WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal documented status

  1. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  2. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  3. The Survey of the Legal Status of Indispensable Formal Documents Enforcement in Iran’s Notary Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In general codes of law of the countries including Iran there are special rights predicted for the owners of formal documents and other documents featuring formal document in order to accredit them and facilitate the business transactions. This is also considered as some sort of de-judicialization and the owners of such documents do no need to attend the courts as plaintiff and prove their claims and also they are not required to pass the formalities and the long procedures of trials and having such documents at hand they can refer to the notary enforcement circles or the notary public offices to take advantage of the rights justified for them therein. It is in this manner that they should first observe the rules of formal documents enforcement approved and ratified in the indispensable formal documents rules of procedure and the other sanctioned regulations. In the present study, the formative and the natural issues pertaining to the indispensable formal documents and the ordinary documents which can be enforced as ruled by the law (such as cheques via the notary enforcement circles and transiently via the judicial courts will be investigated. The author’s intention of writing the present research paper has been, firstly, the elaboration of the legal principles and concepts of indispensable formal documents, explication of the formative and the natural issues related to the indispensable formal documents enforcement and the ordinary documents which can be enforced as decreed by the law, as well as the expression of the administrative formalities and the legal processes such documents are required to undergo in public notary offices (enforcement unit, and, secondly, the exposition of the study subject matter from the legal status perspective of documents enforcement through notary enforcement and, finally, there is this possibility that after a judicial writ of execution is issued the obliged individual or the third party may have objections

  4. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  5. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  6. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reprints a selection of recently published legislative texts and documents: - Russian Federation: Federal Law No.170 of 21 November 1995 on the use of atomic energy, Adopted by the State Duma on 20 October 1995; - Uruguay: Law No.19.056 On the Radiological Protection and Safety of Persons, Property and the Environment (4 January 2013); - Japan: Third Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (concerning Damages related to Rumour-Related Damage in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Food Industries), 30 January 2013; - France and the United States: Joint Statement on Liability for Nuclear Damage (Aug 2013); - Franco-Russian Nuclear Power Declaration (1 November 2013)

  7. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...

  8. Medico-legal documentation South African Police Services forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is Part 1 of a three-part series on medico-legal documentation. The aim of Part I is to equip medical practitioners with the knowledge and skills necessary for the completion of the appropriate medico-legal report, form J88, a legal document, which addresses the factual findings of the medical assessment and the ...

  9. Part 1: Medico-legal documentation South African Police Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valid medico-legal consent differs from medical consent. Knowledge of legislation pertaining to child pornography and the practical and ethical aspects of photography is also necessary. Inappropriate completion of medico-legal documentation may necessitate the practitioner having to explain the documentation to make it ...

  10. Medico-legal documentation of rape or sexual assault: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L Fouché

    12 ... Keywords: clinical forensic medicine, community-service doctors, medical training, medico-legal documentation, sexual assault. Introduction. Sexual assault ..... New York: Springer Science & Business Media. 2007. 9. Du Mont J, White D.

  11. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  12. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  13. The legal status of engineering companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    It is assumed that the carrying out of research, also in the nuclear field should be entrusted to engineering companies, especially when dealing with the setting up of technological structures. This paper considers the problems of the legal status of such companies under Italian legislation. (NEA) [fr

  14. REGULARYFRAMWORK AND LEGAL BASE OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT CIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiia H. Omelchenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The general characteristic of legal base of electronic document circulation is presented in the article. It legislatively regulates the relations which connected with the information and information communication technologies. There is presented the list of the basic acts of regulation of sphere of information relations.

  15. Limited legal status for refugees from Syria in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Aranki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having limited legal status has direct negative consequences for Syrian refugees’ access to protection and assistance during their stay in Lebanon. Limited legal status also increases the risks of abuse and exploitation.

  16. Diverse Legal Significance of a Document in Byzantine Private Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara M. Matović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Byzantine, Graeco-Roman, law is the organic continuation of Roman law. However, the legal system itself, and many legal institutions in it, had gone through certain evolution. In this article, by researching Greek acts conserved in various monastic arhives, and confronting them with stipulations in the Byzantine law codes, we question the issues of consensuality of a contract, form of a legal deed, and acquisation of a real right in Byzantine private law. The nature of contracts in Byzantine law has not been sufficiently studied. Richful theoretical studies had been written in regards to the contract of purchase in Roman and Justinians law, however various and sometimes confronting information from the later Greek codes did not give definite answers to this question. Byzantine codices on this theme encompass already familiar stipulations and legal institutes. The attention of the lawgiver was on the notary system, on the mechanism which produced a written instrument. We believe that the issue of the παράδοσις δι̉ ἐγγράφου was not sufficiently highlighted in the field of Byzantine studies mostly due to the lack of information in the sources. However, when regarding the Athonite documents, it can be seen that the formulae describing the act of law transfer could be concidered as a relevant material to comment on this legal institute.

  17. Documentation of torture victims, assessment of the start procedure for medico-legal documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Lene; Worm, Lise

    2007-01-01

    A Pilot Study was performed at the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) in Copenhagen in order to explore the possibilities for adding a medico-legal documentation component to the rehabilitation of torture victims already taking place. It describes the process and results on implementing medico-legal documentation in a rehabilitative setting. A modified version of the Guidelines in the Istanbul Protocol was developed on the basis of the review of literature and current practices described in "Documentation of torture victims, implementation of medico-legal protocols". The modified guidelines were tested on five clients. The aim was twofold: 1) To assess the client's attitude towards the idea of adding a documentation component to the rehabilitation process and: 2) To assess the practical circumstances of implementing the Istanbul Protocol in the everyday life of a rehabilitation centre. Results show that all five clients were positive towards the project and found comfort in being able to contribute to the fight against impunity. Also, the Pilot Study demonstrated that a large part of the medico-legal documentation was already obtained in the rehabilitation process. It was however not accessible due to lack of systematization and a data registering system. There are thus important synergies in collecting data for rehabilitation and documentation but a joint database system is necessary to realize these synergies.

  18. The international legal status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia

    OpenAIRE

    Dursunov, Ramil

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the international legal status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It examines the legal doctrines of Georgia, the Russian Federation, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia on this matter and how they correlate to the treaties, resolutions and declarations of international law. This article sets out to examine this problem and define the actual international legal status of these territories, which is the key to understanding how international law addresses the recognition of st...

  19. Death before life: The legal status of cadaveric foetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to dispose of aborted foetuses is a sensitive ethical and legal issue which relates directly to the legal status of the foetus. An illustrative example of this issue’s practical legal relevance is the Danish Council of Ethics’ recommendation of March 3, 2011, in reply...... to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...... general reflections on the legal status of cadaveric foetuses....

  20. Affirmation of the Legal Status of Taxpayers in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Srđa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Public needs cannot be adequately funded without a clear and legally based affirmative legal status of taxpayers. The promotion and protection of their rights and regular fulfilment of tax obligations by taxpayers is the basis of fiscal and financial stability of the country and other public collectivities. It is essential for Montenegro to overcome the traditional gap between taxpayers and tax administration through their partnership. At the same time, we must not jeopardize the basic purpose of taxation - legal and timely payment of taxes. Simple and stable tax regulations and a non-discriminating and subtle approach to building tax discipline and development of tax morale should serve that purpose.

  1. The Legal Status of Whales: capabilities, entitlements and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nussbaum Wichert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whales, among our planet’s most majestic, mysterious, powerful, and intelligent beings, are profoundly endangered. International law has for some time attempted to protect them from extinction. Our paper addresses the legal status of whales and argues that they should be regarded as creatures with rights, not simply as commodities. Currently, international law does not recognize whales as creatures with rights. International organizations, particularly the International Whaling Commission (IWC and its founding document, the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW, have focused on the issue of overfishing and have allowed exceptions to usual standards based both on the alleged needs of scientific research (in the case of Japan and on the alleged claims of culture (in the case of aboriginal groups in the Arctic.

  2. The legal status of sustainable development in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a moral or ...

  3. the legal status of sustainable development in the nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    ABSTRACT. Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a ...

  4. Irregular Migration - between legal status and social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Publication History: Published Online: 2012-12-28 Abstract How do Polish migrant workers experience the process of migration and how does irregular migration status influence their life plans? In this article I analyse how the shifts between different legal statuses may be related to the social practices......Arnfinn H. and Rogstad, Jon 2.Book reviews by null 3.INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization by Leinonen, Johanna 4.Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State by Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken 5.TOWARD AN IDENTITY STRESS....... Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...

  5. 24 CFR 5.510 - Documents of eligible immigration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documents of eligible immigration... Noncitizens § 5.510 Documents of eligible immigration status. (a) General. A responsible entity shall request and review original documents of eligible immigration status. The responsible entity shall retain...

  6. TRANSPORT CONTRACT - EXCEPTION TO THE RELATIVITY EFFECTS OF LEGAL DOCUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena Belu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The parts to the contract are the shipper freight and the carrier. But the beneficiary of the contract is the conignee, although he doesn’t take part to the signing of the contract, he is (if he is adhering to the contract acquirer of rights and obligations which result from the contract of carriage. The contract of carriage is considered an exception to the principle of relativity effects of the legal act and it is considered by some authors in the literature as a stipulation for another with certain features. Stipulation for another is the contract whereby one part (stipulate provide that the other side (promisor to give, to do or not to do something for the benefit of a third person (beneficiary who do not participate, and he doesn’t take part to the conclusion of the contract. It is considered the only real exception of the principle of relativity. Called contract for another's benefit, stipulation for another creates for the beneficiary third-part right, directly and immediately created in his benefit since the conclusion of the contract between the promisor and the stipulate. The right is created from the time of signing the contract, in the patrimony of beneficiary, regardless of beneficiary’s accepting or waivering this right.

  7. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Zayas, Luis H; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2007-10-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group.

  8. Archive: The Holocaust of Romanian Jews. A New Legal Document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As of February to November, 2010, the “Elie Wiesel” National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania developed a historical and archeological research project aiming to confirm the existence of a possible common grave from the time of the Pogrom in Iaşi, in June 1941. An interdisciplinary research team made of specialists in recent history, archeology, communication, researchers, university teaching staff and PhD students, led by Mr. Adrian Cioflâncă, confronted the existing documents with the testimonies of the inhabitants of the Popricani commune.

  9. Documentation Status as a Contextual Determinant of HIV Risk Among Young Transgender Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Sarah L; Yamanis, Thespina J; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population.

  10. The identity, legal status and origin of the Roman army's medical staff in the imperial age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    More than a hundred epigraphic documents on different writing materials refer to medical staff in the Roman army. This paper focuses on the identity, legal status and origin of the Roman army medical staff--a topic which until now has hardly been studied. Various titles were conferred to a large number of medical staff in every unit of the Roman army; the doctors (medici) were the most numerous and had different ranks and status. The onomastic study of the inscriptions reveals a large proportion of Roman citizens in the military medical service. Most of them are ingenui with a Latin name, but freedmen with a Greek origin are frequently attested, though less so than among civilian doctors. These results dispel some misconceptions such as the Greek origin of most military doctors, which can be explained by the legal requirements of the recruitment into the Roman army.

  11. Public relations violated by unlawful use of documents to form a legal entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petukhov E.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of determining the direct object of crime under article 173.2 of the RF Criminal Code are investigated. It’s noted that the article contains two independent corpus delicti. The characteristic that unites them is the direct object of crime, which is broken in two ways: by person providing the relevant documents and by person receiving these documents and information. Scientific points of view concerning the understanding of crime object are estimated. Understanding the object as a legal order of carrying out business activities doesn’t allow to outline the scope of the corresponding relations. Many crimes under chapter 22 of the RF Criminal Code impinge these relations. The author disagrees with the recognition of public relations, ensuring the use of necessary documents for registration of only those organizations that are engaged in lawful activities, as direct object of unlawful use of documents to form (establish, reorganize a legal entity. It’s emphasized that documents submission to the registering authority for registration of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs can be carried out by the applicant or his representative acting on the basis of a notarized power of attorney. The fact of forming legal entity should be connected with certain individuals. Then the organization will have certain responsible persons. The act provided by the analyzed corpus delicti, contributes to this rule violation. It’s summarized that the direct object of crime under considered article is public relations arising due to ensuring the statutory procedure for personalization and identification of responsible individual forming (establishing, reorganizing a legal entity.

  12. Legal status and organizational structure of commodities excange in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petričević

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Commodities exchange is an important element of market economy of a country. Being an organized commodities and capital market, it goes beyond the trade in a trade fair and particular trade in real commodities. It includes trading in exchangeable goods by standard label. As foundation of commodities exchange is expected in Croatia, the paper will explicate its status and operation in Slovakia, an EU member state that is similar to our country. The paper will focus on the legal status and organizational structure of consumer goods market in Bratislava. Although it has existed for just over 15 years, it is important to note that it actually goes back to the pre-Second World War Czechoslovakia. Also, to provide better understanding of its functioning, regulations defining the foundation and functioning of the commodities market will also be presented as well as the profile, method and types of operations, together with its positive effects.

  13. The legal status of emergency contraception in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, Martín

    2012-01-01

    Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) can contribute to reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies, and ultimately, the number of unsafe abortions and maternal fatalities. In Latin America, where all countries are parties to international human rights treaties that recognize the rights to autonomy, privacy, and health, and recognize sexual and reproductive rights including the right to family planning, the legal status of EC has been discussed in the courts. This article focuses on the analysis of the principal arguments voiced in the courts: the difference between contraceptives and abortifacients, the scientific status of available research on EC, and the age at which people develop a legal right to make decisions about their personal health. The conclusion is that Latin American countries whose laws or regulations ban access to EC in the public and/or the private sector fail to fulfill their obligations under international human rights law. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and BMI differences by immigrant and legal status: evidence from Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Maloney, Thomas N

    2014-01-01

    We build on recent work examining the BMI patterns of immigrants in the US by distinguishing between legal and undocumented immigrants. We find that undocumented women have relative odds of obesity that are about 10 percentage points higher than for legal immigrant women, and their relative odds of being overweight are about 40 percentage points higher. We also find that the odds of obesity and overweight status vary less across neighborhoods for undocumented women than for legal immigrant women. These patterns are not found among immigrant men: undocumented men have lower rates of obesity (by about 6 percentage points in terms of relative odds) and overweight (by about 12 percentage points) than do legal immigrant men, and there is little variation in the impact of neighborhood context across groups of men. We interpret these findings in terms of processes of acculturation among immigrant men and women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Legal Status of Credit Bank Guarantee in Indonesia’s Legal Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Defiana Putriyanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze  about the legal status of the letter hiring as collateral for bank loans in the Indonesian security law. The method of this research is a normative juridical. The results of this research indicate that the decree hiring is not included in the objects that can be bound by pledge, fiduciary, and mortgage then hiring decree hiring is not included in the personal guarantee and corporate guarantee. Although the hiring decree is issued by a legitimate institution, the institution is not bound by an agreement between the debtor debts with the bank but when the decree was used as security for the bank. Hiring letter is not also included in the general collateral. Decree hiring is not an object and does not qualify as material that can be used as general collateral. The conclusion of this research is that the position of the decree hiring as collateral for bank loans is a new form of guarantee which is not included in the general guarantees and the specific ones. This shows that the system of legal guarantees in Indonesia is not pure anymore embrace a closed system, but has started shifting into an open system.

  16. Introducción al depósito legal como herramienta para el patrimonio documental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Antonio Pabón Cadavid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es una introducción a los elementos básicos del depósito legal y la actual legislación sobre el tema en Colombia. El depósito legal se entiende como la obligación que tiene toda persona natural o jurídica que publique documentos de entregar a una institución nacional ejemplares con la finalidad de preservar el patrimonio documental. Se enmarca el depósito legal como una figura jurídica que es parte esencial de las políticas culturales del país. Se presenta la definición básica y un breve bosquejo cronológico de su desarrollo, con especial énfasis en su evolución en Colombia desde 1834. Se señala cómo el depósito legal se ha ido modificando de acuerdo a la evolución en las tecnologías de la información y a la evolución de sus funciones. Se analizan los diferentes elementos normativos que hacen parte del depósito legal, los objetivos de dicha legislación y sus cambios funcionales de acuerdo a diversos factores, así como la situación actual de la legislación de depósito legal en Colombia. Se concluye que en Colombia la legislación de depósito legal se encuentra dispersa, carece de unos objetivos claros, y su actual regulación es de mediados de los años noventa, lo cual requiere una actualización legislativa que dé cuenta de los avances tecnológicos, como en el caso de las publicaciones en internet.

  17. Introducción al depósito legal como herramienta para el patrimonio documental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Antonio Pabón Cadavid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es una introducción a los elementos básicos del depósito legal y la actual legislación sobre el tema en Colombia. El depósito legal se entiende como la obligación que tiene toda persona natural o jurídica que publique documentos de entregar a una institución nacional ejemplares con la finalidad de preservar el patrimonio documental. Se enmarca el depósito legal como una figura jurídica que es parte esencial de las políticas culturales del país. Se presenta la definición básica y  un breve bosquejo cronológico de su desarrollo, con especial énfasis en su evolución en Colombia desde 1834. Se señala cómo el depósito legal se ha ido modificando de acuerdo a la evolución en las tecnologías de la información y a la evolución de sus funciones. Se analizan los diferentes elementos normativos que hacen parte del depósito legal, los objetivos de dicha legislación y sus cambios funcionales de acuerdo a diversos factores, así como la situación actual de la legislación de depósito legal en Colombia. Se concluye que en Colombia la legislación de depósito legal se encuentra dispersa, carece de unos objetivos claros, y su actual regulación es de mediados de los años noventa, lo cual requiere una actualización legislativa que dé cuenta de los avances tecnológicos, como en el caso de las publicaciones en internet.

  18. Civic stratification and crime. A comparison of asylum migrants with different legal statuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leerkes (Arjen); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried); E. Snel (Erik); J. de Boom (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractContrary to natural born citizens, migrants can have a variety of legal statuses depending on how they are classified by immigration law. Together, such legal or ‘civic’ statuses constitute a system of civic stratification, from high (privileged) to low (restricted). Recent scholarship

  19. Analysis of geodetic and legal documentation in the process of expropriation for roads. Krakow case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Amendment to the Act on special rules of preparation and implementation of investment in public roads resulted in an accelerated mode of acquisition of land for the development of roads. The decision to authorize the execution of road investment issued on its basis has several effects, i.e. determines the location of a road, approves surveying division, approves construction design and also results in acquisition of a real property by virtue of law by the State Treasury or local government unit, among others. The conducted study revealed that over 3 years, in this mode, the city of Krakow has acquired 31 hectares of land intended for the implementation of road investments. Compensation is determined in separate proceedings based on an appraisal study estimating property value, often at a distant time after the loss of land by the owner. One reason for the lengthy compensation proceedings is challenging the proposed amount of compensation, unregulated legal status of the property as well as imprecise legislation. It is important to properly develop geodetic and legal documentation which accompanies the application for issuance of the decision and is also used in compensation proceedings. Zmiana ustawy o szczególnych zasadach przygotowywania i realizacji inwestycji w zakresie dróg publicznych spowodowała przyspieszony tryb pozyskiwania gruntów przeznaczonych pod budowę dróg. Wydawana na jej podstawie decyzja o zezwoleniu na realizację inwestycji drogowej wywołuje szereg skutków, tj. m.in. ustala lokalizację drogi, zatwierdza podziały geodezyjne, zatwierdza projekt budowlany a także powoduje nabycie nieruchomości z mocy prawa, przez Skarb Państwa lub jednostki samorządu terytorialnego. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały iż w powyższym trybie miasto Kraków nabyło w okresie 3 lat ponad 31 ha gruntów przeznaczonych na realizację inwestycji drogowych. Odszkodowanie ustalane jest w drodze odrębnego postępowania w oparciu o operat szacunkowy okre

  20. LEGAL STATUS AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DINARIC LYNX POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sindičić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reintroduction of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx to the Dinaric Mountains in 1973 is one of the rare examples of successful reintroduction of a large predator. Today, Dinaric lynx population includes all lynx in Slovenia south of highway Ljubljana – Trieste, lynx in Croatia as well as lynx in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is considered that the population consists of mostly 130 individuals. Being small and endangered, the most important threats for its survival are poaching, depletion of prey, and possible consequences of reduced genetic diversity. In Slovenia, Croatia and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the lynx is a protected species, while the current legislation of the Republic of Srpska does not refer to the lynx at all. Slovenia and Croatia have coordinated their monitoring and management activities, while no organized monitoring system is present in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal is to establish bilateral cooperation between Croatia and Slovenia as a basis for the management of the entire lynx population in this part of Europe, including primarily Bosnia and Herzegovina but also Austria and Italy.Key words: Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx, Dinaric population, legal status, management

  1. The modern legal status of the Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastatis Haralambos K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The peninsula of Athos in Chalkidiki became a center of organized monachal life in monasteries in the year 963, when with the initiative of the Byzantine emperor Nichephorus Phocas the Monastery of Great Laura was founded. Since that time Mount Athos (=MA became the "Holy Mountain" and has attracted the moral and material support of the Byzantine emperors, various Orthodox countries and the flock till today. During this long period of more then one thousand years, MA was armed with a privileged legal status, the existence of which continues till now. The legal status of MA is based on three foundations: I. The law of the Hellenic Republic, II. The Public International Law, and III. The European Law. I. Fundamental significance for the status of MA have the provisions of article 105 of the Greek Constitution. Then is the Charter of MA, which is drawn up and voted by the Athonite monachal authorities and afterwards ratified by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Greek Parliament. The Charter is a law of superior formal force in comparison to the other laws. According to the Constitution and the Charter, MA has an ancient privileged status and is a self-governed part of the Greek State, whose sovereignty remains intact. Spiritually MA is under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, direct in the sense that the Ecumenical Patriarch is also the local bishop of MA The territory of the peninsula is exempt from expropriation and is divided among the twenty Athonite monasteries exclusively. The administrative power lies in self-administration of the first and the second degree. The first is exercised by the ruling twenty monasteries. This number may not be changed, nor may their position in the preeminence, nor towards their dependencies (skates, cells, hermitages. Nowadays all the monasteries are coenobitic, i.e. the monks share a common life and have no private property. The monasteries are administered by the abbot

  2. Legal status of privatdozents in Russian universities (1803-1884

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Il'ia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the formation of a special legal position of privatdozentur in Russian universities 1803-1884. The author analyzes a wide range of sources: Russian university statutes, documents and publications of the Ministry of National Education, comments on the draft statute in 1862. The aufer gradually build up the whole picture of the legislation on privatdozentur in its development. Article is thematically divided into sections in which the basic aspects of the Ministry of rulemaking activities are represented. Among them: the problem of privatdozentur, requirements to occupy the post, sources of fi nancing, the rights and obligations of university lecturers. Article is preceded by a brief excursion into the history of privatdozentur and reasoning about the discrepancies in the terminology. The author comes to new conclusions that the basic legislation on university lecturers have been laid already in the Charter of the University of Dorpat in 1803, and the term «privatdozent» came into use in the late 50s. (to fix the statute in 1863. The most important step in the development of institutions was the University Statute of 1863 and the University Statute of 1884 became a closing link in the chain of transformations privatdozentur in the universities of the Russian Empire. After 1884 Russian privatdozentur continued existence in a new environment and on a new qualitive basis, resulting in a tremendous increase in the number of privatdozents. Despite all the changes occurred from 1804 to 1884, following provisions remained constant: privatdozents were university professors, who were not included in the staff, were not involved in lectures, had no salary or other regular sources of funding. Until 1884 when they took office, they had to read a public trial lecture (or two and defend a thesis pro venia legendi.

  3. THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE SHARES TRADED ON RASDAQ MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RASDAQ Market was launched in Romania in 1996, appeared as a mirroring of the well-established American market NASDAQ (which stood for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. The role designated for RASDAQ was as platform for valuing papers issued in the privatization program in Romania (mass privatization process - MPP. In fact the participating companies to MPP had the legal obligation, under first Romanian Capital Market Law, No 52/1194, to be listed on a stock exchange. Although it attended a US regulatory model, RASDAQ had to adapt to European rules with the accession of Romania to the European Union. The relevant EU rules (i.e., Directive 2004/39/EC on markets in financial instruments – MiFID, about to be replaced by Directive 2014/65/EU – MiFID II provide for only two types of trading systems, i.e. regulated markets and multilateral trading facilities (MTF, while the RASDAQ Market securities fall under none of these two trading systems regulated by MiFID1. After an entire decade of uncertainty concerning the status of the RASDAQ, Romanian legislator settled the situation of shares traded on this market. This regulation means the end for RASDAQ. Law No. 151/2014 provides that the RASDAQ Market is to be closed within twelve months as of the effective date of such law (October 27, 2014. To this end companies listed on the RASDAQ Market will have to opt for listing on a regulated market or on a MTF or for becoming private companies. Such option rests on the hands of shareholders. Going private asks for shareholders’ rights protection so Romanian Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA provides a procedure implementing the right to withdraw from the company of the dissenting shareholders and for computing compensation for their shares (FSA Regulation No. 17/2014.

