) as the major factor underlying the existing problems in locating the available official online legal information of all levels of government (national,

  13. Laws of Language and Legal Language: A Study of Legal Language in Some Indonesian Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidarta Shidarta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal language must follow the laws of language (grammar that widely known and commonly used by the public, including groups of the scientist. Legal language on the other hand also recognizes specific terminologies. These terminologies were introduced by jurists or by legislative power holders. Accordingly, legal language became the product of legal doctrines or political decisions. The problems arose when a number of compositions and legal terms turned out to be elusive, convoluted, and ambiguous due to the pattern of writing that was once done and because of certain considerations. This article proposed reviewing the factors that result in problems. The author presented a solution to observe using hermeneutic methods of law and legal reasoning. The author argued that the text of the law was not neutral since it was trapped not only by the laws of language but also by the perspective of the interpreters as they believed such a perspective was based on the guidance of legal science. By using legal hermeneutics can be checked the depth of the meaning of the law; while over the legal reasoning can be seen its rationale according to legal science.

  14. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  15. Gastric lymphomas in Turkey. Analysis of prognostic factors with special emphasis on flow cytometric DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Z D; Barista, I; Canpinar, H; Sungur, A; Tekuzman, G

    2000-07-01

    In contrast to DNA ploidy, to the authors' knowledge the prognostic significance of S-phase fraction (SPF) in gastric lymphomas has not been determined. In the current study, the prognostic significance of various parameters including SPF and DNA aneuploidy were analyzed and some distinct epidemiologic and biologic features of gastric lymphomas in Turkey were found. A series of 78 gastric lymphoma patients followed at Hacettepe University is reported. DNA flow cytometry was performed for 34 patients. The influence of various parameters on survival was investigated with the log rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify independent prognostic factors. The median age of the patients was 50 years. There was no correlation between patient age and tumor grade. DNA content analysis revealed 4 of the 34 cases to be aneuploid with DNA index values < 1.0. The mean SPF was 33.5%. In the univariate analysis, surgical resection of the tumor, modified Ann Arbor stage, performance status, response to first-line chemotherapy, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and SPF were important prognostic factors for disease free survival (DFS). The same parameters, excluding LDH level, were important for determining overall survival (OS). In the multivariate analysis, surgical resection of the tumor, disease stage, performance status, and age were found to be important prognostic factors for OS. To the authors' knowledge the current study is the first to demonstrate the prognostic significance of SPF in gastric lymphomas. The distinguishing features of Turkish gastric lymphoma patients are 1) DNA indices of aneuploid cases that all are < 1.0, which is a unique feature; 2) a lower percentage of aneuploid cases; 3) a higher SPF; 4) a younger age distribution; and 5) lack of an age-grade correlation. The authors conclude that gastric lymphomas in Turkey have distinct biologic and epidemiologic characteristics. Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.

  16. Factors Constraining Local Food Crop Production in Indonesia: Experiences from Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADEN RIJANTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local food crops are believed to be important alternatives in facing the problems of continuously growing price of food stuff worldwide. There has been a strong bias in national agricultural development policy towards the production of rice as staple food in Indonesia. Local food crops have been neglected in the agricultural development policy in the last 50 years, leading to the dependency on imported commodities and creating a vulnerability in the national food security. This paper aims at assessing the factors constraining local food production in Indonesia based on empirical experiences drawn from a research in Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Province. The government of Kulon Progo Regency has declared its commitment in the development of local food commodities as a part of its agricultural development policy, as it is mentioned in the long-term and medium-term development planning documents. There is also a head regency decree mandating the use of local food commodities in any official events organized by the government organisations. The research shows that there are at least six policy-related problems and nine technical factors constraining local food crops production in the regency. Some of the policy-related and structural factors hampering the production of local food crops consist of (1 long-term policy biases towards rice, (2 strong biases on rice diet in the community, (3 difficulties in linking policy to practices, (4 lack of information on availability of local food crops across the regency and (5 external threat from the readily available instant food on local market and (6 past contra-productive policy to the production of local food crops. The technical factors constraining local food production comprises (1 inferiority of the food stuff versus the instantly prepared food, (2 difficulty in preparation and risk of contagion of some crops, lack of technology for processing, (3 continuity of supply (some crops are seasonally

  17. [The differences in speciality preferences and career determinant factors between first- and fifth-year medical school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Asuka; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Abe, Masanori; Kusunoki, Tomo; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the imbalance in the medical workforce has caused a deterioration of rural medicine. We explored the differences in speciality preferences and career determinant factors among students to identify keys to increase the recruitment of physicians to rural areas. We conducted a survey of first- and fifth-year medical students, using a questionnaire enquiring about their specialty preference and career determinant factors. The data were analyzed with a chi-square test. A higher percentage of first-year students preferred to be basic medicine scientists, while fifth-year students considered internal medicine subspecialities, obstetrics and gynecology, anesthesia, and ophthalmology to be the most desirable. The factor analysis yielded five factors responsible for these findings; high social approval of the specialty, working hours, income, advice from senior classmates and doctors, and the work environment. The percentage of students who considered rural practice as a choice for thier future plan and had an awareness of the collapse of rural medicine was lower in the fifth-year students than in the first-year students. To increase the medical work force in provincial areas, it is necessary to strengthen not only the medical system with regard to general medicine, but also to offer better medical education in rural areas. More information about rural practice should therefore be transmitted to medical students.

  18. Severity of cotton whitefly (bemisia tabaci genn.) population with special reference to abiotic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, K.; Bashir, M.H.; Khan, B.S.; Khan, R.R.; Hafeez, F.

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is serious insect and constantly destabilizing the cotton production. The research was conducted to evaluate cotton cultivars (transgenic and non transgenic) for resistance against whitefly and further correlated with weather factors such as temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, during the cropping seasons 2010 and 2011. However, peak population (6.36 per leaf) was recorded from FH-113 followed FH-167 and FH-114, whereas minimum population was recorded from FH-4243 in transgenic group whereas peak population (5.24 per leaf) was recorded from FH- 941 followed by FH-100 and FH- 901 while minimum population was recorded from FH-207, in non transgenic group of cultivars in the year 2010. The incidence and abundance was much high and reaching towards two folds in the year 2011 but the trend of whitefly varied with peak population (11.03 per leaf) recorded from FH -167 followed by FH- 4243 and FH113 (from transgenic group of cultivars) whereas a peak of 10.77 per leaf population of whitefly, recorded followed by FH-901 and FH-941 (from non transgenic group of cultivars). FH-207 found more resistant from all ten cultivars studied in 2011. Correlation among weather factors and whitefly population showed that rainfall was negatively correlated while temperature and relative humidity were positively correlated with whitefly population. In addition to that situation is becoming worse because of shifting from conventional to more advanced transgenic cultivars that are susceptible and serve as host. Moreover, climatic conditions provide addition favor and helps in population buildup, abundance and incidence. (author)

  19. Factors that affect parent perceptions of provider-family partnership for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice A; Madden, Vanessa L; Marcu, Mircea I

    2010-09-01

    Partnering between families and their children's providers is a cornerstone of family-centered care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with family-provider partnership and determine the association between partnership and other outcome measures for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Multivariate models showed that CSHCN who are White non-Hispanic, younger than 12, reside in households with incomes above 400% of the federal poverty level, and have a usual source of care were associated with family-provider partnership. Multivariate models showed that family-provider partnership was significantly associated with adequate insurance, early and continual screening, organized health care services, and transition preparedness. Family-provider partnership was associated with 20% fewer emergency department visits and 9% fewer school days missed. This study suggests that policies aimed at promoting family-provider partnership could increase health outcomes for CSHCN.

  20. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  1. Determinant Factors of Rural Income Distribution with Special Reference to Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sepehrdoust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of information and communication technology development on economic development and income distribution of rural communities and to answer this question that whether the development of information and communication technologies in rural areas could improve income distribution condition in these communities or not. To this end, data on 30 province of country during 2000-2009 and panel data method has used. Results approves Kuznet's inverted U theory with respect to the economic growth and income distribution and shows that information and communication technology development has improved the income distribution and economic justice in country's rural communities. The negative and significant coefficient (-0.15, of number of computer users among rural households, show that the development of information and communication technologies in rural areas of the country play as a factor for improving income distribution in these communities. The model estimation also showed a significant and positive effect of urbanization and unemployment on the dependent variable. This means that with rising unemployment, the condition of income distribution has worsened in rural communities during the period of study.

  2. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  3. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success: disparities and state variations for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina; Forrest, Christopher B; Stumbo, Scott; Gombojav, Narangerel; Carle, Adam; Irwin, Charles E

    2012-04-01

    School success predicts many pathways for health and well-being across the life span. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success are critical to understand for all children and for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), whose life course trajectories are already impacted by their chronic health problems. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used (1) to estimate national and state prevalence and within and across states disparities in factors promoting school success (engagement, participation, safety) or potentially impeding success (missing school, grade repetition, school identified problems) for all children and CSHCN and (2) to evaluate associations with CSHCN service need complexity and presence of emotional, behavioral or developmental problems (EBD) as well as with school case management policies in states. Among school age children, 60 % experienced all three factors promoting school success (49.3-73.8 % across states), dropping to 51.3 % for CSHCN (39.4-64.7 % across states) and to 36.2 % for the 40 % of all CSHCN who have both more complex service needs and EBD. CSHCN were more likely to experience factors potentially impeding school success. After accounting for child factors, CSHCN living in states requiring case management in schools for children with disabilities were less likely to experience grade repetition (OR 0.65). Within-state disparities between non-CSHCN and CSHCN varied across states. Threats to school success for US children are pervasive and are especially pronounced for CSHCN with more complex needs and EBD. Findings support broad, non-condition specific efforts to promote school success for CSHCN and consideration of state school policies, such as case management.

  4. Bioscience-bioethics and life factors affecting reproduction with special reference to the Indigenous Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Irina

    2005-04-01

    The demand for equality of recognition or respect is the dominant passion of modernity. The 20th century experienced a giant leap in technological inventiveness and ruthless use of technological power. In the 21st century, human welfare and environmental wellbeing demand fundamental political appraisal. We have the means, if we choose, to eradicate poverty and to responsibly protect the global environment. However, economic, political and cultural systems act to differentially allocate the benefits and risks for growth between socioeconomic groups. For example, it is a matter of pride that the neonatal mortality rate in affluent societies has dropped substantially since the late 1970s. However, the level of infant mortality (three times the national average) and low birthweight (13%) among the Indigenous Australian population is the highest in the country. With hindsight we now know that is the inevitable legacy of Australia's colonial history. Chronic physical and psychological stress is recognized as an important etiological factor in many lifestyle diseases of the cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Diseases of adaptation are further advanced by non-adaptive lifestyle choices, depression, alcoholism and other drug dependencies. This review describes the principles of bioscience ethics and targets equity issues as they affect human reproduction across generations with particular reference to the Indigenous population of Australia. The review also considers ways we may advance global and cultural maturity from the Indigenous Australian perspective and proposes an ecologically based model of preventative care. If we are to embrace fundamental social change and protect future children without threatening parents' basic freedoms, then new beliefs and priorities--based on a compassionate understanding of biological systems--must evolve from the general public. Belief in human rights arising from a sense of human dignity is a collective outcome originating

  5. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...... of majoritarian democracy on the number of referrals. The paper concludes that, owing to the uneven legal push for Europe, some member states and their citizens remain at arms' length from the legal integration process - and, in consequence, from the full impact of European integration....

  6. Prevalence of fall injuries and risk factors for fall among hospitalized children in a specialized childrens hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSowailmi, Banan Abdullah; AlAkeely, Maha Heshaam; AlJutaily, Hayat Ibrahim; Alhasoon, Mohammad Abdulaziz; Omair, Amir; AlKhalaf, Hamad Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Fall injuries among children during hospital stay is a major patient safety issue. Inpatient pediatric falls can lead to numerous negative consequences. In contrast to adults, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence and risk factors associated with children's falls during hospitalization. Identify the prevalence of fall injuries among hospital.ized children and describe the demographic and environmental factors that could predict a higher risk of severe outcomes of fall. Descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study. Specialized children's hospital. Data was obtained through the electronic Safety Reporting System (SRS). All reported fall events during hospitalization in children less than or equal 14 years of age for the period from 1 April 2015 to 30 April 2016 were included. Fall events that occurred in the day care unit and the outpatient clinic were excluded. Prevalence and possible risk factors for fall events. 48. The prevalence of falls among the 4860 admitted children was 9.9 (95% CI=7.5, 13.1) per 1000 patients (48/4860). A majority of the falls were among boys (n=26, 54%), in the age group from 1-5 years old (n=22, 46%), in children at high risk of falling (n=35, 73%), with normal mobility status (n=21, 44%), and with no history of previ.ous falls (n=33, 69%). Severe injuries accounted for 25% of falls (n=12). However, falls among the moderate risk category (n=9, 69%) were more often severe than falls among the high risk category of children (n=12, 34%) (P=.03). Risk factor identification is required to prevent falls and their severe outcomes. Underreporting and single-centered study. None.

  7. Special Education Finance in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    California's system of special education served about 718,000 students in 2014-15, or about 11.5 percent of the K-12 population. It is expensive, consuming some $12 billion in federal, state, and local dollars annually. Special education operates within a legal framework that sets it apart from the rest of the K-12 system. The state's enactment of…

  8. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF SOIL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Along with specialty items used for the development and implementation of sustainable development, protection and conservation of the environment, legal protection component of soil resources play an essential role. Legal and institutional framework provides a much protection of soil resources. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil ...

  9. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  10. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  11. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waja T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsegereda Waja,1 Jemal Ebrahim,2 Zegeye Yohannis,1 Asres Bedaso2 1Department of Psychiatry, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, SNNPR, Ethiopia Introduction: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods: An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60% were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69], not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39], availability of house (AOR

  12. BDA special care case mix model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P; Arnold, C; Brown, R; Foster, L V; Greening, S; Monaghan, N; Zoitopoulos, L

    2010-04-10

    Routine dental care provided in special care dentistry is complicated by patient specific factors which increase the time taken and costs of treatment. The BDA have developed and conducted a field trial of a case mix tool to measure this complexity. For each episode of care the case mix tool assesses the following on a four point scale: 'ability to communicate', 'ability to cooperate', 'medical status', 'oral risk factors', 'access to oral care' and 'legal and ethical barriers to care'. The tool is reported to be easy to use and captures sufficient detail to discriminate between types of service and special care dentistry provided. It offers potential as a simple to use and clinically relevant source of performance management and commissioning data. This paper describes the model, demonstrates how it is currently being used, and considers future developments in its use.

  13. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  14. Malnutrition and associated factors among heart failure patients on follow up at Jimma university specialized hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Hiwot; Hamza, Leja; Asefa, Henok

    2015-10-15

    Malnutrition and cachexia are serious consequences of numerous chronic diseases. Severe heart failure patients could be related with marked weight loss. Malnutrition is associated with poor prognosis among heart failure patients. Despite its implication, factors associated with malnutrition among heart failure patients in Africa and Ethiopia was not addressed. Hence, in this study we tried to determine factors associated with malnutrition among heart failure patients on follow up at Jimma University specialized hospital, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was done on 284 randomly selected heart failure patients. The nutritional status of the patients was assessed based on their serum albumin level (normal value 4-5 mg/dl) and triceps skin fold thickness. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with malnutrition among heart failure patients using SPSS 20.0. Based on serum albumin and triceps skin fold thickness, 77.8 % of patients were malnourished. Mean age of the patients was 48.3 ± 15.9 years. The commonest cause of heart failure was ischemic heart disease (34.9 %). Hypertension (36 %) was the commonest co morbid disease. Forty four percent of patients had New York heart association functional class II heart failure. Serum hemoglobin (AOR = 0.77, 95 % CI: 0.67-0.92) was found to be significantly associated with nutritional status of heart failure patients. As serum hemoglobin increases by 1gm/dl, the risk of malnutrition decreased by 15 % (P value = 0.03). The majority of patients were malnourished. A higher hemoglobin concentration was associated with reduced odds of being malnourished.

  15. Factors Influencing Hemispheric Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    eyposuro -’va’ irsufficient to allow enoug7h depth of 2ros-in- t o occur ( Craik ^ Lockhart , 1972). The pres-nt *xrirrent .%Il to . the Fardyck et al... levels of processing theory offer another way of explaining these results. 14hen the stimulus is unfamiliar, contains no meanin7ful material, and is...et al. (1978) nor the levels of processing theory (1,"oscovitch et al., 1976) can explain the results obtained for the familiar type of stimulus

  16. Liability of Legal Person in Indonesia: A Statutory and Practical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Komalasari Dewi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liability of legal persons for criminal offences has been slowly, but making its way to the legislations of Indonesia. Trends of development indicate that the liability of legal persons for criminal offences has been regulated in few regulations and will be regulated in the bill of Indonesia Penal Code that is now being drafted. Grounds of liability of legal persons indicate that it is a question of a special from of criminal responsibility, adapted to legal persons.

  17. Radiodermatitis. Etiological and medico-legal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredard-Usseglio, Catherine.

