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Sample records for legal defense association

  1. Valid, legally defensible data from your analytical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.; Allen, V.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the definition of valid, legally defensible data. The authors describe the expectations of project managers and what should be gleaned from the laboratory in regard to analytical data

  2. Environmental data quality problems: ''Technical'' vs. ''legal'' defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luker, R.S.; Brooks, M.C.; Stagg, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Two significant aspects of environmental data quality are currently being emphasized throughout the industry as critical precursors to environmental decision making: technical integrity and legal defensibility. Because audit findings and consequent perceptions by a client often pose more questions than answers--especially with respect to the ''systemic'' nature and significance of problems based on nonstatistical, ad hoc sampling of large programs--quality assurance in environmental restoration must do more than implement traditional administrative controls. A major problem persists in achieving a consensus opinion between quality assurance and technical staff on the significance of various data problems. This case study compares and contrasts ''technical integrity'' and ''legal defensibility'', and provides performance measures developed to optimize both components in a large, complex DOE environmental restoration program. Performance measures of both administrative and technical processes are being used to ensure that conclusions drawn concerning ''systematic'' problems are not premature, and are founded on thorough, representative aspects of the program. Improved methods to reach consensus opinions on environmental decision-making are imperative and environmental data quality, the cornerstone on which the decisions are built, must be not only scientifically solid, but perceived as solid, if stakeholders are to be satisfied

  3. Nuclear forensics-metrological basis for legal defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggitt, J.; Inn, K.; Goldberg, S.; Essex, R.; LaMont, S.; Chase, S.

    2009-01-01

    The admissibility of nuclear forensics measurements and opinions derived from them in US Federal and State courts are based on criteria established by the US Supreme Court in the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow and the 2000 Amendment of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. These criteria are being addressed by new efforts that include the development of certified reference materials (CRMs) to provide the basis for analytical method development, optimization, calibration, validation, quality control, testing, readiness, and declaration of measurement uncertainties. Quality data is crucial for all stages of the program, from R and D, and database development, to actual casework. Weakness at any point in the program can propagate to reduce the confidence of final conclusions. The new certified reference materials will provide the necessary means to demonstrate a high level of metrological rigor for nuclear forensics evidence and will form a foundation for legally defensible nuclear chemical analysis. The CRMs will allow scientists to devise validated analytical methods, which can be corroborated by independent analytical laboratories. CRMs are required for ISO accreditation of many different analytical techniques which may be employed in the analysis of interdicted nuclear materials. (author)

  4. Honour and /or /as Passion: Historical trajectories of legal defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Frevert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a historical perspective in a European context on the phenomenon that has become known as honour killings. A cause of outrage and disdain in today’s (Western societies, the notion of restoring honour through a violent act is, in fact, deeply rooted in European legal and cultural history. By examining French, Anglo-Saxon, German and Italian examples, it is revealed that to varying degrees emotions, and, in some cases honour in particular, were accommodated in legislation as granting the perpetrator extenuating circumstances. Adultery in particular was thought to compromise the honour of husbands, thus entrenching an inherently gendered conception of honour. However, leniency of the law was mostly dependent on ›heat of the moment‹ arguments, attempts to avenge the violation of one’s honour, rather than premeditated, cold-blooded revenge killings restoring the collective honour of the family. By discriminating between notions of individual and collective (family honour, examples from European history exhibit a qualitative difference compared to modern day honour killings. The full extent of hypocrisy in judging modern day (Muslim honour killings, however, becomes apparent when considering that gendered concepts of emotions and honour only disappeared from European legal thought after the 1970s, partly following feminist criticism.

  5. Legal precedents regarding use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal transportation of SNF and HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.; O'Hora, T.D.; Chen, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Risk assessment has become an increasingly important and essential tool in support of Federal decision-making regarding the handling, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This paper analyzes the current statutory and regulatory framework and related legal precedents with regard to SNF and HLW transportation. The authors identify key scientific and technical issues regarding the use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal decision-making regarding anticipated shipments

  6. European legal developments in product safety and liability: the role of customer complaint management as a defensive marketing tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Ko; de Ruyter, J.C.; Brack, Antoni

    1993-01-01

    In view of recent European legal developments, our purpose in this article is to position customer complaint management as an essential instrument for a defensive marketing strategy, specifically to prevent legal problems in the fields of product liability and product safety.

  7. "Cognac alibi" as a drunk-driving defense and medico-legal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, M; Tasic, M; Stojiljkovic, G; Budakov, B; Vukovic, R

    2004-01-01

    Some drivers with positive forensic ethanol analyses, offer an explanation that they consumed alcohol a short time before a traffic accident or after driving. In medico legal practice this is commonly known as hip-flask defense, but to us as "cognac alibi" defense. In these cases, the lawyers require the medico legal experts to offer as much information as possible so that the court may come to the most reliable conclusions about the driver's blood alcohol concentration at the moment of the traffic accident (BAC(Acc)). At the Institute of Forensic Medicine our own analytical approach was established to study this medico legal problem. It consists of three inter-related phases in which it combines the obtained BAC values, with testimonies of the drunk driving suspect andalso witnesses. A specific algorithm was designed for calculating absorption and elimination of consumed alcohol. All the above-mentioned elements and blood-ethanol values calculated according to Widmark's method were inserted into appropriate cells of MS Excel software in order to calculate BAC in the function of time. The result is a relevant analysis of the drunk driving suspect's BAC in 5-minute intervals, as well as a graphic representation in chart form.