  4. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  5. Assessing the Legal Status of Limited Partnership (CV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoto Nadapdap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business actors can choose various kinds of business entities to run their business. The law gives business actors the freedom to decide which business entity to use as a vehicle for their business activities. From a multitude of businesses, essentially there are three forms, which are: individual proprietorship, partnership and limited liability company. Additionally, there are some that have the opinion that there are two categories of companies: companies that are legal entities and those which are not legal entities.

  6. legal status of sections 10 and 12 of the nigerian oil and gas industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALADEJARE: LEGAL STATUS OF SECTIONS 10 AND 12 OF THE NIGERIAN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY CONTENT DEVELOPMENT ACT. 129. LEGAL ..... 30 Indonesia – Autos, Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry (Panel report, ad- opted 23 July ... (1996) 5 Minnesota Journal of Global Trade 467. 32 United ...

  7. The Social and Legal Status of Gay and Lesbian Students: An Update for Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Debora L.; Douvanis, Costas J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes current social and legal status of gay students. Examines scope of the problem; defines legal issues; and cites relevant cases regarding students' rights of association, access to university services/facilities, and privacy. Discusses homosexuality as "illegal act" and notes differences between private and public institutions. Discusses…

  8. The majority legal status of women in southern Africa: implications for women and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, M P; Ngwenya, B N

    1996-01-01

    The introduction to this article, which provides an overview of the legal status of women in southern Africa, notes that the legal majority status of women is an important social policy issue with broad implications for the socioeconomic welfare of women and their families. The dual legal system (general law and customary law) which arose from colonization is a complicating factor in the legal life of women in the region. The colonial legal system legitimized the subordination of women, and during the colonial period the customary system was reinvented to the detriment of women by male African leaders working in collusion with colonial authorities. The next section of this article presents a brief description of the legal standing of women in terms of majority/minority status, marriage arrangements, and right to own immovable property in the states of Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The implications of the majority/minority status of women are then explored through consideration of the economic effects of majority rights, of family relationships, and of efforts to change the legal system (by changing the content and implementation of laws and by empowering women to take advantage of their rights). The barriers that impede women from asserting their rights point to the need for removal of broad-based economic, educational, and cultural constraints. Granting majority rights is an important step toward the goals of eliminating poverty and ending the marginalization of women.

  9. Legal Status Of The Election Organizer Ethics Council An Analysis Of Indonesian Election Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify and to analyze the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the General Election in Indonesia. This research is a normative research by using statute approach official records and the judges verdict which is then described qualitatively. These results indicate that the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia as supporting organ that serves to uphold ethics rule of ethics and guarding democracy. The authority of Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia sometimes out of authority. Ideal concept of the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in general elections was as supporting organ which have the infrastructure secretary general and administrative staff so it has a public legal entity as similar to the Election organizers serve as code of ethics enforcement agencies code of ethics and can equated to other state institutions.

  10. Identifying health insurance predictors and the main reported reasons for being uninsured among US immigrants by legal authorization status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Jie; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A; Ortega, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies differences in health insurance predictors and investigates the main reported reasons for lacking health insurance coverage between short-stayed (≤ 10 years) and long-stayed (>10 years) US immigrant adults to parse the possible consequences of the Affordable Care Act among immigrants by length of stay and documentation status. Foreign-born adults (18-64 years of age) from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey are the study population. Health insurance coverage predictors and the main reasons for being uninsured are compared across cohorts and by documentation status. A logistic-regression two-part multivariate model is used to adjust for confounding factors. The analyses determine that legal status is a strong health insurance predictor, particularly among long-stayed undocumented immigrants. Immigration status is the main reported reason for lacking health insurance. Although long-stayed documented immigrants are likely to benefit from the Affordable Care Act implementation, undocumented immigrants and short-stayed documented immigrants may encounter difficulties getting health insurance coverage. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Legal and administrative status of food irradiation in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the legal and administrative controls on food irradiation are based on the Nuclear Energy Act and more specifically on the Radioactive substances Decree. A licence from the Minister of Public Health and the Environment is needed for the use of Radiation sources. A special procedure is followed for examining and deciding on a request for irradiation of a given goodstuff. (NEA) [fr

  12. The legal status of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, political attitudes in Germany towards the nuclear industry have been characterised less by consistency than by some major policy shifts, and the same can be said for the legislation born of these attitudes. Although a number of these about-turns were predictable, others were less so because of their dependence on external factors. What now looks likely to be the final decision to phase out the civil use of nuclear power in Germany by 31 December 2022 raises a whole host of legal questions. In particular, the procedure followed to implement this phase-out provides ample material for debates on questions of constitutionality. Further matters of jurisprudential interest include the agreements concluded with the nuclear industry before the final phase-out decision was taken and the chronologically close political about-faces themselves. Finally, a degree of legal uncertainty still surrounds not only the as yet still unresolved issue of final repositories but also the resurgent debate over the source of funding for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. After providing an overview of the initial situation and the problems arising in connection with Germany's phasing out of the civil use of nuclear energy, this paper will place these issues in their proper legal context before evaluating them and highlighting the connection between these points of nuclear law and the current upheaval in German energy policy. (author)

  13. Update on the Pharmacology and Legal Status of Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozialeck, Walter C

    2016-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration. Recent studies have confirmed that kratom and its chemical constituents do have useful pharmacologic actions. However, there have also been increasing numbers of reports of adverse effects resulting from use of kratom products. In August 2016, the US Drug Enforcement Administration announced plans to classify kratom and its mitragynine constituents as Schedule 1 controlled substances, a move that triggered a massive response from kratom advocates. The purpose of this report is to highlight the current scientific and legal controversies regarding kratom.

  14. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  15. The Question of the Legal Nature and Status of Real Estate Objects for Religious Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Tupikin

    2016-12-01

    ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to research of the texts of foreign laws, regulations, and concordats on property relations between the state and religious institutions, on property rights of religious institutions and property relations in religious institutions (regarding property objects for religious purposes, on the status of some property objects for religious purposes. The author of the research analyzed the features of legal and contractual regulation of property relations of religious institutions and the status of property objects for religious purposes. The methodological foundation of the research presented has comparative and legal research method as the basis.

  16. The New Legal Framework for Acquiring ‘Well-Known’ Status in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Kaiyu; Barrett Christiansen, Claus; Elsmore, Matthew James

    2017-01-01

    of attention. Our legal analysis comprises a mix of positive and constructive critique of current Chinese trade mark law and practice, and reveals that to understand the rules regarding well-known status demands close examination of the institutional set-up in China. The article’s aim is to detail the new...... provisions and to address whether the new legal framework signals, overall, a more coherent phase of Chinese trade mark law ahead for determining and concluding well-known trade mark status in China....

  17. The Role of Generic Competence and Professional Expertise in Legal Translation. The Case of English and Polish Probate Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goźdź-Roszkowski Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to demonstrate how the concept of generic competence (primarily intended for monolingual specialized communication could be extended to address important issues in translating legal texts. First, generic competence is discussed against the backdrop of the related concept of translation competence. Then, a case study is presented which examines a closely related set of documents employed by the professional community of lawyers (represented by an English solicitor and Polish advocate engaged in the specialist domain of probate law (legal process related to the estate of a deceased person. It is argued that both generic competence and professional expertise should be included in the range of competencies required for the translator of legal texts.

  18. Counterstories of College Persistence by Undocumented Mexicana Students: Navigating Race, Class, Gender, and Legal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Susana Maria; Maldonado, Marta Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from four sets of four in-depth interviews and one subsequent focus group to examine how undocumented Mexicana students navigate identities and the meanings of race, gender, class, and legal status. We mobilize a critical race theory framework to center and explore the content of students' counterstories. While majoritarian…

  19. Science, truth, and forensic cultures: the exceptional legal status of DNA evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Many epistemological terms, such as investigation, inquiry, argument, evidence, and fact were established in law well before being associated with science. However, while legal proof remained qualified by standards of 'moral certainty', scientific proof attained a reputation for objectivity. Although most forms of legal evidence (including expert evidence) continue to be treated as fallible 'opinions' rather than objective 'facts', forensic DNA evidence increasingly is being granted an exceptional factual status. It did not always enjoy such status. Two decades ago, the scientific status of forensic DNA evidence was challenged in the scientific literature and in courts of law, but by the late 1990s it was being granted exceptional legal status. This paper reviews the ascendancy of DNA profiling, and argues that its widely-heralded objective status is bound up with systems of administrative accountability. The 'administrative objectivity' of DNA evidence rests upon observable and reportable bureaucratic rules, records, recording devices, protocols, and architectural arrangements. By highlighting administrative sources of objectivity, this paper suggests that DNA evidence remains bound within the context of ordinary organisational and practical routines, and is not a transcendent source of 'truth' in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An Investigation on Legal Protection for Women Victims of Climate Change; Studying African Regional Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mosaffa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, paying attention to the subject of Climate Change and its destructive effects on different countries around the world have caused regular activities as holding international conferences, and ratifying some international documents. Developing and non-developed countries have less facilities and infrastructures to protect themselves from climate change effects and are more vulnerable. Moreover, African countries due to their climate conditions are the most vulnerable. Even more, they have the main population of climate refugees. Although an increasing effort in Africa has resulted in more legal protection for victims of climate change especially women as the most volunrable people, and has been appeared in many regional treaties, but inconsistency and denial of responsibilities from developing countries have caused serious challenges for long term legal-protection of environmental refugees and displacements, especially women and children who are the most vulnerable of climate change victims. Since a sufficient protection of these people requires a common concern and responsibility between states, referring to the "common but different responsibility" principle is one of the most important legal pillar for burden sharing of the massive climate – change movements. تأثیرات تغییرات اقلیم در دهه‌های گذشته بسیار بزرگ بوده و توجه به این پدیده موجب انجام اقدامات معمول بین‌المللی از قبیل برگزاری کنفرانس، تشکیل نهادهـا و تنظیم اسناد گردیده است. در ایـن بین، کشورهای کمتر توسعه‌یافته از امکانات کمتری برای مقابله با این تغییرات برخوردار و در نتیجه آسیب پذیر‌ترند. منطقه آفریقا با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی خاص خود بیشترین آسیب را متحمل شده و هم

  1. The influence of legal status on the labor market impact of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T

    1985-01-01

    This article explores US labor market changes that would take place as a result of an amnesty that would regularize the status of undocumented workers without changing the total size of the alien workforce. The theoretical analysis suggests that the influence of legal status on market wage rates and on minimum wage enforcement is weak and that to the extent that there is an effect, it depends on particular institutional arrangements. Although data are not adequate for a definite measurement of these effects, those data that are available support this conclusion. It appears that the presence of undocumented as opposed to resident aliens can weaken union organizing efforts.

  2. [Expert Opinion Cases - What documentation is necessary from a legal perspective?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Evelyn

    2016-05-01

    Doctors are obliged by professional code and civil law (630 f German Civil Code [BGB] §) to document their medical activities in relation to patients. The documentation serves as proof of executed measures and thus for backing up medical/therapeutic issues. Documentation shall be made immediately after or during the treatment and if the original content remains recognizable, can be supplemented/modified. The patient record may be kept in paper form or in electronic form. Medical records are to be stored at least for 10 years. Some special laws (eg. laws governing X rays, Transfusion Act) require that documents be stored for longer periods. Documentation errors are - unlike patient information errors/medical malpractice - no basis for damages claims by the patient, but may result in medical malpractice process with the burden of proof in favor of the patient (§ 630 h BGB). The patient has, in principle, the right to inspect the medical documents relating to him. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Women’s status in the Polish Society in light of legal regulations till year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel–Harmas, Monika; Rachuta, Krzysztof

    Gender equality and women’s rights are the subjects of ongoing discussions in societies all over the world. Women, more often than men, are likely to become victims of gender-based violence. The studies carried out in Europe show that only the every second woman is aware of gender-based legal regulations in her country, 19% cannot recognise any support service, and what is particularly important for the health care system – 87% would like their medical doctor to ask patients with physical injuries about potential violence experienced. The Paper aims at presenting the women’s status in the Polish society in light of current legal regulations implemented to guarantee equal treatment of both genders in every walk of life, which then reflects in the society’s physical and emotional health condition. The Authors analysed the current legal regulations in Poland with the aim to draw a preliminary evaluation of the women’s status in Poland as far as the realisation of the Third Millennium Development Goal within the UN Millennium Project Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women is concerned. The basic tool to combat violence in Poland is so-called the Blue Cards system. Till 2015 the Polish current law protected the women’s rights to a great extent. However, many issues were not covered by legal regulations, and in a great number of cases, women’s rights were practically not respected. Consequently, despite resolutions and international conventions ratified by Poland in order to legally protect women’s rights, they still remain a partially solved issue.

  4. Falling through the Coverage Cracks: How Documentation Status Minimizes Immigrants' Access to Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2017-10-01

    Recent policy debates have centered on health reform and who should benefit from such policy. Most immigrants are excluded from the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) due to federal restrictions on public benefits for certain immigrants. But, some subnational jurisdictions have extended coverage options to federally ineligible immigrants. Yet, less is known about the effectiveness of such inclusive reforms for providing coverage and care to immigrants in those jurisdictions. This article examines the relationship between coverage and health care access for immigrants under comprehensive health reform in the Boston metropolitan area. The article uses data from interviews conducted with a total of 153 immigrants, health care professionals, and immigrant and health advocacy organization employees under the Massachusetts and ACA health reforms. Findings indicate that respondents across the various stakeholder groups perceive that immigrants' documentation status minimizes their ability to access health care even when they have health coverage. Specifically, respondents expressed that intersecting public policies, concerns that using health services would jeopardize future legalization proceedings, and immigrants' increased likelihood of deportation en route to medical appointments negatively influenced immigrants' health care access. Thus, restrictive federal policies and national-level anti-immigrant sentiment can undermine inclusive subnational policies in socially progressive places. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  5. International legal status of refugees in the territory of one party to armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesla Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The international law of armed conflicts provides a legal protection to refugees if they find themselves in the territory of warring parties. Refugees are regarded as protected persons, particularly in international armed conflicts. Refugees are people forced to leave their country to find a shelter in a foreign country as a result of political events or the treat of prosecution. The legal status of refugees was regulated first by Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951. The legal status of refugees in armed conflicts was regulated by Geneva Convention relating to Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 1949 and by Protocol I of 1977. Both acts regulate the status of refugees who, at the moment of the beginning of hostile activities find themselves in the territory of one party to the conflict i.e., the occupied territory. So it is therefore about foreigners who have been granted a refugee status before the start of the conflict. According to the same Convention, party to the conflict, at which territory the refugees find themselves in, cannot consider them, neither treat them as foreigners nor hostile citizens, just because they belong to a hostile state. Protocol I, expended the protection of refugees in the way it is regulated, that the persons treated like refugees or stateless persons, before the start of hostilities, would be under the protection of provisions of IV Geneva Convention in all circumstances and without any adverse distinction. We should particularly emphasize the right of refugees, not to be driven out to the country where their lives or freedom could be endangered because of their belonging to a group or because of their political opinion.

  6. Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa

    2015-09-19

    Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal

  7. 45 CFR 615.5 - Legal proceedings between private litigants: Testimony and production of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... her discretion, may grant an employee permission to testify or produce official records and information in response to a demand or request. In making this decision, the General Counsel shall consider... proceedings between private litigants: Testimony and production of documents. (a) No employee may produce...

  8. The Legal Forensic Model in Determining the Genuineness of Islamic Banking Documents and Their Application in Shariah Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Abdul Fattah Wan Ismail

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Falsification of documents does not only happen in civil courts. Shariah courts also face the same problems despite being ‘religiously’-oriented courts. It can be argued that, in the case of Malaysia, civil courts have clearer guidelines regarding the authentication of documents compared to Shariah courts. This study utilised a questionnaire survey as well as interviews in collecting data to measure the perceptions and opinions of relevant respondents with various stake holdings from those who practice law, with a Shariah and civil background. It should be noted that the key informants were comprised of forensic experts Shariah and civil practitioners. Analysis of the collected data indicates that the necessity of forming a legal forensic model is supported by the majority of the participants, which, therefore, implies that a forensic model that makes the authentication of documents more structured, clear and practical must be formed in Shariah courts. The practice of civil courts in relation to the authentication of documents should be used as a model in Shariah courts so long as they comply with the principles of Islamic law.

  9. The Economic and Legal Status of Cryptocurrency Both in Ukraine and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadievets Luidmila M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of cryptocurrency, researching the foreign experience in the use of digital currency in market economies and the possibilities of its adaptation to the conditions of Ukraine. Attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of using cryptocurrency in the development of the modern economy. Definitions of the category of «cryptocurrency» from different literary sources have been generalized. It has been defined that the first and most widespread cryptocurrency in different countries of the world is the Bitcoin. The features of issue and circulation of cryptocurrency both in Ukraine and abroad have been clarified. The international experience of work with cryptocurrency was considered and its potential influence on development of the national economy was determined. The economic and legal status of national and foreign cryptocurrencies was researched. The ways of overcoming the legal vacuum of the mode of work with national and foreign cryptocurrencies have been proposed.

  10. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: an ambiguous legal status for an ambiguous medical and social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2008-09-01

    The controversy about to which extend PGD may be applies is particularly interesting because it stresses on a paradoxical point concerning PGD. Although this technique is strictly regulated in most European countries where it is regularly practised, the legal status of PGD may appear to some as unethical because it may be viewed as a facilitator for those who would like to select children for reason other than medical. The need to test human embryos before birth and the consequences that may occur to those detected with some abnormalities also revives the issue of the respect due to the human embryo.

  11. Immigration, work and health in Spain: the influence of legal status and employment contract on reported health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Emily; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Benavides, Fernando G; Schenker, Marc; García, Ana M; Benach, Joan; Delclos, Carlos; López-Jacob, María José; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria

    2010-10-01

    To analyze the relationship of legal status and employment conditions with health indicators in foreign-born and Spanish-born workers in Spain. Cross-sectional study of 1,849 foreign-born and 509 Spanish-born workers (2008-2009, ITSAL Project). Considered employment conditions: permanent, temporary and no contract (foreign-born and Spanish-born); considered legal statuses: documented and undocumented (foreign-born). Joint relationships with self-rated health (SRH) and mental health (MH) were analyzed via logistical regression. When compared with male permanently contracted Spanish-born workers, worse health is seen in undocumented foreign-born, time in Spain ≤3 years (SRH aOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.09-6.56; MH aOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15-4.42); in Spanish-born, temporary contracts (SRH aOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.04-5.53); and in foreign-born, temporary contracts, time in Spain >3 years (MH: aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.13-3.38). In females, highest self-rated health risks are in foreign-born, temporary contracts (aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.91) and without contracts, time in Spain >3 years (aOR 4.63, 95% CI 1.95-10.97). Contract type is a health determinant in both foreign-born and Spanish-born workers. This study offers an uncommon exploration of undocumented migration and raises methodological issues to consider in future research.

  12. The legalization of corporate social responsibility: towards a new doctrine of international legal status in a global governance context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlmakers, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the responsibilities of business enterprises for human rights have been legally defined in international, European law and national law. This analysis, in turn, generates novel insights and impetus for reconsidering the

  13. The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Alice

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, federal and state laws regarding the medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids are in conflict and have led to confusion among patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers. Currently, cannabis is legal for medical purposes in 50% of the states, and another seventeen states allow products that are high in cannabidiol (CBD) and low in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) for medical use. Many of these artisanal products are sold in dispensaries or over the internet. However, none of these products has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Understanding how federal laws apply to clinical research and practice can be challenging, and the complexity of these laws has resulted in particular confusion regarding the legal status of CBD. This paper provides an up-to-date overview (as of August 2016) of the legal aspects of cannabis and cannabidiol, including cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and use for medical purposes. This article is part of a Special Issue title, Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Legal status of human dead body in the context of corporal phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka, Maria

    2002-01-01

    It is pointed out that phenomenological settlements are convergent with human dead body status change which has been made on the basis of Polish law. In the 1969 Criminal Code, in chapter "Crime Against the Liberty of Conscience And Religion", there was an entry concerning the protection of human dead body. The reason was that a dead body used to be placed in a sphere of sacrum. In the new Criminal Code, published in 1997, analogical entries were put in chapter "Crime Against Law And Order". In chapter "Crime Against the Liberty of Conscience And Religion" there is an entry concerning sanctions for disturbing funeral service. It means that in legal consciousness a dead body does not belong to a sacral sphere. A ceremony belongs to that sphere but not the subject of that ceremony--a dead body is just a thing. Perhaps in future a dead body will be legally acknowledged as a subject of legal turn, and it will be marked off and specially protected.

  15. Extending Court-Protected Legal Person Status to Non-Human Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zimmer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Left unattended, the corrosive effects of trafficking-related corruption have the potential to incrementally erode and eventually destroy the very foundations of legitimate and effective government and the rule of law. We see its fruits manifest worldwide to varying degrees in numerous governments. If this fledgling movement to extend to non-Homo sapiens the status of legal persons with all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person catches on and that status is institutionalized as justiciable in national and international court systems, it may transform how modern societies value and protect their non-human wildlife and marine resources. The time for such transformation is long overdue.

  16. Legal Reform and Women’s Rights in Lebanese Personal Status Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbous, Dima

    2017-01-01

    This report documents and analyzes two recent major reforms in Lebanese law whose purpose is to further gender equality for women in Lebanon: ( I ) the alteration of the Sunni personal status law to allow mothers to keep their children with them for a longer time following divorce and ( II ) the promulgation of Law no. 293 of 2014, which deals with domestic violence. The first reform relates to the religiously based, personal status laws that control major aspects of a woman’s life in Lebanon...

  17. THE STATUS OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CONCLUDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE EU LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoston Mohay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a member of the international community and is a party to numerous international agreements. The status of these international agreements in the EU legal order however is not made expressly clear by the Treaties. The most pertinent question that arises is whether secondary EU law may be reviewed in the light of international agreements in annulment procedures or preliminary ruling procedures before the Court of Justice of the EU. In its jurisprudence the Court of Justice has tied the possibility of review to the question of the direct effect of international treaties, but there are some issues of consistency in this regard. This problem is a part of the broader question of the relationship of international law and EU law, including the question whether this relationship is more akin to a monist or a dualist approach.

  18. LEVELS OF STATE REGULATION OF THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE DISPLACED PERSONS IN THE GOLD MINING INDUSTRY OF THE USSR (1930-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Elena Danilovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Repressive policy of the Soviet state remains one of the actual problems of Russian historical science. The peculiarities of the legal status of displaced persons, their contribution to the socio-economic development of certain regions, the use of labor by industry and government agencies deserve more attention. Purpose The purpose of this work is the analysis of public policy at different levels and reconstruction of the mechanism of development, adoption and implementation of government decisions in the employment of special group in the gold mining industry. Methodology The dialectical approach is a methodological basis of the research and was implemented through the principles of historicism, scientism, objectivity. Results General thrust of the state policy is determined by the directive of the central, regional and local authorities have particularized or duplicated relevant legal documents at higher levels. Dynamics of changes in the legal status of the displaced persons determined mutually exclusive trends: 1 the weakening or removal of restrictions, 2 toughening control. Priority in decisions belonged Party committees at all levels of management, while the real power had repressive authorities. The practical implementation of government decisions at the local level distorted and was adjusted based on personal or group interests. Practical implications The results can be used for further scientific development of the problem of forced migration.

  19. Healthcare utilization among Hispanic immigrants with diabetes: investigating the effect of US documentation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Elizabeth K; Matsuyama, Robin K

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have not examined whether documentation status has an effect on healthcare utilization among US Hispanic immigrants with diabetes. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Pew Hispanic Center and Robert Johnson Wood Foundation's 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey. Hispanic immigrants diagnosed with diabetes were included in analyses. The association between documentation status and healthcare utilization was assessed using logistic regressions. Of N = 577 Hispanic immigrants with diabetes, 80 % were documented immigrants and 81% reported having visited a healthcare provider in the last 6 months. Adjusting for confounders, those who were undocumented faced higher odds of having seen a healthcare provider more than 6 months ago or never when compared to those who were documented (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.01, 3.14). Unique opportunities in addressing healthcare disparities can be found in focusing on the Hispanic immigrant population living with diabetes.

  20. The Art of the Reveal: Undocumented High School Students, Institutional Agents, and the Disclosure of Legal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    For many undocumented youth, the end of high school and transition to adulthood is the first time they grapple with being undocumented. Given the negative social stigma attached to being undocumented, many youth may hesitate to reveal their legal status to a teacher or other school personnel. The purpose of this study was to identify the contexts…

  1. 45 CFR 400.43 - Requirements for documentation of refugee status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for documentation of refugee status. 400.43 Section 400.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE...