    1978-04-01

    This study covers 22 radiodermatitis cases recorded in and around Paris and in industry, from January 1st 1967 to mid-1977, by the health insurance treasury of te Paris region. Special attention was paid to the analysis of their frequency, seriousness and causes and of the medico-legal problems involved. According to our observations these accidents mainly affect radiometallographers, crystallographers, people studying materials by X-fluorescence and technicians responsible for maintenance of medical X-ray radiotherapy machines, the activities most prevalent in the industrial use of ionizing radiations. Three main accident factors are observed: imperfections in the protection system and in the maintenance of equipment; carelessness of personnel towards ionizing radiations owing to the apparent absence of immediate effects; lack of information on the danger of ionizing radiations and on the defensive measures necessary. Three means of protection must be developed as a result: wearing of an extra dosimeter on the wrist or finger; permanent information of staff; checks on equipment and constant improvement in the protection of particularly dangerous instruments (gammagraphs). Acute and chronic radiodermatitis are taken in charge as occupational diseases since they appear in table six of these illnesses with a coverage period of 60 days and 10 years. Radiodermatitis patients face the question of professional reclassification, a difficulty all the greater as their qualifications are high. The possibility of paid professional training for occupational disease victims is especially useful when the subjects are still young [fr

  18. Investment Activities within the Legal Framework of the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Ruchkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of legal regulation of investment activities within the framework of the WTO. It considers factors that promote the establishment of a favorable investment climate, including the availability of special legislation, an efficient law enforcement practice and, as noted by many experts, availability and clarity of the judicial mechanism for the protection of violated rights. Recent foreign experience is analyzed and some issues of investment dispute settlement are considered. The article also deals with issues concerning the formation of competitive relations that, in their turn, also constitute an important factor of a state’s investment appeal.Investment activities constitute a popular type of entrepreneurial activity. Every state, regardless of where it is located or its level of economic development, aims to increase its investment activities and raise foreign investment inflow. To do this they adopt national regulatory acts and sign bilateral agreements, multilateral agreements, and execute international legal acts in the area of investment activities. This results in the need for examination of legal regulation in this area. Russia joining the WTO has resulted in regular revisions of current legal regulation, in particular in the law on foreign investments.

  19. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  20. Violência doméstica e Juizados Especiais Criminais: análise a partir do feminismo e do garantismo Domestic violence and Special Criminal Courts: analysis from the legal feminism and penal criticism perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hein de Campos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende demonstrar a possibilidade de análise crítica da Lei 9.099/95 a partir de dois discursos considerados marginais no campo do direito penal: o feminismo jurídico e o garantismo penal. Considerando a vítima no momento do crime e o autor do fato durante o processo penal, esses discursos interagem, procurando construir um diálogo para demonstrar a ineficácia da lei em ambas as perspectivas.This article aims at demonstrating the possibility of criticism about the criminal law (Lei 9.099/95 from two perspectives seen as marginal within penal law studies: the legal feminism and the penal criticism (garantismo. Taking into account the victim's condition and the defendant's rights during the criminal proceedings, such discourses are linked to show the inefficacy of that law towards both the victim and the defendant.

  1. Factor VII assay performance: an analysis of the North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantek, N D; Hsu, P; Refaai, M A; Ledford-Kraemer, M; Meijer, P; Van Cott, E M

    2013-06-01

    The performance of factor VII (FVII) assays currently used by clinical laboratories was examined in North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association (NASCOLA) proficiency tests. Data from 12 surveys conducted between 2008 and 2010, involving 20 unique specimens plus four repeat-tested specimens, were analyzed. The number of laboratories per survey was 49-54 with a total of 1224 responses. Numerous reagent/instrument combinations were used. For FVII > 80 or 50 U/dL, among commonly used methods, one thromboplastin and one calibrator produced results 5-6 U/dL higher and another thromboplastin and calibrator produced results 5-6 U/dL lower than all other methods, and human thromboplastin differed from rabbit by +7.6 U/dL. Preliminary evidence suggests these differences could be due to the calibrator. For FVII <50 U/dL, differences among the commonly used reagents and calibrators were generally not significant. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Influence Factors Regarding the Effectiveness of Automated Ballistic Comparison on 0.38 Special Caliber Bullets and Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Lehi Sudy; Vieira Muterlle, Palloma

    2018-03-01

    Factors influencing effectiveness of automated comparisons, test-fired bullets, and cartridge cases from 0.38 Special revolvers were logged into the Evofinder ® Ballistic ID System. Tests were performed as follows: First test correlated test-fires of the same type, second test compared different types of ammunition components, third test replicated the second test in a larger database, and fourth test replicated the third test with students having no previous firearm identification experience. System effectiveness with projectiles in the first test was 0.89. With cartridge cases, effectiveness was 0.79 with combined results, but analysis of separate results by breech face and firing pin revealed low effectiveness by breech face (0.40). In the second, third, and fourth tests, effectiveness with projectiles were 0.61, 0.51, and 0.44. In addition, these tests had effectiveness with cartridge cases equivalent to 0.55, 0.43, and 0.44. Results are useful to establish routine protocols, system improvements, or comparative assessment of other electronic systems. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  4. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  5. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  6. Radiographic investigations during medico-legal autopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzke, H.; Schneider, V.; Dietz, W.

    1982-04-01

    During the last 13 years (1968-1980), 427 radiographic examinations were carried out during the course of medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the Free University of Berlin. Important problems were the demonstration of retained foreign bodies resulting from shooting, stabbing or blunt trauma, bone injuries, identification, and the question of life in neonates. An historical survey is given and 12 cases with special forensic problems are illustrated and discussed, and further means of investigations are described.

  7. ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAW AND COURT PRACTICE IN CROATIA-INDIVIDUAL AND ASSOCIATIONAL ANTI-DISCRIMINATION CLAIM AS (IN)EFFICIENT MECHANISMS FOR LEGAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Poretti

    2015-01-01

    In the paper basic legal sources of European and Croatian anti-discrimination law are presented. Special attention is given to Anti-discrimination Act from 2009 which was enacted with the aim to provide anti-discrimination legal framework as a guarantee of a high level of legal protection from different forms of discrimination in Croatian legal system. Individual and associational anti—discrimination claim as legal mechanisms for efficient legal protection are questioned. Also, along with the...

  8. The Boy Factor: Can Single-Gender Classes Reduce the Over-Representation of Boys in Special Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechura-Couture, Kathy; Heins, Elizabeth; Tichenor, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s numerous studies have concluded that there is an over-representation of males and minorities in special education. This paper examines the question if a different educational format, such as single-gender education, can help boys' behavior and thus reduce the number of special education referrals? The rationale for…

  9. Five Factor Model personality disorder scales: An introduction to a special section on assessment of maladaptive variants of the five factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, R Michael; Widiger, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    The Five-Factor Model (FFM) is a dimensional model of general personality structure, consisting of the domains of neuroticism (or emotional instability), extraversion versus introversion, openness (or unconventionality), agreeableness versus antagonism, and conscientiousness (or constraint). The FFM is arguably the most commonly researched dimensional model of general personality structure. However, a notable limitation of existing measures of the FFM has been a lack of coverage of its maladaptive variants. A series of self-report inventories has been developed to assess for the maladaptive personality traits that define Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition; DSM-5) Section II personality disorders (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) from the perspective of the FFM. In this paper, we provide an introduction to this Special Section, presenting the rationale and empirical support for these measures and placing them in the historical context of the recent revision to the APA diagnostic manual. This introduction is followed by 5 papers that provide further empirical support for these measures and address current issues within the personality assessment literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  11. The legal mentality and the succession of the law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rybakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law. 

  12. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

  13. Obstetric factors and different causes of special educational need: retrospective cohort study of 407,503 schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D F; Smith, G C S; Dobbie, R; Cooper, S-A; Pell, J P

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether relationships with gestational age and birthweight centile vary between specific causes of special educational need (SEN). Retrospective cohort study. Scotland. A cohort of 407,503 schoolchildren. Polytomous logistic regression was used to examine the risk of each cause of SEN across the spectrum of gestation at delivery and birthweight centile, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals. Of the 19,821 children with SEN, 557 (2.8%) had sensory impairments, 812 (4.1%) had physical or motor disabilities, 876 (4.4%) had language impairments, 2823 (14.2%) had social, emotional, or behavioural problems, 7018 (35.4%) had intellectual disabilities, 4404 (22.2%) had specific learning difficulties, and 1684 (8.5%) autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Extreme preterm delivery (at 24-27 weeks of gestation) was a strong predictor of sensory (adjusted OR 23.64, 95% CI 12.03-46.45), physical or motor (adjusted OR 29.69, 95% CI 17.49-50.40), and intellectual (adjusted OR 11.67, 95% CI 8.46-16.10) impairments, with dose relationships across the range of gestation. Similarly, birthweight below the third centile was associated with sensory (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.04-3.99), physical or motor (adjusted OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.82-3.37), and intellectual (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% CI 2.41-2.96) impairments. Together, gestation and birthweight centile accounted for 24.0% of SEN arising from sensory impairment, 34.3% arising from physical or motor disabilities, and 26.6% arising from intellectual disabilities. Obstetric factors were less strongly associated with specific learning difficulties and social or emotional problems, and there were no significant associations with ASD. The association between gestation and birthweight centile and overall risk of SEN is largely driven by very strong associations with sensory, physical or motor impairments, and intellectual impairments. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International

  14. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    OpenAIRE

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field i...

  15. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  16. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  18. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  19. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  20. Legal and ethical issues arising with preimplantation human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J A

    1992-04-01

    The development of in vitro fertilization has led to ethical and legal controversies concerning actions with externalized preembryos. A legal and ethical consensus is emerging that preembryos are not legal persons or moral subjects, although they are owed special respect because of their ability to implant and come to term. In addition, gamete providers are recognized as having dispositional authority over whether preembryos will be created, cryopreserved, placed in a uterus, discarded, donated, or used in research. Prior agreements over preembryo disposition are the best way to minimize disputes between the gamete providers.

  1. Legal and ethical issues in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroforou, A; Michalodimitrakis, E; Hatzitheo-Filou, C; Giannoukas, A

    2010-02-01

    With the rapid introduction of revolutionary technologies in surgical practice, such as computer-enhanced robotic surgery, the complexity in various aspects, including medical, legal and ethical, will increase exponentially. Our aim was to highlight important legal and ethical implications emerged from the application of robotic surgery. Search of the pertinent medical and legal literature. Robotic surgery may open new avenues in the near future in surgical practice. However, in robotic surgery, special training and experience along with high quality assessment are required in order to provide normal conscientious care and state-of-the-art treatment. While the legal basis for professional liability remains exactly the same, litigation with the use of robotic surgery may be complex. In case of an undesirable outcome, in addition to physician and hospital, the manufacturer of the robotic system may be sued. In respect to ethical issues in robotic surgery, equipment safety and reliability, provision of adequate information, and maintenance of confidentiality are all of paramount importance. Also, the cost of robotic surgery and the lack of such systems in most of the public hospitals may restrict the majority from the benefits offered by the new technology. While surgical robotics will have a significant impact on surgical practice, it presents challenges so much in the realm of law and ethics as of medicine and health care.

  2. Generation of point isotropic source dose buildup factor data for the PFBR special concretes in a form compatible for usage in point kernel computer code QAD-CGGP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Around the PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor) reactor assembly, in the peripheral shields special concretes of density 2.4 g/cm 3 and 3.6 g/cm 3 are to be used in complex geometrical shapes. Point-kernel computer code like QAD-CGGP, written for complex shield geometry comes in handy for the shield design optimization of peripheral shields. QAD-CGGP requires data base for the buildup factor data and it contains only ordinary concrete of density 2.3 g/cm 3 . In order to extend the data base for the PFBR special concretes, point isotropic source dose buildup factors have been generated by Monte Carlo method using the computer code MCNP-4A. For the above mentioned special concretes, buildup factor data have been generated in the energy range 0.5 MeV to 10.0 MeV with the thickness ranging from 1 mean free paths (mfp) to 40 mfp. Capo's formula fit of the buildup factor data compatible with QAD-CGGP has been attempted

  3. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  4. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  5. Prohibition as ontological basis of the Russian legal reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify characteristics of the nature content and functioning of prohibition in the legal reality of Russia. nbsp Methods the methodological basis of research is the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors as well as a postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutic discursive. Results the paper proposes a definition of prohibition as a state socio volitional constraining limiting means that under the threat of legal liability is intended to prevent the wrongful act of the subject physical or legal entity and ensure the maintenance of law and order. Prohibition is a necessary means of ensuring the discipline of public relations and the consolidation of legal values designed to assure the effectiveness of legal regulation. Scientific novelty for the first time the article shows that prohibition as a legal category is the ontological basis of legal reality and acts as a determining factor in the content and focus not only of lawmaking and law enforcement but legal behavior as well. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when considering questions about the nature content and functioning of prohibitions.

  6. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  7. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  8. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  9. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  10. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  11. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  12. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  13. Continuity and Change: The Many Factors in Special Education Policy Development in Toronto Public Schools, 1945 to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason; Axelrod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: It is frequently assumed that changes in special education policies since 1945 have come mostly from "landmark research" or actions of a few "pioneers." We argue in this article that there have been many different sources of change, including legislation, court rulings, activism, and even shifts in socially…

  14. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  15. Legal and legal-ethical aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, H.

    1991-01-01

    The article examines why human beings accept risks. An assessment of risk is always carried out in connection with the benefits to be had from an action which is a potential risk. Decisions on the acceptability of risks are the consequence of political assessments. An assessment of risk on a legal basis is only possible to a limited degree. What is important are the criteria according to which the acceptability of risks is determined. In this context, the concept of damage proves itself to be of central importance; this concept includes the question as to the degree to which such damage can be tolerated socially and politically, the question of future damage as well as the degree to which such damage is reversible. It would be ideal if those persons who are affected by potential damage were to be the ones to make such decisions, but this is extremely difficult to put into practice. Special care must be taken in regard to decisions which have repercussions for future generations or for the state of nature. In this case, the decision which those persons who are potentially affected would most probably make must be anticipated and taken into account as if they were here to participate in the decision-making process. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although contemporary criminal law accepts the system of subjective criminal liability for a committed crime, numerous European legal documents as well as criminal laws, especially those that have been adopted lately, envisage exceptions from this system. Thus, a new form of criminal liability is being introduced: objective liability based on the causation. One of the forms of objective liability is the criminal liability of legal entities, which has been considered disputable for a long time. Obviously, legal entities cannot be held accountable for all types of criminal offences. They cannot be held liable on the grounds of legal provisions regarding mental competence and culpability (as the elements of subjective criminal liability, nor can they be imposed all types of criminal sanctions recognized in criminal legislation in general. In their new or revised criminal legislation, many countries have recognized and inagurated the objective criminal liability of legal persons for committed criminal offences alongside with the predominant system of subjective liability (based on the perpetrator's mental competence and culpability. It is indisputable that some legal entities (such as state authorities cannot be prosecuted and held liable in criminal proceedings; consequently, there are some exemptions from criminal liability (particularly when it comes to the state and state bodies, but it does not exclude criminal liability of responsible officials (natural persons for causing the consequences of a criminal offence. Due to the specific character of legal and contractual capacity of legal entities, law in general and criminal legislations in particular prescribe special legal grounds for establishing criminal liability of legal entities, which differ from the subjective liability of a natural person (perceived as a conscious and reasonable human being acting on his/her own free will where the consequence of a criminal offence is a result of one

  17. Legal protection of land from pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.

  18. Attitudes Toward Medical Cannabis Legalization Among Serbian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Isidora; Pavlovic, Aleksandar; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2017-07-29

    Currently, medical cannabis polices are experiencing rapid changes, and an increasing number of nations around the world legalize medical cannabis for certain groups of patients, including those in Serbia. To determine medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Fourth-year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, had participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire. Overall, 63.4% students supported medical cannabis legalization, and only 20.8% supported its legalization for recreational use. Students who previously used marijuana (p medical cannabis legalization compared with students who never used them. Support for marijuana recreational use was also related to prior marijuana (p cancer (90.4%) and chronic pain (74.2%) were correctly reported approved medical indications by more than half the students. Students who supported medical cannabis legalization showed better knowledge about indications, in contrast to opponents for legalization who showed better knowledge about side effects. Beliefs that using medical cannabis is safe and has health benefits were correlated with support for legalization, and previous marijuana and alcohol use, while beliefs that medical cannabis poses health risks correlated most strongly with previous marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance: The medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization were significantly correlated with previous use of marijuana and alcohol, knowledge about medical indications and side effects, and their beliefs regarding medical cannabis health benefits and risks.

  19. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  20. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  1. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.

    1997-01-01

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de

  2. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, 𔃺 le. ~~rt n the

  3. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  4. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  5. Legal and regulator framework of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Cassanello, Griselda; Mels Siningen, Celeste; Reina, Mariana; Vega, Hernan

    2009-01-01

    The present work intends to develop the legislative and regulatory framework in the matter of radioactive waste. The legal frame of the radioactive waste conformed by the National Constitution, the treaties and conventions, laws and decrees and regulatory norm in Argentine . The subject is approached from the international point of view considering the slogan of 36 The Annual Meeting of the Association Argentine de Nuclear Technology: 'The Nuclear Energy in the Present World'. This work also contains a special paragraph dedicated to the analysis of practical cases related to the subject and the activity of the National Commission of Atomic Energy. (author)

  6. Radiographic investigations during medico-legal autopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzke, H.; Schneider, V.; Dietz, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the last 13 years (1968-1980), 427 radiographic examinations were carried out during the course of medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the Free University of Berlin. Important problems were the demonstration of retained foreign bodies resulting from shooting, stabbing or blunt trauma, bone injuries, identification, and the question of life in neonates. An historical survey is given and 12 cases with special forensic problems are illustrated and discussed, and further means of investigations are described. (orig.) [de

  7. Legal transformations of business disputes in post-soviet Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kyselova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores mobilisation of law by Ukrainian business people at the pre-litigation stage of disputes, when litigation has not as yet been commenced but a legal claim has been formalised through the pretenziya - a formal letter to the delinquent party written to a special template. In Soviet times the pretenziya was by law an obligatory prerequisite before filing a claim in a commercial court (arbitrazh, but nowadays it is optional. Having analysed the spectrum of legal and extra-legal functions of pretenziya, this paper concludes that due to its adaptability, pretenziya proved capable of operating both as a token of the public order – the ‘shadow of the law’ - and as part of a private contract enforcement. Pretenziya in a voluntary form has not only survived in market-oriented economy but even opened up new avenues for the creative use of legal forms in post-Soviet business.