  8. The Gay Panic Defense: Legal Defense Strategy or Reinforcement of Homophobia in Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Jenna; Cramer, Robert J; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Panza, Nancy Ryba

    2017-06-01

    Gay panic refers to a heterosexual man violently responding to unwanted sexual advances from a gay man. In court, the defendant may argue he was provoked or temporarily insane. This study utilized 352 jury-eligible citizens to assess differences across mediums of gay panic. Participants were asked to read vignettes depicting a control, gay panic as provocation, or gay panic as insanity condition and provide verdicts and ratings of blame and responsibility. Participants also completed measures assessing political orientation and homonegativity. Data were analyzed via a MANCOVA, a chi-square goodness-of-fit test, and general linear modeling. Verdicts, victim blame, and ratings of responsibility differed across vignette conditions, with an observed leniency effect when gay panic was claimed in either context. Homonegativity also exacerbated patterns of prodefendant views, as participants higher in homonegativity assigned higher victim blame, lower defendant responsibility, and more lenient verdicts in the gay panic conditions. The effect of political orientation was nuanced, as only republicans in the provocation condition followed the anticipated pattern in rendering more lenient verdicts. Results provide additional support for the notion gay panic defenses may be, in part, fueled by political beliefs and prejudicial beliefs against persons of sexual minority status. Drawing from a justification-suppression model, it may be that in cases of gay panic, a context is created in which prejudiced ideologies can be openly expressed via leniency on the defendant. Implications may be relevant to future criminal law policies and practices, particularly advocacy and policy efforts, judicial training, and trial consultation to attorneys for juror selection and development of trial strategy.

  9. Circumstances for excluding unlawfulness and the legal institute of necessary defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena U. Ukimeraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are reasons or circumstances provided for by the legal-criminal norms which in the concrete case and situation due to coexistence of certain circumstances make the offence permissible despite the fact that it contains all the traits of a criminal offence. The need for selfdefense, remains present considering the scale in which terrorism has spread, and considering that there are criminal individuals and organizations which endanger public safety by attacking people and buildings for the purpose of perpetrating a robbery, retaliation or other acts in pursuit of economic or political ends. The necessary defense is a lawful action of every individual or group in protection of itself from undue attacks which pose a threat to social order, life, health, property or other rights and interests, whereby the criminal liability and guilt is suspended as defense is considered as a “right” of a person whose rights were under attack. Alongside the punishments and measures imposed by the state against perpetrators of crimes, the criminal law also provides for individual defense, which can be done by citizens themselves under certain conditions and circumstances, a defense that is in line with the fundamental principles of a democratic state, international law and fundamental human rights and freedoms.

  10. The Legal Basis of the People’s Republic of China’s East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the People’s Republic of China defined its East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ on November 23, 2013, there were three legal decrees, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on National Defense established on March 14, 1997, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Civil Aviation established on October 30, 1995, and the Basic Rules on Flight of the People’s Republic of China established on July 27, 2001, which have been quoted as the legal basis to define the airspace within the area enclosed by China’s outer limit of the territorial sea and another six geographical points specified by the statement as the PRC East China Sea ADIZ. Following the government statement, another announcement of the aircraft identification rules for the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone of the People’s Republic of China was immediately issued by the PRC Ministry of National Defense. The purpose of this paper is to explore various key legal issues to ascertain the legal basis of this East China Sea ADIZ. Besides, the paper will further compare the air defense identification zone with airspaces such as aerodrome flight airspace, airway, air route, prohibited area, restricted area and danger area as well as air corridor, fuel dumping area and temporary flight airspace defined by the previously mentioned PRC legal decrees in order to identify their differences and similarities. It may also be assessed by the factual consequences after establishing the air defense identification zone to decide whether treating the measures of defining air defense identification as the attempt of claiming sovereignty, expanding sovereign territory or sphere of influence, enlarging air defense region, increasing the coverage of air military activities or even using it to present national strength and establishing pride or to test the responses of other states around the disputed territories is eventually reasonable judgments or overstated

  11. A New Interpretation of the Modern Two-Pronged Tests for Insanity : Why Legal Insanity Should Not Be a 'Status Defense'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J.

    2018-01-01

    Michael Moore has argued that modern two-pronged tests for legal insanity are wrongheaded and that the insanity defense instead should be a 'status' defense. If Moore is right, then the laws on insanity in most legal systems are wrong. This merits a critical examination of Moore's critique and his

  12. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... as to encompass the Department of Defense (DOD) as a whole. These military and associated terms, together with their definitions, constitute approved DOD terminology for general use by all components of the Department of Defense...