  2. 75 FR 32860 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Preparation of Drivers' Record of Duty Status To Document...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... at a truck stop that offers the scanning service. The image would then be electronically transmitted... Preparation of Drivers' Record of Duty Status To Document Compliance With the Hours-of-Service Requirements... original handwritten record, and subsequent electronic submission to the motor carrier of a scanned image...

  3. 42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pharmaceutical Assistance Programs (SPAP) as defined at § 423.454. (5) Coverage of prescription drugs for... status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Eligibility and Enrollment. § 423.56 Procedures to determine and document creditable...

  4. Cannabis use, attitudes, and legal status in the U.S.: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Brown, Qiana L; Sarvet, Aaron L; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-11-01

    Cannabis is widely used among adolescents and adults. In the U.S., marijuana laws have been changing, and Americans increasingly favor legalizing cannabis for medical and recreational uses. While some can use cannabis without harm, others experience adverse consequences. The objective of this review is to summarize information on the legal status of cannabis, perceptions regarding cannabis, prevalence and time trends in use and related adverse consequences, and evidence on the relationship of state medical (MML) and recreational (RML) marijuana laws to use and attitudes. Twenty-nine states now have MMLs, and eight of these have RMLs. Since the early 2000s, adult and adolescent perception of cannabis use as risky has decreased. Over the same time, the prevalence of adolescent cannabis use has changed little. However, adult cannabis use, disorders, and related consequences have increased. Multiple nationally representative studies indicate that MMLs have had little effect on cannabis use among adolescents. However, while MML effects have been less studied in adults, available evidence suggests that MMLs increase use and cannabis use disorders in adults. While data are not yet available to evaluate the effect of RMLs, they are likely to lower price, increase availability, and thereby increase cannabis use. More permissive marijuana laws may accomplish social justice aims (e.g., reduce racial disparities in law enforcement) and generate tax revenues. However, such laws may increase cannabis-related adverse health and psychosocial consequences by increasing the population of users. Dissemination of balanced information about the potential health harms of cannabis use is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Influence of Immigrant Parent Legal Status on U.S.-Born Children's Academic Abilities: The Moderating Effects of Social Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…

  6. From undocumented to lawfully present: Do changes to legal status impact psychological wellbeing among latino immigrant young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patler, Caitlin; Laster Pirtle, Whitney

    2018-02-01

    Exclusionary immigration policies, as a form of structural racism, have led to a sizeable undocumented population that is largely barred from access to resources in the United States. Existing research suggests that undocumented immigration status detrimentally impacts mobility, yet few studies have tested the impacts of legal status on psychological wellbeing. Most importantly, we know little about how changes to legal status impact wellbeing. Announced in 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program allows eligible undocumented youth to apply for temporary lawful status. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data from 487 Latino immigrant young adults in California collected in 2014 and 2015, we analyze the predictors of three specialized outcomes related to immigrants' psychological wellbeing-distress, negative emotions, and deportation worry before and after a transition from undocumented to lawfully present status. Results show that retrospective reports of past psychological wellness, when all respondents were undocumented, are predicted primarily by socioeconomic status. However, reports of current psychological wellness are predicted by DACA status. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the positive emotional consequences of transitioning out of undocumented status for immigrant young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Civil nuclear activities in Switzerland: status, legal framework, researches and harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the present status of nuclear activities in Switzerland. It indicates and comments the shares of the different sources of production of electricity, the electricity consumption, and electricity imports. It describes the structure of the sector. It proposes a history of nuclear development (first reactors, accidents, abandoned projects), describes the present nuclear plant stock, and the fuel cycle management (supply, waste management and storage, reprocessing). It presents the IFSN (the Swiss nuclear safety authority), the nuclear industry organization, and the professional bodies. Then, it describes the legal framework. It discusses the issue of nuclear plant replacement, and that of waste storage in deep geological layers, and comments the posture of the political parties on these issues. It gives a rather detailed overview of researches in the nuclear field (general framework and institutions, research reactors, researches in security and radioprotection, in nuclear safety, in controlled thermonuclear fusion, in waste management). Finally, it describes the harmonization efforts in relationship with international organizations (safety authorities and nuclear industries)

  8. The Occupational Cost of Being Illegal in the United States: Legal Status, Job Hazards, and Compensating Differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research and pervasive cultural narratives suggest that undocumented immigrant workers are concentrated in the most dangerous, hazardous, and otherwise unappealing jobs in U.S. labor markets. Yet, owing largely to data limitations, little empirical work has addressed this topic. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we impute legal status for Mexican and Central American immigrants and link their occupations to BLS data on occupational fatalities and occupational hazard data from the Department of Labor to explore racial and legal status differentials on several specific measures of occupational risk. Results indicate that undocumented workers face heightened exposure to numerous dimensions of occupational hazard - including higher levels of physical strain, exposure to heights, and repetitive motions - but are less exposed than native workers to some of the potentially most dangerous environments. We also show that undocumented workers are rewarded less for employment in hazardous settings, receiving low or no compensating differential for working in jobs with high fatality, toxic materials, or exposure to heights. Overall, this study suggests that legal status plays an important role in determining exposure to job hazard and in structuring the wage returns to risky work.

  9. Bullying and Cyberbullying: Their Legal Status and Use in Psychological Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthanna Samara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.

  10. Bullying and Cyberbullying: Their Legal Status and Use in Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K.; Morsi, Hisham

    2017-01-01

    Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour. PMID:29186780

  11. Bullying and Cyberbullying: Their Legal Status and Use in Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K; Morsi, Hisham

    2017-11-24

    Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.

  12. The Legal Status of Low Speed, Electric, Automated Vehicles in Texas : Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report explores whether vehicles that are both Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) and Automated Vehicles (AVs) may operate legally on public roads in Texas. First is an examination of Neighborhood Electric Vehicles and how they are governed i...

  13. A New Interpretation of the Modern Two-Pronged Tests for Insanity : Why Legal Insanity Should Not Be a 'Status Defense'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J.

    2018-01-01

    Michael Moore has argued that modern two-pronged tests for legal insanity are wrongheaded and that the insanity defense instead should be a 'status' defense. If Moore is right, then the laws on insanity in most legal systems are wrong. This merits a critical examination of Moore's critique and his

  14. Inheritance and legal status of an adoptee and adopter in the example of Vranje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnobrnja-Đorđević Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance and legal status of an adoptee and adopter is frequently identical to the relationship that exists between parents and their biological children. In this sense, it is especially interesting to inquire the inheritance rights of adoptee towards his/hers biological parents and kindred, and on the other hand, adopters and civic kin. From an ethnological standpoint, an adoption is interesting, among other things, because it addresses questions between blood/kin and civic relatedness, expressed fully in inheritance rights. The inheritance law, in practice since 2005 recognizes two types of adoption - total and partial. From an ethnological/anthropological standpoint, the following facts, found at the course of my fieldwork, are indicative- a married couple adopts a male child, usually from the closest husband's blood relatives (an uncle adopts a niece. Female children are rarely adopted, that is, only in cases when the closest blood relatives (through male and female lines have no male descendants. An adoptee inherits an entire family holding property of an adopter. An analysis of the inheritance rights of an adoptee and adopter allows an insight into the understanding of blood relatedness which exists in a consciousness of individuals. It turned out that being childless in a patriarchal social environment, such as Vranje, represents a crisis situation for couples, individuals but also for the whole patrilineal group of relatives. By adoption of a male relative belonging to an agnatic affiliation, the question of inheritance is solved, but also a problem of social and material reproduction of a patrilineal group and continuity of agnatic identity. This, of course, does not mean that an adoption of unrelated male child, especially in a case of total adoption, the same would not be possible. But it appears that the answer is in the fact that in the case of an adoption of unrelated child, there is a weakening of substantial sameness. In the

  15. Research document no. 20. The constitutionalizing of the international legal regime of the petroleum investments and the world market reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2000-09-01

    We analyse the new international legal regime for upstream petroleum investments and ''state contracts'' in general. In striking contrast to the ''New international economic order'' and ''Permanent sovereignty over natural resources'' ideologies of the 1960 and 1970, the emerging regime promotes the sanctification of contractual economic rights; the strict definition of State sovereign prerogatives, and the severe limitation of their conditions of exercise; the internationalization of the settlement of disputes through direct firm-State arbitration; the integration of national territories in a competitive, transparent, non-discriminative global market for investment. We demonstrate that it is rooted in the principles of liberal constitutionalism, hence promoting the internationalization of the Rule of Law. Such a legal regime is conducive to the expansion of the market for petroleum rights, as it restores the institutional conditions for credible commitment by the State. It will also accelerate the trend toward the ''commoditization'' of hydrocarbon resources. Bilateral investments treaties (especially the United States BIT program) as well as multilateral/regional instruments both general (draft MAI, MIGA, MERCOSUR, ALENA) and energy-specific (Energy Charter Treaty) are analysed as the main pillars and diffusion mechanisms of the new regime. A final paragraph indicates the way forward: the evaluation of the impact of this new legal regime on the world oil supply curve, especially as it eventually reaches - or not - some of the lowest-cost, biggest-resources countries. (author)

  16. Immigrants from the Crimea in Russia: Employment and Legal Status »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Belyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author is attempting to summarize all available information on the Crimean immigrants in the Russian state of the 15th–17th centuries. The article examines immigration processes of the Chinggisids: both the Gerays as well as other branches’ representatives, tribal noblemen and the “ordinary” Tatars. The author offers the following periodization of migration: 1 the last quarter of the 15th century – the 1530s; 2 the 1580s – early 17th century; 3 period after the completion of the Time of Troubles. According to the conclusions of the author, compared with migrants from other areas immigrants from the Crimean Khanate more easily integrated into the serving class of the local population and successfully maintained and expanded their “privileges”. At the same time, taking into account the specific nature of available sources, our knowledge is limited almost exclusively on the upper strata of the Crimean immigrants. Surviving documents contain very fragmentary information on immigrants who had inferior status in the social hierarchy compared to the Chinggisids or representatives of the clan aristocracy.

  17. Status of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) post-restart safety analysis and documentation upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.; Radcliff, T.D.; Rothrock, R.B.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), an experimental reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated for the US Department of Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, was shut down in November, 1986 after the discovery of unexpected neutron embrittlement of the reactor vessel. The reactor was restarted in April, 1989, following an extensive review by DOE and ORNL of the HFIR design, safety, operation, maintenance and management, and the implementation of several upgrades to HFIR safety-related hardware, analyses, documents and procedures. This included establishing new operating conditions to provide added margin against pressure vessel failure, as well as the addition, or upgrading, of specific safety-related hardware. This paper summarizes the status of some of the follow-on (post-restart) activities which are currently in progress, and which will result in a comprehensive set of safety analyses and documentation for the HFIR, comparable with current practice in commercial nuclear power plants. 8 refs

  18. Legal status, role and competencies of the commissioner for protection of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Commissioner for Protection of Equality is an autonomous and independent state authority established on the basis of the Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (2009, as a central national institution for protection from and suppression of discrimination. The article analyses the legal profile and position of the institution within the legal system, the role and scope of its authority in preventing and reacting to discrimination. In addition, the Commissioner’s acting upon complaints has been considered, as well as so-called strategic litigation, its potentials, and the indicators used for identifying strategically important cases of discrimination, and the requirements for initiating strategic litigation.

  19. Management control and status reports documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well organized, easily used standard for management control and status reports used in monitoring and controlling the management, development, and assurance of informations systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes.

  20. Persons or property – freedom and the legal status of animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Is freedom a plausible political value for animals? If so, does this imply that animals are owed legal personhood rights or can animals be free but remain human property? Drawing on different conceptions of freedom, I will argue that while positive freedom, libertarian self-ownership, and republican

  1. The Legal Status of Decisions by Human Rigths Treaty Bodies in National Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.; van Alebeek, R.

    2011-01-01

    The success of UN human rights treaty monitoring mechanisms (such as the Human Rights Committee) depends largely on the influence that the findings of these bodies exert on national legal orders. This paper examines the effects that national courts can and do give to such findings. It examines, on

  2. LEGALIZACIONES Y TRADUCCIONES OFICIALES EN CHILE: DOS ANACRONISMOS ANTE EL COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL MODERNO LEGALIZATION OF DOCUMENTS AND OFFICIAL TRANSLATIONS: TWO ANACHRONISMS BEFORE MODERN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Ried Undurraga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la obligatoriedad de presentar traducciones oficiales ante diversos organismos públicos y el requisito de legalizar los instrumentos públicos otorgados en el extranjero, presentando un análisis crítico de la regulación de estas materias en Chile. Se concluye que la regulación y práctica de estas materias en nuestro país importan trabas relevantes para el comercio y la integración económica internacional a la que aspira Chile. El autor plantea soluciones simples que pueden significar adelantos en estas materias. Respecto de la legalización de instrumentos públicos otorgados en el extranjero se presenta un estudio de la Convención de la Haya sobre la Eliminación del Requisito de la Legalización de Documentos Públicos Extranjeros, de Octubre de 1961, y la factibilidad de su implementación en Chile, a la luz de la experiencia comparada. La suscripción de dicha convención por parte de nuestro país significaría simplificar en gran medida los trámites de legalización de documentos que actualmente se exigen en nuestro país y que suelen ser largos y engorrosos. Respecto del requisito de las traducciones, el trabajo analiza los requisitos que al respecto establecen diversos organismos públicos actualmente en Chile, planteando alternativas que tiendan a agilizar la presentación de documentos otorgados en otros idiomas, lo que puede ser relevante al considerar que dichos documentos son muchas veces requeridos en el marco de procesos judiciales, licitaciones u operaciones comerciales, las que por su naturaleza están sujetas a estrictos plazos.This paper analyzes the mandatory requirements of filing official translations of documents written in foreign languages before public entities, and legalizing foreign public documents, offering a critic analysis of the applicable Chilean rules. This work concludes that the regulation and practice in our country on these subjects pose relevant obstacles for

  3. Is legal status impacting outcomes of group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder with male asylum seekers and refugees from Iran and Afghanistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Legal status and other resettlement stressors are known to impact mental health of asylum seekers and refugees. However, the ways in which they interact with treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with these populations is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether legal status and other resettlement stressors influence outcomes of a trauma-focused group PTSD treatment within a day-treatment setting with asylum seekers and refugees. Methods Sixty six male Iranian and Afghan patients with PTSD residing in the Netherlands were assessed with self-rated symptom checklists for PTSD, anxiety and depression, and a demographic questionnaire one week before and two weeks after the treatment. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the impact of legal status and living arrangements on the treatment outcomes per symptom domain. Results The results suggest that both asylum seekers and refugees can be helped with their mental health complaints with a trauma-focused group therapy for PTSD regardless of their legal status. Obtaining a refugee status in a course of the treatment appears to improve the treatment outcomes. Conclusions Legal status is impacting outcomes of group therapy for PTSD with male asylum seekers and refugees. Asylum seekers may benefit from group treatment regardless of unstable living conditions. PMID:23705873

  4. Is legal status impacting outcomes of group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder with male asylum seekers and refugees from Iran and Afghanistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drožđek, Boris; Kamperman, Astrid M; Tol, Wietse A; Knipscheer, Jeroen W; Kleber, Rolf J

    2013-05-24

    Legal status and other resettlement stressors are known to impact mental health of asylum seekers and refugees. However, the ways in which they interact with treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with these populations is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether legal status and other resettlement stressors influence outcomes of a trauma-focused group PTSD treatment within a day-treatment setting with asylum seekers and refugees. Sixty six male Iranian and Afghan patients with PTSD residing in the Netherlands were assessed with self-rated symptom checklists for PTSD, anxiety and depression, and a demographic questionnaire one week before and two weeks after the treatment. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the impact of legal status and living arrangements on the treatment outcomes per symptom domain. The results suggest that both asylum seekers and refugees can be helped with their mental health complaints with a trauma-focused group therapy for PTSD regardless of their legal status. Obtaining a refugee status in a course of the treatment appears to improve the treatment outcomes. Legal status is impacting outcomes of group therapy for PTSD with male asylum seekers and refugees. Asylum seekers may benefit from group treatment regardless of unstable living conditions.

  5. House Poor in Los Angeles: Examining Patterns of Housing-Induced Poverty by Race, Nativity, and Legal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2012-09-01

    Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data to consider racial/ethnic, nativity and legal status differences in one residual income standard. Logistic regression analyses of housing-induced poverty focus on whether there are differences among five distinct groups: U.S.born Latinos, Non-Hispanic Whites, and African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants, and unauthorized Latino immigrants. Results suggest that: 1) Latino natives are significantly more likely to be in housing-induced poverty than African Americans and Latino immigrants, and 2) unauthorized Latino immigrants are not more likely to experience the outcome than other groups. The present work extends previous research. First, the results provide additional evidence of the value of operationalizing housing affordability using a residual income standard. Alternatives to the ratio approach deserve more empirical attention from a wider range of scholars and policymakers interested in housing affordability. Second, housing scholarship to date generally differentiates among Latinos by ethnicity, nativity, and citizenship. The present study contributes to emerging research investigating heterogeneity among Latinos by nativity and legal status.

  6. The documental management of the Educational Secretary as guarantee of legality in the control of the university processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Armenteros Arencibia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogic professional formation aspires to obtain superior results in the documental management in order to guarantee the required confidence in the norms and p rocedures. The present article deal the theoretical bases that should be took into account for such aspiration, making emphasis in the characteristics of this process in the faculty of Infantile Education of the U CP the Pinar del Río.

  7. Relationship between documentation status and survival for medically underserved Hispanic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Echeverry, Eduardo; Kao, Lillian S; Robinson, Emily K; Silberfein, Eric J; Ko, Tien C; Wray, Curtis J

    2013-04-01

    Undocumented immigrants have been shown to be predisposed to worse clinical outcomes than the general population. This study examines survival in socioeconomically disadvantaged Hispanic documented and undocumented breast cancer patients. Analysis of a prospective breast cancer database of patients treated in a safety-net hospital system. Overall survival was the primary outcome, and advanced stage at diagnosis (regional and metastatic) was a secondary outcome. Survival analysis and multivariate regression modeling were performed. Seven hundred fifty-one breast cancer patients were identified. Undocumented patients presented at an earlier age and were likely to present with advanced stage. After adjusting for covariates, undocumented status was not associated with increased mortality. The diagnosis-to-treatment interval was significantly longer in undocumented patients. Despite undocumented patients presenting at a younger age, they have similar mortality compared with documented patients. This finding is partly explained by the local treatment afforded by undocumented patients, further studies are necessary to detail the reasons for these differences in presentation and outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The legal status of home education in post-communist countries of Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2012-08-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland and Hungary. This analysis of the legal environment for home education confirms on the one hand that these countries' approach is similar in many aspects. Generally, laws tend to regulate home education rather strictly, all home-educated children must be enrolled at some school, and these schools are mandated by the state to serve as supervisory bodies for home-educated children. This legal arrangement puts the parents of home-schooled children in a very subordinate position in relation to the school. Despite these restrictions, however, the states have gradually opened up the option for home education to quite a broad pool of potentially interested people. On the other hand, the findings show that there are also significant differences between individual countries. These differences provide a good illustration of the fact that, despite historical, economic and cultural similarities, political institutions and state bureaucracies in individual states act autonomously, which leads to different policy outcomes.

  9. Dilemmas in the Legal Treatment of the Status of People Living with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laki Ildikó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The legal treatment of disability affairs carries in itself an inherent contradiction due to the nature of modern society and free-market economy. On the one hand both the historically developed notions of essentialism and on the other the particular-functional definition of manhood drawing its roots from the established democratic order and market economics are present simultaneously. However, within the current order of things there is an unbridgeable divide between them. Nevertheless, with the progression of time there is a slow gradual shift discernible away from the functional definition with the parallel strengthening of the essentialist approach. This shift is further exaggerated by the more widespread acceptance of the rights of self-determination and the provision of opportunities for the disabled, the emergence of social self-determination in case of a population subgroup living under special conditions. For the proper interpretation of the currents in the evolution of legal treatment of disabled people it would be indispensable to institute a proper social-discourse analysis, which, however, exceeds in scope its narrowly defined task.

  10. Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (NG-T-3.2). Basis for Evaluation - Legal, safety, security, safeguards issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2010-01-01

    A framework for achieving high levels of nuclear safety and security worldwide Builds upon: Legal Instruments; Use of IAEA SSs and security guidance; Harmonization of national regulations; Exchange of knowledge, experiences & regulatory practices and Multinational cooperation and safety reviews. The IAEA is the depository of many key international conventions and legal agreements. All countries with operating nuclear power plants are now parties to the Convention. The main objective of Convention on Nuclear Safety is to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international cooperation including, where appropriate, safety related technical co-operation. All practical efforts must be made to prevent and mitigate nuclear or radiation accidents. The primary means of preventing and mitigating the consequences of accidents is “defence in depth”. Safety assessments are to be carried out and documented by the organization responsible for operating the facility, are to be independently verified and are to be submitted to the regulatory body as part of the licensing or authorization process. Licensing process must be well-defined, clear, transparent and traceable. The public should be given an opportunity to provide their views during certain steps of the licensing process

  11. The legal status and monastic organization on Mount Athos in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mount Athos represents a unique monastic community modelled after the great monastic centres of the Byzantine (Roman Empire. Owing to the benevolence of Byzantine rulers a specific system of administration was established on Mount Athos, and the monks retained a high degree of self-administration. Although the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century took control of Mount Athos, its specific legal regime was not abolished. In the first centuries of Ottoman rule there were no significant attempts of introducing new or revising the old rules which regulated the organization of the administration on Mount Athos. It was only in the 18th century that the period of the more lively legislative activities began. During that period the Athonite administrative bodies, more or less similar to the current ones, were formed. This paper deals with the reasons that led to their creation and their evolution in the 18th century.

  12. Data management for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project by use of document status and hold systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.S.; Beck, A.E.; Akhtar, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development, framework, and scope of the Document Status System and the Document Hold System for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project. It shows how data are generated at five locations and transmitted to a central computer for processing and storage. The resulting computerized data bank provides reports needed to perform day-to-day management and engineering planning. Those reports also partially satisfy the requirements of the Project's Quality Assurance Program

  13. Enhancing and diluting the legal status of subsidiary protection beneficiaries under Union law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2016-01-01

    ruling of 1 March 2015 in the Alo and Osso case. The Court’s answer and its reasoning is equally interesting, groundbreaking and controversial as it, on the one hand, strengthens the impact of the Geneva Convention (the United Nations Convention on the Status of Refugees) on the QD standards...

  14. The status of mycology in Africa: A document to promote awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryzenhout, Marieka; Jefwa, Joyce M; Yorou, Nourou S

    2012-06-01

    The African Mycological Association (AMA) promotes mycology amongst members in Africa and globally. The AMA has about 200 members, mostly from African states but also with strong representation from Europe and USA, amongst others. Recent efforts by members of the AMA focused on reviving and developing mycological research and networking in Africa. A great deal must, however, still be done to promote the AMA under African mycologists, and those elsewhere with interests in Africa. African mycologists also experience challenges typical of the developing world and a great deal of fungi still needs to be discovered. This can also be seen as representing great opportunities for research and collaboration. Several issues pertinent to mycology in Africa were discussed during Special Interest Group sessions of the 9th International Mycological Congress in 2010, and through several opinion pieces contributed by AMA members in the AMA newsletter, MycoAfrica. This contribution serves as a document to summarise these in a form that can be presented to fellow mycologists, biologists and other scientists, relevant government departments, funding bodies and Non-Governmental Organizations and that pins down the importance of mycology, the status thereof in Africa and the need to promote it more.

  15. REDD+ in the Philippines: Legal status and conservation of mangrove forests in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Estenzo Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves perform a crucial role in maintaining the ecological integrity of the coastal ecosystem. They  act as filters in the coastal zone, preventing the damaging effects of upland sediments on seagrass beds and coral reefs, minimise the effects of storm surges and act as carbon sinks that mitigate climate change. These essential services, however, are degraded through indiscriminate cutting, conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds, reclamation projects and other coastal developments and pollution. Experts reveal that the Indo-Malay Philippine Archipelago has one of the highest rates of mangroves loss. From an estimated 500,000 hectares of mangrove cover in 1918, only 120,000 hectares of mangroves remain in the Philippines today. The country has had the legal and policy framework to protect and conserve mangroves. But weak implementation of laws, overlapping functions among agencies and, in general, poor management by the people and local governments have hindered the sustainable management of mangrove forests. Positive developments, however, are taking place with the promulgation of laws on climate change and executive orders which specifically include mangrove and protected areas under the National Greening Program (NGP and addresses equity, food security and poverty issues by giving preference to NGP beneficiary communities as a priority in the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT Program.  Moreover, participatory Planning and Multi-stakeholder Approaches are among the strategies contemplated by the Philippine National REDD + Strategy. The article examines the implementation and effects of the Philippine National REDD+ Strategy, the National Climate Change Action Plan which specifically integrates REDD+ and ecosystem valuation into decision-making, and the executive orders which support the mainstreaming of the National Greening Program.