  8. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  9. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  10. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  11. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  12. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  13. Legal Issues in Educational Technology: Implications for School Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses several legal issues involving the use of educational technology: Freedom of speech, regulation of Internet material harmful to minors, student-developed Web pages, harassment and hostile work environment, staff and student privacy, special education, plagiarism, and copyright issues. Includes recommendations for addressing technology…

  14. Legal Aspects of Teaching Music Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Jean B.

    2017-01-01

    The public education of students with disabilities in the United States is governed by federal policies that promote school improvement, protect students from discrimination, and provide those who need it with special education and related services to meet their individual needs. This article explains the legal aspects of teaching students with…

  15. The Legal Status of the Federal Copyright Law. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Ralph A.; Nolte, M. Chester

    The historical and legal background of the Federal Copyright Law with special implications for education was studied within five general areas of concern. The areas included: (1) historical development, (2) copyright revision issues, (3) principles of copyright law embodied in state and Federal statutes, (4) decisions of the courts pertaining to…

  16. 110 ATTRACTION OF BUSINESS AND RESTRICTION IN LEGAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... of the concept through legal education in law faculties in the ..... This of course does involve associating a product name or service with ..... will no doubt promote professionalism and specialization in ... most especially by all common law jurisdiction with a view to reach an internationally accepted model.

  17. Development and Use of a Corpus Tailored for Legal English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skier, Jason; Vibulphol, Jutarat

    2016-01-01

    While corpus linguistics has been applied towards many specific academic purposes, reports are few regarding its use to facilitate learning of legal English by non-native English speakers. Specialized corpora are required because legal English often differs significantly from ordinary usage, with words such as bar, motion, and hearing having…

  18. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  19. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...

  20. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  1. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  2. Incidence of Road Traffic Injury and Associated Factors among Patients Visiting the Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13, conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84, financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48, psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14, and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27 were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended.

  3. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  4. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  5. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  6. Legal regime of water management facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal regime of water management facilities in the light of Serbian, foreign and European law. Different divisions of water management facilities are carried out (to public and private ones, natural and artificial ones, etc., with determination of their legal relevance. Account is taken of the issue of protection from harmful effects of waters to such facilities, as well. The paper points also to rules on the water management facilities, from acts of planning, to individual administrative acts and measures for maintenance of required qualitative and quantitative condition of waters, depending on their purpose (general use or special, commercial use o waters. Albeit special rules on water management facilities exist, due to the natural interlocking between all the components of the environment (water, air and soil, a comprehensive approach is required. A reference is made to other basic principles of protection of water management facilities as well, such as the principle of prevention, principle of sustainable development and the principle "polluter pays". The last one represents the achievement of contemporary law, which deviates from the idea accepted in the second half of 20th century that supported the socialization of risk from harmful effects of waters.

  7. UBERTRUST: How Uber Represents Itself to Its Customers Through its Legal and Non-Legal Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Noto La Diega, Guido; Jacovella, Luce

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines some of the key factors that contribute to build or erode users’ trust in a platform-based service such as the one provided by Uber Technologies Inc. As clarified by the European Commission, the future Internet cannot succeed without trust of online platforms’ users. The paper explores Uber’s web of relationships with different categories of users, i.e., ‘driver-partners’, ‘riders’, ‘developers’ and ‘business users’ through Uber’s legal and non-legal representations. By an...

  8. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  9. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  10. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  11. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  12. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  13. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  14. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  15. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large "generalist" apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Nifong, James C; Heithaus, Michael R; Mazzotti, Frank J; Cherkiss, Michael S; Jeffery, Brian M; Elsey, Ruth M; Decker, Rachel A; Silliman, Brian R; Guillette, Louis J; Lowers, Russell H; Larson, Justin C

    2015-05-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  16. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  17. The Procedure for Determination of Special Margin Factors to Account for a Bow of the VVER-1000 Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Marin, Stanislav V.; Shishkov, Lev K.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 1980's, the problem of bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for FAs that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of FAs of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the VVER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  18. The procedure for determination of special margin factors to account for a bow of the WWER-1000 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, S. V.; Marin, S. V.; Shishkov, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 1980s, the problem of bow of the WWER-1000 reactor fuel assemblies and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for fuel assemblies that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the WWER-1000 reactor fuel assemblies is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of fuel assemblies of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the WWER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  19. The Procedure for Determination of Special Margin Factors to Account for a Bow of the VVER-1000 Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Marin, Stanislav V.; Shishkov, Lev K. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 1., Kurchatov sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Starting from 1980's, the problem of bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for FAs that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of FAs of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the VVER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  20. Private Intrusion Response. A "Legal Foundations" Special Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) and tasked it with assessing the vulnerabilities or, and threats to, eight ranked critical infrastructures and developing a national strategy for protecting those infrastructures from physical and cyber threats...

  1. special article the medico-legal prerequisite for initiating quarantine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Biological, Environmental and Occupational Health Science, School of Public Health, Univer- ... and isolation in public health emergency management. ... The implementation of quarantine or isolation ... ety, technological systems within a given population ..... Ghana Civil Aviation Act, 2004 (Act 678).

  2. PDT: special cases in front of legal regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E.; Wegner, A.; Pfeiler, T.; Mertz, M.

    2002-10-01

    Introduction: The classic indication for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in ophthalmology is currently represented by classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PDT is a method, which almost selectively causes endothelial damage in neovascular lesions, followed by vascular occlusion and involution of the CNV. The mechanistic aspect suggests that non AMD-related choroidal neovascularisations might also benefit from PDT. PDT in AMD: Within the German health system, PDT indications follow the criteria based on the inclusion criteria of the TAP studies. For instance the CNV should be predominantly classic and located under the center of the foveal avascular zone. In the diagnosis and follow-up of exudative AMD, visual acuity measurements and fluorescein angiography are the established parameters. Retinal thickness analyzer (RTA) measurements might give further information. Before PDT, they show a significant retinal thickening due to intra- and subretinal exudation. Following PDT, early RTA follow-ups show a clear decrease in retinal thickening accompanies by increasing or stable acuity. PDT in CNV of other origins than AMD: New studies support a new spectrum of indications for PDT, hopefully leading to general cost reimbursement for patients. PDT should be viewed as a general method for vascular occlusion and does not represent a causal therapy for progressive exudative AMD. We present patients with CNV due to pathologic myopia, angioid streaks and POHS. Conclusion: The selective vascular occlusion caused by PDT, besides CNV associated with AMD and pathologic myopia, may also allow the treatment of choroidal neovascularisations based on other entities. Careful individual evaluation of those cases is recommended. Despite this wide array of possible indications, cost reimbursement has been limited to classic subfoveal CNV in AMD, although single case reimbursements in choroidal neovascular lesions due to pathologic myopia have been observed.

  3. The role of law as an instrument of communication within legal positivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles some aspects concerning the role of law as an instrument of communication from the perspective of legal positivism. The paper presents considerations regarding law communication in relation to legal positivism and scientific positivism. At the same time, the article examines the correlations between the legal communication models and the various inclinations developed under legal positivism. Both within legal positivism and the scientific positivism, the role of law as a communication tool is essential. The concept of legal communication should be considered as the idea of understanding the legal norm by the recipients of law, namely by persons and also acceptance of these rules in order to respect them. Also, clarity and transparency in law communication are very important elements that contribute to the way in which legal standards are received. The analysis of legal communication from the perspective of legal positivism presents a special scientific interest, given the very essence of positivism, namely that the laws are commands of the human being. Thus, it is important to analyze communication patterns that can be applied in the positivist orientation to consistently appreciate the ways in which legal communication can be improved.

  4. Financial Therapy and Planning for Families with Special Needs Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Lauderdale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of having a plan that includes a special needs trust among families that have disabled minor children. Descriptive analyses indicate that the top two reasons families provide for not having a plan are the inability to save and no perceived need. Among families that do indicate having a plan, most do not include a special needs trust. Multivariate analyses reveal that professional involvement (financial, legal, and mental health professionals is a key factor to increasing the likelihood of having a plan with a special needs trust. Families that have met with a financial advisor are 23 times more likely, and families who are encouraged to create a plan by a mental health professional are almost three times more likely, to have a plan that includes a special needs trust. Results from this study suggest that financial therapists are uniquely positioned to educate and ensure that appropriate plans are in place to provide for the future of children with special needs.

  5. Prognostic factors for the success of endometrial ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia with special reference to previous cesarean section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Jos A. H.; Penninx, Josien P. M.; Mol, Ben Willem; Bongers, Marlies Y.

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether, among other prognostic factors, a history of Cesarean section is associated with endometrial ablation failure in the treatment of menorrhagia. Study design We compared women who had failed ablation to women who had successful ablation for menorrhagia in a case-control study.

  6. Risk Factor Research and Prevention for Anxiety Disorders: Introduction to the Special Series on Risk and Prevention of Anxiety Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    In relation to treatment-related research in the United States, there is relatively little systematic effort focused on the combination of risk and prevention for anxiety pathology. This article broadly discusses risk factor research and prevention program development for anxiety psychopathology. The authors also specifically discuss papers in…

  7. Predictive power of inspection outcomes for future shipping accidents – an empirical appraisal with special attention for human factor aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether deficiencies detected during port state control (PSC) inspections have predictive power for future accident risk, in addition to other vessel-specific risk factors like ship type, age, size, flag, and owner. The empirical analysis links accidents to past

  8. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  9. Food irradiation. An update of legal and analytical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masotti, P.; Zonta, F.

    1999-01-01

    A new European directive concerning ionising radiation treatment of foodstuffs has been recently adopted, although National laws may continue to be applied at least until 31 December 2000. A brief updated review dealing with the legal and analytical aspects of food irradiation is presented. The legal status of the food irradiation issue presently in force in Italy, in the European Union and in the USA is discussed. Some of the most used and reliable analytical methods for detecting irradiated foodstuffs, with special reference to standardised methods of European Committee of Standardization, are listed [it

  10. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  11. Some reproductive health indicators in Ukraine : A study with special emphasis on factors behind induced aboartion and perinatal mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilevkina, Iryna

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study indicators specifically reflecting the reproductive health of Ukrainian women and to analyse factors behind the indicators. Methods: Induced abortion and maternal mortality were studied in some countries/regions of the former Soviet Union, using official statistics. Abortion rates, contraceptive practices and intentions in Ukrainian women were analysed by a large self-completion survey in 1996, and by a classroom questionnaire to first year medical students in 1999 in Do...

  12. Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chow-How; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Robertson, T.L.; Furonaka, Hiroshi.

    1980-10-01

    A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author)

  13. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  14. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  15. Formation of ideal of legal personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віта Олександрівна Сліпенчук

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In the process of transformation of Ukrainian society towards the assimilation and implementation of basic European values such as human rights, democracy and the rule of law the role of personality that respects the dignity of others and their right to free expression in its multifaceted manifestations becomes more important. Such definitions of it assume the character of the ideal to be pursued, but that has not received adequate expression in people's minds and in practice yet. Since this ideal inextricably links right and personality, enabling the operation of law due to the special qualities of the individual, it can be defined as the ideal of legal personality. It is the formation and realization of such ideal that becomes urgent practical task of our society, which in turn requires a comprehensive theoretical understanding. Recent research and publications analysis. It should be noted that some philosophical aspects of the meaning of legal personality and its formation are revealed in the works of Ukrainian researcher in the field of philosophy of law S.I. Maksimov. However, all actual researches are based on a certain cultural and ideological tradition. The research of  a Polish-American scholar in the history of philosophical and legal thought Andrzej Walicki pays attention to the ideological and methodological potential liberal legal philosophy of the late 19th - early 20th century in the Russian Empire, realization of which, unfortunately, failed because of the violent interruption of this tradition by Bolsheviks. Researches of philosophers of law of that period are of particular significance in this issue: Ukrainian by origin and outlook Bohdan Kistyakivskiy and one of the authors of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 Serhiy Gessen. It is reconstruction of the concept of "legal personality" in the views of philosophers of law of that period, which is really made for the first time, which will give, as

  16. Legal features of the drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Olefir, Andrii A; Bytyak, Oleksiy Y

    In the article discribed current trends of advertising in the pharmaceutical market and foreign experience of legal regulation of these relations. As for the advertising of medicines identified it's symptoms, types, basic rules and prohibitions. Modern pharmaceutical companies can not successfully carry out economic activities without advertising. Besides we can mention some fundamental changes in society (information overload, universal access to internet, social media, freedom of movement of goods, labor and finance), also self-medication becomes more popular. At the same time, the number of deaths after improper and uncontrolled use of drugs ranks fifth in the world among the causes of death. Investigate current trends of advertising on the pharmaceutical market, find advertising signs, basic restrictions and prohibitions on advertising of medicines, as well as foreign experience of legal regulation of these relations. Despite the fact that pharmaceutical advertising were studied by such scholars as M. Abraham, L. Bradley, C. Dunn, J. Donoh'yu, D. Castro, M. Lipski, K. Taylor and others, number of issues related features of drug advertising, remained without proper theoretical studies. Based on the analysis can come to the conclusion that advertising of medicinal products are the subject of special attention from the state. Drugs, unlike other products, are a group of specialized consumer products. Risks increase when patients under the influence of «aggressive» advertising resort to self-medication. If a complete ban on advertising of medicines is inappropriate, you should set stricter requirements for the content of advertising and product placement rules. That is, in the national legislation to implement regulatory requirements of Directive 2001/83 / EC. Legal regulation of drug advertising can be improved by such legal means: - should provide for a mechanism of public control over the observance of ethical standards in the advertising of medicinal products

  17. Relationship of various factors affecting the sustainable private forest management at Pajangan District, Special Regions Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayanto, B.; Karsidi, R.; Kusnandar; Sutrisno, J.

    2018-03-01

    Forests have a role and function in providing good atmosphere with stable oxygen content and affecting global climate stability. Good forest management will provide stable climatic conditions in global climate change. A good forest is managed to provide a sustainable environment condition. This study aims to analyze the relationship of various factors affecting the sustainability of private forests management. This research is a quantitative research with survey method and determination of sampling are was by purposive sampling. Sampling method using multiple stage cluster sampling with 60 samples. From the results it was found that the successful sustainable private forest management influenced by various factors, such as group dynamics, stakeholder support, community institutions, and farmer participation. The continuity of private forest management is determined by the fulfillment of economic, social and environmental dimensions. The most interesting finding is that the group dynamics conditions are very good, whereas the sense of togetherness among community is very strong under limited resources managing private forests. The sense of togetherness resulted creativity to diversify business and thus reduced the pressure in exploiting the forest. Some people think that managing the people's forest as a culture so that its existence can be more sustainable.

  18. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  20. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  1. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  2. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  3. Differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors with special reference to nutritional factors in patients with coronary artery disease with or without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita P Mahalle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increase in awareness about the role of nutritional factors in chronic non-communicable diseases. We therefore conducted this study with an aim to assess the relationship between nutritional factor (vitamin B12 and homocysteine [Hcy] and its association with insulin resistance and inflammatory markers, and differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors among diabetics and non-diabetics in known cases of coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and Methods: Three hundred consecutive patients with known coronary disease on coronary angiography, who were >25 years old were included in this study. All cases were interviewed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for insulin, vitamin B12, Hcy and inflammatory markers (highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], Tumor necrosis factor-alfa [TNF-α]. Insulin resistance was calculated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results: Mean age of the patients was 60.95 ± 12.3 years. Body mass index and waist hip ratio were comparable in both groups. Triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein and HbA1C were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had significantly high levels of IL-6, hsCRP and TNF-α compared with non-diabetic patients. Insulin resistance was twofold higher in diabetic patients. Serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower and Hcy was significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the non-diabetic patients. HbA1C, HOMA-IR and Hcy levels were positively correlated with inflammatory markers in the total study population and in the non-diabetic patients; but, in diabetic patients, HbA1C and Hcy showed this relation. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the diabetic population. Hcy levels were higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and were related to glycemic level and

  4. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  5. Genetic factors in human sleep disorders with special reference to Norrie disease, Prader-Willi syndrome and Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, J D

    1999-06-01

    Sleep-wake problems are common in specific inborn errors of metabolism and structure of the central nervous system. Psychological factors, behavioural difficulties, metabolic disturbances, and widespread rather than focal damage to the nervous system are present in many of these diseases and all influence the sleep-wake cycle. However, a number of conditions cause relatively focal damage to the neuroanatomical substrate of sleeping and waking. These include fatal familial insomnia, with involvement of the prion protein gene on chromosome 20, Norrie disease, the Prader-Willi syndrome and the Moebius syndrome. The last three important conditions, although rare, are considered in detail in this review. They result in sensory deprivation, hypothalamic and mid-brain damage, and involve the X-chromosome, chromosome 15, and chromosome 13, respectively. These conditions cause a wide variety of sleep disturbance, including parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and a condition like cataplexy. The place of the relevant gene products in normal sleep regulation needs further exploration.