  13. Legal Risk Associated with Electronic Funds Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulah, Samahir

    2014-01-01

    The past thirty years have seen rapid advances in the technological component of banking services and as a consequence new legal issues have come to the fore, especially with regard to Electronic Fund Transfers (EFTs) which are now used to transfer money around the world, and have made fund transactions between payers and payees easier, faster and more secure. The method involves risks for both banks and customers, due to the possibility of unauthorized payments risks, credit and insolvency p...

  14. Excess in Self-Defense and its Consequences to the Assesment of the Victim's Legal Crime Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego José Dias Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ongoing debate concerning excessive self-defense and its possible consequences to the assessment of victim legal precipitation of crimes. While part one introduces excess in its most accepted structure, part two describes theories that pursue the best reasons why the excess may, in certain cases, not be punished, focusing the ones who claim that those reasons relate to agressor’s self-responsibility, then applying their arguments to the evaluation of legal crime precipitation. It concludes that these theories can only hold by discriminating moral value of guilty and innocent victims, which is unacceptable.

  15. National Defense Industrial Association Disruptive Technologies Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-14

    Algorithms, MEMS • Nano ; Meta; & New Materials • Cognitive Computing • Bio-Revolution NDIA Disruptive Technologies 10/16/2009 Page-8 Forces of Change...DISTRIBUTE 2 1 st Cen t u r y St r a t eg ic Tec h n o l o g y Vec t o r s Defense Science Board 2006 Summer Study August 18, 2006 (Final) NDIA

  16. Legal issues associated with preparing for a nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Developing and implementing a national programme for the civilian use of nuclear energy means embarking on the use of a Janus-faced form of energy. We all know that nuclear energy implies both extraordinary benefits and extraordinary risks. This fact requires a legal framework appropriate to cope with both elements of nuclear power. Legislators and State authorities have to establish a sound balance between risks and benefits. That is not at all an easy task. While excluding or limiting risks requires severe legal control mechanisms, the benefits can only fully be enjoyed if the legal framework ensures freedom of research and of economic and industrial development including the guarantee of property ownership and of investments. Combining both opposite poles seems like trying to square the circle. In case of a conflict between promotion and protection, there is no doubt that the protection against nuclear risks has to prevail. Therefore this aspect of nuclear law will be mainly dealt with in this presentation. Establishing a legal framework to tame the hazards of nuclear energy is a much more challenging task for law-makers than providing a legal basis for promoting the use of nuclear energy. With regard to the promotion of nuclear energy, States enjoy a broad range of discretion and may use a great number of legal and non-legal instruments to support the development of a nuclear programme. From a legal point of view, promoting nuclear energy does not require a specific regime. However, it does require a specific regime to control the risks of nuclear energy. States preparing for a nuclear energy programme have to be aware that the use of nuclear energy is not an exclusively national matter. In particular the risk associated with nuclear energy extends beyond national borders. Using the benefits also needs international cooperation in many fields including, e.g., research or fuel supply. Today a network of multilateral and bilateral international treaties exists

  17. Rule of Law Assistance: DOD Should Assess Workforce Size of Defense Institute of International Legal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    2016 The Honorable Mac Thornberry Chairman The Honorable Adam Smith Ranking Member Committee on Armed Services House of Representatives Rule of...Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, as well as in- country DOD security cooperation and State officials, DIILS training...Subsequently, Congress passed and the President signed S. 1356, which became Pub. L. No. 114-92, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal

  18. Legal review on PTSD defense of adolescent patients in criminal cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is nothing new for Chinese society; however, Chinese courts are hesitated to accept the PTSD as a mental defense for adolescent patients. PTSD defense might be popular in future and court shall give proper weight to relevant factors. It is a big problem that there are no procedures or instructions for the connection between diagnosis and judgment. The paper illustrates the origination of PTSD and its development in USA with some relevant cases. Even the American courts consider PTSD as a problem. And there should be detailed regulations in China to keep pace with the development of science technology.

  19. Developing legally defensible physiological employment standards for prominent physically demanding public safety occupations: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, V; Gumienak, R; Gledhill, N

    2013-10-01

    Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical life threatening physically demanding tasks of the occupation, and this has led to the establishment of a systematic research process template to ensure this connection. Validation of job-related physiological employment standards is achieved using both construct and content procedures and reliability is established via test-retest procedures. The 1999 Supreme Court of Canada Meiorin Decision also obliges employers to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate an individual applicant or employee who is adversely impacted by lowering the physiological employment standards without imposing undue hardship on the employer. Recent evidence has demonstrated convincingly that familiarization opportunities, motivational feedback/coaching during test performance, and participation in a 6-week job-specific physical fitness training program can overcome the adverse impact of a physiological employment standards on a sub-group of participants, thereby providing "de facto" accommodation. In this article, the authors review the physiological employment standards for prominent Canadian physically demanding public safety occupations; police, correctional officers, nuclear emergency personnel, structural fire fighters, and wildland fire fighters, to illustrate the steps, challenges, and solutions involved in developing and implementing physiological employment standards designed to meet the requirements to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