  16. Is legal status impacting outcomes of group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder with male asylum seekers and refugees from Iran and Afghanistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Droždek (Boris); A.M. Kamperman (Astrid); W.A. Tol (Wietse); J.W. Knipscheer (Jeroen); R.J. Kleber (Rolf)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Legal status and other resettlement stressors are known to impact mental health of asylum seekers and refugees. However, the ways in which they interact with treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with these populations is still poorly understood. The aim of this

  17. The European Status Quo in legal recognition and patient-care services of occupational skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, C; Salavastru, C; Agner, T

    2016-01-01

    countries networking within the EU Horizon 2020 COST Action TD1206 'StanDerm' contributed to a standardized survey regarding current national regulations, implemented for the recognition, prevention and management as well as possible compensation regulations in their individual country of residence. RESULTS...... documentation system (national registry) on occupational skin diseases. So far, representatives of only three countries of this survey referred to a specific established national programme for the prevention, management or compensation of occupational skin cancers acquired during work-related UVR exposure...... binding regulations for the protection and management of work-related skin cancer. The design of a common regulation to meet the increasing incidence of skin cancers in outdoor workers should become part of the European agenda, ensuring equal working and living conditions in the member states....

  18. [THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTS OF THE HUMAN BODY: OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF LAW?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.

  19. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  20. LEGAL STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL BANKRUPT DEBTORS AFTER TERMINATION OF BANKRUPTCY AND REHABILITATION UNDER INDONESIAN BANKRUPTCY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonyendah Retnaningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian bankruptcy law system adheres to the debt collective principle which is general seizure (sita umum of the debtor’s property as guarantee for the payment of debt through the bankruptcy institution. The principle of debt collective stresses that the debtor’s debt shall be paid immediately from the property owned by the debtor. Based on such principle, bankruptcy serves as a means of coercion to materialize the creditors’ rights through liquidation of the debtor’s assets. Bankruptcy law in Indonesia does not recognize the principle of debt forgiveness, among others, the implementation of debt relief granted to the debtor to pay off debts that are truly incapable of being fulfilled. According to the Bankruptcy Law, after the completion of the bankruptcy process, the debtor is no longer in a state of bankruptcy, because the end of bankruptcy has revoked the status of insolvent debtors, hence debtors are considered as being competent to take care of their property. However, the termination of bankruptcy does not necessarily absolve the debtor from the remainder of the debt; creditors are entitled to collect it and debtors are obligated to pay it off. Upon the completion of the bankruptcy process, debtors or their heirs may apply for rehabilitation. However, rehabilitation is only to be granted if all creditors state that they have obtained payment in a satisfactory manner, meaning that recognized creditors will not file claims against the debtor concerned again even though they may not have received payment on all of their outstanding receivables. Request for rehabilitation can only be granted if the debtor has completed the entire scheme of bankruptcy and creditors were satisfied with the payment.

  1. Procedural and legal status of the injured party according to the new criminal procedure code of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubač Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author is critically analyzing certain solutions of the new Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Serbia from 2011 which consider the injured party and their rights in the criminal proceeding. He states that unlike the previous ones, this Code does not improve the status of the injured party but makes it even worse. The author particularly claims that the legislator yet again failed to establish the right of the injured party to be efficiently compensated in the event of a serious offense from a special fund and immediately after the crime has been committed, but prior to the end of the criminal proceeding. In the provision of the Code which states that the injured party may take over the prosecution and become a prosecutor replacing the Public Prosecutor (subsidiary prosecutor only if the Public Prosecutor withdraws after having confirmed the indictment, however not in the cases of rejection of criminal charges or withdrawal from the prosecution in the previous proceeding, the author sees not only the limitation of the rights of the injured party, but also jeopardy of the public interest. This is due to the fact that, freed from a threat of the subsidiary accusation by the injured party, the Public Prosecutor has gained an absolute and uncontrolled monopoly over the initiation of criminal proceeding. According to the author, the subject of the proceedings will not have any substantial use from some rights which the new Code assigns to the injured party (for example the right to appeal against the judgment on the adjudicated property claim. In conclusion, the author stresses out that in spite of his objections against certain provisions in the Code, the legal status of the injured party is more favorable in the criminal law of Serbia then in many other countries.

  2. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F; Rashmi, V H; Weir, Charlene R; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms' exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians.

  3. Parental immigration status is associated with children's health care utilization: findings from the 2003 new immigrant survey of US legal permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Katherine; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Curry, Leslie A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Desai, Mayur M

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between parental immigration status and child health and health care utilization. Using data from a national sample of immigrant adults who had recently become legal permanent residents (LPR), children (n = 2,170) were categorized according to their parents' immigration status prior to LPR: legalized, mixed-status, refugee, temporary resident, or undocumented. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare child health and health care utilization by parental immigration status over the prior 12 months. Nearly all children in the sample were reported to be in good to excellent health. Children whose parents had been undocumented were least likely to have had an illness that was reported to have required medical attention (5.4 %). Children whose parents had been either undocumented or temporary residents were most likely to have a delayed preventive annual exam (18.2 and 18.7 %, respectively). Delayed dental care was most common among children whose parents had come to the US as refugees (29.1 %). Differences in the preventive annual exam remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Parental immigration status before LPR was not associated with large differences in reported child health status. Parental immigration status before LPR was associated with the use of preventive annual exams and dental services. However, no group of children was consistently disadvantaged with respect to all measures.

  4. Status of will governance in determination of law governing business documents validity

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Mohammadi; Saeed Kheradmandi

    2014-01-01

    Law governing substantive conditions of business documents issuance is one of important problems facing investigators. Since law governing business contracts and documents is governing out of limits of national law today, value and effect of will governance is of interest to jurisprudents because contract parties are allowed to determine contract effects and terms consensually to the extent to which these effects and terms do not contradict public order and imperative law and, in fact, they c...

  5. LEGAL STATUS OF WARSHIP WRECKS FROM WORLD WAR II IN INDONESIAN TERRITORIAL WATERS (INCIDENT OF H.M.A.S. PERTH COMMERCIAL SALVAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senada Meskin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Second World War was one of the most devastating experiences that World as a whole had to endure. The war left so many issues unhandled, one such issue is the theme of this thesis, and that is to analyze legal regime that is governing sunken warships. Status of warship still in service is protected by international law and national law of flag State, stipulating that warships are entitled on sovereign immunity. The question rises whether or not such sovereign immunity status follows warship wreck? Contemporary international law regulates very little considering ‘sovereign wrecks’, but customary international law, municipal court decisions and State practices are addressing issue quite profoundly, stating that even the warship is no longer in service it is still entitled on sovereign immunity status. HMAS Perth is Australian owned warship whose wreck current location is within Indonesian Territorial Sea. Recent reports show that commercial salvaging has been done, provoking outrage amongst surviving HMAS Perth’s naval personnel and Australian historians. In order to acquire clear stand point on issue of Sovereign Wrecks legal status, especially of HMAS Perth’s wreck, an in-depth analysis of legal material is necessary. Keywords: Territorial Waters, Warship, Warship Wreck, Salvage

  6. The Issue Animal in the Perspective of the Federal Supreme Court and the "Regulatory Aspects Of Legal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Chalfun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze the legal nature of nonhuman animals in the doctrine of Animal Law, legal order and position of the Federal Supreme Court based on judgments that deal with conflict between cultural manifestation and cruelty to animals. Brazilian legislation calls for a multiplicity of positions on the legal nature of animals, which may influence positively or negatively the treatment accorded to them. It can be seen that in the STF the predominance of two understandings: anthropocentric, equivalent to good, while of another biocentric, moral consideration as to the animals and possibility of change of the legal nature.

  7. Present status of the EUR document the challenge of new incorporations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomar, F.

    1998-01-01

    EUR (European Utilities Requirements) Document is in process, with DTN's active participation since the beginning. Two new Utilities representing non-European Union Countries (Switzerland and Russia) have joined the EUR Document Group of Sponsoring Utilities, whose members up to now belonged to nine utilities from European Union Countries. Although, in general terms, this incorporation is enriching, this late arrival does present problems due to the fact that the document is now under discussion the incorporation of different technological practices, and last but not least, different Licensing Approaches. Should be remembered that currently an overall review by the different Regulatory Bodies is in process and an intervention by the E.C. is being prepared. Both inside and outside of the European Continent, other Utilities have also shown their interest in the EUR Document. EUR Document Volume 3 sets a compliance evaluation between Projects from different Nuclear Island Manufactures and EUR's Top Tier Requirements (established in Volume 1) and Detailed Requirements (established in Volume 2). Presently a comparison is being carried out for three Nuclear Island Suppliers: ABB, NPI (KWU and Framatome Joint Venture) and Westinghouse. In the near future it is foreseen to initiate compliance evaluation for two more N.I. suppliers: General Electric and Rosenergatom. Challenges of these new incorporations are analyzed in what follows. (Author)

  8. Legal knowledge, needs, and assistance seeking among HIV positive and negative women in Umlazi, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Holness, David; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2016-01-22

    The rights of women and people living with HIV (PLHIV) are protected under South African law, yet there is a gap in the application of these laws. While there are numerous systemic and social barriers to women's and PLHIV's exercise of their legal rights and rights to access social services, there has been little effort to document these barriers as well as legal needs and knowledge in this context. 1480 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recruited from an antenatal clinic in Umlazi Township completed a questionnaire on legal knowledge, experience of legal issues, assistance seeking for legal issues, and barriers to seeking assistance. We compared the legal knowledge and experience of legal issues of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and described assistance seeking and barriers to assistance seeking among all women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had high levels of knowledge of their legal rights. There were few important differences in legal knowledge and experience of legal issues by HIV status. The most common legal issues women experienced were difficulty obtaining employment (11 %) and identification documents (7 %). A minority of women who had ever experienced a legal issue had sought assistance for this issue (38 %), and half (50 %) of assistance sought was from informal sources such as family and friends. Women cited lack of time and government bureaucracy as the major barriers to seeking assistance. These results indicate few differences in legal knowledge and needs between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in this context, but rather legal needs common among women of reproductive age. Legal knowledge may be a less important barrier to seeking assistance for legal issues than time, convenience, and cost. Expanding the power of customary courts to address routine legal issues, encouragement of pro bono legal assistance, and introduction of legal navigators could help to address these barriers.

  9. Documentation of Pregnancy Status, Gynaecological History, Date of Last Menstrual Period and Contraception Use in Emergency Surgical Admissions: Time for a Change in Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Bowns, M; Wilson, M S J; Mustafa, A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether pregnancy status, gynaecological history, date of last menstrual period and contraceptive use are documented in emergency female admissions of reproductive age admitted to general surgery. This is a retrospective study. This study was conducted in the United Kingdom. Females of reproductive age (12-50 years) admitted as an emergency to general surgery with abdominal pain were considered in this study. Retrospective analysis of medical notes of emergency female admissions with abdominal pain between January and September 2012. We recorded whether a pregnancy test result was documented (cycle 1). Results were analysed and a prompt added to the medical clerk-in document. We re-audited (cycle 2) between January and June 2013 looking for improvement. Documented pregnancy status within 24 h of admission and prior to any surgical intervention. 100 case notes were reviewed in stage 1. 30 patients (30 %) had a documented pregnancy status. 32 (32 %), 25 (25 %) and 29 (29 %) had a documented gynaecology history, contraceptive use and date of last menstrual period (LMP), respectively. 24 patients underwent emergency surgery, 6 (25 %) had a documented pregnancy status prior to surgery. Of 50 patients reviewed in stage 2, 37 (75.0 %) had a documented pregnancy status (p surgical admission document has significantly improved the documentation of pregnancy status and gynaecological history in our female patients, particularly in those who require surgical intervention. A number of patient safety concerns were addressed locally, but require a coordinated, interdisciplinary discussion and a national guideline. A minimum standard of care, in females of reproductive age, should include mandatory objective documentation of pregnancy status, whether or not they require surgical intervention.

  10. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  11. Draft Revised Agreement Between the Government of the French Republic and the European Organization for Nuclear Research concerning the Legal Status of the Said Organization in France - Changes to be made to the English and French Texts of the Draft

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Draft Revised Agreement Between the Government of the French Republic and the European Organization for Nuclear Research concerning the Legal Status of the Said Organization in France - Changes to be made to the English and French Texts of the Draft

  12. SHARP pre-release v1.0 - Current Status and Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rahaman, Ronald O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The NEAMS Reactor Product Line effort aims to develop an integrated multiphysics simulation capability for the design and analysis of future generations of nuclear power plants. The Reactor Product Line code suite’s multi-resolution hierarchy is being designed to ultimately span the full range of length and time scales present in relevant reactor design and safety analyses, as well as scale from desktop to petaflop computing platforms. In this report, building on a several previous report issued in September 2014, we describe our continued efforts to integrate thermal/hydraulics, neutronics, and structural mechanics modeling codes to perform coupled analysis of a representative fast sodium-cooled reactor core in preparation for a unified release of the toolkit. The work reported in the current document covers the software engineering aspects of managing the entire stack of components in the SHARP toolkit and the continuous integration efforts ongoing to prepare a release candidate for interested reactor analysis users. Here we report on the continued integration effort of PROTEUS/Nek5000 and Diablo into the NEAMS framework and the software processes that enable users to utilize the capabilities without losing scientific productivity. Due to the complexity of the individual modules and their necessary/optional dependency library chain, we focus on the configuration and build aspects for the SHARP toolkit, which includes capability to autodownload dependencies and configure/install with optimal flags in an architecture-aware fashion. Such complexity is untenable without strong software engineering processes such as source management, source control, change reviews, unit tests, integration tests and continuous test suites. Details on these processes are provided in the report as a building step for a SHARP user guide that will accompany the first release, expected by Mar 2016.

  13. Management of superficial vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis: status and expert opinion document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Agus, G; Georgiev, M; Errichi, B M; Marinucci, R; Errichi, S; Filippini, A; Pellegrini, L; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Cipollone, G; Lania, M; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Bavera, P; Fano, F; Dugall, M; Adovasio, R; Gallione, L; Del Boccio, G; Cornelli, U; Steigerwalt, R; Acerbi, G; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Hosoi, M; Stuard, S; Corsi, M; Di Ciano, L; Simeone, E; Collevecchio, G; Grossi, M G; Di Giambattista, F; Carestia, F; Zukowski, A

    2007-01-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis is characterized by clotting of superficial veins (ie, following direct trauma) with minimal inflammatory components. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a minimally thrombotic process of superficial veins associated with inflammatory changes and/or infection. Treatments generally include analgesics, elastic compression, anti-inflammatory agents, exercise and ambulation, and, in some cases, local or systemic anticoagulants. It is better to avoid bed rest and reduced mobility. Topical analgesia with nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory creams applied locally to the superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis area controls symptoms. Hirudoid cream (heparinoid) shortens the duration of signs/symptoms. Locally acting anticoagulants/antithrombotics (Viatromb, Lipohep, spray Na-heparin) have positive effects on pain and on the reduction in thrombus size. Intravenous catheters should be changed every 24 to 48 hours (depending on venous flow and clinical parameters) to prevent superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis and removed in case of events. Low molecular weight heparin prophylaxis and nitroglycerin patches distal to peripheral lines may reduce the incidence of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis in patients with vein catheters. In case of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis, vein lines should be removed. In neoplastic diseases and hematological disorders, anticoagulants may be necessary. Exercise reduces pain and the possibility of deep vein thrombosis. Only in cases in which pain is very severe is bed rest necessary. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis should be established in patients with reduced mobility. Antibiotics usually do not have a place in superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis unless there are documented infections. Prevention of superficial vein thrombosis should be considered on the basis of patient's history and clinical evaluation.

  14. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL-LEGAL RESEARCH OF THE PHENOMENON OF THE GENDER AS THE FACTOR OF THE SOCIAL STATUS OF THE UKRAINIAN WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. Under the conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the European community, there is an urgent need to restructure all social institutions, freeing them from all forms of discrimination, including on the basis of gender. Modern problems of the state's socioeconomic development require a new look at the functional roles of men and women, as well as the understanding that the political, economic, cultural future of society depends on overcoming gender stereotypes that are deeply rooted in the social and individual consciousness and inhibit social progress, and also the development of democracy. That is why, today, it is extremely important to study the issue of social influence and the role of women and determine their social status against the backdrop of the historical development of our state. Purpose. The article studies the emergence and adoption of the phenomenon of gender as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman in the historical, philosophical and legal realm. Methodology. In the research process the authors used the methods of analyzing and synthesizing historical sources to study the content and main provisions of philosophical concepts and legal norms that formed the social status of a Ukrainian woman at different historical periods of society development, with their subsequent comparison and generalization. Originality. The work further develops the theory of gender processes with the use of interdisciplinary approaches to the study of the phenomenon of gender in the historical, philosophical and legal field as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman, to critically re-evaluate the value guidelines on the construction of modern society and the formation of new ideas about the role and model of behavior of men and women and their interaction in society. Conclusions. For a long time, the social status of women was formed under the influence of philosophical views and concepts, slowly turned into

  15. Legal status and source of offenders' firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-02-01

    Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.

  16. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing.

  17. The legal status of Afghan refugees in Pakistan, a story of eight agreements and two suppressed premises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.

    2008-01-01

    Over 25 per cent of present day refugees enjoy asylum in Pakistan, most of them having been there for more than a quarter of a century. Pakistan is not, however, a party to either the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. The

  18. Implementation in Russia and the European Union of International Safety Standards of Identity Documents with Biometric Data: Legal Regulation and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the findings of a research into particular aspects of use of identity documents with personal biometric data. It considers the international safety standards of documents with biometric data worked out by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, pursuant to which those data should be included into machine-readable documents used by their holders for travel to various states. It contains the information on the implementation of these international standards in Russian and European Union law. The author has substantiated a conclusion to the effect that the procedure established in Russia for production and issuance, as well as for use of international, diplomatic and service passports identifying the Russian Federation citizen outside the Russian Federation territory, containing electronic information carriers with personal and biometric personal data, currently conforms to the international safety standards of documents with biometric data. The article surveys the experience of introducing domestic biometric identity documents - electronic passports in various countries of the world, and the problems arising therefrom. It substantiates the advantages and disadvantages of determining a passport of the Russian Federation citizen issued in the form of an identity card with an electronic information carrier, as the main document of the Russian Federation citizen identifying him domestically within the country's territory.

  19. European civil procedure: current status within the legal system of the European Union and its member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Terekhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9The purpose of the article is to provide a critical analysis of different approaches towards the notion of “European Civil Procedure”, to substantiate by means of legal and judicial practice, research papers a true essence and legal nature of the European Civil Procedure.The methodological basis for the study: general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison; private and academic (interpretation, comparison, formal-legal.Problems and basic scientific results: the notion of “European Civil Procedure”, which describes the process of EU Member States judicial cooperation, bears largely a conventional character. It is not used officially by the organs and institutions of the EU, or its Member States. Moreover, it assumes an unjustified monopolization of the European discourse on the side of EU’s initiatives, although Europe is not limited to that association neither in geographical, nor in a legal sense. However, the given notion has become quite colloquial and does not cause any difficulties to the beneficiaries, and thus we may use the terms “European Civil Procedure” (ECP and “Civil Procedure of the EU” (CP EU as synonyms.Different approaches towards the nature of the European Civil Procedure claim that it may be regarded as: (1 a separate (communitary regime of Private International Law (or, otherwise, International Civil Procedure; (2 means to approximate national rules of Civil Pro-cedure; 3 a particular system of judicial decisions recognition; (4 an independent area of supranational law; 5 an aggregate of all or part of the qualities mentioned above.The system of EU Civil Procedure constitutes “federal” procedural law of the Union that functions side-by-side national procedural rules. It governs those relations that go beyond the borders of one Member State, but not the EU itself. Relations between Member States and third nations are still generally out of the federal competence.We need not to

  20. Legal capacity as a universal human right and a determinant of social status of people with mental disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Milan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the UN Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brought about a core shift to how the international community and human rights law see and treat human disability in general. This paradigm shift materilizes itself in a number of provisions ranging from those which catalogue the proclaimed human rights as they are in the context of special implementation and protection of people with disabilities, to those that introduce a level of specificity in light of their holders' particular needs. But the strongest presence of the shift to this regard can be found in the Article 12 CRPD that sheds new light on the concept of (legal capacity of people with (mental disabilites. According to this norm and put quite simply - there should be no difference in observing and treating capacity of a person with disabilities to that of any other person. This is not only the matter of prohibiting discrimination on grounds of mental impairments, but furthermore preventing the system from establishing a classification in which a person with psychosocial or intellectual impairment would be a second-rate citizen, an object of law or a victim of legal, social and family abuse, someone who is a burden to his entire environment, someone who does not have a say in any case concerning his own life and wellbeing. Legal capacity should not be a goal to be fighting for, but a universal human right. Of course and unfortunatelly, such a shift is purely a formal one, when not causing due reform within the national systems and without proper implementation in the member states. What is thought urgently needed and directly required by the given provision is removing the system features that allow deprivation of legal capacity on the bases of mental impairments and introducing a humane and human rights oriented model in which the decision making of these people would be autonomous and supported, and with only very restricted exceptions, done by them and not

  1. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  2. The Legal Status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle in Spain and Thoughts on Environmental Law and Policy as Contributing Factors in the Conservation of Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila Adalberti, with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of applicable international, European and Spanish laws and policies is given, and the role played by these instruments is considered together with successes attained with diverse conservation goals in respect of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. The exceptionally comprehensive character of the legal protection of the Spanish Imperial Eagle is highlighted, in conjunction with some extra-legal factors that have contributed to successful outcomes. While quantification of the role of the law in the conservation of a species remains elusive, it is probably safe to conclude that environmental law and policy have played a vital and central role in the improvement of the conservation status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. It is submitted that the conservation interventions on behalf of the Spanish Imperial Eagle show that concerted legal and other conservation interventions can effectively halt and reverse the decline of an endangered species. However, such interventions are onerous and expensive and ideally, effective conservation measures should be in place before populations have declined to a critical level. Birds of prey face similar threats in South Africa and Spain, and a number of South African raptor species will soon be classified as endangered. While South African biodiversity laws and policy are similar to the European and Spanish laws in general import and methodology, the South African laws and policy are more restricted in scope, less detailed and less prescriptive. When comparing the use of Spanish and South African legislation in the conservation of birds of prey, sight must not be lost of the varying conservation needs

  3. The dopamine transporter gene, a spectrum of most common risky behaviors, and the legal status of the behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Guo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the specific hypothesis that the 9R/9R genotype in the VNTR of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 exerts a general protective effect against a spectrum of risky behaviors in comparison to the 10R/9R and 10R/10R genotypes, drawing on three-time repeated measures of risky behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood on about 822 non-Hispanic white males from the Add Health study. Our data have established two empirical findings. The first is a protective main effect in the DAT1 gene against risky behaviors. The second finding is that the protective effect varies over age, with the effect prominent at ages when a behavior is illegal and the effect largely vanished at ages when the behavior becomes legal or more socially tolerated. Both the protective main effect and the gene-lifecourse interaction effect are replicated across a spectrum of most common risky behaviors: delinquency, variety of sexual partners, binge drinking, drinking quantity, smoking quantity, smoking frequency, marijuana use, cocaine use, other illegal drug use, and seatbelt non-wearing. We also compared individuals with the protective genotype and individuals without it in terms of age, physical maturity, verbal IQ, GPA, received popularity, sent popularity, church attendance, two biological parents, and parental education. These comparisons indicate that the protective effect of DAT1*9R/9R cannot be explained away by these background characteristics. Our work demonstrates how legal/social contexts can enhance or reduce a genetic effect on risky behaviors.

  4. LEGAL FUNDS AND COLLECTIONS OF MODERN LIBRARIES: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Пестрецова

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising areas in the work of modern libraries that combine the traditional functions of the library with the functions of industry information centers is legal informing and information support of the law-making process. The globalization of the economy and political integration raise the issue not just about accumulation, processing, storage of national legal information, but also about the importance of literature collections on legal comparativistics, information support of transnational law. The article deals with the experience of foreign and domestic law libraries. Much attention is given to the main tasks and forms of legal libraries work, formation and development of legal funds and literature collections. The libraries that are charged with the functions the accumulation of legal resources suggests the active participation in this informational activity of the two types of libraries: the government libraries with the status of national that provide access to documents of national importance, carry out information support of political and legal processes. Another type of law libraries – academic, which providing the educational process and at the same time are centers of legal information, not only for the university community, but also for professional communities, regional authorities, civil society.

  5. Improving the Regulatory Framework for the Legal Status of Applicants for International Protection in the Context of the implementation of Relocation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Bocaneala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented refugee crisis facing the European Union, the impossibility of some Member States unable to cope and to process the massive flow of people on their borders and blocking the “Balkan Route” that moved towards the states where they wanted to reach, led the pressing need for putting in place new instruments to manage the situation. The mechanisms of relocating refugees, the principle of solidarity through quotas imposed on member states put to the authorities in these countries, implicitly in Romania, a number of issues with great difficulty in solving them. By the present study we have highlighted some of these issues in connection with the specific legal status of refugees resettled in other countries in Romania and any possible solutions to solve them.