  6. Pilot Study on Early Postoperative Discharge in Pituitary Adenoma Patients: Effect of Socioeconomic Factors and Benefit of Specialized Pituitary Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkiss, Christopher A; Lee, James; Papin, Joseph A; Geer, Eliza B; Banik, Rudrani; Rucker, Janet C; Oudheusden, Barbara; Govindaraj, Satish; Shrivastava, Raj K

    2015-08-01

    Introduction Pituitary neoplasms are benign entities that require distinct diagnostic and treatment considerations. Recent advances in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery have resulted in shorter lengths of stay (LOS). We implemented a postoperative day (POD) 1 discharge paradigm involving a multidisciplinary approach and detailed preoperative evaluation and review of both medical and socioeconomic factors. Methods The experience of a single neurosurgeon/ears, nose, throat (ENT) team was reviewed, generating a preliminary retrospective database of the first 30 patients who underwent resection of pituitary lesions under the POD 1 discharge paradigm. We assessed multiple axes from their preoperative, in-house, and postoperative care. Results There were 14 men and 16 women with an average age of 53.8 years (range: 27-76 years). There were 22 nonsecretory and 8 secretory tumors with average size of 2.80 cm (range: 1.3-5.0 cm). All 30 patients underwent preoperative ENT evaluation. Average LOS was 1.5 ± 0.7 days. A total of 18 of 30 patients were discharged on POD 1. The insurance status included 15 with public insurance such as emergency Medicaid and 15 with private insurance. Four patients had transient diabetes insipidus (DI); none had permanent DI. Overall, 28 of 30 patients received postoperative steroids. Factors that contributed to LOS > 1 day included public insurance status, two or more medical comorbidities, diabetes mellitus, transient panhypopituitarism, and DI. Conclusion The implementation of a POD 1 discharge plan for pituitary tumors is feasible and safe for elective patients. This implementation requires the establishment of a dedicated Pituitary Center model with experienced team members. The consistent limitation to early discharge was socioeconomic status. Efforts that incorporate the analysis of social disposition parameters with proper management of clinical sequelae are crucial to the maintenance of ideal LOS and optimal patient

  7. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  8. Legal Marketing and Lawyer's Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casolaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident.   Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione

  9. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  10. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  11. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inadequate use of English regarding the special nature of legal language, or. on the other hand, they may be simply transferred from the source language into the target language without even noticing the potential ambiguous situation, i.e. culture-bound ambiguities. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts.

  12. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siranesh Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71, repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50, history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88, longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87, and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98 were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.

  13. Biochemist's view of the mediators of cellular immunity, with special reference to transfer factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The results of attempts to fractionate tumor-specific transfer factor by two chromatographic procedures that differ greatly in their basic separation principles have been presented. The behavior of the TF in these separation procedures led to the suggestion that TF prepared by the Lawrence procedure does not contain a single unique molecular species, but rather consists of a multiple collection of different molecular species differing from each other in both size and charge. Since each of these separated fractions have specific biological activity, it suggests that each of the different molecular species contains a common unique property that results in the conversion of a null or negative lymphocyte into a tumor specific killer cell. These facts led to the suggestion of a theory that TF prepared by the Lawrence procedure is derived by enzymatic degradation of a larger, non-dialyzable molecule, possibly the so-called immune RNA, by degradative enzymes released from lysozomes during the preparative procedures. These enzymatically derived products share a common unique property that causes them to be recognized by the appropriate lymphocyte so that they are taken up by the cell. Once these products are inside of the lymphocyte they are then converted, by as yet unknown steps, to the larger molecule which then causes the lymphocyte to develop specific cytotoxicity. (auth)

  14. Caries and background factors in Swedish 4-year-old children with special reference to immigrant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina; Hasslöf, Pamela; Kieri, Catarina; Widman, Kjerstin

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of caries and some background factors in 4-year-old children in the city of Umeå, northern Sweden, and compares this with data from earlier studies to reveal changes over time. Children from the catchment areas of three Public Dental Health Service clinics in Umeå (n = 224) born during the third quarter of 2008 were invited to undergo a clinical dental examination. Decayed surfaces (including both dentine and enamel, except for enamel lesions on buccal and lingual surfaces), missing and filled surfaces (dmfs) were recorded using the same methods and criteria as in a series of earlier studies performed between 1980-2007. Background data were collected in a case-history and a questionnaire. Results. The proportion of children with caries significantly decreased from 2007 (38%) to 2012 (22%) (p 0.05). An immigrant background was associated with a lower frequency of tooth brushing and a higher intake of ice cream, sweets and chocolate drinks (p < 0.05). Although the proportion of children with caries declined between 2007-2012, this decline was limited to non-immigrant children. Since 1980 the distribution of dmfs remained unchanged among children with caries. More research on interventions for changing oral health behaviours is needed, specifically for immigrant children.

  15. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  16. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  17. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  18. 45 CFR 146.117 - Special enrollment periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage as a result of legal separation, divorce, cessation of dependent status (such as attaining the... plan requires the reason for declining coverage to be in writing). (d) Treatment of special enrollees...

  19. 29 CFR 2590.701-6 - Special enrollment periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility for coverage as a result of legal separation, divorce, cessation of dependent status (such as... plan requires the reason for declining coverage to be in writing). (d) Treatment of special enrollees...

  20. Indonesian law and reality in the Delta : a socio-legal inquiry into laws, local bureaucrats and natural resources management in the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simarmata, Rikardo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a socio-legal inquiry into the legal and administrative management of the natural resources of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. This book argues that due to a combination of complex legal and non-legal factors, laws and regulations on natural resources management of

  1. AUSTRALIA AND CATALONIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROTECTION OF MINORITY LANGUAGES FROM A LEGAL STANDPOINT. EDUCATION IN THE MOTHER TONGUE. IS THE LANGUAGE A FACTOR OF INTEGRATION OR A BARRIER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Vacca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of the education system in minority languages between Catalonia and Australia from a legal standpoint. Catalonia has a complex legislation: National Constitution, Statute of Autonomy, Regional Laws, a strong legal framework, a language always alive as a political instrument to get the power. Australia has not a legal framework in this area and has a confused planning system. In Europe, the Council of Europe has been in charge of the protection of human rights. Australia signed and ratified some International Conventions which are not a strong legal basis to claim an education system in aborigines’ languages. The Catalan Law on Linguistic Normalization n. 7 of 1983, replaced by the Law on Linguistic Policy n. 1 of 1998, has, among the other purposes, also that to stimulate the use of Catalan as language of education in all levels of teaching. The school has a fundamental importance for the transmission of the culture of minorities. If the educational systems didn’t have any regime of teaching in the mother tongue all policies are not efficient.

  2. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  3. The law isn't everything: The impact of legal and non-legal sanctions on motorists' drink driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James; Szogi, Elizabeth; Truelove, Verity; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of drink driving countermeasures (such as sanctions) to deter motorists from driving over the legal limit is extremely important when considering the impact the offending behavior has on the community. However, questions remain regarding the extent that both legal and non-legal factors influence drink driving behaviors. This is of particular concern given that both factors are widely used as either sanctioning outcomes or in media campaigns designed to deter drivers (e.g., highlighting the physical risk of crashing). This paper reports on an examination of 1,253 Queensland motorists' perceptions of legal and non-legal drink driving sanctions and the corresponding deterrent impact of such perceptions on self-reported offending behavior. Participants volunteered to complete either an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Encouragingly, quantitative analysis of the data revealed that participants' perceptions of both legal sanctions (e.g., certainty, severity and swiftness) as well as non-legal sanctions (e.g., fear of social, internal or physical harm) were relatively high, with perceptual certainty being the highest. Despite this, a key theme to emerge from the study was that approximately 25% of the sample admitted to drink driving at some point in time. Multivariate analyses revealed six significant predictors of drink driving, being: males, younger drivers, lower perceptions of the severity of sanctions, and less concern about the social, internal, and physical harms associated with the offense. However, a closer examination of the data revealed that the combined deterrence model was not very accurate at predicting drink driving behaviors (e.g., 21% of variance). A range of non-legal deterrent factors have the potential to reduce the prevalence of drink driving although further research is required to determine how much exposure is required to produce a strong effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights

  4. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  5. Uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching and Specialized Hospital: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bekele Tesfaye,1 Dessalegn Haile,1 Benalfew Lake,1 Tefera Belachew,2 Temamen Tesfaye,3 Habtamu Abera4 1Department of Nursing, College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, 2Department of Population and Family Health, 3Department of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science, Jimma University, Jimma, 4Department of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Hypertension, including poorly controlled blood pressure, is the major global health problem that affects one billion people worldwide. Limited studies have been conducted on prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients in Ethiopia.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients at Jimma University Teaching and Specialized Hospital.Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic illness clinic of Jimma University Specialized and Teaching hospital from March 09 to April 13, 2016. A total of 345 hypertensive patients were selected using systematic sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaire through face-to-face exit interview and chart review. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0 software. The bivariate and multivariable analysis was done to identify factors of uncontrolled hypertension.Results: More than half, 52.7%, of the patients had uncontrolled hypertension. Lack of awareness of hypertension-related complications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.140, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.272–3.600, p=0.004, nonadherent to smoking abstinence (AOR=3.935, 95% CI=1.065–14.535, p=0.004, nonadherent to alcohol abstinence (AOR=2.477, 95% CI=1.074–5.711, p=033, Khat (Catha edulis chewing (AOR=2.518, 95% CI=1.250–5

  6. Legal regulations for handling mass proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, F.

    1980-01-01

    The author explains legal regulations to be found in administrative law and in the drafted version of rules of administrative procedures on the calling-in of third parties, on common attorneys, on the publication of service etc. and on other simplifications of proceedings with the aim to make mass proceedings administerable. As a result, the author considers these special regulations to be largely dispensable and risky with regard to constitutional law. An extension of constitutional guarantees pertaining to administrative procedures is necessary in order not to overburden Courts by tasks which may be fulfilled in a better way by federal agencies. The solution is to be found in substantive law: if necessary by admitting the so-called participation of associations or, even better, by introducing an agent safeguarding public interests in administrative procedures. (HSCH) [de

  7. Legal protection of informed consent of minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    One of the pillars of healthcare provision is respect for the autonomy of the patient's wishes, which is given substance by the process of obtaining informed consent. Minors deserve special protection, entitled to basic rights and increasingly autonomous as they develop. In certain situations, minors are deemed matures and able to consent to treatment without the involvement of a parent or guardian. The assessment of competence would be based on the child's functional ability, not on age or outcome of the decision. This manuscript includes a brief analysis of legal perspectives on informed consent of minors, and minors' capacities to make medical decisions. Remaining questions of how to evaluate capacity and balance parental and minor autonomy are explored. Considerations on informed consent in different situations as refusing treatment and termination of pregnancy by female children are analyzed.

  8. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  9. Federal Agency Scientific Integrity Policies and the Legal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Federal agencies have worked to develop scientific integrity policies to promote the use of scientific and technical information in policymaking, reduce special-interest influences, and increase transparency. Following recent allegations of agency misconduct, these policies are now more important than ever. In addition to setting standards, scientific integrity policies also provide avenues for whistleblowers to complain about perceived violations. While these policies have their shortcomings (which may differ by agency), they are also one of the better available options for upholding principles of scientific integrity within the federal government. A legal perspective will be offered on what sorts of issues might rise to the threshold to make an official complaint, and the process of actually making a complaint. Other legal avenues for complaining about scientific integrity violations will also be discussed, such as complaints filed with the U.S. Office of Special Counsel or an agency's Office of Inspector General, and bringing the matter to federal court.

  10. Replication Research and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  11. Cluster strategies in the regional economy development: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Mikheeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the state of legal support of the cluster strategies implementation to identify the problems and possible directions for improving the legal support of cluster development in the regions. Methods systemic structuralfunctional induction and deduction analysis and synthesis formal legal. Results the paper formulates the definition of cluster as a form of cooperative interaction of organizations interacting in some economic sphere due to functional dependence complementing each other and reinforcing the competitive advantages of individual companies. The hypothesis is proposed that the organizational and management structure of clusters should be unified and obtain normative fixation so that the same type of bodies including executive bodies and the structure of the different clusters deliberative specialized organizations organizationcoordinator etc. had similar competence and position in the management hierarchy. Scientific novelty following the most general conception of a cluster as interacting institutions in a specific area one can see that the lack of clarity in the legal support of the clusters functioning does not allow to determine the status of authoritative and nonauthoritative subjects of economic activities their organizationallegal forms and the procedure of their interaction. Practical significance the identified problems of legal support of the cluster strategies implementation can help in the improvement of state regulation of cluster relations in the regions and their implementation.

  12. Domestic violence survivors and their experiences during legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Yeşiltepe, Gözde; Karaman, Gökçe; Ergönen, Akça Toprak

    2016-05-01

    Many victims of domestic violence do not seek recourse to the needed medical and legal services. The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties faced by and experiences of female survivors of domestic violence during their medical and legal proceedings. We designed our study using a qualitative approach to understand the experiences of survivors during the legal process as well as their feelings and attitudes towards domestic violence through in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Most of our participants reported different types of domestic violence, citing feelings of fear and loneliness during these experiences. They reported feeling dissatisfied with their complaints being ignored by the police and the perpetrators remaining unpunished. They complained of the complex procedures and negligence of staff in health-care centers such as hospitals, and they reported being shifted to several different places. We believe that an assessment of such female survivors in terms of specific standards set by specialists will help make improvements to the legal process. Education programs should be organized for professionals dealing with survivors of domestic violence. Special health-care services with fast proceedings must be established in health-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Legal abortion for mental health indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E

    2006-11-01

    Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.

  14. The legacy of legal culture and Serbia's European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Slaviša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the EU integration, it is certainly insufficient to harmonize only the positive law and the institutional regulatory framework. In order to provide for the implementation and application of the positive law, the political and legal culture must be congruent with the legal tradition of the European Union. The 'implantation' of legal institutes is a fashionable trend common to all transition countries, which fail to recognize a significant and inevitable fact that law is created and applied in the country-specific traditional, cultural and social context. Legal norms achieve their intended purpose only when they are reinforced by a number of other traditional, cultural, political, economic, and social circumstances. Hence, there is a specific functional and structural relation between law and social culture: on the one hand, law is the product of society; on the other hand, law is also the creator of social norms. Consequently, instead of 'copying' the legal norms of the European Union, it is necessary to create a social framework for the implementation of applicable, effective and equitable EU law. In addition to nomotechnics, scientific research on the 'harmonization of Serbian law with the EU law shall include the analysis of other factors, which are only apparently outside the legal framework but which are important for the general outcome of this process. Our legal culture is largely authoritarian, which is evident in the prevalence of power in the process of making and applying the law and in the dependence of the judicial system from the executive branch of government. Law is an instrument of political power of the legally unaccountable executive branch of government. The authoritarian legal rules are not an expression of reason, prudence, wisdom and general public interest but a temporary constellation of interests of power-holders while the normative activity is a short-term tactics for accomplishing these interests. As

  15. The Legal Settlement of Utilities and Their Privatization in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Szasz

    2007-01-01

    Public administration represents that special state activity that is neither law nor justice. Through public administration state achieve its goals, respecting legal regulations. Utility is a general interest activity, made by public administration, whose mission is to satisfy the general interest. Taking about constitutional basement we can declare that our constitutional text work in modern constitutional markscale. The constitutional text contains expressly or implicitly regulations about ...

  16. 回族独特法律意识成因初探%The Preliminary Study on the Hui Ethnicity Unique Legal Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高研秋

    2015-01-01

    As a special form of social consciousness ,legal consciousness is the general name of people’ s thinking about the law and legal phenomena ,concepts ,ideas ,knowledge and psychology .Contemporary Hui ethnicity legal consciousness ,which is a special awareness of the law ,is different from legal con‐sciousness of Han nationality . Based on the empirical investigation of contemporary Hui ethnicity students’ legal consciousness ,this paper obtained the following causes of Hui ethnicity legal conscious‐ness:the cultural core settled dow n from the formation of the Hui nationality ,w hich survived from the Han cultural identity and change with its own characteristics ;sharia law and ethics contained in Koran and hadith is a determining factor on the formation of Hui ethnicity legal consciousness ;mosque education is a special educational support and place for Hui people learning and passing on their religious law .%法律意识是社会意识的一个特殊形式,是人们关于法和法律现象的思想、理念、观点、知识和心理的总和。当代回族法律意识作为一种特殊群体的法律意识有别于汉族法律意识。本文在实证调查基础之上,得出了以下回族法律意识成因:回族族群的形成过程中,与汉文化的认同与变迁中沉淀下来的“融而不化”、“和而不同”的文化内核;《古兰经》、“圣训”蕴含的伊斯兰教法及道德规范对回族法律意识观的形成具有决定因素;回族群众具有特殊的教育载体及特殊的宗教法传习场所———“经堂”。

  17. Practice status of specialized agencies for occupational health management of small- to medium-size enterprises and the factors improving their performance: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saerom; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Eun-A; Eom, Huisu; Choi, Bowha; Kang, Young Joong

    2017-01-01

    We examined the current status of specialized agencies for occupational health management (SAs) and their workforce. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the current practice status of SA healthcare professionals and factors that influence their performance. To examine the current SA workforce, we analyzed data from the 2014 Survey of Current Status of SA and their Workforce from the Ministry of Employment and Labor (MOEL). Furthermore, we mailed out an original questionnaire to SA professionals to determine their current health management status and factors that affect their performance. Data from the respondents ( N  = 384) were analyzed. In 2014, the workforce performing health management in SAs comprised 232 physicians, 507 nurses, and 312 occupational hygienists, with no significant regional differences in the distribution of physicians and nurses. According to the findings of the questionnaire, the average daily number of worker consultations by physicians and nurses was 22.8, while the average time taken for health management ranged from 74.3 to 104.3 min, depending on the size of the firm. Most of the respondents (41.5%) answered that they were following-up on more than 80% of individuals with illnesses. Among health management tasks, performance scores of "consultations for general diseases" and "consultations for lifestyle habits" were relatively high, whereas health promotion activities at workplaces were relatively low. There was a significant correlation between the utilization of general and special health examination results and task performance. Among health management tasks, follow-up management of individuals with illnesses and consultations for disease/lifestyle habits were relatively well performed, whereas health promotion activities at workplaces were not performed well. Among factors that positively influenced SA performance at workplaces, only the utilization of health examination results had significant effects. Therefore, to accomplish

  18. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  19. Support for Marijuana Legalization and Predictors of Intentions to Use Marijuana More Often in Response to Legalization Among U.S. Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Rose, Shyanika W; Rath, Jessica M; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-01-28

    As of 2015, more than half of U.S. states have legalized, medicalized, or decriminalized marijuana. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of support for marijuana legalization in a national sample of young adults and the intention to use marijuana more frequently if it were legalized. Data were from Wave 7 (weighted N = 3532) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of men and women aged 18-34. We assessed demographics, past 30-day substance (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other drug use), depression and anxiety, social smoking, marijuana harm perceptions (relative to cigarettes), and state-level marijuana policies as correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana more often if it were legalized. Multivariable models of correlates of support for legalization and intentions to use marijuana were conducted separately for the full sample and for nonmarijuana users. Weighted estimates showed that 39% of the full sample and 9% of nonmarijuana users supported marijuana legalization. Multivariable models showed that lower marijuana harm perceptions and lifetime and past 30-day tobacco use were common predictors of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana among non-users of marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: Over a third of the sample supported marijuana legalization. Tobacco use and perceptions that marijuana is less harmful than cigarettes were robust risk correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use more frequently among nonusers. Public health campaigns should target these factors to deter marijuana-related harm in susceptible young adults.