  20. Sustainable Development, Moral Law and Legality in Defense of Cultural and Landscape Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Maria Cogo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Moved by Pope Frances’ urgent call to protect our common home by dealing with the environmental challenge and its human roots to achieve sustainable and integral development, the historical-legislative and institutional recognition act was drawn up on the protection and valorization of cultural-landscape-environmental heritage, matrix of the progress of civilization outlined in the fundamental principles of the Italian Constitution in the “cultural programme” focused on the relationship between cultureperson and environment-person. It recalls the action of the institutions to protect nature and the ecological-environmental balance and the activities of international organizations to safeguard nature from human actions. They are a sign of the critical issues of codification in the field of cultural, landscape and environmental heritage (2006-2009 due to a departure from natural legal right (jus envisaged as a moral law for enjoyment, compatible with a loving, responsible and prudent use, aimed at guaranteeing an integral sustainable development for future generations. In losing the natural moral law, one encounters the decisive factor in the fall of legality, with serious consequences for heritage protection and people’s growth, based on shared standards. A glimmer of hope can be discerned in the community/EU legislation to harmonize the protection and valorization of the environment according to criteria of substantive law, where the primary aims for the guarantee of future generations lead to regulatory processes anchored to the ethics of natural moral law, under the bulwark of true cooperation and good faith, in a strict justicial and sanctioning system, tempered by the use of fairness when the general interest of the common good prevails.

  1. The Convergence of U.S. Military and Commercial Space Activities: Self-Defense and Cyber-Attack, 'Peace Use' and the Space Station, and the Need for Legal Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petras, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    .... Part I will examine the concept of self-defense in outer space, by considering the legality of the use of conventional military force to defend against "cyber-attack" on its commercial space assets...

  2. Unilateral Preemptive Self-Defense, Has Its Time Arrived: Assessing the International Legality of Unilateral Preemptive Self-Defense in the 2002 National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ... and objectives of today's enemies. This new right of preemptive self-defense would be authorized against rogue states and terrorist organizations that attempt to obtain weapons of mass destruction...

  3. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory.

  4. Exploring Individual and Structural Factors Associated with Employment Among Young Transgender Women of Color Using a No-Cost Transgender Legal Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Rosentel, Kris; Bak, Trevor; Silverman, Michael; Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura; Kipke, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual and structural factors associated with employment among young transgender women (TW) of color. Sixty-five trans women of color were recruited from the Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund to complete a 30-min interviewer-assisted survey assessing sociodemographics, housing, workplace discrimination, job-seeking self-efficacy, self-esteem, perceived public passability, and transactional sex work. Logistic regression models revealed that stable housing (structural factor) and job-seeking self-efficacy (individual factor) were significantly associated with currently being employed. Our findings underscore the need for multilevel approaches to assist TW of color gain employment.

  5. Your delegates and the legal role of the Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    In an Organization like ours, the rights that govern our employment and working conditions are different from those applicable if we were working for an employer in one of our Member States, which is subject to national laws. In this latter case, the employer pays wages; and you have the guarantee to be able to obtain health insurance, unemployment benefits when necessary, pensions, etc. And, more importantly, you have an effective civic life. Indeed, in our home countries, when we are not satisfied with the government in place and its policies, we express our opinion through a vote, through which we can change our government if a majority of voters wishes to do so. On top of that we elect city councillors, MPs, and even a new President. All these elected people have a legitimacy to influence our daily lives. For example, in Switzerland or in France, we elect national councillors or MPs, who then participate in the work in various committees, including a Legal Commission, which prepares the texts of future...

  6. Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.; Chandran, Divya; Gulevich, Alexander G.; Okrent, Rachel A.; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Sarpong, Richmond; Bunnelle, Eric M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides control crop pests based on their action as agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which accepts chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-analogs almost equally well. In some cases, these compounds have also been reported to enhance plant vigor and (a)biotic stress tolerance, independent of their insecticidal function. However, this mode of action has not been defined. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the neonicotinoid compounds, imidacloprid (IMI) and clothianidin (CLO), via their 6-chloropyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid and 2-chlorothiazolyl-5-carboxylic acid metabolites, respectively, induce salicylic acid (SA)-associated plant responses. SA is a phytohormone best known for its role in plant defense against pathogens and as an inducer of systemic acquired resistance; however, it can also modulate abiotic stress responses. These neonicotinoids effect a similar global transcriptional response to that of SA, including genes involved in (a)biotic stress response. Furthermore, similar to SA, IMI and CLO induce systemic acquired resistance, resulting in reduced growth of a powdery mildew pathogen. The action of CLO induces the endogenous synthesis of SA via the SA biosynthetic enzyme ICS1, with ICS1 required for CLO-induced accumulation of SA, expression of the SA marker PR1, and fully enhanced resistance to powdery mildew. In contrast, the action of IMI does not induce endogenous synthesis of SA. Instead, IMI is further bioactivated to 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid, which is shown here to be a potent inducer of PR1 and inhibitor of SA-sensitive enzymes. Thus, via different mechanisms, these chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-neonicotinoids induce SA responses associated with enhanced stress tolerance. PMID:20876120