  6. The Haram al-Sharīf collection of Arabic legal documents in Jerusalem: a Mamlūk court archive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the corpus of 900 documents in the Mamlūk Haram al-Šarīf collection from the angle of archival storage. The vast majority of these documents are linked to the Jerusalem judge Šaraf al-Dīn ,Īsā b. Ġānim and to his period in office between the years 793/1391 and 797/1395. The sample of surviving documents, primarily estate inventories but also a few documents from other areas of the law within the qādī’s competence, contradicts the assumption that the Haram corpus is a systematically compiled archive of qādī records. Court certifications of real-estate sales and further transactions that are preserved for other periods within the Haram corpus are totally absent for this particular period. There is, moreover, an abundant number of documents concerning financial transactions in institutions over which the judge had jurisdiction. The necrology of the contemporary chronicler Ibn Hiğğī (d. 816/1413 opens an interesting perspective to explain the selection of documents relating to Šaraf al-Dīn, who was involved in a massive corruption case.

    Este artículo analiza el corpus de 900 documentos del Haram al-Šarīf desde la perspectiva de la conservación de archivos. En su mayoría, estos documentos están relacionados con el juez de Jerusalén Šaraf al-Dīn ʻĪsā b. Gānim y con el periodo en el que se mantuvo en el cargo, entre 793/1391 y 797/1395. La muestra de documentos estudiada, sobre todo inventarios de bienes, pero también documentos relacionados con otras áreas del derecho que pertenecen a la competencia del qādī, contradicen la hipótesis de que los documentos del corpus del Haram al-Šarīf son registros del tribunal compilados sistemáticamente en un archivo. Los certificados judiciales sobre ventas de bienes inmuebles y otras transacciones que se han conservado de otros periodos en el corpus no aparecen precisamente para el periodo que va entre los años 793/1391 y

  7. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - GIS analysis Franches Montagnes, Switzerland - Documentation of GIS concepts, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, F.; Schaffner, B. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents part of the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report documents the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methodology for the 'Franches Montagnes' Region in Switzerland, whereby the most significant of the model's layers was found to be the wind velocity layer.

  8. Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

    2013-02-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  9. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  10. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  11. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  12. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  13. The legal status of călăraşi in Bessarabia: from Moldovan traditions to the Russian imperial administrative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Tomuleţ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on archival and published sources, the author analyzes the status of călăraşi based on the comparative approach: from the Moldovan traditions to Russian imperial administrative system. The author ascertains that călăraşi as the guards' category were mentioned in the documentary information from the 16th century, as being recruited among free peasants and obliged to go to war on their own account at the request of the rulers, for tax exemption or the right to use royal estates. Over the centuries this social category has undergone significant changes, not only numerically but also in terms of social and legal status. In the 18th century, with the decline of military importance of the călăraşi, their secondary tasks were maintained and extended. The privileges enjoyed by this social category were confirmed by rulers, similar to the privileged classes of society. Upon annexation of Bessarabia to Russia călăraşi kept only auxiliary functions, being considered serving for local governments, persons responsible for local security; during wartime they participated in the finding of carts for the transportation of supplies, etc. Călăraşi formed indigenous militia and were at the command of ispravnic for the execution of different tasks in the counties. They were employed in the service from the free villages exempted of any drudgery and tax, but a military billeting; they immediately obeyed ispravnic's orders, receiving annual payment in money. Over time, the tsarist government, as with other social groups, tried to regulate this category of servants, limiting their activities, reducing substantially its number and fitting it into some legal rules. For this purpose there even was made up a regulation statute for călăraşi. Despite privileges enjoyed by this social category, the situation of călăraşi was not easy, as evidenced by the many complaints from them at various district and regional administrative offices.

  14. Guantánamo Bay: A Reflection On The Legal Status And Rights Of ‘Unlawful Enemy Combatants’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry D. Gill

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The United States administration’s policy of detaining ‘unlawful enemy combatants’ at the United States military base in Guantánamo Bay falls short of international and domestic law standards. The problem in the authors’ view is not that the United States has decided to designate those captured on the battlefield in Afghanistan as ‘unlawful combatants’ who (allegedly fall outside the scope of international humanitarian law. International humanitarian law has long recognized the existence of such a category. The problem is rather that international humanitarian law has been sporadically and selectively applied and in many respects has been ignored or violated with respect to the detainees held in Guantánamo and elsewhere within the context of the ‘war on terror’. In its recent judgements in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Rumsfeld v. Bush and Rasul v. Bush the United States Supreme Court has not passed an unambiguous and clear judgement on the United States policy towards unlawful enemy combatants. The Court may have rejected the executive’s claim that it has the authority to incarcerate people suspected of terrorist connections without any judicial review, the three decisions have not imposed on the executive a clear framework governing the detention of alleged terrorists. The Court has upheld the government’s power to hold ‘enemy combatants’ according to standards that fall short of the requirements of the Geneva Conventions. Moreover, the due process protection granted to those challenging their status as’ enemy combatant’ is so deferential to the executive that it could render review virtually insignificant.

  15. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the only...

  16. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  17. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the...

  18. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  19. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.

  20. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  1. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  2. medico-legal an overview of some of the key legal developments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. South Africa has a strong legal framework that offers a high level of .... medical practitioners preformed the transplant without confirming the HIV status of the donor. A claim for damages is pending ...

  3. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  4. The associations between atrial fibrillation and parameters of nutritional status assessment in the general hospital population - a cross-sectional analysis of medical documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Jacek; Anaszewicz, Marzena

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and nutrition status abnormalities are two of the most significant epidemics in current health care. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the prevalence and outcome of AF, and the parameters of nutritional status among consecutive, real-life patients hospitalised in a university hospital. Analysis of the medical documentation of 4930 consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years hospitalised for more than one day with diagnoses of cardiovascular disorders. Patients admitted with a diagnosis of AF (n = 512) compared to their counterparts without AF less frequently had an NRS-2002 score ≥ 3, normal range of body mass index (BMI), higher blood haemoglobin, and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. In logistic regression analysis, the risk of a hospitalisation due to AF was negatively related to BMI, NRS-2002 score, and the value of the difference between ideal and actual body mass. Urgent admission and having an NRS-2002 score ≥ 3 remained the only significant variables determining the risk of in-hospital death. Blood concentration of LDL-C and urgent admission were the only significant variables determining risk of 30-day rehospitalisation in the studied population. Inpatients with AF had a lower prevalence of normal body mass. Patients with an AF diagnosis had different risk factors for in-hospital death and 30-day rehospitalisation than their counterparts with diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases but without AF; however, the parameters of nutritional status played an important role in both patient groups. The obesity and cholesterol paradoxes were also observed.

  5. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  6. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  7. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  8. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  9. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  10. Legal training of students in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Kablukov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.

  11. EDF Group - 2010 Reference Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    Beside the accounts of EDF for 2008 and 2009, this voluminous document presents persons in charge, legal account auditors, and how risks are managed within the company. It gives an overview of EDF activities, of its organization, of its assets. It presents and discusses its financial situation and results, indicates the main contracts, and proposes other documents concerning the company. Many documents and reports are provided in appendix

  12. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  13. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent jurisdiction...

  14. How did Islam contribute to change the legal status of women: The case of the jawārī or the Female Slaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‘Athamina, Khalil

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the transformations which took place in the legal status of slave women (jawārī, as a consequence of the spread of Islam among Arabs. The author analyzes religious, historical and social factors including the change of criteria in regard to war booty sharing, treatment of war prisoners, the introduction of the concept of umm al-walad, etc. The social impact of these transformations on slave women and on the families they belonged to, are also part of the focus of analysis.

    Este artículo analiza los cambios que se produjeron en el estatus legal de las esclavas (ŷawārī con la introducción y expansión del islam entre los árabes. El autor analiza tanto las causas religiosas como las debidas a factores históricos y sociales: cambio en los criterios del reparto del botín de guerra, en el trato y uso de las prisioneras de guerra, introducción del concepto de umm al-walad, etc. Igualmente, se estudia la repercusión social que tuvieron estos cambios para las esclavas y para las familias a las que pertenecían.

  15. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  16. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    have been used in the research. The author have used a comparative method to investigate the EU cybersecurity strategy as well a, Lithuanian and foreign situations. The empirical analysis of legal documents was used to determine the legal regulation of the cybersecurity in Lithuania. In addition, Legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania have been analyzed. Having analyzed the official documents, the method allows identifying and describing the relationship between the valid legal regulations accurately. Using literature resources, the author has used the deductive method which allows drawing sufficiently reliable conclusions.

  17. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  18. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  19. Medical legal aspects of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Terry J.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed

  20. Legal scenario in burn care in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Atul

    2010-01-01

    Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensati...

  1. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  2. Areva - 2011 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having indicated the person responsible of this document and the legal account auditors, and provided some financial information, this document gives an overview of the different risk factors existing in the company: law risks, industrial and environmental risks, operational risks, risks related to large projects, market and liquidity risks. Then, after having recalled the history and evolution of the company and the evolution of its investments over the last five years, it proposes an overview of Areva's activities on the markets of nuclear energy and renewable energies, of its clients and suppliers, of its strategy, of the activities of its different departments. Other information are provided: company's flow chart, estate properties (plants, equipment), an analysis of its financial situation, its research and development policy, the present context, profit previsions or estimations, management organization and operation

  3. Documentation Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnay, J.; Chosson, L.; Croize, M.; Ducloux, A.; Flores, S.; Jarroux, D.; Melka, J.; Morgue, D.; Mottin, C.

    1998-01-01

    This service assures the treatment and diffusion of the scientific information and the management of the scientific production of the institute as well as the secretariat operation for the groups and services of the institute. The report on documentation-library section mentions: the management of the documentation funds, search in international databases (INIS, Current Contents, Inspects), Pret-Inter service which allows accessing documents through DEMOCRITE network of IN2P3. As realizations also mentioned are: the setup of a video, photo database, the Web home page of the institute's library, follow-up of digitizing the document funds by integrating the CD-ROMs and diskettes, electronic archiving of the scientific production, etc

  4. Maury Documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supporting documentation for the Maury Collection of marine observations. Includes explanations from Maury himself, as well as guides and descriptions by the U.S....

  5. Computerising documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear power generation industry is faced with public concern and government pressures over safety, efficiency and risk. Operators throughout the industry are addressing these issues with the aid of a new technology - technical document management systems (TDMS). Used for strategic and tactical advantage, the systems enable users to scan, archive, retrieve, store, edit, distribute worldwide and manage the huge volume of documentation (paper drawings, CAD data and film-based information) generated in building, maintaining and ensuring safety in the UK's power plants. The power generation industry has recognized that the management and modification of operation critical information is vital to the safety and efficiency of its power plants. Regulatory pressure from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to operate within strict safety margins or lose Site Licences has prompted the need for accurate, up-to-data documentation. A document capture and management retrieval system provides a powerful cost-effective solution, giving rapid access to documentation in a tightly controlled environment. The computerisation of documents and plans is discussed in this article. (Author)

  6. Letramento no ensino fundamental de nove anos no Brasil: ações legais e pedagógicas previstas nos documentos oficiais Nine-year elementary school in Brazil: legal and pedagogical actions in official documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas de Paula Chaguri

    2012-01-01

    , 1995; CERUTTI-RIZZATTI, 2009, 2012. Thus, this study attempts to facilitate a discussion of the politics related to increasing the number of elementary school years to nine, and verify the implications of literacy education in this new educational scenario. The theory and methodology of this study are based on Social Literacy New Studies (STREET, 1984, 2010; HEATH, 1983; BARTON; HAMILTON, 2000 and propose an analysis of documented data concerning the introduction of the nine-year elementary school. The data of the results reveal that the initiative to increase Brazilian students' education is important, but beyond increased schooling, it does not establish a clear strategy that schools should implement at this grade level. The documents describe treating literacy as a social practice, but do not specify that literacy is a part of the broader social literacy. Therefore, the schools need to identify the relationship between phonemic-graphemes and graphemes-phonemic in literacy (CERUTTI-RIZZATTI, 2009 to create an effective strategy for the social practice of writing. Further, the documents reveal our students' insufficient knowledge about the culture of writing.

  7. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  8. [Legalization of drugs--pro and con].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović-Cengić, S

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with various opinions and assertions regarding drug legalization. Societal and clinical implication regarding the effect of decrease or increase in the use of psyhoactive substances, on public health, violence and criminal activities have been pointed out. The relation between legal and illegal drugs has been considered. Special attention has been paid to arguments on legalization and decriminalization of marihuana and possible consequences on the risk group-children and adolescents. Experiences from USA and some European countries have been presented. Having in mind the specific situation in BiH, the author of article gives her own view and suggest the introduction of harm reduction strategy into BiH drug policy, without changing the legal drug status.

  9. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  10. Parental refusal: legal and ethical considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Children's Act of 2005 was a watershed in establishing the rights of the child in South Africa. This legal document makes provision for the care and protection of children, and defines parental responsibilities and rights. It also defines who is a “parent,” and what should be considered when requesting consent for ...

  11. medico-legal perspectives in history

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various legal codes dealing with medical malpractice existed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Islam, Greece, Rome, Persia and India. The first documented Code of Laws ever used by human civilisation in, for example, Mesopotamia is to be found from the Law Code of Hammurabi – a textual source of evidence concerning ...

  12. The Legal Status of Homemakers in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Marygold Shire

    This report focuses on laws in the state of Wisconsin as they relate to homemakers. Four areas are discussed, each in separate sections: marriage, widowhood, divorce, and wife abuse. The section on marriage includes information on property rights, disability and death of homemaker, federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act, domicile, interspousal…

  13. 24 CFR 107.25 - Provisions in legal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisions in legal instruments. 107.25 Section 107.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Provisions in legal instruments. (a) The following documents shall contain provisions or statements requiring...

  14. Case Law: - Canada: Criminal Court decision respecting attempted export of nuclear-related dual use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen vs Yadegari (2010); - Czech Republic: Supreme Administrative Court on the legal status of CEZ (2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Case law 1: Canada - Criminal Court decision respecting attempted export of nuclear-related dual use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen vs Yadegari (2010). This case concerns a recent, successful prosecution that was undertaken before the Ontario Court of Justice relating to violations of export control legislation in Canada, nuclear regulatory legislation, customs law, criminal law, as well as Canadian law implementing UN Security Council resolutions concerning Iran. The convictions that have been registered in this case, notwithstanding the fact that the decision is currently under appeal,2 demonstrate the importance of a functioning export control regime and effective counter-proliferation strategy. The case represents the first conviction for a regulatory offense under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act,3 in force since 2000, and Mr. Yadegari is the first Canadian to be convicted under the United Nations Act, Canada's legislation by which it implements UN resolutions. Case law 2: Czech Republic - Supreme Administrative Court on the legal status of CEZ (2010). The Supreme Administrative Court in its decision of 6 October 20098 ruled on whether CEZ, a.s., which is the operator of nuclear installations at the Temelin and Dukovany sites in the Czech Republic, is governed by the Act on Free Access to Information. The court stated that the rules laid down in the Act on Free Access to Information, also apply to CEZ which is considered as a 'public institution'. The following reasons led the court to this interpretation: first, CEZ was established by decision of the state in the course of the privatisation process. Secondly, the company is effectively controlled by the state, which is still its majority owner and the profits of the company also compose a portion of state budget revenues. Finally, there is a public interest served in the function of the company

  15. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted.   CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat a...

  16. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natu...

  17. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natur...

  18. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the na...

  19. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of em¬pl...

  20. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and ...

  1. MIDAS documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, S.E.

    1981-09-01

    MIDAS, the Master Information and Data Acquisition System, is a computerized system being implemented on FFTF to control the work released to the plant. The purpose of this system is to demonstrate the safety enhancement provided for LMFBRs when the operator has instant recall to the status of all work released to the plant, the interrelationships between functional equipment groups in the plant, and the relationships of equipment to safety functions

  2. Fumbling toward a Critical Legal Pedagogy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matambanadzo, Saru

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the culture and practice of legal education in the United States functions to dehumanize law students and potentially produce one-dimensional lawyers in the service of corporate interests and the capitalist status quo. These lawyers are trained to serve not only as the guardians of legal rights, social entitlements and…

  3. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  4. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  5. Military Policy toward Homosexuals: Scientific, Historic, and Legal Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Jeffrey S

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines military policy toward homosexuals. Scientific, historic, and legal perspectives are reviewed as they relate to current policy and the distinction between homosexual acts and homosexual status...

  6. [Video documentation in forensic practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, C; Schyma, P

    1995-01-01

    The authors report in part 1 about their experiences with the Canon Ex1 Hi camcorder and the possibilities of documentation with the modern video technique. Application examples in legal medicine and criminalistics are described autopsy, scene, reconstruction of crimes etc. The online video documentation of microscopic sessions makes the discussion of findings easier. The use of video films for instruction produces a good resonance. The use of the video documentation can be extended by digitizing (Part 2). Two frame grabbers are presented, with which we obtained good results in digitizing of images captured from video. The best quality of images is achieved by online use of an image analysis chain. Corel 5.0 and PicEd Cora 4.0 allow complete image processings and analysis. The digital image processing influences the objectivity of the documentation. The applicabilities of image libraries are discussed.

  7. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gorín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  8. Medico-legal documentation of rape or sexual assault: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L Fouché

    doctors equipped for the task? L Fouchéa, J Bezuidenhouta, C Liebenbergb and AO Adefuyea*. aDivision of Health Sciences Education, Office of the Dean, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. bDepartment of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

  9. Atypical real estate objects: legal regime and control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal concept of immovable things raises controversy in legal practice. Determining and understanding the definition of real estate, the complexity and diversity of these objects, a growing appearance of so-called atypical properties (such as sport stadiums, roads, boreholes, analyzing legislation and judicial practice of this field – all these issues call for a deep study of this topic. There is a conflicting arbitration practice, the subject of which is the learning of the legal nature of atypical real estate (for instance, asphalt playgrounds, car parks, fences, wells. The object of the research is the learning of the legal status of atypical real estate.

  10. Summit documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers three declarations about the non-proliferation of massive destruction weapons, made by the G8 organization participants during their last summit held in Evian (France): declaration about the enforcement and respect of the non-proliferation measures implemented by the IAEA and by the conventions for chemical and biological weapons; declaration about the protection of radioactive sources against diversion (regulatory control, inventory, control of sources export etc..); warranty about the security of radioactive sources (G8 approach, sustain of the IAEA action, sustain to the most vulnerable states, control mechanisms, political commitment of states, implementation of the recommendations of the international conference about the security and safety of radiation sources, held in Vienna (Austria) on March 2003. (J.S.)

  11. THE CASE OF GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ZIMBABWE v LOUIS KAREL FICK: A FIRST STEP TOWARDS DEVELOPING A DOCTRINE ON THE STATUS OF INTERNATIONAL JUDGEMENTS WITHIN THE DOMESTIC LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika de Wet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Fick case which was decided by the Constitutional Court on 27 June 2013 was the first time since its inception that the Constitutional Court was confronted with the status of a binding international decision within the domestic legal order. It concerned a binding decision by the (now suspended Southern African Development Community (SADC Tribunal against Zimbabwe, which was also enforceable in South Africa. A key issue before the Court was whether or not the South African statutory rules of civil procedure for the enforcement of foreign judgments also covered judgments of international courts and tribunals (as anticipated by Article 32(1 of the Protocol on the SADC Tribunal. As none of the relevant statutory legislation was applicable in this instance, the common law remained the only possible avenue through which the SADC Tribunal’s decision could be enforced in South Africa. At the time of the decision, the common law on the enforcement of civil judgments had developed only to a point where it provided for the execution of judgments made by domestic courts of a foreign state (ie decisions of other national courts. The Court was therefore confronted with whether or not an international decision in the form of a cost order of the SADC Tribunal amounted to a “foreign judgment” as recognized by the South African common law. The Court answered this question in the affirmative by relying on those clauses in the Constitution that committed South Africa to the rule of law, as well as its obligations under international law, and to an international-law friendly interpretation of domestic law. Although the decision is to be welcomed and applied the law correctly to the facts of the case, it does raise the issue of the wisdom of equating international judgments with foreign judgments on a more general scale. This relates to the fact that it is generally accepted in most jurisdictions that the recognition and enforcement of a

  12. Legal scenario in burn care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Atul Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen's compensation act, Persons with disabilities act and guidelines for calculation of physical impairments are listed.

  13. Legal scenario in burn care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Atul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensation act, Persons with disabilities act and guidelines for calculation of physical impairments are listed.

  14. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  15. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  16. AREVA 2010 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this document, and of statutory auditors, this report proposes some selected financial information. Then, it addresses, presents and comments the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risks related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risk. Then, after a presentation of the issuer, it proposes a business overview (markets for nuclear and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, strategy, activities), a presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of AREVA properties, plants and equipment (sites, environmental issues), an analysis and comment of the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of its capital resources, an overview of its research and development activities, programs, patents and licenses. It indicates profit forecast and estimates, presents the administrative, management and supervisory bodies, and compensation and benefits amounts, reports of the functioning of corporate bodies. It describes the human resource company policy, indicates the main shareholders and transactions with related parties. It proposes financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. This document contains its French and its English versions

  17. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the ICMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS Management – CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management – CB – MB – FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through Indico. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2008 Annual Reviews are posted in Indico. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral student upon completion of their theses.  Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and name of their first employer. The Notes, Conference Reports and Theses published si...

  18. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  19. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  20. Omega documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  1. Omega documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos

  2. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  3. 76 FR 411 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning Electronic Signatures and Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... information regarding FMCSA's acceptance of electronic signature on documents required by the Federal Motor... govern the Agency's implementation of electronic document and signature requirements. The Government... traditional paper or electronic form: (a) Contracts, (b) signatures, and (c) other legally-required documents...

  4. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  5. Nuclear development for peaceful purposes: legal and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the 17 lectures and reports presented at the regional course on legislation and regulation of nuclear safety for Latin American countries organized by the IAEA on 15-20 October 1984 in Montevideo, Uruguay. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Also reproduced are some legal documents related to the subject

  6. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  7. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  9. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  10. Integrated system for automated financial document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Khaled S.; Wesolkowski, Slawo; Higgins, Ray; Crabtree, Ralph; Peng, Antai

    1997-02-01

    A system was developed that integrates intelligent document analysis with multiple character/numeral recognition engines in order to achieve high accuracy automated financial document processing. In this system, images are accepted in both their grayscale and binary formats. A document analysis module starts by extracting essential features from the document to help identify its type (e.g. personal check, business check, etc.). These features are also utilized to conduct a full analysis of the image to determine the location of interesting zones such as the courtesy amount and the legal amount. These fields are then made available to several recognition knowledge sources such as courtesy amount recognition engines and legal amount recognition engines through a blackboard architecture. This architecture allows all the available knowledge sources to contribute incrementally and opportunistically to the solution of the given recognition query. Performance results on a test set of machine printed business checks using the integrated system are also reported.

  11. Denial of abortion in legal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-07-01

    Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  13. MILS: Business, Legal and Social Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Toulemonde, Christophe; Brygier, Jacques; Blasum, Holger; Tverdyshev, Sergey; Leconte, Bertrand; Müller, Kevin; Söding - Freiherr von Blomberg, Axel; Furgel, Igor; Truskaller, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This document is the result of EURO-MILS Work Package 1.3. The objective of the WP is to analyse the business impact of trustworthy ICT for networked high-criticality systems. A multistep work has be done to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the different markets and understand the potential of exploitation. It has analysed how security requirements vary from a business (companies) and a social (consumer) point of view. It has analysed the legal implications (national certificat...

  14. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  15. Gender mainstreaming in law and legal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujadinović Dragica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Political revolutions of the 18th and 19th century engendered an idea of universal equality. However, the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen have not been gender sensitive documents. Women had to struggle for a long time in order to achieve visibility in laws and they did gain an equal right to vote in the USA only 144 years later and in France only 160 years after the issuing of these documents. Contemporary international and national law has greatly advanced from a gender equality point of view. However, gender sensitive legislation and implementation of legal norms has been far from widely accepted. Gender sensitive legal education of (future legislators, lawyers, judges, and prosecutors has thus been of the utmost importance. First, the article offers theoretical clarifications and historical background analysis of a sense and purpose of gender mainstreaming. The achievements in international law and strategic documents concerning gender equality will be taken into consideration in the second chapter. The main focus will be on the meaning of and instruments for gender mainstreaming in legal education in Serbia as well as generally. Paradigmatic examples from judicial practice will also be presented.