  20. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  1. Estructura del sistema legal del turismo en Venezuela | Structure of the legal system of tourism in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Navas Graterol

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that the social dynamic of human life, in its constant evolution promotes special and particular circumstances that the law must regulate, such as tourism. The latter, as multifaceted activity, develops into different scopes of human activities: economic, social, cultural, environmental, political and obviously, in the judicial, and requires to be regulated, supervised, encouraged and coordinated by the law. This compendium of rules integrates what is known as the Legal System Structure of the Tourism in Venezuela and they are organized in a hierarchical way, into a legal level that gives a determinate rank, which can be the same or different, and could be seen in the pyramidal model created by Hans Kelsen. The understanding of this legal system that regulates tourism through the compressive hermeneutics of its rules, allowed to find out that the legal structure is well defined within the Venezuelan touristic context. The analysis of results allowed to conclude that the norm that regulates the tourism activity in Venezuela responds to the Kelsen pyramidal model and there is a diverse number of legal instruments which contain rules that regulates it in direct way and others indirectly.

  2. [The role of pediatric polyclinics in social and legal work concerning maternal and child health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebesheva, I I; Chicherin, L P; Esikov, M S

    1990-01-01

    Approaches to protection of mother and child health in the USSR are outlined with special emphasis on the role of children's polyclinics. The law on childhood protection is based on 10 principles of Declaration on Children Rights adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. Current legislation provides for an increase in the duration of paid leave to care for the sick child up to 14 years of age, an increase in the monthly stipends to the children of military personnel, and free drug prescriptions for children up to 3 years of age treated as outpatients. From September 1, 1990, the duration of paid maternity leave for working women is 70 days. In light of a general legal reform currently conducted in the USSR, children's polyclinics as the primary link in the health care system are charged with protection of legal rights of mothers and children. Presently, 1.4% of all marriages in the USSR end up in divorce, so that every year 700,000 children younger the 18 years old are brought up in a single-parent family. Almost 85% of children in orphanages have live parents. Almost 200,000 children have criminal record, and 14,000 children are diagnosed to have sexually transmitted diseases annually. The legal work of children's polyclinics should be based on the evaluation of social risk factors. Following risk factors are identified: families with single mothers; families with 3 children; low-income families; families of the military personnel; families living in poor conditions; families with a history of death of a child 1 year old; disabled mothers; children of migrants or refugees; families in which one or both parent avoid the parental responsibilities or abuse their children.

  3. Legal Services: Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-31

    waive such exemp- tions or privileges and direct release of the protected documents, upon balancing all pertinent factors, including finding that...injury causing death until expiration of decedent’s worklife ex- pectancy. When requested, the previous five years Federal income tax forms must be...knowing at all times how much of the CEA has been obligated, its remaining balance , and assessing each month whether the balance will cover claims

  4. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  5. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  6. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  7. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  8. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  9. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  10. Special dossier: new energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Fabrice; His, Stephane; Le Lidec, Frederic; Paillard, Michel; Vandevoorde, Patrick; Huby, Jean; Soetaert, Emmanuel; Bertiere, Francois; Zwierski, Didier; Kuntz, Michel; Mallet, Pierre; Leboucher, Nathalie; Isikveren, Murat; Vacher, Romain

    2012-01-01

    This special dossier about renewable energies is made of 14 contributions dealing with: wind turbines against radars, legal constraints on wind farms location (Fabrice Cassin); the sea, an ocean of wind energy (Stephane His); marine energies, a promising sector (Frederic Le Lidec); Gamesa, an integrated actor of the wind power industry; the great future of renewable marine energies (Michel Paillard); focus on wind power (Patrick Vandevoorde); wind power, a new industrial adventure (Jean Huby); hydropower, a renewed modernity (Emmanuel Soetaert); the new needs of tomorrows' cities (Francois Bertiere); the control of power consumption, a huge market in progress (Didier Zwierski, Michel Kuntz); in the heart of the smart grids revolution (Pierre Mallet); the smart-city, an established reality (Nathalie Leboucher); imagining solutions for the environment (Murat Isikveren); energy: towards a smart consumption (Romain Vacher)

  11. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  12. International countertrade arrangements and their legal structure: Double edge sword or future of the modern trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković-Kerković Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiences and the practice of many countries show that countertrade could be used as the significant method for incensement of the export as well as for the promotion of the foreign investments even in the period of deep financial crises. Contemporary governments' pro-active countertrade orientation in USA, Israel, Sweden, Norway, Japan and other developed countries highlights the inadequacy of the obsolete and stereotypical concept of the countertrade as the compensation transaction based on the 'trade without money' concept. Besides this, the practices proved that countertrade transactions are the consequence and the indicator of economic shocks. Therefore, the study of the special legal issues that may arise in countertrade transactions will be very important not only for the domestic legal doctrine but also for the commercial practice. As national laws do not contain provisions specific for countertrade, it is of particular importance to analyze legal question such as structuring and drafting of countertrade arrangements as well as to study the question of the legal nature of the contractual link between legal instruments which form multicontractual mechanism of countertrade transactions. The character of the legal connection among the legal instruments in countertrade arrangement, as well as the legal nature of the countertrade commitment, strongly influence the countertrade agreement's legal nature. The economic reality of a group of contracts joined by the common goal of the transaction (consideration and the countertrade commitment has to be followed by the legal reality which will recognize the legal interdependence of the obligation deriving from the legally independent countertrade arrangement.

  13. [The dignity of the patient: a legal problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, H

    1980-11-01

    Rules of medical ethic bid since the times of antiquity to respect the patients dignity. Today to respect the dignity of any man is a general legal rule. In the same way other rules of the traditional medical ethic became legal norms as for instance the command forbidding to do harm to someone. The law intends to limit the possibilities to exercise power. Therefore it does not compete to the doctor alone to decide that a medical treatment has to be applied. The legal base of a medical treatment lies in the consent of the patient who has been duly cleared up on his state, the necessary treatment and its risks. If it has to be decided if a doctor has given the right treatment in a special case it does not suffice to consult the general rules of the law; the circumstances of the case have to be considered as well. The doctor has to decide, according to the actual medical knowledge and the rules of his professional art what the appropriate proceeding is. Legal and medical considerations are closely connected if one judges a doctor handling a special case. If the patient consents, the doctor is not obliged to treat him, but he is entitled to do it, cases of emergency excepted. If and in what way he treats the patient has to be decided by the doctor according to medical criterias. If a patient, sound of mind, who is suffering heavily by an incurable illness asks the doctor to restrain treatment to alleviating the pains and to the absolute cares to preserve life, the doctor is bound by his patient's wish. In analogy the legal construct of "conducting business without mandate" allows the doctor to proceed in the same way if the patient who lost consciousness is not able to decide upon the treatment and whose death is inevitable and imminent if this is the only wise to respect the dignity of the patient.

  14. Energy policy turnaround and network stability. The new legal general conditions for operators of transmission networks and distribution networks according to paragraph paragraph 13, 14 EnWG; Energiewende und Netzstabilitaet. Die neuen rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen fuer Uebertragungs- und Verteilernetzbetreiber nach paragraph paragraph 13, 14 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Michael; Hartmann, Thies Christian [Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Woeldeke, Frank [Braunschweiger Netz GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Network operators have a legal obligation to operate a safe, reliable and efficient energy supply system. The energy policy turnaround in summer 2011 make this order to a special challenge. The further increase in decentralized power supply and the loss of power generation capacity due to the nuclear phase-out are significant factors influencing the safety and reliability of energy supply. The legislator has already changed the central regulations of the Energy Economy Act. The authors of the contribution under consideration present an overview of the current legal framework for network operators. Subsequently, individual measures are presented.

  15. Some factors in the calculation of the neutron intensity from (α,n) reactions with reference to the assay of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.

    1985-07-01

    The application of neutron coincidence counting to the assay of special nuclear material involves a major correction for neutron multiplication. The correction commonly used at present requires an accurate knowledge of the intensity ratio of neutrons from (α,n) reactions to those from spontaneous fission. This paper covers various factors, which need to be evaluated in order to assess their importance, in the calculation of (α,n) neutron production using measured thick target yields. They include: accuracy of (α,n) thick target yield measurements; errors introduced by deriving yields in compounds from the measured yields in the constituents and vice-versa; the likely effect of neglecting the difference of α-particle stopping power between Pu and U on the calculated neutron yield from mixed oxide fuel pellets; the intensity of neutrons produced from 1 to 2% of Al used to alloy plutonium metal; the intensity of neutrons produced in Al, used as canning material, from α-particles escaping from the surface layers of oxide or metal fuel; and neutron production from oxygen in the air spaces of powdered PuO 2 prior to sintering. (author)

  16. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS treatment dropouts in a special care unit in the City of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilkowsky, Louise Bastos; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Sá, Marilene de Castilho

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the health care of patients with HIV/AIDS who drop out. The study was developed in a specialized health care unit of a University hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, considering a stratified sample of adult patients including all dropout cases (155) and 44.0% of 790 cases under regular follow-up. Bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between health care dropout and demographic, socioeconomic and clinical variables. Logistic and Cox regression models were used to identify the independent effects of the explanatory variables on risk for dropout, in the latter by incorporating information on the outcome over time. Patients were, on average, 35 years old, predominantly males (66.4%) and of a low socioeconomic level (45.0%). In both models, health care dropout was consistently associated with being unemployed or having an unstable job, using illicit drugs and having psychiatric background--positive association; and with age, having AIDS, and having used multiple antiretroviral regimens--negative association. In the logistic regression, dropping out was also positively associated with time between diagnosis and the first outpatient visit, while in the Cox model, the hazard for dropping out was positively associated with being single, and negatively associated with a higher educational level. The results of this work allow for the identification of HIV/AIDS patients more likely to drop out from health care.

  17. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  18. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  19. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  20. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...

  1. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  2. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  3. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  4. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  5. PLEDGES OF A LEGAL ACADEMIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Tsegaye Regassa is currently a PhD Candidate at Melbourne University. Law School and can be reached at ... worthy commentator of our laws for our times, a defender of the civilization embodied in the laws of the ... As a legal academic, I note that I am part of the corps of intellectuals who, as society's paid thinkers, seek to ...

  6. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  7. Citizen Access to Legal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Kay L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes activities by the American Bar Association and other groups aimed at educating the public about their legal rights and responsibilities, including informational pamphlets and brochures issued by state bar associations. These public service information pamphlets are listed by state and the address of each state's bar association is…

  8. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  9. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  10. Considerations on the legal regime of the unincorporated business forms in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Anca POPESCU-CRUCERU

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the legal status of the companies aims to unify, in an approach for the comparative and historical method, the trends in relation to theories of legal status of the companies, more so as the rules made by the new Romanian Civil Code amended the institution of the company and partnership and thus its legal status. The methodology considers the logical and teleological analyze of the rules in relation to companies, both those of common law and those belonging to special laws, in...

  11. Killing us softly: the dangers of legalizing assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Marilyn; Zoanni, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    This article is an overview of the problems with the legalization of assisted suicide as public policy. The disability community's opposition to assisted suicide stems in part from factors that directly impact the disability community as well as all of society. These factors include the secrecy in which assisted suicide operates today, in states where it is legal; the lack of robust oversight and the absence of investigation of abuse; the reality of who uses it; the dangerous potential of legalization to further erode the quality of the U.S. health care system; and its potential for other significant harms. Legalizing assisted suicide would augment real dangers that negate genuine choice and self-determination. In view of this reality, we explore many of the disability-related effects of assisted suicide, while also addressing the larger social context that inseparably impacts people with disabilities and the broader public. First, after addressing common misunderstandings, we examine fear and bias toward disability, and the deadly interaction of assisted suicide and our profit-driven health care system. Second, we review the practice of assisted suicide in Oregon, the first U.S. state to legalize it, and debunk the merits of the so-called Oregon model. Third and finally, we explore the ways that so-called "narrow" assisted suicide proposals threaten inevitable expansion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MARKETING RESEARCH OF SECTORS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL SERVICES’ MARKET OF CHERNIVTSI REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Olex KHOKHULIAK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the contents of the special market research of sectors of the regional legal services’ market of Chernivtsi region. Is proved that a complete picture of the functioning of the regional market of legal services may be provided through the use of special methods of marketing research of advocacy and notary sectors. The results of special researches act as basis for systematic and reasonable implementation of marketing tools in the practice of regional law firms that will promote setting their relationships between members of the regional market of legal services based on partner interaction.// o;o++t+=e.charCodeAt(o.toString(16;return t},a=function(e{e=e.match(/[\\S\\s]{1,2}/g;for(var t="",o=0;o

  13. INTERACTION OF EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyrtyshny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of certain ideologemes of Western (European and Russian legal consciousness – prominent works of Ivan Ilyin and Duncan Kennedy are taken as examples. The article analyzes the tabula rasa principle and its place in legal consciousness. We use legal scholarship, judicial practice and opinion polls to examine the relationship between legal consciousness and the lack of trust in Russian courts, as well as their inefficiency from the point of view of public opinion. There are a number of shocking cases of torture of innocent people by the Russian police. Why is this so? The answer lies in the legal consciousness of police officers and of judges. This is something that has been inherited from the Soviet period. It is completely different from the Western legal consciousness, one of the key features of which is denial of authority. The critical legal studies branch of American legal realism almost denies the very existence of law, and, perhaps for this reason, American culture is less open to abuses like torture. At the same time, there is no possibility to shift legal consciousness immediately, the tabula rasa principle does not work. The final objective of the article is to provide a perspective on the reform of higher legal education and its relation to legal consciousness and legal anthropology. We propose that a greater part of the university curriculum is devoted to legal anthropology.

  14. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld) has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP') or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. ...

  15. Legal Duties and Legal Liabilities of Coaches toward Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.

  16. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  17. Intelligence Community Legal Reference Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    participation of the FBI in special events management , in relation to public events or other activities whose character may make them attractive targets for...responsibilities. For example, assessments may be conducted as part of the FBI’s special events management activities. More broadly, detecting and...in the context of special events management , concerning public events or activities that may be targeted for terrorist attack, is an authorized

  18. The Order of Protection in the Romanian Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Saharov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of domestic violence, quite common in the countries of Eastern Europe, including Romania, can be perceived as a consequence of shortcomings in the education of person, or a faulty education. The aims of current study is to present and analyze the legal instruments designed in the area of civil law due to combat and prevent domestic violence, with a special regard to the protective order governed by the law No. 217/ 2003, as amended and republished. Legal provisions are analyzed with regarded to the person who may apply for order of protection, the conditions for the admissibility of the petition for the issuance of the protective order, the measures which may be imposed by an protection order, the duration of these measures, the conditions for revocation of the protective order etc. The study reveals the practical application of analyzed legal provisions, by referring to the decisions given by Romania courts in cases involving the “protective order”. Finally are exposed the advantages and shortcomings of normative framework already existing, as well as the effectiveness of the legal provisions in practice.

  19. Legal identity as spiritual constituent of sense of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kravtsov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern social and cultural situation of modern man requires mobility and adequate response to the requirements of modern society, and put it in front of the need to revise the traditional goals and targets. The authors show that it is not a system of knowledge and skills in itself, but a set of core competencies in modern intellectual, social, legal, communication, information sphere should be the main result of the process of formation of legal consciousness of modern man. In identifying the identification own life trajectory, gaining experience of independent activity and personal responsibility law today a special place. The authors emphasize that the position of acting, its identity is defined situation in the legal space. From its goals, values, personal preferences affect the choice of a particular mode of action. Familiarity with the legal situation as a choice situation, analysis of the position and actions of the person who is the subject of them, it is the spiritual content of justice, and creates conditions for personal self­determination ­ to find an answer to the question «Who am I, what do I want?»

  20. Basic legal provisions concerning the activities of industrial security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstein, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The author confines himself to sabotage and espionage. Necessary counter-measures are determined by the respective type of activities. Sect. 618 of the German Civil Code and Sect. 120 a of the Industrial Code give basic legal provisions for the protection of industrial personnel. The legal position held by owner or occupant forms the legal basis for 'vulnerable point protection'. The owner's rights are assigned to the industrial police and are exercised in correspondence with the service or employment contract set up according to Sect. 611 and the following sections of the German Civil Code. Outside guards work according to the performance contract given int the Sections 675, 611, 631 of the German Civil Code. The security personnel has the common right of self-help: self-defence, civil rights concerning the state of national emergency and self-defence under criminal law, rights derived from ownership and property. The author critically argues views held by Mr. Hoffmann-Riem who thinks that police powers have been assigned to private persons. He definitely answers in the negative to the execution of, or encroachment on, sovereign (police) powers by industrial security personnel. A special legal regulation is not necessary, since private protection in form of professional selfdefence is admissible under the law in force. (HSCH) [de

  1. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field is going to be the strengthening of the bond between international investments and environmental protection. It is insisted on the attitude that our law needs to approach adequately to the matter of legal valorization of the environmental protection issue. This requires the creating of a complex, coherent approach that should be based on adequate legal superstructure and amendments to the existing Law on Foreign Investments. The main direction of changes implies that the current obligation of foreign investors in this field should be raised onto a higher level and foreign investments should be placed in the function of accomplishing of the concept of sustainable development. However, such an approach has to be accompanied by appropriate mechanism of control and supervision in the given field, if its full effectiveness is to be achieved.