  7. Immature defense mechanisms are associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency and greater alcohol consumption before sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Disturbances of emotional and physical awareness can impair female sexual function. Previous research revealed that immature psychological defense mechanisms (impairing emotional awareness) are associated specifically with impaired vaginal orgasm (orgasm triggered solely by penile-vaginal stimulation). Alcohol consumed before sex (ACBS) might impair vaginal orgasm or lead to avoiding the opportunity for it, but research examining immature defenses, ACBS, and specific sexual behaviors has been lacking. To test the hypothesis that greater use of immature defenses and greater ACBS are inversely associated with vaginal orgasm consistency, but unrelated or positively correlated with greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. Three hundred twenty-three coitally experienced women (predominantly Scottish) responded to an online survey reporting their frequency of various sexual activities (and corresponding orgasms) and their ACBS, and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire DSQ-40. Univariate and multivariate correlations of immature defenses, ACBS, and various sexual behaviors. Both immature defenses and ACBS were associated with less vaginal orgasm consistency, but unrelated or positively correlated with frequency of other sexual behaviors (including clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse). Immature defenses were associated with more ACBS. Immature defenses explained the association between ACBS and both lack of vaginal orgasm and greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. The results provide further evidence that difficulty in having a vaginal orgasm is associated with immature defenses (and associated disturbances of sensibility), among other indicators of poorer health and relatedness. ACBS might impair vaginal orgasm or increase the likelihood of choosing other sexual activities, but this effect might be somewhat contingent on immature defenses. Based on various empirical studies, we call for examination of the possibility that lack of vaginal

  8. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  9. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sharon L; Schroder, Hans S; Moran, Tim P; Durbin, C Emily; Moser, Jason S

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes--the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe)--measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes--startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry--in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Center for information management and intelligence of the School of Public Legal Defense of the State of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Coelho Neves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experience report about the implementation of the Center for Information Management and Intelligence administered by the Library of the Public Defender of the State of Bahia. The Center aims to corroborate the information stock, based on capturing the tacit knowledge of public Defenders of DPE. Aspires to social inclusion and the preservation of memory used in human rights activities defensoriais developed. The biggest benefit of creating the Center for Information Management and Intelligence is to provide the availability of information gained by the defenders in a structured way, to all persons interested in the topics defensoriais seized through legal experiences, conferences, training courses, seminars, workshops , Among others. The Center for Information Management and Intelligence of the DPE Library is an important way to efficiently connect "those who know" with those who "need to know" and converting personal knowledge into the organization's memory. For this, the proposal develops the collection, storage, management and dissemination of knowledge with a methodology based on models of the authors Nonaka and Takeuchi, with the help of teenagers "apprentices" in fulfillment of socio-educational measure the Mother City Foundation.

  12. Association between defense mechanisms and psychiatric symptoms in North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Lee, So-Hee; Yoo, So Young; Song, Jungeun; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Defense mechanism may contribute to psychiatric symptoms. Refugees are vulnerable to various psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and those associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to their traumatic or stressful experiences. We aimed to investigate the mediating role of each defense mechanism in the occurrence of specific psychiatric symptoms in North Korean refugees. Among 213 North Korean refugees initially recruited, 201 completed the following questionnaires: the Defense Style Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), the somatization subscale of Symptom Check-List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the defense mechanisms more predominantly associated with specific psychiatric symptoms after controlling for age, sex, number of traumatic experiences, and other psychiatric symptoms (depressive symptoms and/or anxiety). Higher levels of depression were independently predicted by greater use of resignation. More use of acting out and less use of humor and sublimation independently predicted higher levels of anxiety. Somatization was independently predicted by more use of inhibition. PTSD symptoms were independently predicted by more use of undoing and isolation. Specific psychiatric symptoms were associated with specific defense mechanisms in North Korean refugees. Our findings suggest that the manifest psychiatric symptoms of refugees may be mediated by their dominant defense mechanism. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Legal and technical issues of formalin disposition in association with autopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M; Yoshida, K

    2001-07-01

    The Ministry of Public Welfare notified on the disposition of formalin, which was used in the histological examination in association with forensic or pathological autopsy. However, those who concerned on the issue had not known exactly how they dispose formalin. The news on the illegal disposition of formalin from our department drew attention to the legal disposition of formalin. These situations led us to investigate the legal and technical aspects of formalin disposition. We examined the legally-described methods such as oxidation, incineration and activated sludge processes and other methods such as formose, supercritical water oxidation, and wet oxidation processes. From legal point of view, we must process poisonous formaldehyde into non-poisonous products under the control of The Poisonous and Peleterious? Substances Control Law. Additionally, the products are under the control of The Sewage Water Law and Water Pollution Control Law, particularly in terms of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). After careful investigation, we tentatively conclude that incineration method is the best at present, though the supercritical oxidation and wet oxidation processes may be better in order to cope with the worldwide movement toward the control of environmental hormones and warm climate.