  16. LEGITIMATION DOCUMENTS ISSUED BY THE FRENCH MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as "MAE") has sent a reminder of the following rules relating to legitimation documents (special cards, henceforth called "special residence permits" (titres de séjour spéciaux), and attestations de fonctions) that it issues. The Ministry has specified that compliance with these rules is essential to the proper functioning of any International Organization established in France. 1. Types of document and use a) Special CD, FI and AT residence permits They serve as residence permits for members of the personnel and the members of their families who are not of French nationality and who do not have the status of permanent resident (see N.B. below). Vis-à-vis the French authorities, they serve as proof that those holding these cards enjoy the privileges and immunities provided for by the Status Agreement between CERN and France (immunity from legal process in the discharge of their duties, entitlement to drive a vehicle registered in a special ...

  17. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  18. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  19. Sifting Through Chaos: Extracting Information from Unstructured Legal Opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno Miguel; Guimarães, Rui Vasconcellos; Antunes, Luís; Rodrigues, Pedro Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Abiding to the law is, in some cases, a delicate balance between the rights of different players. Re-using health records is such a case. While the law grants reuse rights to public administration documents, in which health records produced in public health institutions are included, it also grants privacy to personal records. To safeguard a correct usage of data, public hospitals in Portugal employ jurists that are responsible for allowing or withholding access rights to health records. To help decision making, these jurists can consult the legal opinions issued by the national committee on public administration documents usage. While these legal opinions are of undeniable value, due to their doctrine contribution, they are only available in a format best suited from printing, forcing individual consultation of each document, with no option, whatsoever of clustered search, filtering or indexing, which are standard operations nowadays in a document management system. When having to decide on tens of data requests a day, it becomes unfeasible to consult the hundreds of legal opinions already available. With the objective to create a modern document management system, we devised an open, platform agnostic system that extracts and compiles the legal opinions, ex-tracts its contents and produces metadata, allowing for a fast searching and filtering of said legal opinions.

  20. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  1. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  2. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  3. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  4. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  5. THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON CERTAIN TYPES OF LEGAL LIABILITY IN CRYPTOCURRENCY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Drozd

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the theoretical, methodological, and legal possibilities of application of certain types of legal responsibility to the relations, which are connected with cryptocurrency (bitcoin. Some types of liability in the field of cryptocurrency relations make the subject of the study. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of legal regulation of the sphere of cryptocurrency in Ukraine and in foreign countries. Advantages and disadvantages of different modes of cryptocurrency turnover are determined: from direct prohibition to granting the status of the official payment system. It is made on the basis of the analysis of peculiarities of the circulation of virtual money in Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, China, the Russian Federation, Bolivia, Ecuador, Thailand, Vietnam, the USA, Japan, Spain, and some other countries. On the basis of the comparative legal study of certain provisions of the civil, administrative, tort, and criminal legislation of Ukraine, the possibilities and limits of the application of certain types of legal responsibility to violations in the field of cryptocurrency are determined. The results of the comparative legal study have shown that, unlike most foreign countries, in Ukraine, there is no legislative consolidation of the legal status of the virtual currency. In this regard, today in the national legislation, there are no direct rules that would predict the occurrence of administrative, criminal or civil liability for the offenses in the field of cryptocurrency relations. Practical impact. Since guarantees of compulsory restoration or protection of violated law play an important role in the legal regulation of any social relations, the proper legislative regulation of public relations in the sphere of crypto currency circulation is an urgent problem today, including with the help of establishing liability for the offenses in this field

  6. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  7. "Legal highs"--toxicity in the clinical and medico-legal aspect as exemplified by suicide with bk-MBDB administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Strona, Marcin; Maciów, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2012-10-10

    The easily available "legal highs", which are products containing psychoactive substances, such as cathinones, piperazines and synthetic cannabinoids, are abused by adolescents in Poland and in the world as alternatives to classic drugs, such as amphetamines or marijuana. The majority of these potentially dangerous substances are still legal and they are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death, and provide new challenges in clinical and forensic toxicological practice. Investigations in the field of "designer drugs" may be well illustrated by the case of a suicide of a 21-year old male who ingested a specified dose of a preparation called "Amphi-bi-a" that contains bk-MBDB, chemically 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl) butan-1-one, which belongs to the cathinone group, as a synthetic euphoric empathogen and psychoactive stimulant that is chemically similar to MDMA. It is one of more common components of "legal highs" examined in Poland and other countries. The documentation of the case includes a clinical assessment of the patient's health status performed during his almost 4-h hospitalization before death, autopsy and histological examinations supported by toxicological findings revealing bk-MBDB at extremely high concentrations (at 20 mg/l in the blood and 33 mg/kg in the liver); hence, this body of evidence contributes to knowledge in the field of "designer drugs". Inventions of designers of new psychoactive xenobiotics, which are much in demand, especially in view of the dynamic Internet marketing, which drums up narcobusiness, must be balanced by a national strategy developed by medical, legal and educational circles in the modern civilized world in order to prevent the spreading of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  9. Structure and drafting of safeguards regulatory documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, R.J.; Bennett, C.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Wood, M.T.; Brown, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.

    1977-09-01

    This study develops hypothesis about the relation between the structure and drafting of safeguards regulatory documents and the ability of document users to understand and implement them in a way that reflects the intent and requirements of the NRC. Four decisions are needed to improve communication: (1) Should improvement of safeguards regulatory documents as communication instruments be an explicit NRC program. (2) What specific methods of communication should be the focus of improvement efforts. (3) What actions to improve communications are feasible and desirable. (4) How should the NRC divide its available effort and resources among desirable actions in order to provide the most effective communication through regulatory documents. This volume contains: introduction, conceptual bases, legal requirements, targets, choice of documents, preparation of documents, readability, and further study of recommended changes in structure and drafting

  10. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  11. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  12. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  13. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  15. Legal nature of affatomia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...

  16. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  17. Lithuanian reform on legal capacity: from soviet context towards the modern human rigths standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. This is a basic fundamental principal upon which all the international law is based. Consequently people with mental disabilities too, are entitled to the enjoyment of the same human rights, in equal measure, as all other people. New international human rights treaties and documents are adopted in order to strengthen security and realisation of the rights of most vulnerable groups of people. UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (CRPD is one of the newest UN’s legally binding instruments, adopted by UN General Assembley in 2006, with its purpose to “promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity”. The Convention bringing about a paradigm shift in attitudes of persons with disabilities as “subjects” of all human rights and basis for their protection. One of the most substantive areas that demonstrates major ‘paradigm shift’ of CRPD is provision of equality before the law to all the persons with disabilities. The right to recognition everywhere as persons before the law puts an end to various practices of the removal of rights of persons depending on their health, disability status. After the ratification of CRPD on 27 May, 2010, currently Lithuania has all legal obligations under CRPD, including the provisions on the equality before the law As in majority of other Eastern European region countries, both full guardianship and partial guardianship (curatorship meant to safeguard the human rights of vulnerable people lacking capacity existed in Lithuania for decades. Recently reform of this legal institute in order to adhere to the international human rights standards and respect the principals of disabled people human rights protection and nondiscrimination. There is no one state up to now with the developed ideal

  18. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although contemporary criminal law accepts the system of subjective criminal liability for a committed crime, numerous European legal documents as well as criminal laws, especially those that have been adopted lately, envisage exceptions from this system. Thus, a new form of criminal liability is being introduced: objective liability based on the causation. One of the forms of objective liability is the criminal liability of legal entities, which has been considered disputable for a long time. Obviously, legal entities cannot be held accountable for all types of criminal offences. They cannot be held liable on the grounds of legal provisions regarding mental competence and culpability (as the elements of subjective criminal liability, nor can they be imposed all types of criminal sanctions recognized in criminal legislation in general. In their new or revised criminal legislation, many countries have recognized and inagurated the objective criminal liability of legal persons for committed criminal offences alongside with the predominant system of subjective liability (based on the perpetrator's mental competence and culpability. It is indisputable that some legal entities (such as state authorities cannot be prosecuted and held liable in criminal proceedings; consequently, there are some exemptions from criminal liability (particularly when it comes to the state and state bodies, but it does not exclude criminal liability of responsible officials (natural persons for causing the consequences of a criminal offence. Due to the specific character of legal and contractual capacity of legal entities, law in general and criminal legislations in particular prescribe special legal grounds for establishing criminal liability of legal entities, which differ from the subjective liability of a natural person (perceived as a conscious and reasonable human being acting on his/her own free will where the consequence of a criminal offence is a result of one

  19. Legal protection of land from pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.

  20. 34 CFR 97.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 97.117 Section 97...) § 97.117 Documentation of informed consent. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section... required by § 97.116. This form may be read to the subject or the subject's legally authorized...

  1. European stem cell research in legal shackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Myrthe G; de Vries, Sybe A; Geijsen, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brüstle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent was challenged and put before the European Court of Justice, which ruled that inventions involving the prior destruction of human embryos cannot be patented. The legal maneuvering around this case demonstrates that the future of stem cell-based patents in Europe remains unsettled. Furthermore, owing to the European Court's broad definition of hESC as 'any cell that is capable of commencing development into a human being,' novel technologies that could eliminate the need for hESCs, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are at risk of being included under the same ruling. Advances in the in vitro development of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may one day provide a direct developmental path from iPSC to oocyte and sperm, and, according to the European Court's reasoning, legally equate iPSCs with human embryos. In this review, we will briefly discuss the Brüstle v Greenpeace case and the implications of the European Court of Justice's ruling. We will identify potential risks for stem cell research and future therapeutics resulting from the broad legal definition of the human embryo. Finally, we will broach the current legal landscape, as this broad definition has also created great uncertainty about the status of human iPSCs.

  2. Prison nursing: legal framework and care reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carrasco-Baún

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. Objective: To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Methodology: Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Results: Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management. Conclusion: The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.

  3. Prison nursing: legal framework and care reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Baún, H

    2017-06-01

    Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management). The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.

  4. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  5. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  6. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  7. Alcohol and student performance: estimating the effect of legal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M; Swensen, Isaac D; Waddell, Glen R

    2013-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. Our preferred approach identifies the effect through changes in one's performance after gaining legal access to alcohol, controlling flexibly for the expected evolution of grades as one makes progress towards their degree. We also report RD-based estimates but argue that an RD design is not well suited to the research question in our setting. We find that students' grades fall below their expected levels upon being able to drink legally, but by less than previously documented. We also show that there are effects on women and that the effects are persistent. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we show that students drink more often after legal access but do not consume more drinks on days on which they drink. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  9. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  10. CAED Document Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) documents to all CAED staff. The respository will also include supporting documents, images, etc.

  11. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Considerations on the legal regime of the unincorporated business forms in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Anca POPESCU-CRUCERU

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the legal status of the companies aims to unify, in an approach for the comparative and historical method, the trends in relation to theories of legal status of the companies, more so as the rules made by the new Romanian Civil Code amended the institution of the company and partnership and thus its legal status. The methodology considers the logical and teleological analyze of the rules in relation to companies, both those of common law and those belonging to special laws, in...

  13. [Control of the legal practice of euthanasia in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, M

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian law legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions came into effect September 22, 2002. Any physician performing euthanasia has to complete a registration document and to send it within four days to a federal commission whose mission is to verify that the legal conditions were fulfilled. From September 22, 2002 to December 31, 2013, 8.767 documents have been registered and analyzed by this commission. They are described in six reports referred to Parliament. The present paper analyzes the work of this commission and answers the criticisms concerning its quality and its efficiency. The allegations that clandestine euthanasia's escaping any control are performed are also discussed. In conclusion, it appears that the legal obligations concerning the practice of euthanasia in Belgium are fully effective.

  14. Generic safety documentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  15. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  16. Exploiting Document Level Semantics in Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rafi; Muhammad Naveed Sharif; Waleed Arshad; Habibullah Rafay

    2016-01-01

    Document clustering is an unsupervised machine learning method that separates a large subject heterogeneous collection (Corpus) into smaller, more manageable, subject homogeneous collections (clusters). Traditional method of document clustering works around extracting textual features like: terms, sequences, and phrases from documents. These features are independent of each other and do not cater meaning behind these word in the clustering process. In order to perform semantic viable clusteri...

  17. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF STATE-OFFICE LEGAL RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATE CIVIL EMPLOYEES AND THE ROLE OF LABOR LAW IN THEIR REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Міннігулова, Д. Б.

    2017-01-01

    In the legal literature, investigating the legal relationship arising on civil service, various concepts of the characteristic of a concept of the state-office relationships of state-civil employee are offered. The main of them are state-legal (constitutional), office (administrative), office-labor and labor theories. The variety of conceptual approaches to the characteristic of the legal relationship arising on civil service reflects features of administrative legal status of state-civil emp...

  18. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  19. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  20. Steganography: Forensic, Security, and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Warkentin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Steganography has long been regarded as a tool used for illicit and destructive purposes such as crime and warfare. Currently, digital tools are widely available to ordinary computer users also. Steganography software allows both illicit and legitimate users to hide messages so that they will not be detected in transit. This article provides a brief history of steganography, discusses the current status in the computer age, and relates this to forensic, security, and legal issues. The paper concludes with recommendations for digital forensics investigators, IT staff, individual users, and other stakeholders.

  1. Drug Testing and Searches in Public Schools: A Legal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota House of Representatives, St. Paul. Research Dept.

    This document examines the Fourth Amendment as the source of search and seizure law; drug testing of school employees; and drug testing searches of students. The United States Supreme Court case that established the two-part test to determine the legality of a student search is discussed, three separate student drug testing programs that have been…

  2. Codes of conduct in public schools: a legal perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The governing body of a public school must adopt a code of conduct for the learners of the school. This document contains .... The in- dividual legal relationship therefore emanates from the general rules and is termed a ..... Law and Policy (CELP). Her research focuses on public, international, environmental, and education.

  3. Childhood and adolescent fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence (assault).[4]. The high incidence of child fatalities due to road traffic accidents has been well documented worldwide. In San Diego, Fraga et al.[1] reported. (in their study conducted at the medico-legal mortuary) that road traffic fatalites were the leading cause of accidental death (40.2% of cases). In. Nebraska ...

  4. Ohio Legal Office Managment. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document, which lists core business and legal office management competencies identified by representatives from education and business and industry throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary associate degree…

  5. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  6. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  7. HUMAN RIGHTS IN NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY STRATEGY DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ünver, Gül Nazik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the United States, Turkey, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium's national cyber security strategy documents and their impact on human rights and international human rights protection mechanisms are being analyzed in the cyber space. First of all, this work will focus on steps and suggestions with a new outlook for bringing a different dimension by focusing on legal regulations of countries, the security approaches of countries by putting forward the perspe...

  8. Magnetic fusion: Environmental Readiness Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Environmental Readiness Documents are prepared periodically to review and evaluate the environmental status of an energy technology during the several phases of development of that technology. Through these documents, the Office of Environment within the Department of Energy provides an independent and objective assessment of the environmental risks and potential impacts associated with the progression of the technology to the next stage of development and with future extensive use of the technology. This Environmental Readiness Document was prepared to assist the Department of Energy in evaluating the readiness of magnetic fusion technology with respect to environmental issues. An effort has been made to identify potential environmental problems that may be encountered based upon current knowledge, proposed and possible new environmental regulations, and the uncertainties inherent in planned environmental research

  9. The legal regime for private space tourism activities—An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobe, Stephan

    2010-06-01

    "Space tourism" denotes any commercial activity that offers customers direct or indirect experience with space travel. Various models for space tourism activities exist including the use of an aircraft and/or spacecraft. The paper surveys some of the most important legal aspects relevant to space tourism activities, such as, the delimitation of airspace and outer space, the applicable legal regime and the definition of aircraft and space object, authorization, registration, liability, as well as the legal status of space tourists.

  10. Environmentalism and Human Rights Legal Framework: The Continued Frontier of Indigenous Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Geneva E. B.

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous nations need to build a strategic resistance to disman­tle the legal status quo and assert their inherent sovereignty and human legal rights to destroy the settler colonial project of climate change. This type of resistance needs to be internalized within the Indigenous nation and actively asserted throughout local, state, national, and international legal systems. This article takes a two-step approach: first, it argues that Native nations must internalize resistance to the settle...

  11. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  12. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  13. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  14. Liberalism, legal moralism and moral disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuflik, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    According to "legal moralism" it is part of law's proper role to "enforce morality as such". I explore the idea that legal moralism runs afoul of morality itself: there are good moral reasons not to require by law all that there is nevertheless good moral reason to do. I suggest that many such reasons have broad common-sense appeal and could be appreciated even in a society in which everyone completely agreed about what morality requires. But I also critique legal moralism from the special perspective of liberal political justice. Liberalism requires that citizens who disagree with one another on a number of morally significant matters nevertheless coexist and cooperate within a political framework of basic rights protections. When it comes to working out the most basic terms of their political association, citizens are expected to address one another within the limits of what Rawls has called "public reason". Critics of liberalism claim that this is an essentially a-moral (or expedient) attempt to evade substantive moral issues--such as the moral status of the fetus. I argue, on the contrary, that liberalism's emphasis on public reason is itself grounded in very deep--though (suitably) "non-comprehensive"--moral considerations.

  15. Legalities of the radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiograph itself plays a major role in medical malpractice cases. Also, many questions arise concerning the rights to and storage of x-ray films. These issues are addressed in this chapter. To keep the terminology simple, the word radiograph represents all imaging documentation on hard copy film (x-rays, nuclear medicine, computer-assisted studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging)

  16. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    South Africa. She argues convincingly that the current unrecognised status of Muslim marriages is not favourable to women because their marriages fall outside the realm of the mainstream legal systems in South Africa (the common and the customary law). She continues to discuss two Bills in various stages of evolution ...

  17. Legal aspects and international implications of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Alain.

    1977-11-01

    This paper reports on the status of work on food irradiation at international level, namely the IAEA/FAO/WHO Vienna recommendations, the proposed EEC directive, and the Codex alimentarius draft standards. It then deals with the legal aspects of the subject, in particular the problems concerning definitions, controls and instructions, and finally reviews the regulations for international trade in irradiated foodstuffs. (NEA) [fr

  18. A Legal Institutional Perspective on the European External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    2011-01-01

    , their support services and EU agencies, and seeks to define the EEAS’ sui generis status in the EU institutional set-up: What are the implications of its absence of legal personality, what does its ‘functional autonomy’ from the Council and Commission imply, what are its formal powers – if any, and could...

  19. Electronic Signatures: They're Legal, Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Martha A.; Gibson, Virginia R.; Tarasewich, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, electronic signatures recently became as legally binding as printed signatures. Reviews the status of electronic signatures in the United States, and compares it to work done by the United Nations. Summarizes the technology that can be used to implement electronic signatures. Discusses problems and open issues surrounding the…

  20. Recent Developments in the Provision of Pro Bono Legal Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on legal service delivery for the indigent by attorneys in private practice acting pro bono in civil rather than criminal matters. In this regard there have been and continue to be considerable gaps between the proper access to civil justice imperatives of constitutional South Africa and the status quo which ...

  1. 57 | Page A CROSS NATIONAL SURVEY OF THE LEGAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The lack of definition of the status of this category of workers as well as the legal framework regulating the terms and conditions of their employment and protection explains the motivating factor for the increasing use of casualization by employers and why this category of workers is exploited by employers who engage them.

  2. Female-Headed Households Within The Legal Framework In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... labour code, civil status registration ordinance, penal code, and the general rules and regulations of the public service. The paper concludes that although there a variety of isolated inclusion of female-headed households in the legal framework, many are still not applied. International Journal of emotiaonl psychology and ...

  3. The Person of Suspect in Criminal Procedure: Legal Historical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanitsin E. I.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical path of the emergence and development of the legal rules governing the procedural status of a suspect in the criminal procedure. The author puts forward the proposal to amend the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation.

  4. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  5. Building documentation generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn order to maintain the consistency between sources and documentation, while at the same time providing documentation at the design level, it is necessary to generate documentation from sources in such a way that it can be integrated with hand-written documentation. In order to

  6. Suspended in Eurocrisis : new immobilities and semi-legal migrations amongst Nigerians living in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Legislation concerning immigration draws clear distinctions between legal and irregular forms of migration, yet many migrants in practice are confined to ‘in-between’ migrant categories. This paper examines how the economic crisis has affected the legal status and mobility of Nigerian migrants in

  7. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  8. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  9. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  10. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  11. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  12. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  13. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  14. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  15. [Medico-legal aspects of hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Branislava; Segedi, Dimitrije; Mujović-Zornić, Hajrija

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the lawful implementations of surgical procedures, such as hysterectomy, raises practical questions concerning legal relations between a doctor and his patient, and consequences of this relationship, which may be legally relevant. The modern legal theory and practice consider doctors and patients to be partners. Medical practitioners performing surgical procedures are obliged to obtain informed consent. They are also required to inform their patients about indications, course of the operative procedure, postoperative treatment, possible complications during and after the procedure, and quality of life after the operation. Informed conversation should take into account the age, mental status and patient's intellectual abilities. Legal consequences ofsurgical procedures Malpractice litigation mostly concers medical error and negligence. Medical errors should not be confused with ineffective outcome, or complicated postoperative course. Even if the surgical procedure was followed correctly and uneventful outcome took place, there might be some problems. A patient has a right to receive complete information from a physician about the specific nature of a proposed treatment. A physician has an obligation to elucidate and justify, treatment he proposes. Certain codification of all operative procedures may facilitate this task. Codification instructions about procedures, in this case hysterectomy, must include indications for a certain type of hysterectomy (subtotal, total, radical), as well as for the operative technique (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic). Patient information brochures should be available in print, and include information about indications and potential risks associated with the proposed surgical procedure. In this way, it is possible to prevent the inconveniences which may arise from insufficient knowledge and information about surgical procedures.

  16. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  17. Registration document 2005; Document de reference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  18. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  19. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  20. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  1. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  2. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2016-01-01

    a serious collision with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented......’ rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient’s mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering...

  3. Preliminary results of the IRCA legalization programs at the end of phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J

    1989-03-01

    A remarkable gulf in interpretation and evaluation of the 1986 implementation of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) exists between various schools of analysts. Some feel that the law has not changed conditions much, while others consider the legalization program and employer sanctions successful. Altogether, IRCA included 6 specific legalization opportunities. The 2 major ones concerned aliens who had resided illegally in the US since January 1, 1982 and alien farm workers who had worked illegally in the US for at least 90 days between May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986. Issues concerning the pre-1982 or general legalization program include 1) the 5-year gap between the eligibility cutoff and the start of the legalization program made the principal US legalization program more restrictive than comparable legalization policies in other market economy countries, 2) it did not provide for immediate derivative legislation for family members of an illegal alien eligible for legalization, and 3) analysts disagree on the evaluation and the effectiveness of the public information campaign to inform eligible aliens of the legalization opportunity. The application procedure for the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW was much simpler than for the general legalization program. SAW applicants could apply at US borders. 10% of SAW applications were denied, due to fraud and other reasons, as opposed to 2% for applicants to the major legalization program. Both programs attracted mainly Mexican applicants. The total number of SAW applications received will help to determine future need for alien farm workers. 1 of the most important differences between the SAW and the pre-1982 legalization programs is the legal status of the newly legalized: 1) to secure permanent resident alien status, pre-1982 program applicants must pass civics and English examinations within a set period of time, whereas SAW applicants do not; and 2) SAW applicants are eligible for a broader range of social

  4. Legal protection against a lack of grounds in administrative judgements concerning public interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.

    1976-01-01

    Administrative legal protection, according to Basic Law, is the right of the individual for protection, i.e. protection of 'subjective' rights based on 'objective' law. The extension of this legal protection beyond the legal protection of the individual has been under discussion lately, mostly in connection with a joint board suit, not so often with citizen actions which comprise 'individual suit' and 'joint board suit', mainly in environmental protection law (e.g. actions brought against nuclear power plants). Such rights are not to be conceded to everybody and every association, but only to a few supraregional associations with legal status, e.g. the citizen association environmental protection. (HP) [de

  5. Hedging bets: Applying New Zealand's gambling machine regime to cannabis legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis legalization is often falsely depicted as a binary choice between status quo prohibition and legalizing production and distribution by (regulated) for-profit industry. There are, however, many more prudent architectures for legalization, such as restricting production and distribution licenses to not-for-profit entities. Wilkins describes how New Zealand applied that concept to gambling machines and proposes a parallel for cannabis legalization. Greater investment in proposing good designs along these lines, including attending to governance structures, would be valuable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterprise Document Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The function of the operation is to provide e-Signature and document management support for Acquisition and Assisitance (A&A) documents including vouchers in...