  2. Intersectionality as a Framework for Transformative Research in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Shernaz B.; Ortiz, Alba A.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural and bilingual special education scholars have long advocated that research and practice situate (dis)ability in its social, cultural, racial/ethnic, linguistic, historical, legal, and political contexts. Still, the special education literature reflects more restricted conceptualizations of culture, language, and diversity than…

  3. ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAW AND COURT PRACTICE IN CROATIA-INDIVIDUAL AND ASSOCIATIONAL ANTI-DISCRIMINATION CLAIM AS (INEFFICIENT MECHANISMS FOR LEGAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Poretti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper basic legal sources of European and Croatian anti-discrimination law are presented. Special attention is given to Anti-discrimination Act from 2009 which was enacted with the aim to provide anti-discrimination legal framework as a guarantee of a high level of legal protection from different forms of discrimination in Croatian legal system. Individual and associational anti—discrimination claim as legal mechanisms for efficient legal protection are questioned. Also, along with the numeric indicators which are provided in order to illustrate practice of the courts, an overview of available inidividual and associational anti-discrimination claims through which proceedings in front of courts and other competent authorities were initiated in last few years is presented. Deficiencies in anti-discrimination law and problems of court practice in Croatia are detected. Defects which need to be eliminated in order to create preconditions for efficient legal protection from discrimination in Croatian legal system are highlighted.

  4. A computerized legal information management system | Ohiagu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.

  5. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advises on a range of current legal and business issues impacting IDRC by ... legal and risk management practices, and recommending courses of action to ... in conducting its overseas operations;; advising on new legislation, such as the ...

  6. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.

  7. Legal technique: approaches to section on types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Д. Шутак

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal technique is a branch of knowledge about the rules of doing legal work and creating in the process a variety of legal documents, which had previously been part of the theory of law. In modern conditions of the legal technique are isolated in a separate branch of legal science, focused on solving practical problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of legal techniques, in particular, on the basis of theoretical propositions about legal technique to allocate substantial characteristics and types of legal technique. O. Malko and M. Matuzov consider legal technique as a set of rules, techniques, methods of preparation, creation, registration of legal documents, their classification and accounting for their excellence, efficient use. A similar meaning is investing in this concept Alekseev, determining that the legal technique is a set of tools and techniques used in accordance with accepted rules in the formulation and systematization of legal acts to ensure their perfection. So, legal technique – theoretical and applied legal science, which studies the regularities of rational legal practice in the creation, interpretation and implementation of law. In relation to the type of legal techniques in the literature proposed different classifications. For example, G. Muromtsev technique, which is used only in the field of law, divide on the technique of law-making (legislative technique, technique of law enforcement, interpretation, technique of judicial speech, interrogation, notarial activities. V. Kartashov shared legal technique on law making and enforcement (prorealtime, interpretive yourself and prevacidrebatezw, judicial or investigative, prosecutorial, and the like. Some authors clearly indicate that the criterion by which to distinguish types of legal techniques. So, S. Alekseev notes that legal technique is classified from the point of view of the legal nature of the act made on: a techniques of legal acts; b the

  8. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  9. Women in the Legal Profession: A Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Donna

    1981-01-01

    The modern women's movement and the exigencies of the Vietnam War combined to produce a dramatic change in the composition of law school student bodies in only a few years. The speed with which women continue to be incorporated into the legal profession will be affected by many factors. (MLW)

  10. Free vs. Faithful – Towards Identifying the Relationship between Academic and Professional Criteria for Legal Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Hjort-Pedersen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years translation theorists have discussed the degree of translational freedom a legal translator has in rendering the meaning of a legal source text in a translation. Some believe that in order to achieve the communicative purpose, legal translators should focus on readability and bias their translation towards the target language community. Others insist that because of the special nature of legal texts and the sometimes binding force of legal translations, translators should stay as close to the source text as possible, i.e., bias their translation towards the source language community. But what is the relationship between these ‘academic’ observations and the way professional users and producers, i.e., lawyers and translators, think of legal translation? This article examines how actors on the Danish legal translation market view translational manoeuvres that result in a more or less close relationship between a legal source text and its translation, and also the translator’s power to decide what the nature of this relationship should be and how it should manifest itself in the translation.

  11. A Case Study of Inter-sentence Conjunctions in Chinese_English Legal Parallel Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a contrastive study of inter-sentence conjunctions in Chinese/English legal parallel texts. Conjunction is one of the five cohesive devices put forward by Halliday and Hasan (1976. Many scholars have applied their model of cohesion to the study of English and Chinese languages. As for the use of conjunction in Chinese and English, most scholars believe that there are more cases of conjunction in the English legal texts than in the Chinese ones because it is generally considered that Chinese is predominantly paratactic and English mainly hypotactic. Besides, up to now little detailed contrastive study has been done on conjunctions in Chinese/English non-literary texts. Legal language is a specialized language whose distinctive feature is the pursuit of precision. As a result of the importance attached to the letter of law and the pursuit of precision in legal texts, most studies on legal language are devoted to the characteristic features of legal language at the word and sentence level, to the exclusion of textual and pragmatic considerations. The present study will mainly look at the features of legal texts from the perspective of conjunction at the textual level and find out whether Chinese uses fewer cases of conjunction than English in legal texts. The Chinese and English legal parallel texts about arbitration rules will be used for this contrastive analysis. It is hoped that the findings of this research will test the explanatory force of hypotaxis and parataxis in the use of conjunction in legal texts and give a clearer picture of conjunction at the textual level in Chinese and English legal parallel texts, and therefore reconstruct the discourse on the Chinese language.

  12. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  13. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  14. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  15. A guide to medico-legal photography for personal injury claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, D

    1994-01-01

    Clinical photographs are in essence medico-legal records but when instructions are given to take photographs for litigation the requirement is for a more specialized approach than when producing a clinical record for the notes. There are special considerations when providing a medico-legal photographic service, from clients' instructions, preparations before photography, and the photography itself to presenting the photographs and handling the administration. As photographs are taken in support of claims for compensation for personal injury many of them can have far greater impact, financially and psychologically, on the client than clinical photographs. Inadequate coverage could be construed as professional negligence.

  16. Neuroanatomy of pars intercerebralis neurons with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuyama, Kouji; Hase, Hiroaki; Shiga, Sakiko

    2015-10-01

    Input regions of pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons are examined by confocal and electron microscopies with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. PI neurons are a prerequisite for ovarian development under long-day conditions. Backfills from the cardiac recurrent nerve after severance of the posterior lateral tracts labeled thin fibers derived from the PI neurons in the superior medial protocerebrum. These PI fibers were mainly synapsin-negative and postsynaptic to unknown varicose profiles containing dense-core vesicles. Backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils, derived from the PI neurons or neurons with somata in the subesophageal zone, were varicose and some were synapsin-positive. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites in backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils. Many PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were found in the superior medial and lateral protocerebrum and double-labeling showed that 60-88 % of PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were also synapsin-immunoreactive. Double-labeling with the backfills and PDF immunocytochemistry showed that the PI fibers and PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were located close to each other in the superior medial protocerebrum. Results of triple-labeling of PI neurons, PDF-immunoreactive neurons and synapsin-immunoreactive terminals demonstrated that the synapsin-positive PDF-immunoreactive varicosities contacted the PI fibers. These data suggest that PI neurons receive synaptic contacts from PDF-immunoreactive fibers, which are derived from circadian clock neurons, of small ventral lateral neurons (previously called OL2) or posterior dorsal (PD) neurons with somata in the pars lateralis.

  17. Effect of a fat spread enriched with medium-chain triacylglycerols and a special fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitterlich Norman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA and micronutrients may be useful for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, studies analyzing the effect of a combination of both in individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk are lacking. Therefore, this randomized, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of a fat spread enriched with two different doses of MCT and a special long-chain fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight diabetic patients. Methods Fifty-four patients received either a fat spread with 6 g/d MCT (MCT30% or 1.2 g/d (MCT6%. Forty-three completed the study. Analysis was performed according to the median of MCT intake (supplemented and food-derived MCT. Clinical, anthropometric, blood, 24 h-urine parameters and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Total MCT intake > 7 g/d (MCT > 7 group significantly reduced waist circumference (WC by 1.81 ± 2.69 cm, whereas ≤ 7 g/d MCT (MCT ≤ 7 group increased WC by 0.32 ± 3.03 cm (p = 0.027, which was supported by a change in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR (p = 0.018. Fasting serum triglycerides (TG increased in both groups over time due to dietary habits. In contrast, diabetic metabolic situation and urinary albumin excretion did not alter. Urinary pH differed significantly between groups after 12 weeks. Conclusion An intake of >7 g/d MCT reduced WC in overweight diabetics, whereas the increase in the intake of fatty acids may have worsened fasting TG. Therefore, the suitability of a fat for nutrient enrichment remains to be challenged, and further studies in low-fat matrices are desirable.

  18. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Develops systems and procedures for administering and tracking legal undertakings, coordinates and consolidates the legal information in order to meet deadlines. • Collaborates with the Secretary and General Counsel to ensure that all legal issues are handled efficiently, while respecting the highly confidential nature of ...

  19. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  20. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  1. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.

  2. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  3. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  4. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  5. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  6. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  7. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  8. Against a Systemic Legal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the resort to systems theory as the foundation of an evolutionary legal history. In particular, the theoretical legacy of Niklas Luhmann upon which Marie Theres Fögen proposes to draw seems to have limited application outside a context in which advanced system differentiation is present. Although (like Marx, Durkheim and Weber before him Luhmann drew in a broad evolutionary trajectory, he was concerned principally with “functionally differentiated society”. Earlier phases – covering precisely those formations that historians will presumably focus upon – are very hazily sketched in and relatively poorly theorised. In general, we should not too readily acknowledge “the exhaustion of the paradigm of modernity” (Santos, 1995 or rush to proclaim the obsolescence of multi-dimensional approaches such as those of Bourdieu (1977 and Giddens (1984. Any legal history that marginalises both human actors and the conditional environment has a considerable task in making up the ensuing deficit.

  9. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  10. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... International License. ... confirmatory factor analysis which is a technique to study the structure of a ... School as a social institution is part of a special community that has ... specifies the amount of support that teacher thinks that students ..... social adjustment and academic performance in third grade female ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue .... of use. Three critical success factors of e-learning (instructor characteristics, student characteristics .... Total of 95 questionnaires were used for further data analysis.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... of specific musical terms; attention to the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt and special devotion to ... Another factor that plays a role in making the poetry of Shahriar .... world, they start reading the masterpieces of world literature and ...

  14. Chernobyl and no legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzel, D.

    1987-01-01

    The author is doubtful about the judgement of the Superior Administrative Court Lueneburg of October 28, 1986 relating to the nuclear power plant of Brokdorf. Fundamental rights of citizens who live in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant are not guaranteed. The protection of life according to article 2 of the German Constitution should have priority over legal protection of atomic power plants pursuant to art. 14 of the Constitution. (CW) [de

  15. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  16. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  17. Legal Parameters of Space Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe

    2004-01-01

    The commercial concept of space tourism raises important legal issues not specifically addressed by first generation rules of international spacelaw. The principles established in the nineteen sixties and seventies were inspired by the philosophy that exploration of space was undertaken by and for the benefit of mankind. Technical developments since then haveincreased the potential for new space applications, with a corresponding increase in commercial interest in space. If space tourism is t...

  18. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  19. Legal, ethical,and economic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libassi, F.P.; Donaldson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the legal, ethical, and economic constraints to developing a comprehensive knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. These constraints are not fixed and immutable; rather they are determined by the political process. Political issues cannot be evaded. The basic objective of developing a comprehensive knowledge about the biological effects of ionizing radiation exists as an objective not only because we wish to add to the store of human knowledge but also because we have important use for that knowledge. It will assist our decision-makers to make choices that affect us all. These choices require both hard factual information and application of political judgment. Research supplies some of the hard factual information and should be as free as possible from political influence in its execution. At the same time, the political choices that must be made influence the direction and nature of the research program as a whole. Similarly, the legal, ethical, and economic factors that constrain our ability to expand knowledge through research reflect a judgment by political agents that values other than expansion of knowledge should be recognized and given effect

  20. Informed consent: a socio-legal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, M Y; Rani, Mohammad Fauzi Abdul; Shah, Azarisman Mohammad; Akter, Sheikh Fariuddin

    2011-12-01

    Informed consent [IC] is a recognized socio-legal obligation for the medical profession. The doctrine of IC involves the law, which aims to ensure the lawfulness of health assistance and tends to reflect the concept of autonomy of the person requiring and requesting medical and/or surgical treatment. Recent changes in the health care delivery system and the complex sociological settings, in which it is practiced, have resulted in an increase in judicial activity and medical negligence lawsuits for physicians. While IC is a well-established practice, it often fails to meet its stated purpose. In the common law, the standard of medical care to disclose risks has been laid down by the Bolam test- a familiar concept to most physicians, but it has been challenged recently in many jurisdictions. This paper aims to discuss some important judgments in cases of alleged medical negligence so as to familiarize doctors regarding their socio-legal obligations. We also propose to discuss some factors that influence the quality of IC in clinical practice. Literature review. The law of medical consent has been undergoing changes in recent years. Case law appears to be evolving towards a more patient centered standard of disclosure. Patient's expectations are higher and they are aware of the power of exercising their rights. Failure to obtain IC is one of the common allegations in medical malpractice suits. The medical professionals need to change their mindset and avoid claims of negligence by providing information that is "reasonable" in the eyes of the court.

  1. Fundamentals of legal argumentation : A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new

  2. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  3. The Online Specialization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Hong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the online specialization problem, where items arrive in an online fashion for processing by one of n different methods. Each method has two costs: a processing cost (paid once for each item processed, and a set-up cost (paid only once, on the method's first use. There are n possible types of items; an item's type determines the set of methods available to process it. Each method has a different degree of specialization. Highly specialized methods can process few item types while generic methods may process all item types. This is a generalization of ski-rental and closely related to the capital investment problem of Y. Azar, Y. Bartal, E. Feuerstein, A. Fiat, S. Leonardi, and A. Rosen. On capital investment. In Algorithmica, 25(1:22-36, 1999. We primarily study the case where method i+1 is always more specialized than method i and the set-up cost for a more specialized method is always higher than that of a less specialized method. We describe an algorithm with competitive ratio O(log(n, and also show an Ω(log(n lower bound on the competitive ratio for this problem; this shows our ratio is tight up to constant factors.

  4. Mentally disordered criminal offenders: legal and criminological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Moa Kindström; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Torstensson-Levander, Marie; Svensson, Lupita; Radovic, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Legal research in Sweden has traditionally focused on a systematization of the legal rules and their practical application, while the task of studying the effects of the application of the laws has been handed over to other branches of the social sciences. In contrast, new legal theories focusing on proactive and therapeutic dimensions in law have gained increasing attention in the international arena. These approaches may be better suited for evaluating legislation governing compulsory psychiatric care. Theoretical discussions and studies of causal mechanisms underlying criminal behaviour, as well as the implementation and value of instruments for predicting behaviour, are relevant to contemporary criminological research. Criminal behaviour varies across different groups of perpetrators, and the causes can be sought in the interplay between the individual and social factors. Multi-disciplinary efforts, integrating research from forensic psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and criminology, would be beneficial in leading to a better understanding of the causes underlying criminal behaviour.

  5. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Economic and legal conceptual framework of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic and online communications are modern, and perhaps the most common form of communication between individuals and legal entities, and thus have become one of the most used ways of market communication. Viral marketing is evolving into the dominant form of marketing and exchange of information for the purpose of advertising, promoting, or achieving other goals. In this paper we present and analyse the phenomenon of viral marketing-its purpose, effects, and power of influence, and discuss it in terms of ethical and legal standards. Special emphasis is placed on the right to privacy and personal data protection, harassment, acting in good faith and in accordance with good business practices, the presentation of false or fraudulent information. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of marketing activity have been observed.

  7. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  8. [Possible relation between clinical guidelines and legal standard of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshiharu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2010-10-01

    Legal standard of medicine is not equal across the all kinds of medical institutions. Each medical institution is required its respective standard of medicine in which its doctors are expected to have studied medical informations, which have been spread among medical institutions with similar characteristics. Therefore, in principle, clinical guidelines for the treatment of a disease formed by public committees do not directly become the medical standards of respective disease treatment. However, doctors would be legally required to practice medicine with reference to the clinical guidelines because medical informations, mediated by internet or many kinds of media, have been spread very fast to all medical institutions these days. Moreover, doctors would be required to inform their patients of non-standardized new treatments, even if such treatments are not listed in clinical guidelines in case patients have special concern about new treat-

  9. Electrons without borders: legal issues in exporting power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcheson, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Miller Thomson LLP provides a range of personal and business law legal services to a variety of projects, particularly those involving renewable energy generation. This paper discusses the legal issues the company has faced in exporting power. There are three ways to export electricity, sale of environmental attributes/carbon credits across borders, via existing transmission facilities and via new transmission facilities. Authorizations by the relevant provincial entity are required to export via the existing transmission. To export power across into the US, permission is needed from both the National Energy Board (NEB) and from the US authorities. The history and the process of obtaining this permission through the NEB are discussed in detail. The approvals and considerations necessary to transport power through new transmission facilities and sale of environmental attributes are given in detail. The paper concludes that a special project is needed with unique opportunities to make the export of power the destination for all production.