  14. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  15. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  16. European Court of Justice finds more possibilities for legal remedy of German environmental associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    In its ruling of March 12, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) states that the limitation of legal remedies under German law applying to environmental associations seeking to claim violations of provisions protecting third parties is not in line with EU law. Under EU law, environmental associations may, because of potentially considerable environmental impacts, claim violation of substantive as well as procedural provisions by litigation even if the provision stemming from Union law and seeking to protect the environment 'protects only the interests of the public, not the interests of individuals.' The ECJ had to express an opinion on the reference by the Muenster Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of March 5, 2009 about the question whether German transposition in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 is in keeping with Article 10a of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 1985 as amended on March 26, 2003. The point was whether the project in question could give rise to considerable impairment of flora and fauna habitats in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear power plant in the meaning of the EU Habitat Directive. In summary, the ECJ finds that the provisions of the Environmental Legal Remedy Act are not in compliance with EU law. The concise decision by the ECJ relates to areas of fundamental importance in societal and government politics. As laid down in the 2003 Environmental Impact Assessment Directive, the right to bring action of environmental associations is asserted first. Transposition of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 2003 in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 had been the subject of several rulings of higher courts of administration and of critical scholarly debates about the legal remedies of environmental associations, expressing concern about the German transposition being in conformity with EU law. As far as German atomic energy law is concerned, it remains to be seen whether environmental

  17. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A preliminary report on defenses and conflicts associated with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J C; Cooper, S H

    1986-01-01

    The authors present preliminary psychodynamic findings from a naturalistic study of borderline personality disorder compared to antisocial personality disorder and bipolar type II (depression with hypomania) affective disorder. An independent psychodynamic interview of each subject was videotaped from which ratings were made of the presence of 22 defense mechanisms and 11 psychodynamic conflicts. A factor analysis of ratings from 81 subjects supported the separation of borderline (splitting, projective identification) from narcissistic defenses (devaluation, omnipotence, idealization, mood-incongruent denial). While certain groups of defenses were associated with each diagnosis, defense ratings did not significantly discriminate the three diagnostic groups, suggesting a limit to their diagnostic value. Among 27 subjects rated, borderline personality was strongly associated with two conflicts: separation-abandonment, and a global conflict over the experience and expression of emotional needs and anger. Antisocial personality was psychodynamically distinct and more heterogeneous. Bipolar type II was associated with two hypothesized depressive conflicts: dominant other and dominant goal. Chronic depression, which was more common in both personality disorder groups than in bipolar type II, was associated with a third depressive conflict, overall gratification inhibition. Overall, conflicts were powerful discriminators of the three diagnostic groups. The heuristic value of these findings is discussed.

  19. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology.

  20. Pep-13, a plant defense-inducing pathogen-associated pattern from Phytophthora transglutaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Frédéric; Rosahl, Sabine; Lee, Justin; Rudd, Jason J; Geiler, Carola; Kauppinen, Sakari; Rasmussen, Grethe; Scheel, Dierk; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2002-12-16

    Innate immunity, an ancient form of defense against microbial infection, is well described for animals and is also suggested to be important for plants. Discrimination from self is achieved through receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) not found in the host. PAMPs are evolutionarily conserved structures which are functionally important and, thus, not subject to frequent mutation. Here we report that the previously described peptide elicitor of defense responses in parsley, Pep-13, constitutes a surface-exposed fragment within a novel calcium-dependent cell wall transglutaminase (TGase) from Phytophthora sojae. TGase transcripts and TGase activity are detectable in all Phytophthora species analyzed, among which are some of the most destructive plant pathogens. Mutational analysis within Pep-13 identified the same amino acids indispensable for both TGase and defense-eliciting activity. Pep-13, conserved among Phytophthora TGases, activates defense in parsley and potato, suggesting its function as a genus-specific recognition determinant for the activation of plant defense in host and non-host plants. In summary, plants may recognize PAMPs with characteristics resembling those known to trigger innate immune responses in animals.

  1. LEGAL AND TAX TREATMENT OF THE ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE PARTICIPATION IN TENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bilan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The participation of groups of economic operators with joint tender to public procurement procedures requires the conclusion of association agreements published together with the procurement documents by the contracting authorities. The contracting authorities often require these temporary associations specific legal forms, similar to joint ventures, or certain conditions concerning their organisation and functioning. This present study analyses the associations for participation to public tenders in light of public procurement and fiscal legislation, trying to asses if these contracts are joint venture agreements, to what extent the clauses comprised in the drafts imposed in the procuremnt documents are compatible with the public procurement and fiscal laws and if they may be challenged by the economic operators.

  2. [On the legalization debate of non-medical cannabis consumption : Position paper of the German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann-Reinecke, U; Hoch, E; Preuss, U W; Kiefer, F; Batra, A; Gerlinger, G; Hauth, I

    2017-03-01

    Calls are increasing for the legalization of cannabis. Some legal experts, various politicians, political parties and associations are demanding a change in drug policy. The legalization debate is lively and receiving wide coverage in the media. The German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) comments on the most important questions from a medical scientific perspective: can cannabis consumption trigger mental illnesses, what consequences would legalization have for the healthcare system and where is more research needed?