  7. Intranet Document Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

    1998-01-01

    Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

  8. Web document engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources

  9. Research document no. 20. The constitutionalizing of the international legal regime of the petroleum investments and the world market reconstruction; Cahier de recherche no. 20. La constitutionalisation du regime juridique international des investissements petroliers et la (re)construction du marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2000-09-01

    We analyse the new international legal regime for upstream petroleum investments and ''state contracts'' in general. In striking contrast to the ''New international economic order'' and ''Permanent sovereignty over natural resources'' ideologies of the 1960 and 1970, the emerging regime promotes the sanctification of contractual economic rights; the strict definition of State sovereign prerogatives, and the severe limitation of their conditions of exercise; the internationalization of the settlement of disputes through direct firm-State arbitration; the integration of national territories in a competitive, transparent, non-discriminative global market for investment. We demonstrate that it is rooted in the principles of liberal constitutionalism, hence promoting the internationalization of the Rule of Law. Such a legal regime is conducive to the expansion of the market for petroleum rights, as it restores the institutional conditions for credible commitment by the State. It will also accelerate the trend toward the ''commoditization'' of hydrocarbon resources. Bilateral investments treaties (especially the United States BIT program) as well as multilateral/regional instruments both general (draft MAI, MIGA, MERCOSUR, ALENA) and energy-specific (Energy Charter Treaty) are analysed as the main pillars and diffusion mechanisms of the new regime. A final paragraph indicates the way forward: the evaluation of the impact of this new legal regime on the world oil supply curve, especially as it eventually reaches - or not - some of the lowest-cost, biggest-resources countries. (author)

  10. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  12. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  13. Historical Documents Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Miguel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical documents are mostly accessible to scholars specialized in the period in which the document originated. In order to increase their accessibility to a broader audience and help in the preservation of the cultural heritage, we propose a method to modernized these documents. This method is based in statistical machine translation, and aims at translating historical documents into a modern version of their original language. We tested this method in two different scenarios, obtaining very encouraging results.

  14. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  15. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  16. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  17. Food irradiation. An update of legal and analytical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masotti, P.; Zonta, F.

    1999-01-01

    A new European directive concerning ionising radiation treatment of foodstuffs has been recently adopted, although National laws may continue to be applied at least until 31 December 2000. A brief updated review dealing with the legal and analytical aspects of food irradiation is presented. The legal status of the food irradiation issue presently in force in Italy, in the European Union and in the USA is discussed. Some of the most used and reliable analytical methods for detecting irradiated foodstuffs, with special reference to standardised methods of European Committee of Standardization, are listed [it

  18. Documents preparation and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Ignalina Safety Analysis Group takes active role in assisting regulatory body VATESI to prepare various regulatory documents and reviewing safety reports and other documentation presented by Ignalina NPP in the process of licensing of unit 1. The list of main documents prepared and reviewed is presented

  19. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts

  20. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 A bout the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies , which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  1. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  2. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  3. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  4. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  5. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  6. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  7. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  8. 37 CFR 104.22 - Demand for testimony or production of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand for testimony or... Documents in Legal Proceedings § 104.22 Demand for testimony or production of documents. (a) Whenever a demand for testimony or for the production of documents is made upon an employee, the employee shall...

  9. Legal liability and claims for the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimcho Todorov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of various aspects of legal liability and claims to hotel management arising in the hotel industry in the context of the legal framework and possible legal consequences for hotels and other types of commercial accommodation establishments. The main reasons for accidents' occurrence in the hotel industry are chronologically traced. Possible claims to the hotel management are also presented in detail. The problem with workplace discrimination, which is considered as unrightfully actions from administration towards hospitably industry personnel and the connected consequences, is discussed. A definition is given of the various forms of discrimination and the obligations of management to provide a healthy work environment without problems for the personnel are stated, as well. Regulative measures and documents are also presented, regarding measures following possible labour law violations. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated and ways to prevent and overcome problems and accidents in various accommodation establishments and the hotel industry as a whole are shown

  10. ["Rabies odontologica" Analysis of communications among dentists by legal means].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M; Rosenberger, W

    2002-11-01

    The present study examines developments in the language used in protests, appeals and objections as lodged by patients and by attending dentists in regard to formal legal aspects and contents. The study is based on about 15,000 expert reports prepared by the Dental Services Department of the City of Wuppertal during the period from 1990 to 2001. The investigation reveals a considerable and growing discrepancy between the neutral and objective language qua legal proviso of the expert reports and the diction used in the objections, above all on the part of dentists. The authors propose a set of instruments to be used for legal analysis of texts and discuss possible reasons, including non-medical reasons, for the documented deplorable drop in standard of controversies among dentists in particular.

  11. The Course Syllabus: Legal Contract or Operator’s Manual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A course syllabus provides a roadmap for pharmacy students to achieve course learning objectives and develop lifelong learning skills. For several decades the literature has referred to syllabi as legal documents and/or contracts between students and professors. A review of the legal precedents reveals that syllabi are not considered contracts because the courts refuse thus far to recognize educational malpractice or breach of contract as a cause of action. Syllabi do, however, represent a triggering agent for instructional dissent and grade appeals, may be binding in student appeal proceedings, and are used in judicial hearings. Pharmacy faculty members should review their syllabi and follow process improvement strategies to construct legally sound syllabi that can both enhance learning and minimize risks of student grievances and appeals. PMID:28179726

  12. Domestic violence: legal issues for health care practitioners and institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, A

    1996-01-01

    If health care practitioners and institutions became familiar with legal options available to survivors of domestic violence, they could better facilitate their patients' access to potentially life-saving recourses. Such options include calling the police and obtaining civil protection orders and bringing custody, divorce, and support actions. Provider awareness of legal obligations and other legal considerations that arise when handling domestic violence cases is important for patient care and the practice of good risk management. Examples of such issues include domestic violence protocol requirements, documentation of abuse, and repercussions of mandatory reporting laws. Health care providers should work in collaboration with community domestic violence programs in educating staff on issues pertaining to domestic violence and in crafting policies that promote patient safety and autonomy.

  13. Establishment of ''Internal Rules'' and EDMS - Electronic Document Management System at NPP NEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present NPP's plans regarding the on-going project that started in November 2011, and that is related to the establishment of ''Internal Rules'' and EDMS - Electronic Document Management System.The term ''Internal Rules'' has been directly translated from Slovenian language (''Notranja pravila'') and adopted from the translated version of appropriate Slovenian national codes (ZVDAGA [1] in Slovenian language or PDAAIA [2] in English version). ''Internal Rules on capture and storage of materials in digital form'' refer to the rules adopted by a person as his/her internal act with reference to storage of his/her material. The main purpose for the establishment of the Internal Rules is to be able to justify that Krsko NPP is organized in compliance with the national codes covering that subject and strictly performing according to those Internal Rules. Once a Slovenian company achieves recognized and registered status in accordance with the Internal Rules document that has been certified and approved by the ARS (Archives of the Republic Slovenia), such company can utilize e-documents in the same way as they would utilize physical documents. Furthermore, a Slovenian company with approved Internal Rules can use e-documents in any legal aspect associated with the document's life cycle and the document's content as they would use the physical document or an authorized and approved copy of the physical document. Related to the nuclear regulatory background, NEK operates in compliance with the Slovenian legislation and also the US codes, regulations and guidelines; therefore, regarding the NPP specific documents, the Internal Rules and EDMS must also be in compliance with them. Since early 1990's, NEK has implemented document/records management system oriented towards supporting storage and management of physical documents/records and controlling distribution of active document copies. Document/records management system was supported by

  14. The Use of Speech Technology to Protect the Document Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Alyushin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The wide current paper documents implementation in practice workflows are shown. The basic aspects of document protection related to the protection of their content and legal components are underlined. For contextual component assigned semantic information aspect of the document is considered. For legal component attributed facts and conditions for the creation, approval, negotiation of the document to specific persons is viewed. The documents protection problem importance is shown in connection with possible terrorist threats. The importance of such factor as the time of fraud detection towards the efficiency of documents protection is shown. The fraud detection time requirements for documents of different nature – financial, legal, management is analyzed. The documents used for the operational management of dangerous objects is point out as the most sensitive to the falsification. It is shown that their deliberate falsification can lead to accidents and technogenic catastrophes and human casualties. A comparative analysis of currently used protecting documents methods are presented. Biometric and non-biometric methods of documents protection are point out.Theanalysis of their short comings are given. The conclusion about the prospects of document protection on the basis of the voice signature technology are done. The basic steps of voice information processing in the implementation of this technology are analyzed. The software that implements a documents counterfeiting new protection technology is proposed. The technology is based on the audiomarkers usage at the end of the document, which contains a general information about it. The technology is applicable to the wide range of documents such as financial and valuable papers, contracts, etc. One of the most important advantages of this technology is that any changes in the document can not be done without the author of the document because audiomarker keeps the biometric data of the person

  15. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  16. Legal Pluralism as a Theoretical Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Patrignani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the development of the status of the theory of legal pluralism: while originally the term has been used as descriptive label referring to a situation observed in the world, nowadays a more sophisticated understanding of the role of the concept is needed. The epistemology of social sciences can help us make sense of the multifarious literature on legal pluralism, and of the different conceptions of the term that have been proposed. More specifically, legal pluralism is here devised as a theoretical programme and its influence on the production of social-scientific knowledge is analysed. The investigation concentrates on the role of the concept in the selection of relevant data and on the intelligibility structure imposed on them.Este artículo reconstruye el desarrollo de la situación de la teoría de pluralismo jurídico: aunque en un principio el término se utilizó como una etiqueta descriptiva referida a una situación que se observaba en el mundo, hoy en día se necesita una comprensión más sofisticada del rol del concepto. La epistemología de las ciencias sociales puede ayudar a dar sentido a la literatura heterogénea sobre pluralismo jurídico, así como a las diferentes concepciones del término que se han propuesto. Más específicamente, aquí se concibe el pluralismo jurídico como un programa teórico y se analiza su influencia en la producción de conocimiento científico social. La investigación se concentra en el papel del concepto en la selección de datos relevantes y en la estructura de inteligibilidad impuesta sobre ellos.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2833822

  17. International acceptance of irradiated food. Legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The three international organizations competent in the field of irradiation processing for the preservation of food (FAO, WHO, IAEA), convened, at the end of 1977, an Advisory Group to revise and update the recommendations of a similar group which met in early 1972. The Advisory Group considered how national regulations could be harmonized so as to facilitate the international movement of irradiated food. This publication contains the Report of the Advisory Group, which summarizes the considerations of the Group on regulatory control over the irradiation plant and irradiation of foods, and on assurances for comparability of control (international labelling and documentation). Annexes 1 to 6 are included in order to complete the relevant information on the legal aspects of this subject. They include a Draft General Standard for Irradiated Foods, a Draft Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, Recommendations of a Consultation Group on the Legal Aspects of Food Irradiation, a Listing of the Legislation on Food Irradiation Adopted in Member States (1971-1976), and Model Regulations for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food

  18. Legal terminology at arm's length - the multiple dimensions of legal terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at shedding new light on the multiple dimensions of legal terms which can be unearthed in the process of terminology mining as a crucial stage in translation. It proposes to view legal terminology from a sociocognitive perspective, according to which terms are perceived as expressing units of understanding based oncognitive frames rather than rendering concepts in their traditional definition. Upon closer scrutiny most of these units reveal significant information regarding their verbal and extra-verbal dimensions. We therefore suggest analysing units of understanding expressed by simple terms, multiple elements terms and phraseology as depositories of knowledge providing information on the text type in which they occur, as well as on there levant area of law, the legal system and the wider culture underlying the text. In this context, terminology mining is not intended merely as extraction of terms, but rather as their analysis, comparison and structuring which reveals aspects such as their multiple embeddedness, as well as their historical, ideological, metaphorical, status-conferringand common Latin dimension.

  19. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one of...

  20. 27 CFR 73.33 - Am I legally bound by a form I sign electronically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Filing of Documents with TTB § 73.33 Am I legally bound... paper document submitted to satisfy the same reporting requirement. Persons using electronic signatures...

  1. Fatal hemorrhage from legal abortion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A; Kafrissen, M E; O'Reilly, K R; Binkin, N J

    1983-11-01

    Deaths from hemorrhage associated with legal induced abortion should not occur. Yet hemorrhage was the third most frequent cause of death from legal abortion in the United States between 1972 and 1979. This study was undertaken to document the scope of the problem, to identify risk factors for fatal hemorrhage and to recommend ways of preventing these deaths. Deaths were identified through the CDC's nationwide surveillance of deaths from abortions; information on numbers and characteristics of women having legal abortions was obtained from CDC and the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Twenty-four women died from hemorrhage after legal abortion in the United States from 1972 to 1979, for a death-to-case rate of 0.3 deaths per 100,000 abortions (95 per cent confidence interval 0.2 to 0.5). Women who died from hemorrhage were significantly older than those who died from other causes (27.6 versus 24.4 years; p less than 0.05). Documented uterine perforation or rupture was far more frequent among women who died from hemorrhage than those who died from other causes (71 versus 8 per cent; p less than 0.001). Women who sustained uterine perforation or rupture were over 1,000 times more likely to die from hemorrhage than those who did not. Deaths from hemorrhage can be eliminated by preventing uterine trauma during abortion and by rapidly diagnosing and treating hemorrhage if it occurs.

  2. CFO Payment Document Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Paperless management will enable the CFO to create, store, and access various financial documents electronically. This capability will reduce time looking for...

  3. Health physics documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stablein, G.

    1980-01-01

    When dealing with radioactive material the health physicist receives innumerable papers and documents within the fields of researching, prosecuting, organizing and justifying radiation protection. Some of these papers are requested by the health physicist and some are required by law. The scope, quantity and deposit periods of the health physics documentation at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center are presented and rationalizing methods discussed. The aim of this documentation should be the application of physics to accident prevention, i.e. documentation should protect those concerned and not the health physicist. (H.K.)

  4. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  5. Legal advocacy as a tool to advance Roma Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tamar; Abdikeeva, Alphia; McKee, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roma in central Europe face many violations of their rights, including those that impede their access to high-quality health care. Legal frameworks have the potential to address these violations, whereas legal advocacy services offer a means for enforcement of rights. We undertook key informant interviews with Roma civil society organisations and selected knowledgeable individuals in Macedonia, Romania and Serbia to identify lessons from the development of these services. Achievements were reported in four areas. Legal empowerment, with employment of Roma paralegals was especially effective, increasing awareness of the ability to challenge violations. Documentation of human rights violations is an important basis for advocacy, but does not guarantee redress, and may work best in combination with legal empowerment or international pressure. Strategic litigation can play a key role in removing bureaucratic obstacles that prevent Roma from exercising their right to access to health care. Progress in changing the narrative on Roma in the mainstream media has been limited but examples of good practice exist. Although much remains to be done, Roma groups report that legal advocacy has strengthened their ability to challenge rights violations, thereby enhancing their ability to access effective and responsive care.

  6. Shared Electronic Health Record Systems: Key Legal and Security Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ellen K; Skipenes, Eva; Hausken, Marie F; Skeie, Svein; Østbye, Truls; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-11-01

    Use of shared electronic health records opens a whole range of new possibilities for flexible and fruitful cooperation among health personnel in different health institutions, to the benefit of the patients. There are, however, unsolved legal and security challenges. The overall aim of this article is to highlight legal and security challenges that should be considered before using shared electronic cooperation platforms and health record systems to avoid legal and security "surprises" subsequent to the implementation. Practical lessons learned from the use of a web-based ulcer record system involving patients, community nurses, GPs, and hospital nurses and doctors in specialist health care are used to illustrate challenges we faced. Discussion of possible legal and security challenges is critical for successful implementation of shared electronic collaboration systems. Key challenges include (1) allocation of responsibility, (2) documentation routines, (3) and integrated or federated access control. We discuss and suggest how challenges of legal and security aspects can be handled. This discussion may be useful for both current and future users, as well as policy makers.

  7. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  9. Legal abortion for mental health indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E

    2006-11-01

    Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.

  10. Accounting Standards and Legal Capital in EU Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukas Panetsos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interaction between accounting standards and legal capital in the European Union legal framework. More in particular, it attempts to compare on a parallel basis the distributional and behavioural function of both concepts and to address whether the current legal status quo in the European Union fulfils these functions. First, this paper makes a short reference to the various accounting families which are encountered today, with a strong emphasis on the distinction between Anglo-American and Continental systems. Then, it describes the EU accounting regulation and the introduction of IFRS in domestic legislation. Further, it discusses the concept of legal capital as it has been established in European jurisdictions and it points to the relevance of the Continental accounting standards. It is argued that both are characterized by paternalism, contrasting with Anglo-American standards and American distributional methods, which are outlined by contractariansm. The final argument is that the combination of legal capital rules and Anglo-American standards, like the IFRS, neither achieves the protective role prescribed to the former, nor guarantees the aims of the latter.

  11. Adam Nash: legally speaking, a happy ending or slippery slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockin, Susan

    2001-01-01

    The birth of Adam Nash, following IVF and then preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on the resulting 15 embryos to find which would be a potential bone marrow match for his older sibling, suffering from Fanconi's anaemia, is the first reported case of genetic selection of an embryo to save the life of an existing person. The case has stirred debates worldwide over the appropriateness and implications of using the technique for this and related purposes. Legally, it is suggested that embryos are indeed entitled to special respect because of their potential for life, but certain principles must not be overlooked, and the Nash case was wholly within acceptable legal principles. The legal perspective offered here concludes: (i) while embryos are entitled to certain protections, the mere fact that they are extracorporeal raises the danger that the rights and protections assigned to them will be wrongly elevated over the legally protected procreation rights of the adults who create them; (ii) divorce litigation involving "custody" of embryos is not a direct parallel and legal analogies must be distinguished; (iii) the status of embryos must be carefully defined; and (iv) a national or international, multi-disciplinary body should be created to grapple with the developing issues and uses that are sure to follow.

  12. Cluster strategies in the regional economy development: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Mikheeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the state of legal support of the cluster strategies implementation to identify the problems and possible directions for improving the legal support of cluster development in the regions. Methods systemic structuralfunctional induction and deduction analysis and synthesis formal legal. Results the paper formulates the definition of cluster as a form of cooperative interaction of organizations interacting in some economic sphere due to functional dependence complementing each other and reinforcing the competitive advantages of individual companies. The hypothesis is proposed that the organizational and management structure of clusters should be unified and obtain normative fixation so that the same type of bodies including executive bodies and the structure of the different clusters deliberative specialized organizations organizationcoordinator etc. had similar competence and position in the management hierarchy. Scientific novelty following the most general conception of a cluster as interacting institutions in a specific area one can see that the lack of clarity in the legal support of the clusters functioning does not allow to determine the status of authoritative and nonauthoritative subjects of economic activities their organizationallegal forms and the procedure of their interaction. Practical significance the identified problems of legal support of the cluster strategies implementation can help in the improvement of state regulation of cluster relations in the regions and their implementation.

  13. La historia clínica : marco legal

    OpenAIRE

    González, Silvia Inés

    2013-01-01

    La historia clínica se considera un documento primordial en un sistema de salud, brindando información asistencial, preventiva y social, ya que constituye el registro completo de la atención prestada al paciente, de lo que se deriva su trascendencia como documento legal. In the health system, the medical history is considered a fundamental document which provides medical care information, both preventive and social, since it constitutes a thorough record of the care pr...

  14. INFCE plenary conference documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of the reports to the First INFCE Plenary Conference (November 1978) by the Working Groups a Plenary Conference of its actions and decisions, the Communique of the Final INFCE Plenary Conference (February 1980), and a list of all documents in the IAEA depository for INFCE

  15. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  16. Searching for text documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blanken, Henk; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    Many documents contain, besides text, also images, tables, and so on. This chapter concentrates on the text part only. Traditionally, systems handling text documents are called information storage and retrieval systems. Before the World-Wide Web emerged, such systems were almost exclusively used by

  17. Documenting Your Inclusion Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Marie F.; Miller, Maury

    This paper briefly addresses critical issues in documenting studies of the effectiveness of inclusive education for students with disabilities and includes a summary table of the existing literature and guidelines for problem solving about inclusion. The importance of sound methodology in documenting effects of inclusion and the dangers of value…

  18. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  19. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  20. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  1. Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The legal framework of IAEA safeguards consists of a number of elements, not at all of which are documents. These elements include the Statute of the IAEA; treaties and supply agreements calling for verification of nonproliferation undertakings; the basic safeguards documents, the safeguards agreements themselves, along with the relevant protocols and subsidiary arrangements; and finally, the decisions, interpretations and practices of the Board of Governors. After a discussion of these elements the major differences between the various types of IAEA safeguards agreements are outlined. Finally the procedures involved in the initiation, negotiation, conclusion and amendment of safeguards agreements are described. (author)

  2. CNEA's quality system documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.M.; Garonis, O.H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: To obtain an effective and coherent documentation system suitable for CNEA's Quality Management Program, we decided to organize the CNEA's quality documentation with : a- Level 1. Quality manual. b- Level 2. Procedures. c-Level 3. Qualities plans. d- Level 4: Instructions. e- Level 5. Records and other documents. The objective of this work is to present a standardization of the documentation of the CNEA's quality system of facilities, laboratories, services, and R and D activities. Considering the diversity of criteria and formats for elaboration the documentation by different departments, and since ultimately each of them generally includes the same quality management policy, we proposed the elaboration of a system in order to improve the documentation, avoiding unnecessary time wasting and costs. This will aloud each sector to focus on their specific documentation. The quality manuals of the atomic centers fulfill the rule 3.6.1 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, and the Safety Series 50-C/SG-Q of the International Atomic Energy Agency. They are designed by groups of competent and highly trained people of different departments. The normative procedures are elaborated with the same methodology as the quality manuals. The quality plans which describe the organizational structure of working group and the appropriate documentation, will asses the quality manuals of facilities, laboratories, services, and research and development activities of atomic centers. The responsibilities for approval of the normative documentation are assigned to the management in charge of the administration of economic and human resources in order to fulfill the institutional objectives. Another improvement aimed to eliminate unnecessary invaluable processes is the inclusion of all quality system's normative documentation in the CNEA intranet. (author) [es

  3. Legal report: [a summary of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A R; Leiden, W R

    1986-01-01

    On November 6, 1986, President Reagan signed a comprehensive immigration bill that prohibits the hiring of illegal aliens and offers legal status to many such aliens already in the US. The bill offers legal status to aliens who could show that they entered the US before January 1, 1982, and have resided here continuously "in an unlawful status" since that date. Employers hiring illegal aliens are subject to civil penalties ranging from $250 to $10,000 for each illegal alien. This summary of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 is based on the joint Senate/House Conference Report adopted by the House of Representatives on October 15, 1986.

  4. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  5. The Legal Junction: the complex promise of modern legal professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Kwak

    2005-01-01

    textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted

  6. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  7. Controls Over Electronic Document Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Electronic Document Management contributes to the initiative by digitizing paper documents and offering read-only access to official contracts and modifications, invoices, and accounting and finance documents...

  8. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  9. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  10. Documenting operations accounting for recruitment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samchuk K.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activities of domestic consulting companies in partial provision of recruitment, it was found that these services are quite expensive cost. What prompted changes to the work plan account at partial cost of the company with the corresponding distinguishing them for production, administration, distribution costs. For efficient organization of analytical accounting invited to approve classifiers business costs as application of the accounting policies while bringing them into computer information system of accounting as a guide. A form of primary documents that serve as documentary proof of performance of the contract of service of searching. The set details of the proposed forms of primary documents directed to presenting information of financial, economic and legal nature.

  11. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  12. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  13. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  14. [Legal aspects of geriatric rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, T

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.

  15. Legal Handbook on School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…

  16. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  17. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  18. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  19. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  20. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  1. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  2. Informational system. Documents management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladut Iacob

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity growing, as well as reducing of operational costs in a company can be achieved by adopting a document management solutions. Such application will allow management and structured and efficient transmission of information within the organization.

  3. NCDC Archive Documentation Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Climatic Data Center Tape Deck Documentation library is a collection of over 400 manuals describing NCDC's digital holdings (both historic and current)....

  4. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, Jr., F. Christopher [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rose, Timothy P. [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Thomas, James M. [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Waddell, Richard [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Jacobson, Roger [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

  5. Registration document 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  6. Applications for electronic documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of electronic media to documents, specifically Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), prepared for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) programs being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Efforts are underway to upgrade our document system using electronic format. To satisfy external requirements (DOE, State, and Federal), ER ampersand WM programs generate a complement of internal requirements documents including a SAR and Technical Safety Requirements along with procedures and training materials. Of interest, is the volume of information and the difficulty in handling it. A recently prepared ER ampersand WM SAR consists of 1,000 pages of text and graphics; supporting references add 10,000 pages. Other programmatic requirements documents consist of an estimated 5,000 pages plus references

  7. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  8. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  9. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  10. Are PDF Documents Accessible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ribera Turró

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adobe PDF is one of the most widely used formats in scientific communications and in administrative documents. In its latest versions it has incorporated structural tags and improvements that increase its level of accessibility. This article reviews the concept of accessibility in the reading of digital documents and evaluates the accessibility of PDF according to the most widely established standards.