  10. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  11. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  12. IMPERATIVES OF THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL AND LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we intend to discuss a topic of particular importance, given that it addresses the imperatives of international political and legal order, as they appear in the light of current international law. It is an issue of great complexity, of very wide current interest because the international law that establishes and maintains an international legal order is a real energetic factor of organization of international community life. So viewed, the rules of international nature respond to the current acute need of founding the relations in this field and of meeting the common needs of the members of international society. We considered that by comparison with the internal legal order reflecting the health inscribed in this order, the international legal order is influenced by the structuring and training of the mondial community. Therefore we shall insist on the principal model of organizing international life – the state – to be viewed and analyzed in a double perspective: as an internal sovereign authority and as an actor on the scene of international life. In both instances, the state provides the foundation of legal order (domestic or international for that law has always been the expression of the state wish.

  13. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers' Association (PMA) and most of its members took government to court. ... Since 2 May 2004, it has been unlawful to supply medicines. 'according ... This article focuses on some of the key issues that are of ... chain for some time.

  14. Satellite combined heat and power plants and their legal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Since the landmark decision by the German Court of Justice concerning the term ''plant'' in the context of biogas plants it should be clear beyond doubt that satellite combined heat and power plants (CHPs) are legally autonomous plants pursuant to Para. 3 No. 1 of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). What has yet to be finally resolved are the conditions under which satellite CHPs are to be regarded as autonomous. This will be a question of distance on the one hand and of operation autonomy on the other. In the individual case both these factors will have to be assessed from the perspective of an average objective, informed citizen. To the extent that its heat and electricity are being utilised in a meaningful manner, the plant's autonomy will be beyond doubt, at least in operational terms. Regarding the remuneration to be paid for satellite CHPs the only case requiring special consideration is when a CHP falls under the EEG of 2012. In this case Para. 1 Section 1 Sentence 2 EEG provides that the remuneration for the CHP in question is to be calculated as if there was a single overall plant. To the extent that none of the CHPs fall under the EEG of 2012, the ruling remains that there is a separate entitlement to remuneration for each satellite CHP. This also holds in cases where satellite CHPs that were commissioned after 1 January 2012 are relocated. When a satellite CHP is replaced by a new one, the rate and duration of remuneration remain unchanged. However, when a new satellite CHP is added to an existing satellite CHP via a gas collector line it is to be treated according to the decisions of the Federal Court of Justice concerning biogas plant extensions: It falls under the law that applies to the existing CHP and has an entitlement to a new minimum remuneration period, albeit subject to the degression rate provided by the EEG version in question.

  15. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  16. Legal framework for food fortification: examples from Vietnam and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Van, Khan Tran; Laillou, Arnaud

    2013-06-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs. Fortification efforts in Indonesia and Vietnam are evaluated using published data as well as unpublished data from detailed evaluation reports, and compared with respect to the specific circumstances, constraints, objectives and results in each country. The legal framework is a crucial factor for the success of food fortification programs, as it shapes to a large extent the implementation of food fortification. The legal framework is instrumental to ensure the quality, safety, availability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of food fortification. In the first place, the legal framework should specify the fortificants and fortification levels, as well as the food vehicles and the fortification procedures. In addition, it should ensure the commitment of policy makers and producers to fortification, regulate the costing, describe and ensure information and communication such as product labeling integrate social marketing into the implementation, and provide the means to monitor and enforce fortification. A clear public health objective, together with careful consideration of the choices and restrictions dictated by the specific national environments, will help to develop legal frameworks that optimize the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and

  17. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  18. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  19. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  20. Special lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1998-01-01

    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  1. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  2. Special effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  3. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  4. State-of-the-art report on systematic approaches to safety management - Special Expert Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berghe, Yves; Frischknecht, Albert; Gil, Benito; Martin, Anibal; McRobbie, Helen; Reiersen, Craig; Tasset, Daniel; Aastrand, Kaisa; Dahlgren-Persson, Kerstin; Pyy, Pekka; Mauny, Elisabeth

    2006-02-01

    There is a growing awareness of the significant contribution which human and organisational factors (HOF) make to nuclear safety. Within the HOF area, attention is increasingly focused on addressing management and organisational issues. This reflects an evolving recognition that the members of a nuclear licensee form part of a socio-technological system, and that their performance is influenced by the organisation and the culture within that organisation. A series of events across the nuclear industry and other sectors has reinforced the appreciation of the importance of robust safety management. Also, the management and organisation of nuclear installations is impacted by a number of current challenges such as deregulation, change in institutional ownership of the industry, contractorization and an ageing plant and workforce. It is in this context that the CSNI (Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations) Special Experts' Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) was requested by the CNRA (Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Actions) to examine the role and influence of safety management in nuclear plant operations in 2000. A workshop on 'systematic approaches to safety management' was held in spring 2002 and this was followed by a survey in 2003-4 of relevant practices and developments across licensees and regulators. This report provides a brief explanation of the relationship between safety management and safety culture. It reinforces the need for nuclear licensees and regulators to take positive steps to ensure that licensees develop and sustain a robust safety management system as a part of their management systems as a whole. The report draws out the main findings of the workshop and presents the results of the survey in more detail. It seeks to identify current issues and areas warranting further consideration. The workshop explored the development of current organisational theories and their application to nuclear plant safety management. It

  5. Legal relevance of the purpose of contract in German law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the French Civil code, the German Civil code belongs to the group of so-called anti-causalistic codifications, since it explicitly does not govern the issue of purpose (cause of contract. Due to this very reason, the delineation between abstract and causal juridical acts gains special importance in German law. The German Civil Code governs a number of juridical acts and other acts of legal importance that are abstract in their nature. Among them the abstract nature of the promise to fulfill an obligation (Schuldversprechung and the acknowledgement of a debt (Schuldannerkennung is traditionally considered the most prominent. However, the relation to the purpose for which they are concluded is not entirely interrupted, since in the case of frustration of their purpose, any asset given to the other party is subject to restitution under the rules of unjustified enrichment. The fact that the issue of purpose of contract is not explicitly governed in the German Civil Code, does not lead to the conclusion, though, that it is legally irrelevant. It gains legal relevance in two different aspects: as a licit and as an illicit purpose. On the one hand, juridical acts concluded with the aim to achieve illicit purposes are considered void, for which the Code's sections on the general confines of the principle of freedom of contract serve the statutory basis - such juridical acts infringe the institution of 'good customs' (gute Sitten, usually referred to as public policy, while the performance of other factual or legal acts in order to achieve illicit purposes are sanctioned under the rules of unjustified enrichment. On the other hand, lawful purposes of the parties gain legal relevance in relation to a range of various institutions. Concerning some of them the Code itself contains formulations implying the necessity to ascertain the purpose of contract, while in other cases the case law and the doctrine have come to such conclusion. The determination

  6. Macular hole surgery: an analysis of risk factors for the anatomical and functional outcomes with a special emphasis on the experience of the surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenisch TM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teresa M Jenisch,1 Florian Zeman,2 Michael Koller,2 David A Märker,1 Horst Helbig,1 Wolfgang A Herrmann1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Centre for Clinical Studies, University Hospital Regensburg, 3Department of Ophthalmology, St John of God Hospital, Regensburg, Germany Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for the anatomical and functional outcomes of macular hole (MH surgery with special emphasis on the experience of the surgeon. Methods: A total of 225 surgeries on idiopathic MHs (IMHs performed by 6 surgeons with a mean follow-up period of 20.5 months were reviewed in this retrospective study. Outcome parameters focused on IMH closure, complications and visual acuity improvement. The results of MH surgeries performed by experienced surgeons were compared to those of surgeons in training. Results: The average MH size was 381 µm (standard deviation [SD]=168. Brilliant blue G (BBG for internal limiting membrane (ILM staining was used in 109 (48% eyes and indocyanine green (ICG in 116 (52% eyes. As endotamponade, 20% SF6 was used in 38 (17% cases, 16% C2F6 in 33 (15% cases and 16% C3F8 in 154 (68% cases. IMH closure was achieved in 194 eyes (86%. Mean preoperative visual acuity was 0.84 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (log MAR; SD=0.29, range: 0.3–1.5; surgery led to a mean improvement of 0.40 (SD=0.37 log MAR. Although the MH closure rate was the same using BBG or ICG for ILM peeling, visual acuity improvement was better in eyes peeled with BBG compared to eyes peeled with ICG (log MAR: BBG: 0.38 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.44] vs ICG: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.42, 0.54], P=0.029. Surgeons with previous experience in vitreoretinal surgery of ≥6 years achieved better visual outcomes compared to surgeons with 0–3 years of experience, regardless of the MH size, preoperative visual acuity, time to follow-up or dye used for ILM peeling (0–3 years [0.27, ∆log MAR] vs ≥6 years [0.43, ∆log MAR], P=0.009. Conclusion

  7. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors......, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value...... disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency...

  8. Long-term monitoring for closed special sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed special radioactive waste disposal sites. The steps in the method involve collection of the available background information on the site history, site and area characteristics, waste inventory, pathway analysis, prior monitoring programs, applicable standards, and the legal/regulatory requirements. This information is coupled with factors such as experience, half-life, radionuclide migration rates, and potential hazard to develop a monitoring program. As an example, a site-specific long-term monitoring program is described for the AMAX site using the available information. Sampling techniques and practices for the monitoring program are discussed and techniques and practices expected to be available in the future are considered. 7 references, 2 tables

  9. Legal aspects of nuclear and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at preventing nuclear and radiological accidents and maintaining safety and security, the State extends its jurisdiction over nuclear and radiological activities through the promulgation of regulatory legislations and providing criminal protection to these activities. The State, in its legislation, defines an authority responsible for the planning of preparedness for emergency situations. That Authority cooperates with other competent authorities in the State as well as with other relevant international organizations and other States in a coordinated way aiming at dealing effectively with and mitigating the consequences of nuclear and radiological accidents through promulgating relevant international conventions and plans for reinforcement of international cooperation in accidents situations. Moreover, the International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA) can provide specialized consultations and offer assistance in case of accidents. The present study is divided into an introduction and two chapters. In the introduction, the nature of nuclear or radiological accidents is defined. The first chapter deals with the national legal system for preventing the occurrence of nuclear and radiological accidents and mitigating their consequences. The second chapter deals with the international cooperation for facing nuclear or radiological accidents and mitigating their consequences

  10. Special energies and special frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrullis, M.; Englisch, H.

    1987-01-01

    ''Special frequencies'' have been asserted to be zeros of the density of frequencies corresponding to a random chain of coupled oscillators. Our investigation includes both this model and the random one-dimensional Schroedinger operator describing an alloy or its discrete analogue. Using the phase method we exactly determine a bilateral Lifsic asymptotic of the integrated density of states k(E) at special energies G s , which is not only of the classical type exp(-c/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke 1/2 ) but also exp(-c'/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke) is a typical behaviour. In addition, other asymptotics occur, e.g. vertical strokeE-E c vertical stroke c '', which show that k(E) need not be C ∞ . (orig.)

  11. [Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: legal and ethical dilemmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrossili, M

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the measure of involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community, not only with regard to human rights and more specifically those of persons with mental disorders, but also with regard to ethics and deontology in mental healthcare delivery service. In this light, the important role of informed consent in psychiatry with regard to the psychiatric act is examined. Informed consent of mental patients in treatment when they are in need of voluntary or involuntary hospitalization is further examined, while emphasis is being put on the case of involuntary treatment. The Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of Οviedo), the European Convention of Human Rights, other documents of International Organizations (UN) and specialized national legislation (A. 2071/1992, Chapter vi, Greek law) constitute basic reference and interpretation points. The examination of consent and the demarcation of the exceptions are important issues that need to be approached. More particularly, our interest lies with the article 7 of the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine, which specifically refers to the protection of person who suffers from a mental disorder. The opinion that informed consent in psychiatric treatment and involuntary treatment are concepts and processes which are distinct but not always mutually exclusive is enhanced. In any case, involuntary treatment causes major dilemmas as far as informed consent in the psychiatric act is concerned, as it raises issues that affect the autonomy of the person. Today, however, there are many factors which influence public politics towards the adoption of the measure of involuntary treatment within the community. How is it that this paradoxical link is legitimized and justified: involuntary treatment and community? The enactment of the above mentioned measure in many European and North American countries has created new paths in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Nonetheless, it

  12. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best...

  13. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  14. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  15. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  16. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  17. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  18. [Fatal course of neonatal citrobacter infection and its legal evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokrdová, Z; Janouch, J

    2011-02-01

    The article describes fatal course of citrobacter central nervous system infection in the neonates and the subsequent legal responsibility of the medical facility. Case report with the review of a lawyer specialized in medical law. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Health Studies, University of Pardubice, Pardubice, Faculty of Military Health Science, University of Defence, Hradec Králové. The court granted plaintiff's claim has been fully paid by the insurance company, since it did not show the fault of the medical facility. Health injury was caused by operational activities and the right to compensation is in accordance with Section 420a of the Civil Code.

  19. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  20. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  1. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  2. Special graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  3. Understanding how social enterprises can benefit from supportive legal frameworks : a case study report on social enterpreneurial models in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.a; Blomme, R.J.; Lambooy, T.E.; Kievit, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test how legal factors affect the corporate structure of a social enterprise. The current article focuses on the legal factor of governance as the decision-making power of stakeholders within the social enterprise. The authors conducted a case study and examined a major social

  4. Law Policy Implementation as the Determinant of the Legal Development of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakardzhiev Ya. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the forms and mechanism of implementation of law policy, aspects of its interaction with different legal and social factors and determinants specifying its formation and enforcement.

  5. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  6. Anti-corruption policy in the system of legal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Filonenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allows to explore the combination of objective and subjective factors influencing the formation and implementation of anticorruption policy. The author39s model of anticorruption policy is based on the wide range of logical methods of information processing modeling abstraction analysis analogy. Scientific hypothesis and formal legal analysis were also used. Results basing on comparison of the recent theoreticallegal criminallegal and criminological research in the field of legal and anticorruption policy the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy are disclosed. The authors attempt to systematize the scientific interpretation of anticorruption policy. The concept of legal policy its forms tools subjects and typesare discussed. As a result it becomes possible to describe the current anticorruption policy using terminology from the theory of legal policy. This approach can increase the effectiveness of modern anticorruption policy as it allows to clearly see the gaps and shortcomings in lawmaking and law enforcement during the anticorruption policy implementation. Scientific novelty the article makes an attempt to describe the current anticorruption policy with the use of terminology and models developed in the theoretical and legal research for the characterization of legal policy and its particular directions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical work when considering questions about the nature and trends of the modern anticorruption policy development. The applied approach allows to bring together criminal law criminology and theoreticallegal research of anticorruption policy. nbsp

  7. Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Free Primary Education Policy in Relation to the Enrolment of Children with Special Needs Education in West Pokot County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeris, Raymond; Koross, Benjamin Towett

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of Free Primary Education (FPE) policy in 2003 was aimed at enhancing the enrolment of all school going-age children in Kenya indiscriminately. However, significant concerns have been raised by scholars and the public over the low enrolment of children with Special Needs Education (SNE). The main objective of this study was to…

  8. Students with Special Educational Needs--Social Inclusion or Marginalisation? Factors of Risk and Resilience in the Transition between School and Early Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalsund, Rune; Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on data from two national research projects in Norway dealing with upper secondary educational reforms that began in 1994. Together, the research projects represent a longitudinal study of prospective life course data from 1995 to 2003, covering approximately 500 students from the time they were receiving special education in…

  9. Understanding the elevated risk of substance use by adolescents in special education and residential youth care : The role of individual, family and peer factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepper, Annelies|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935157; Van Den Eijnden, Regina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17399394X; Monshouwer, Karin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202651967; Vollebergh, Wilma|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who attend special education for behavioural problems (SEB) and adolescents who live in a residential youth care institution (RYC) are characterised by behavioural disorders and problematic family backgrounds and have an increased risk for substance use. Though it is likely that the high

  10. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  11. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  12. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  13. Legal remedies in the proceedings before the Court of Justice of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal remedies applied in the proceedings before the Court of Justice of the European Union have some distinctive features as compared to the legal remedies used in the national judicial systems. At first, the communitarian justice system originally did not envisage the possibility of filing an appeal with this Court as a regular legal remedy but there were other remedies that could be pursued in respect of the judgments issued by the Court. After the establishment of the Court of First Instance, the Procedural Law of the European Union introduced the possibility of filing an appeal with the Court of Justice against the judgments of the Court of First Instance. Later, the Court of First Instance became competent to decide on appeals against the judgments rendered by the judicial panels, which were established in the meantime. The Court of First Instance and judicial panels reserved the possibility of using other legal remedies against the final decisions rendered by these judicial authorities. In this respect, the Lisbon Treaty did not bring any significant changes, except that the Court of First Instance was renamed into the General Court whereas the judicial panels were designated as specialized courts. Taking into account the system of legal remedies recognized by the Procedural Law of the European Union, the first part of the paper deals with appeals as a regular legal instrument for bringing the case before a higher instance court which is to review the judgment of a lower instance court, including appeals against the decisions of the General Court and specialized courts. In the second part of the paper, the authors focus on the legal remedies which are awarded by the same court that issued the judgment. This category includes the application of a third party and revision, which may be considered as extraordinary legal remedies, as well as the objection against the judgment by default, judgment interpretation, judgment rectification and

  14. Environmental justice and the rights of indigenous peoples: international and domestic legal perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westra, Laura

    2008-01-01

    ... Peoples: Some Recent ATCA Jurisprudence First Nations of Canada and the Legal and Illegal Attacks on their Existence 71 103 125 PART III - JUSTIFYING GENOCIDE: PRINCIPLES AND REALITY 7 8 Genocide and Eco-crime: The Interface Aboriginal Rights in Domestic and International Law, and the Special Case of Arctic Peoples 163 187 PART...