  3. Israel’s Associated Regime: Exceptionalism, Human Rights and Alternative Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica D’Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Israel’s declared permanent state of exception, this article focuses on the legal protection awarded to the Palestinian populations under Israeli control. To broaden the discussion over Palestinian people’s rights, which generally focuses on the confiscation of land and the right to return, the author consciously focuses on anti-terrorism and security measures, which contribute to the creation of what the International Court of Justice has defined as an ‘associated regime’ of occupation. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part, the author discusses Israel’s domestic obligations towards Palestinians (arguing the case of both Palestinian citizens of Israel, and Palestinian residents and their de jure and de facto discrimination. The second part discusses the applicability of humanitarian law, specifically the applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention. This section discusses the applicability of the Convention to both territories and people under Israeli control. The third part discusses the applicability of international human rights law to all territories under Israeli control and delves into the issue of the mutual relationship between the two international legal regimes in the territories under occupation. The article posits that Israel’s rationale for the non-applicability of such legislation to the Palestinian territories and populations it controls constitutes a form of ‘alternative legality’. The article concludes that Israel’s disproportionate application of security practices and anti-terrorism measures to the Palestinian segment of its population violates Palestinian rights protected under Israel’s domestic and international legal obligations.

  4. Affective temperaments and ego defense mechanisms associated with somatic symptom severity in a large sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Taunay, Tauily C; Macedo, Danielle S; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Bisol, Luísa W; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Lara, Diogo R; Carvalho, André F

    2013-09-05

    Several complex mechanisms including biological, psychological and social factors may contribute to the development of bodily symptoms. Affective temperaments may represent heritable subclinical manifestations of mood disorders, and the concept of ego defense mechanisms has also provided a model for the comprehension of psychopathology. The relationship between affective temperaments, defensive functioning and somatic symptom severity remains unknown. We obtained data from a subsample of the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP). Participants completed the Affective and Emotional Temperament Composite Scale (AFECTS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). SCL-90-R Somatization scale was used as outcome variable. Among 9937 participants (4472 male; 45%), individuals with dysphoric, cyclothymic and depressive temperaments and those who adopted displacement, somatisation and passive aggression as their predominant defense mechanisms presented high somatic symptom severity. Participants with dysphoric temperament and those with higher displacement scores were more likely to endorse numerous bodily symptoms after controlling for age, gender, education and depressive symptoms. Moderator analysis showed that the relationship of dysphoric temperament with somatic symptom severity was much more powerful in people who adopted displacement as their predominant defense. The data was collected from a convenience web-based sample. The study was cross-sectional. There was no information on the presence of established physical illness. Affective temperaments and defense mechanisms are associated with somatic symptom severity independently of depressive symptoms. These two personality theories provide distinct but interacting views for comprehension of somatic symptom formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological distress, somatization, and defense mechanisms associated with quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Tomenson, Barbara; Bai, Marina; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Creed, Francis

    2010-03-01

    Clinical parameters predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but some patients have impaired HRQOL despite being in clinical remission. To identify personality and psychological distress variables associated with HRQOL in IBD. In a cross-sectional study of 185 IBD patients, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hopkins' Symptoms Distress Checklist, the Defense Style Questionnaire and the Life Style Index were administered. The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire was used for the assessment of HRQOL. Psychological distress was associated with impaired HRQOL in a dose-response fashion. Somatization mediated the relationships of anxiety and depression with HRQOL. Few years of education, more extensive use of the reaction-formation defense mechanism and higher rates of somatization were the variables most closely and independently associated with impaired HRQOL. Somatization and reaction-formation are independent correlates of disease-specific HRQOL in IBD patients, and this could be relevant to psychological interventions.

  6. Psychoticism, Immature Defense Mechanisms and a Fearful Attachment Style are Associated with a Higher Homophobic Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Tuziak, Bogdan; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Capuano, Nicolina; Martini, Alessia; Carosa, Eleonora; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    Homophobic behavior and a negative attitude toward homosexuals are prevalent among the population. Despite this, few researches have investigated the psychologic aspects associated with homophobia, as psychopathologic symptoms, the defensive system, and attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic factors mentioned earlier and their correlation with homophobia. Five hundred fifty-one university students recruited, aged 18-30, were asked to complete several psychometric evaluation. In particular, Homophobia Scale (HS) was used to assess homophobia levels, the Symptoms Check List Revised (SCL-90-R) for the identification of psychopathologic symptoms, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for the evaluation of defense mechanisms and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for attachment styles. After a regression analysis, we found a significant predictive value of psychoticism (β = 0.142; P = 0.04) and of immature defense mechanisms (β = 0.257; P homophobic attitudes, while a contrasting role is played by neurotic defense mechanisms and depressive symptoms. Moreover, secure attachment is an indicator of low levels of homophobia compared with the subjects demonstrating a fearful style of attachment. Hence, in the assessment of homophobia and in the relevant programs of prevention, it is necessary to consider the psychologic aspects described earlier. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Association between PPP1R1B polymorphisms and defense mechanisms in healthy Chinese-Han subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinglin; Li, Jingying; Ma, Hui; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuan; Jin, Qiu; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Lijuan; Ma, Huan; Zhu, Gang