  11. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  12. Legal status and the legal treatment of environmental refugees; Rechtsstellung und rechtliche Behandlung von Umweltfluechtlingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammer, Margit; Nowak, Manfred [Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fuer Menschenrechte, Wien (Austria); Stadlmayr, Lisa; Hafner, Gerhard [Wien Univ. (Austria). Abt. Voelkerrecht und Internationale Beziehungen

    2010-11-15

    After the development of a working definition of ''environmental refugees'', the study examines existing State obligations in international law (obligations of the State of origin and of third States under human rights law and general public international law), which are relevant for the prevention of ''environmental flight'' as well as for coping with situations of ''environmental flight'' and identifies shortcomings. In a second step and based on this inventory and gap analysis, a catalogue of ''ideal'' State obligations and individual rights aiming at the best possible protection for (potential) ''environmental refugees'' is created. After comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different solution models, a specific, ''ideal'' solution is presented. (orig.)

  13. Moving from legality to reality: how medical abortion methods were introduced with implementation science in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Djemo, Patrick; Vwallika, Bellington; Mupeta, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background Although abortion is technically legal in Zambia, the reality is far more complicated. This study describes the process and results of galvanizing access to medical abortion where abortion has been legal for many years, but provision severely limited. It highlights the challenges and successes of scaling up abortion care using implementation science to document 2 years of implementation. Methods An intervention between the Ministry of Health, University Teaching Hospital and the in...

  14. Documentation of spectrom-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Fossum, A.F.; Svalstad, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    SPECTROM-32 is a finite element program for analyzing two-dimensional and axisymmetric inelastic thermomechanical problems related to the geological disposal of nuclear waste. The code is part of the SPECTROM series of special-purpose computer programs that are being developed by RE/SPEC Inc. to address many unique rock mechanics problems encountered in analyzing radioactive wastes stored in geologic formations. This document presents the theoretical basis for the mathematical models, the finite element formulation and solution procedure of the program, a description of the input data for the program, verification problems, and details about program support and continuing documentation. The computer code documentation is intended to satisfy the requirements and guidelines outlined in the document entitled Final Technical Position on Documentation of Computer Codes for High-Level Waste Management. The principal component models used in the program involve thermoelastic, thermoviscoelastic, thermoelastic-plastic, and thermoviscoplastic types of material behavior. Special material considerations provide for the incorporation of limited-tension material behavior and consideration of jointed material behavior. Numerous program options provide the capabilities for various boundary conditions, sliding interfaces, excavation, backfill, arbitrary initial stresses, multiple material domains, load incrementation, plotting database storage and access of results, and other features unique to the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. Numerous verification problems that exercise many of the program options and illustrate the required data input and printed results are included in the documentation

  15. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPS standards. This document is a revision to the original document. Major revisions were made to the sections in riprap selection and sizing, and ground-water; only minor revisions were made to the remainder of the document. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared a Standard Review Plan (NRC-SRP) which describes factors to be considered by the NRC in approving the RAP. Sections 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0 of this document are arranged under the same headings as those used in the NRC-SRP. This approach is adopted in order to facilitate joint use of the documents. Section 2.0 (not included in the NRC-SRP) discusses design considerations; Section 3.0 describes surface-water hydrology and erosion control; Section 4.0 describes geotechnical aspects of pile design; Section 5.0 discusses the Alternate Site Selection Process; Section 6.0 deals with radiological issues (in particular, the design of the radon barrier); Section 7.0 discusses protection of groundwater resources; and Section 8.0 discusses site design criteria for the RAC

  16. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  17. Scientific challenges underlying production document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Field of Document Recognition is bipolar. On one end lies the excellent work of academic institutions engaging in original research on scientifically interesting topics. On the other end lies the document recognition industry which services needs for high-volume data capture for transaction and back-office applications. These realms seldom meet, yet the need is great to address technical hurdles for practical problems using modern approaches from the Document Recognition, Computer Vision, and Machine Learning disciplines. We reflect on three categories of problems we have encountered which are both scientifically challenging and of high practical value. These are Doctype Classification, Functional Role Labeling, and Document Sets. Doctype Classification asks, "What is the type of page I am looking at?" Functional Role Labeling asks, "What is the status of text and graphical elements in a model of document structure?" Document Sets asks, "How are pages and their contents related to one another?" Each of these has ad hoc engineering approaches that provide 40-80% solutions, and each of them begs for a deeply grounded formulation both to provide understanding and to attain the remaining 20-60% of practical value. The practical need is not purely technical but also depends on the user experience in application setup and configuration, and in collection and groundtruthing of sample documents. The challenge therefore extends beyond the science behind document image recognition and into user interface and user experience design.

  18. CONNECTIONS AND INTERFERENCES BETWEEN THE RIGHT TO DEFENCE AND THE RIGHT TO LEGAL ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andriţoi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Between the right to defence and assistance and the civil rights a close connection has been identified. Sometimes the realisation and protection of these rights, such as the right to life, to personal dignity, to private life etc., in general are impossible without the right to defence and legal assistance. First, the right to legal assistance allows the individual to comprehend the powers conferred to him by this right. Second, the right to legal assistance allows the protection and enforcement of these personal rights. The subjects of both rights are all the persons who have the right to information about the status of their own rights and liberties and the problems impeding their achievement. The importance of informing citizens and states in all spheres, and in particular about the implementation scope of the right to legal assistance consists in the population’s comprehensive legal information.

  19. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  20. The Legal Status of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Brasoveanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the world has become aware that natural resources are not inexhaustible, that manyspecies are threatened with extinction and that is is necessary to strive for judicious use of natural resources tofulfill the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs(principle of sustainable development. To conserve species and habitats protected areas have beenestablished worldwide. The protected area is a geographically defined area, with rare natural elements and / orendangered species, regulated and managed in order to achieve specific conservation objectives. Althoughranked Europe's second in size (after the Volga River and the 20th in the world, because of the rich landscapeand wildlife, with the birds ranked most important, the Danube Delta has a very special interest scientificallyas it is a natural laboratory of forming delta, tourism and economic ecosystems, through its renewable naturalresources of which the most important resources are living aquatic resources.

  1. The legal status of evidence obtained through human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995 is silent on the issue of dealing with evidence obtained through human rights violations. This silence dates to the earlier Constitutions of 1962, 1966 and 1967. It is only the Prohibition and Prevention of Torture Act of 2012 that renders evidence obtained through torture and ...

  2. Death before life: The legal status of cadaveric foetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2011-01-01

    to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...

  3. Justice and legitimacy hindered by uncertainty: The legal status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Leadership and Governance Framework Act 2003 provides for the transformation of apartheidera tribal authorities into constitutional-era traditional councils with a role in traditional governance. The process involves reconstituting these councils to meet certain thresholds of women and democratically elected ...

  4. Problems on the legal status of the Church of Scientology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Carobene

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, è destinato alla pubblicazione nel volume Scientology in scholary perspective, Atti del Convegno, Antwerpen (Belgio, 24-25 gennaio 2014, a cura di R. Dericquebourg,Equinox Publishing.SUMMARY: 1. Preliminary observations. The recent English case law about Scientology - 2. The long Italian process - 3. The condemnation of the religious movement in France - 4. Conclusion.

  5. The dispense of legal reserve in the registration of property: decrease of environmental protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Miranda Carneiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is intended to analyze the rural environmental registry and exemption from the registration of the legal reserve on the basis of Law 12.651/12. They will be addressed elements of environmental protection and real estate to handle the revocation of registration of the legal reserve in real estate registry and their inclusion in the CAR, as well as property registration paper and registral advertising in order to ascertain the legal traffic safety real estate. We used exploratory method  through literature and document analysis starting at the constitutional and environmental law through the registral law.

  6. Analysis Of The Notion Of Decent Work In Its Conceptual, Terminological And Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vieira Pessanha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the notion of decent work, especially in the conceptual, terminological and legal perspectives, analyzing its scope, its relevance for the realization of the dignity of the human person and how the legal set contemplates and stimulates its practical verification. The objective is to develop a more detailed appreciation of the meaning created by the International Labor Organization, understanding peculiarities and delimiting the application in the legal world. The research is qualitative, with method of bibliographical revision, listing directly related documents (national and international norms and consulting other sources (official websites and dictionaries.

  7. Medico-legal findings, legal case progression, and outcomes in South African rape cases: retrospective review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771, 14% (209 of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31 of adults and 7% (44 of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22 of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-18.13, p = 0.003. In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14-34.3, p = 0

  8. PSP Program close out documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andringa, K.; Hootman, H.E.; Ferrara, A.S.; Smith, P.K.; Congdon, J.W.; Randolph, H.W.; Young, R.H.; Driggers, F.E.; Topp, S.V.

    1985-12-31

    In December 1982 DOE-SR directed SRL to study the feasibility and impact of a program to lower the U-236 content of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) stockpile used as fuel for the SRP reactors. In response to this request SRL assessed four technologies, Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS), Gas Centrifuge, and the Plasma Separation Process (PSP) for this purpose with the assistance of the Engineering Department. In April 1983 cost/benefit analyses for these processes, high spot cost estimates for production facilities, and process uncertainties were submitted to DOE-SR with a recommendation to proceed with the conceptual design and supporting development programs for a facility based on the use of the PSP process. The current program status for the PSP development program at SRL and the design and documentation of a production facility at SRP, referred to as the Fuel Improvement Demonstration Facility (FIDF), is described in this report.

  9. Evaluation of legal aspects of activities involving radiations: proposal for a new legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Jose C.

    1997-01-01

    The present brazilian legislation status concerning activities in which occurs or may occur any exposure to ionizing radiations, involves several incoherencies and privileges, as a consequence of legal rights generated from labor principles which have no social or scientific base. In this study, several legal labor topics are analysed and a new doctrine context is proposed, based mainly on a equal treatment for all insalubrious and dangerous activities done by workers of both private and public sectors (author). 8 refs

  10. Parliamentary Oversight: Legal Regulation (On the Example of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan S. Abgarov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal analysis of the characteristics of parliamentary control at the regional level is in demand both from theoretical and practical points of view. To a greater extent in the article focuses on issues such as directly the status of legislative (representative body of state power, its structure and priorities. Meanwhile, the modern legal practice activities of regional parliaments establishes a gradual expansion of powers of control and the active development of forms of parliamentary control in modern conditions.

  11. Sense and sensibility in a legal argument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  13. Cf-252 Characterization Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Six documents were written by Vance and Associates under contract to the Off-Site Source Recovery Project of Los Alamos National Laboratory. These Six documents provided the basis for characterization of Californium-252 sealed sources and for the packaging and manifesting of this material for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project. The Six documents are: 1. VA-OSR-10, Development of radionuclide distributions for Cf-252 sealed sources. 2. VA-OSR-11, Uncertainty analysis for Cf-252 sealed sources. 3. VA-OSR-12, To determine the radionuclides in the waste drums containing Cf-252 sealed source waste that are required to be reported under the requirements of the WIPP WAC and the TRAMPAC. 4. VA-OSR-13, Development of the spreadsheet for the radiological calculations for the characterization of Cf-252 sources. 5. VA-OSR-14, Relative importance of neutron-induced fission in Cf-252 sources. 6. VA-OSR-15, Determine upper bound of decay product inventories from a drum of Cf-252 sources. These six documents provide the technical basis for the characterization of Cf-252 sources and will be part of the AK documentation required for submittal to the Central Characterization Project (CCP) of WIPP.

  14. Securing XML Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shoniregun

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available XML (extensible markup language is becoming the current standard for establishing interoperability on the Web. XML data are self-descriptive and syntax-extensible; this makes it very suitable for representation and exchange of semi-structured data, and allows users to define new elements for their specific applications. As a result, the number of documents incorporating this standard is continuously increasing over the Web. The processing of XML documents may require a traversal of all document structure and therefore, the cost could be very high. A strong demand for a means of efficient and effective XML processing has posed a new challenge for the database world. This paper discusses a fast and efficient indexing technique for XML documents, and introduces the XML graph numbering scheme. It can be used for indexing and securing graph structure of XML documents. This technique provides an efficient method to speed up XML data processing. Furthermore, the paper explores the classification of existing methods impact of query processing, and indexing.

  15. Untested assumptions: psychological research and credibility assessment in legal decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Herlihy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma survivors often have to negotiate legal systems such as refugee status determination or the criminal justice system. Methods & results: We outline and discuss the contribution which research on trauma and related psychological processes can make to two particular areas of law where complex and difficult legal decisions must be made: in claims for refugee and humanitarian protection, and in reporting and prosecuting sexual assault in the criminal justice system. Conclusion: There is a breadth of psychological knowledge that, if correctly applied, would limit the inappropriate reliance on assumptions and myth in legal decision-making in these settings. Specific recommendations are made for further study.

  16. A Study of Counselors' Legal Challenges and Their Perceptions of Their Ability to Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY A. HERM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors explore the results of a study that assessed the types and frequency of legal issues encountered by counselors and counselors’ perceptions of their ability to respond to these issues. They also assessed whether the participants’ perceptions were related to practice setting, years of experience, completion of a course in ethics, recent completion of continuing education in ethics or legal issues, state licensure status, certification by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC, and highest degree earned. Results demonstrate that counselors feel most prepared to deal with situations encountered most often, but that school counselors do not feel as prepared to face most ethical and legal issues.

  17. Safeguards agreements - their legal and conceptual basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Rainer, R.

    1977-01-01

    , financial matters, legal and political provisions such as sanctions in the case of non-compliance, and privileges and immunities. Both INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 and INFCIRC/153 agreements are supplemented by detailed technical arrangements ''Subsidiary Arrangements''. The paper discusses the principal concepts on which the Agency safeguards regime, as applied pursuant to the abovementioned documents, is based

  18. Foreign experience in determining the status of refugees and internally displaced persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Popok

    2017-06-01

    The authors conclude that European countries actively integrate the provisions of the international law governing the legal status of refugees and internally displaced persons into their domestic law.

  19. Legal regulation of the Commercial Register

    OpenAIRE

    Hanková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...

  20. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Codruta BADEA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  2. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  3. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This policy statement is an update of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth," published in 2004. Pediatricians have special expertise in the care of children and adolescents and may be called on to advise legislators about the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents also may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical and nonmedical purposes or to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization. The accompanying technical report reviews what is currently known about the relationships of marijuana use with health and the developing brain and the legal status of marijuana and adolescents' use of marijuana to better understand how change in legal status might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  5. The U.S. legalization program: a preliminary final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1989-03-01

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 made 4 types of aliens eligible to receive legalization benefits: 1) those who resided "continuously" in the US since January 1, 1982; 2) those who had worked in the US perishable-crop agriculture for 90 "man-days" in specified time periods (Special Agricultural Workers [SAWS]); 3) those who were in the US since before January 1, 1972; and 4) those classified as Cuban/Haitian entrants and who had been in the US since January 1, 1982. Estimates of the number of aliens eligible for legalization, not including SAWS, ranges from 1.834 million to 2.56 million. Estimates of undercounts of undocumented aliens are 10% for those who entered before 1975 and 37.5% for those who arrived after 1975. Other refinements in the estimates of undocumented aliens include adjustments for 1) ethnic group and location, 2) the growth of the undocumented population between the census date and the legalization eligibility date under IRCA, and 3) emigration and deportation rates. Out of the 1,581,800 applicants entered into the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) computers (from a total of 2.15 million applicants) as of May 20, 1988, 73.7% were Mexican nationals. Only 5 other countries contributed more than 1%: El Salvador (6.5%), Haiti (2.3%), Guatemala (2.2%), the Philippines (1%), and Colombia (1%). The Mexican percentage was unexpectedly high, perhaps because the legalization had been much more successful in the Southwest than anywhere else in the country. Reasons that Mexicans have a higher legalization participation rate than other nationalities include 1) the distant eligibility date; 2) ethnic differences among non-Mexican nationalities; 3) particularly in the northeast, fears of exposing one's illegal status to INS; 4) the difficulty of information reaching ethnic communities, 5) the reluctance of those already undergoing the naturalization process to risk the legalization process; and 6) the reluctance of employees to

  6. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...

  7. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  8. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  9. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  10. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  11. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  12. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  13. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  14. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  15. 36 CFR 1275.14 - Legal custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...

  16. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.

  17. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  18. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  19. Legal Logic? Or can we do without?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid

  20. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  1. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  2. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  3. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...

  4. 33 CFR 327.6 - Legal adviser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...

  5. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...

  6. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  8. A novel dataset on legal traditions, their determinants, and their economic role in 155 transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Guerriero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The law and the economy are deeply influenced by the legal tradition or origin, which is the bundle of institutions shaping lawmaking and dispute adjudication. The two principal legal traditions, common law and civil law, have been transplanted through colonization and occupation to the vast majority of the jurisdictions in the world by a group of European countries. Here, I illustrate a novel dataset recording the lawmaking institution employed by 155 of these jurisdictions at independence and in 2000 and four discretion-curbing adjudication institutions adopted by 99 of these “transplants” at the same two points in time. Contrary to the “legal origins” scholars׳ assumption, 25 transplants changed the transplanted lawmaking institution and 95 modified at least one of the transplanted lawmaking and adjudication rules. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a [12], I document that these reforms are consistent with a model of the design of legal institutions by societies heterogeneous in their endowment of both the extent of cultural heterogeneity and the quality of the political process. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b [13] moreover, I show the relevance of considering legal evolution and the endogeneity between legal traditions and economics outcomes. The data illustrated here also include the proxies for the determinants of legal evolution I use in “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a [12] and the novel measure of economic outcomes I employ in “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b [13].

  9. Financial and Legal Characteristics of Cross-Jurisdictional Shared Service Agreements Between Local Public Health Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Theresa; Zahner, Susan; Mrochek, Tracy

    Cross-jurisdictional sharing is a resource management strategy increasingly being used by local health departments to provide essential and mandated public health services. Cross-jurisdictional shared service agreements (CJSSAs) are the legal documents that govern cross-jurisdictional sharing arrangements. Information on the financial and legal characteristics of CJSSAs is limited. This study described the financial and legal elements of a set of formal, written CJSSAs in one state to offer guidance to practitioners on how to structure the financial and legal elements in CJSSAs. CJSSAs, which included a written statement about the financial commitment governed by the agreement (n = 63), were analyzed. Data collection occurred through 2 structured data extraction tools and structured telephone interviews conducted with local and tribal health department directors. Descriptive statistics of all variables and a single predictor linear regression were performed. The higher population partner to the CJSSA more often provided the public health service and received payment (n = 41; 65%). Financial statements were found to vary by CJSSA characteristic. CJSSAs were more likely to be legally complete when a legal counsel was involved in creating them (odds ratio = 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.19-3.29; P ≤ .001). Yet, only 2 (3%) of the CJSSAs described all the legal elements and were considered legally complete. Clearly identifying and including necessary fiscal and legal elements when creating and managing CJSSAs may strengthen agreements and reduce local health department legal and fiscal vulnerabilities. Local health department capacity for planning, coordination, budgeting, management, and evaluation is essential when creating CJSSA. Careful consideration of cost-sharing and consulting with legal counsel could strengthen the CJSSA.

  10. Customer Communication Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  11. Legal foundations of adaptive licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V

    2013-09-01

    In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.

  12. Legal Aspects of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.

  13. Legal Liability in Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty

  14. The Impact of Marijuana Legalization on Adolescent Use, Consequences, and Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoup, Ashley C; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Varma, Malini; Stewart, David G

    2016-12-05

    Currently, only four states have legalized recreational marijuana use for adults over 21 years of age. Therefore, little is known about the influence that legalization will have on adolescent marijuana use. This study examines how marijuana legalization has impacted the frequency and consequences of adolescent use in a sample of participants in a school-based, substance use intervention. We hypothesized that adolescents enrolled in the intervention in years after marijuana legalization would present with more problematic use compared to those enrolled prior, and that changes in the perceived risk of marijuana would be a mechanism of problematic use. Participants were 262 students enrolled in a school-based substance use intervention in 2010 to 2015. The Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record, Alcohol and Drug Use Consequences Questionnaire, and a decisional balance matrix were used to assess marijuana frequency, negative consequences, and perceived risk of use. A mediation model was used to test the degree to which marijuana legalization may lead to increased frequency and consequences of use through perceived risk. Findings indicated a significantly positive correlation between marijuana-related consequences and perceived risk post legalization. Despite relatively equal use between both groups, adolescents in the legalization group experienced higher levels of perceived risk and increased negative consequences. Due to the rising legalization status of marijuana in the United States, it is imperative that psychoeducation is provided to adults and adolescents about the consequences of underage marijuana use.

  15. Code-Switching in Judaeo-Arabic Documents from the Cairo Geniza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Esther-Miriam; Connolly, Magdalen

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates code-switching and script-switching in medieval documents from the Cairo Geniza, written in Judaeo-Arabic (Arabic in Hebrew script), Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic. Legal documents regularly show a macaronic style of Judaeo-Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew, while in letters code-switching from Judaeo-Arabic to Hebrew is tied in with…

  16. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...

  17. QA programme documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibelt, L.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with the following topics: The need for a documented Q.A. program; Establishing a Q.A. program; Q.A. activities; Fundamental policies; Q.A. policies; Quality objectives Q.A. manual. (orig./RW)

  18. Automating Contextualized Maintenance Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, H.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky; Borsato, M.; Wognum, N.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, task support information in aircraft maintenance is mostly provided using paper-based solutions, which are burdensome, slow and prone to error. Aircraft maintenance documentation contains vast amounts of information irrelevant for the task at hand and even for the simplest tasks multiple

  19. Extremely secure identification documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bell, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

  20. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  1. Electronic document interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

  2. Text document classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana

    č. 62 (2005), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR KSK1019101; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : document representation * categorization * classification Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  3. Extremely secure identification documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office

  4. Teaching Writing with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantic, Jeannette; Libresco, Andrea S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how social studies teachers can use document based question (DBQs) to improve student writing skills. Asserts the importance of English and social studies teachers, and teachers from different grade levels, to communicate with one another to improve their students' writing. (CMK)

  5. Analysis of Design Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1998-01-01

    has been established where we seek to identify useful design work patterns by retrospective analyses of documentation created during design projects. This paper describes the analysis method, a tentatively defined metric to evaluate identified work patterns, and presents results from the first...... analysis accomplished....

  6. Course documentation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann; Walther, Tina Dyngby Lyng

    A documentation report on the three pedagogical courses developed during the MVU project period. The report describes the three processes taking departure in the structure and material avaiable at the virtual learning environment. Also the report describes the way the two of the courses developed...

  7. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio [Richland, WA; Calapristi, Augustin J [West Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  8. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines

  9. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines.

  10. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  11. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  12. Legal Effects of Link Sharing in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Gil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing among individuals has changed deeply with the advent of social networks in the environment of Web 2.0. Every user has the possibility of publishing what he or she deems of interest for their audience, regardless of the origin or authorship of the piece of knowledge. It is generally accepted that as the user is sharing a link to a document or video, for example, without getting paid for it, there is no point in worrying about the rights of the original author. It seems that the concepts of authorship and originality is about to disappear as promised the structuralists fifty years ago. Nevertheless the legal system has not changed, nor have the economic interests concerned. This paper explores the last developments of the legal system concerning these issues.

  13. EWEA 2012: conference on the legal framework of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeding, Veronique; Iuga, Dorina; Lintker, Stephanus; Edlich, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    At the occasion of 2012 Europe Wind energy event (EWEA), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the legal framework of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the French and German respective regulations and administrative procedures for wind energy projects. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Synthesis note of the wind turbines French regulation (Veronique Froeding); 2 - Wind Barriers Presentation - Administrative and Grid access barriers (Dorina Iuga); 3 - Wind energy in France - Legal framework: what's new? (Veronique Froeding); 4 - North Rhine-Westphalia and the Wind energy Decree from July 2011: NRW Pioneer in Wind energy in Germany (Stephanus Lintker); 5 - Duration and development costs of wind energy projects in France and in Germany (Sophie Edlich)

  14. Legal and methodological bases of comprehensive forensic enquiry of pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdnikov D.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an analysis of the legal definition of pornography. The author identified descriptive and target criteria groups which are required for the analysis and analyses the content of descriptive criteria of pornography and the way how they should be documented. Fixing attention to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the sexual relations is determine as necessary target criterion. It is noted that the term "pornography" is a legal and cannot be subject of expertise. That is why author underlined some methodological basis of complex psycho-linguistic and psycho-art expertise. The article presents general issue depends on expert conclusion and studies cases where the research is necessary to involve doctors, as well as criteria for expert's opinion. Besides that, author defined subject, object and main tasks of psychological studies of pornographic information.

  15. Archival Sources for Legal Biography at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...

  16. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  17. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...

  18. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  19. 8 CFR 223.1 - Purpose of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REENTRY PERMITS, REFUGEE... visa. (b) Refugee travel document. A refugee travel document is issued pursuant to this part and... provided in § 223.3(d)(2)(i), a person who holds refugee status pursuant to section 207 of the Act, or...

  20. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.