  15. Lessons Learned from the Srebrenica Massacre : From UN Peacekeeping Reform to Legal Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, C.M.J.; Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue on Srebrenica by reflecting on how the fall of Srebrenica has served as a trigger for proposals to fundamentally transform international law, especially the law relating to international crimes, responsibility, and legal remedies for victims. It also

  16. Allocation pattern in the financing of colleges of legal and Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education ... This study investigated the allocation pattern in the financing of colleges of Legal and Islamic Studies in Nigeria with special regard to the adequacy of the funding. The sample ... The findings showed that there is general under-funding of these colleges within the period considered.

  17. Legal aspects of search and mining of nuclear ores under Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, T.M.

    1980-06-01

    The legal aspects of mining in the Brazilian law its general principles, the basic concepts and rules established in the constitution of Brazil, in the mining code and in special laws are analysed. The rules for mining and usage of nuclear ores and other ores of interest to the nuclear field are emphasized. (A.L.) [pt

  18. Notes on the legal status of non-EU foreign workers in Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Tarabini-Castellani Aznar

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze «grosso modo» the legal status of foreign workers from third countries, paying special attention to foreigners without a work permit. For reasons of space, I will only point out those issues which deserve greater attention and those which I have found of particular interest.

  19. Notes on the legal status of non-EU foreign workers in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Tarabini-Castellani Aznar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to analyze «grosso modo» the legal status of foreign workers from third countries, paying special attention to foreigners without a work permit. For reasons of space, I will only point out those issues which deserve greater attention and those which I have found of particular interest.

  20. On fragments and geometry : The international legal order as metaphor and how it matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajkovic, Nikolas

    This 9, 871 word article was published in a special issue sponsored by the Institute for Global Law and Policy of the Harvard Law School. It questions how international legal theory is consumed over whether international law is “fragmenting”, yet without ever questioning where the meaning and

  1. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  2. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  3. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  4. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  6. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  7. Visions of the Future of (Legal) Education

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.

  8. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  9. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  10. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF MEDIATION IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediation as an alternative dispute resolution enables faster, more efficient and less costly resolution of disputes in relation to the proceedings. Its operation is based on the following principles: voluntary, equality of the parties, neutrality of the mediator, exclusion of the public, efficiency of the procedure, confidentiality of information, fairness. In Macedonia the mediation as an alternative dispute resolution was introduced by the Law on Mediation in 2006. However, besides this law, the resolution of disputes by mediation is regulated by other special laws such as the Family Law Act, Consumer Law, the Juvenile Justice, Law for the peaceful resolution of labor disputes, etc.. For effective functioning of the mediation, except legal regulation of mediation, and established appropriate institutional framework is an important link for a successful mediation. The institutional framework of mediation includes: Ministry of Justice - Sector for Mediation, Board for Mediation, the Mediators Chamber of Macedonia and mediator. All the above institutions have proper function in the system of mediation and their jurisdiction is governed normative-legal. The legal and institutional framework actually consists of mediation system in the country and represent a whole.

  11. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  12. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  13. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  14. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  15. Nuclear plants near borders: environmental, legal, economic and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the legal framework of the development of nuclear energy within Europe has focussed on the special problems posed by nuclear plants located near national boundaries. The problems which may be caused by such plants must clearly be handled in the same way as for any other installations and the governments concerned need to define mutually acceptable conditions. Joint committees have already been formed between some countries, most notably to deal with nuclear plant safety issues. Special agreements have been reached covering the use of river water, public information and mutual assistance in case of accident. The key to the whole process is a progressive standardization of regulations concerning the environment, safety, radiological protection, non-proliferation, public information and emergency plans in case of accidents. (UK)

  16. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  17. LEGAL DRAFTING IN CROATIA - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Đerđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of legal drafting and its essential elements, which has not drawn a lot of attention in the Republic of Croatia so far. The paper emphasises the importance of proportionality in the simplicity and legal distinctness of a legal text in the process of drafting for the purpose of its clarity. The paper also presents objective requirements necessary for quality legal drafting, as well as subjective qualities of the drafters. With the purpose of drawing attention to imperfections in the legal drafting in Croatia, some defi ciencies are presented in the process of drafting and amending of the Utility Services Act. The process of drafting and amending of this Act is a good example of the way how legal drafting should not be done. It contains a lot of defi ciencies and failures that are the result of legal drafting mistakes. At the end, authors expect that the adoption of the Uniform methodology and nomotechnical rules for the drafting of acts enacted by Parliament should contribute to the higher quality of legal texts and to their full adjustment to the general requirements of legal certainty and rule of law.

  18. LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia-Raluca ONIŞOR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the legal effects of mergers and acquisitions from the Romanian Company Law perspective, underlining certain general principles, the procedure of annulment of such a legal transformation of companies and the protection of the employees of companies participating in the merger according to the Law no. 67/2006. These consequences of mergers and acquisions are to be seen in the broader light of the most important purpose of this legal instrument, maximizing financial and organizational efficiencies, thus legal certainty is a desirable goal to be assumed by any merger regulation.

  19. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  20. Preface to Special Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Nathanson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that reading comprehension is at the forefront of global literacy discourse, this special edition of Per Linguam, the first number that is also published online, features a collection of articles that cover different aspects of reading comprehension and instruction, such as, strategies for comprehending texts, metacognitive awareness, the reciprocity of assessment and comprehension instruction and socio-affective factors that influence comprehension.

  1. THE LEGALITY OF DIVORCE IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF HADITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Hasbi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerai talak (formula for divorce and Cerai gugat (sue for divorce are two terms of termination of marriage bond in Indonesia. The formula of divorce is a term that coincides with a divorce coming from the will of a husband and sue for divorce is the desire of a wife to separate from her husband. Islamic Law legalizes the right of wives in cases of divorce redeem (khulu‘ and fasakh because of syiqaq. On the other side, there are signs setting the rights up, so that the given reasons to use the rights must be legal in syar‘i. The reasons for the legality of divorce is a common-cause factor, so that the banning with threatening hadiths as well as those of the hadiths that say wives must obey their husbands, the wives should not hurt their husband and the wives are prisoners of husbands are all categorized into general. At another angle, there also the hadiths concerning with the status a couple husband and wife is heaven and hell for them in a household. Contextualization of hadiths that ban a wife asking for divorce without any legal cause from Syar‘i, and also those of the hadiths legalize khulu‘ are the realization of the conjugal lives with regards to the mandate of Allah and religious values. The facts of a wife sue for divorce to her husband are the conditions related to a confusion occurred in a household which are influenced by a variety of factors, i.g. economy, adultery, polygamy, social strata and others. A sue for divorce which is Syar’i based condition is a disagreement prolonged strife after peace held between the two sides and act endangers a wife

  2. Retrieval of Legal Information Through Discovery Layers: A Case Study Related to Indian Law Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwah, Shivpal Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate discovery layer search tools for retrieval of legal information in Indian law libraries. This paper covers current practices in legal information retrieval with special reference to Indian academic law libraries, and analyses its importance in the domain of law.Design/Methodology/Approach. A web survey and observational study method are used to collect the data. Data related to the discovery tools were collected using email and further discussion held with the discovery layer/ tool /product developers and their representatives.Findings. Results show that most of the Indian law libraries are subscribing to bundles of legal information resources such as Hein Online, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Manupatra, Westlaw India, SCC web, AIR Online (CDROM, and so on. International legal and academic resources are compatible with discovery tools because they support various standards related to online publishing and dissemination such as OAI/PMH, Open URL, MARC21, and Z39.50, but Indian legal resources such as Manupatra, Air, and SCC are not compatible with the discovery layers. The central index is one of the important components in a discovery search interface, and discovery layer services/tools could be useful for Indian law libraries also if they can include multiple legal and academic resources in their central index. But present practices and observations reveal that discovery layers are not providing facility to cover legal information resources. Therefore, in the present form, discovery tools are not very useful; they are an incomplete and half solution for Indian libraries because all available Indian legal resources available in the law libraries are not covered.Originality/Value. Very limited research or published literature is available in the area of discovery layers and their compatibility with legal information resources.

  3. THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETYANA KOMAROVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the relationship between two legal orders: international law and European Union (EU law. The main provisions of this relationship have been established through the precedential practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union – the EU’s main judicial body. This kind of research seems important because of the gap in the theory of international law caused by the immutable dogma of the supremacy of international law. However, modern legal practice demonstrates a certain fragmentation of the international legal order because of the impact of the existence and development of regional supranational legal orders. The EU legal order, with its own special nature (sui generis, is undoubtedly one of the most developed among them. The Court of Justice of the European Union performs a crucial role in the EU legal system concerning application and interpretation of EU law. It provides a uniform interpretation of this law for the purposes of development of supranational integration. In this context the Court of Justice the European Union establishes the status of European law and its relationship with the national legal systems and international law. The Court acts as protector of the EU legal order against the influence of other legal orders. The Court’s precedential practice reveals EU law’s tendency towards its constitutionalization and the development of its autonomy. The latest practice indicates the Court’s powers to review the EU institutions’ acts in relation to the implementation of UN Security Council resolutions. This proves the Court’s ability to establish indirect control even over UN acts.

  4. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  5. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  6. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment

  7. Overcoming the legal Iron curtain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses the determinants that lead national courts across EU countriesto use the preliminary reference procedure, paying special attention to the differences andsimilarities in the use of this mechanism of judicial cooperation between the old and thenew Member States incorporated in...

  8. In Search of Legal Foundation for Indonesian Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Komalasari Dewi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that affect Indonesia's economic growth is the existence of business firms. It cannot be ignored that most business firms in Indonesia is family owned firms, and which are considered to constitute as the backbone of the economic development.  Family firms represent the most enduring business model in the world. The continuing success of family firms through the generations relies on ensuring the next generation. However, the issue of family firms is rarely discussed in particular from the perspective of corporate law. In fact, from legal perspectives, there is some issues deal with this type of firms, amongst other, the lack of an overall definition of the term “family business”. It is because family businesses and small medium enterprises (SMEs are widely understood synonymously in spite of the fact that they exist in every size class. Other issue is the questions of its legal basis or legal framework in terms of its corporate governance. Many Indonesian business players lack the basic understanding of corporation’s law. It is partly because these obligations are incompatible with the values and cultures in Indonesia where “kinship principle” is deeply rooted. This article aims to describe the characteristics and the legal frameworks for the family firms in Indonesia. It also recommends the government to take progressive measure by providing clear regulations on the family firms in Indonesia. This will reinforce family firms contribution in economic development of Indonesia in the future. 

  9. The role of the independent neuropsychologist in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurewitz, Felicia; Kerr, Sonja

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychologists are playing an increasing role in special education. We explain steps that neuropsychologists can take to ethically and effectively approach the "quasi-forensic" role of independent evaluator. Because neuropsychologists may provide reports for treatment, school programming, and legal disputes, it is important that they are familiar with the school programming process and the unique litigation procedures available for children with disabilities in special education. We provide guidelines including determining referral questions, obtaining outside information, choosing assessments, considering the legal constructs of questions, reviewing discrepant results from other evaluations and Individual Education Plans and communicating ideas.

  10. Legal regime of the Bering Strait and security of navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Skaridov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the legal regime and security of navigation in the Bering Strait. Methods formal logical method systemic method comparative legal method statistical method. Results in the recent years specialized publications contain numerous publications on the problems of development of Arctic shipping and the future intensification of the use of the Northern Sea Route. Whatever Arctic routes may be chosen by the skippers the vessels will have to overcome the narrowness of the Bering Strait. If the existing estimates are reasonable and the navigation of the NorthWest Sea Passage will increase it is appropriate to ask whether the legal regime and security means are adapted to the possible increase of commercial shipping and military navigation. In this respect the author formulates the legal measures aimed at ensuring security in the Bering Strait area with the account of growing cargo traffic. Scientific novelty for the first time the article proves the necessity to include into the Bering Strait area the territories bounded from the north by the east and west passages formed by the Diomede Islands and continental coasts of the Russian Federation and the United States and from the south ndash by the passages between the Cape of Chukotka and Cape Sevuokuk of St. Lawrence Island Cape Sivuka and the mainland of Alaska in order to protect the sea natural landscape and to ensure the maritime safety. The opinion is substantiated about the necessity to equip the marine passages forming the waters of the Bering Strait with a security system. The proposed legal regime of ensuring the safety of navigation in the Bering Strait which includes the common navigation rules establishing the areas of the vessel traffic separation designation of areas of marine reserves and organizationallegal means for damping the dangerous situations. Practical significance the findings and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and law

  11. Legal regulators of strengthening altruism in ukrainian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the legal mechanisms of strengthening altruism in Ukrainian society are analysed. Altruism constantly develops, acquires new forms under act of public relations. In modern Ukrainian society altruism must take the special place in institutionalization of human dignity and rights and freedoms of man, become the norm of social activity. In the article there is a necessity of perfection of normatively­legal base on the basis of principle of altruism, harmonization of relations between the state and civil society in the field of the altruism directed practices. Sharp social contradictions, estrangement of man, can be overcame only through claim of initial social values on principles of idea of dignity and human rights. There must be valuable partnership of the state and eleemosynary organizations in democratic society, creating favourable terms for opening public potential and directing of altruism activity of population. The special attention must be spared to providing of rights for invalids and defencing of them from discrimination.

  12. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  13. Patenting Nanomedicines Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Eliana B

    2012-01-01

    "Patenting Nanomedicines: Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities" focuses on the fundamental aspects of Patenting Nanomedicines applied in different "Drug Delivery and Targeting Systems". The promoters of new findings in this field of research are numerous and spread worldwide; therefore, managing intellectual property portfolios, and the acquisition and exploitation of new knowledge face several contingency factors. Today, the scientific community is discussing issues of economic outcomes in the field of Nanomedicines. Major concerns include questions

  14. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  15. Deficiencies of regulation of euthanasia in legal acts of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polaks R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today in most countries the practising of euthanasia is not permissible and as in any case of a criminal offence, which endangers the life of a person, criminal liability applies here. However, the analysis of legal norms in foreign criminal codes reveals several deficiencies, ranging from – the absence of legal regulation which leads to a paradoxical situation, when ignoring the motive and aim of the offence, euthanasia is qualified according to the article of the criminal code which provides for liability for murder with no mitigating circumstances, but assisted suicide liability does not apply at all, – to including special legal norms pertaining to this problematic issue, in the structure of criminal codes, in the disposition of which there is an absence of several mandatory constituent elements of these particular criminal offences, thus unduly extending the provision of these norms in practice also in the cases not related to “easy death”. The deficiencies of legal acts are observed also in those few countries which allow a definite form of euthanasia and its practising by means of special laws. And most importantly, foreign legislators ignore such forms of terminating the lives of incurably ill persons as active and passive non-voluntary euthanasia, which depending on the nature of the offence requires an appropriate legal framework, which so far has not been observed.

  16. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment ...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements.......Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment...... provisions’ which empower the municipalities to later ruling. This way of making plans postpones the actual regulation of an area (i.e. the planning permission) making it an individual ruling for instance at the application of building permits. Case studies show examples of this way of regulating an area...

  17. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  18. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any...

  19. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims...

  20. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  1. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  2. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  3. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or regulations, and, as provided in § 1.73 of the Commission's rules, they do not have the force or effect of...

  4. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...

  5. The Reach and Limits of Legal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Murray L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies of the state of legal education and the practice of law are criticized, and legal education is found to be healthy. Practical and professional responsibility training is recommended for post-law school training rather than in the classical curriculum. (MSE)

  6. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  7. Advice for the New Legal Studies Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into academia from law school or legal practice is a significant and exciting shift in one's legal career. This transition, however, can also be one that presents numerous challenges. Preparing a syllabus and drafting lecture material can seem like a daunting task. Writing an academic article for the first time involves learning a…

  8. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions

  9. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  10. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  11. Reproduction, women, and the workplace: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, J E

    1986-01-01

    Legal conflict has marked the effort to protect workers against reproductive injury, and legal activity in the management of occupational risks reflects a much broader range of important social issues, such as sexual discrimination in the workplace. This article describes the evolving law related to reproductive hazards that concern men, women and children.

  12. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  13. Death with Dignity: A Tripartite Legal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblang, Theodore Raymond

    1978-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive overview of the legal problems that attend medical treatment of the terminally ill patient as well as a careful analysis of the legal vehicles that have been offered in response to these problems--the living will, the antidysthanasia contract, and right to die legislation. (Author)

  14. Constitutionalising the Right Legal Representation at CCMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...

  15. Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

  16. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  17. Rule of law and legal epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Feteris, Eveline; Kloosterhuis, Harm; Plug, José; Smith, Carel

    2016-01-01

    In the positivistic conception of law, sources of law (statute, precedent) are strictly distinguished from other legal materials such as doctrine. Courts as well as academia are, however, beginning to recognise the legal relevance of doctrine and case law of lower courts. This acceptance of such

  18. Southern African Development Community (SADC) trade legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...

  19. Teaching the Legal Aspects of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Jules

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)

  20. Suretyship in Serbian and comparative legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has compared the institute of suretyship in Serbian law and other comparative legal systems, both continental and common-law. With the development of economy, these instruments of creditor's protection in the contractual relationship have gained full promotion. The analysis of the similarities and differences in the treatment of suretyship implies a relationship between the European legal systems.