    2013-03-01

    Defense mechanisms resulting from the interaction between biological factors and the environment have been established. In genetic studies, dopamine genes have been recognized to play an important role in the determination of defense mechanisms. DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein) plays a central role in the biology of dopamine-receptive neurons; its coding gene (PPP1R1B) has been linked to psychological and psychopathological traits. Here, we aimed to explore the association between PPP1R1B polymorphisms and defense mechanisms measured using the 88-item Defense Style Questionnaire in 400 healthy Chinese-Han subjects. Of the three polymorphisms examined, rs12601930 was associated with projection (P = 0.028) and splitting (P = 0.032), while rs3764352 was associated with splitting (P = 0.042). No significant association was found between rs879606 and defenses. When analyzed separately by gender, no significant association between defense mechanisms and PPP1R1B polymorphisms in males was observed. In females, however, rs12601930 was significantly associated with splitting (P = 0.018), and rs879606, with projection (P = 0.015), help-rejecting complaining (P = 0.030), and immature defense style (P = 0.031), while rs3764352 was not associated with any defense. The distribution of genotypes between the low- and high-scoring subgroups for each defense style showed no significant differences. Our results suggest that PPP1R1B polymorphisms are, at least partially, responsible for immature defenses.

  8. Disability status, disease parameters, defense styles, and ego strength associated with psychiatric complications of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Christou, Konstantinos; Kontoudaki, Stavroula; Mantas, Christos; Papamichael, George; Goulia, Panagiota; Konitsiotis, Spyros; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify disease parameters, defensive styles and ego strength measurements associated with various forms of psychiatric complications in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Seventy-nine patients with MS participated in the study and 158 healthy subjects matched for age and sex served as controls. A wide range of clinical information was collected and the following self-report instruments were used: General Health Questionnaire, Symptom Distress Check List, Defense Style Questionnaire, MMPI Ego Strength Scale and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. The odds of being assessed with a psychiatric diagnosis upon interview were 6.7 times greater among patients compared to controls and 9.3 times greater among patients with recent-onset MS compared to patients with long-term disease. Psychiatric complications of MS were closely associated with age of the disease onset and the degree of disability due to MS. Additionally, higher rates of introverted hostility, adoption of maladaptive ego defenses and weakened ego strength were also closely associated with several forms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms. MS patients experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms, which are most closely associated with disease parameters. However, the crucial role of various personality traits such as ego defenses and hostility features in the psychiatric symptom formation also appear to contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Clinicians involved in the clinical management of patients with MS should identify and modify treatment if these specific personality markers that indicate the exhaustion of the patient's resources to cope with the physical and psychological stress of the illness are present.

  9. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  10. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Chiara; Perinel, Giada; Arnaboldi, Paola; Gandini, Sara; Vadilonga, Valeria; Rotmensz, Nicole; Tagini, Angela; Didier, Florence; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-11-09

    Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  11. Penitentiary integral defense

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez Román

    2012-01-01

    Penitentiary integral defense is a set of techniques designed to solve the breach of the peace that may appear in the penitentiary world. This paper studies the scope and legal framework of penitentiary self-defense. This kind of self-defense is defined by the particular characteristics of a confinement context and a very specific regulation aimed at preserving the integrity of prisoners and penitentiary staff as well as prison facilities. A technical section illustrating the main penitentiar...

  12. Legal aspects of the association of overseas countries and territories with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruškovic Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with an issue in European law that is historically derived from the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community. The aim is to illuminate the functions and objectives of the European Union that correspond to the provisions of Part Four of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories. The basic provisions are laid down in the primary law of the European Union but there are also other documents and legislative acts that lay down more detailed provisions on the given issue and reveal a more complex perspective. The article focuses on the existing legislation regulating the association of overseas countries and territories with the Union. The author first draws attention to the key provisions of the Treaty establishing the EEC that define the purpose, objectives and fundamental principles applied between the Union and the overseas countries and territories. The main purpose of the article, however, is to analyse the current legal basis of association and to highlight the need for a new legislative framework of cooperation. New legislation should take into account not only the interests of the Union, but also the desire of the overseas countries and territories for a new quality of mutual cooperation. The author argues that the best way to improve the association mechanism based on the Lisbon Treaty is to modernise the Union’s existing secondary legislation in this area. In this regard the author analyses issues related to Council decision 2001/822/EC on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community and the proposal for a Council decision (COM/2012/362 of 16 July, 2012.

  13. [Factors associated with the seeking of legal induced abortion services in Mexico City in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    To identify factors associated with the seeking of the legal-interruption-pregnancy (LIP) services in Mexico City. We used a case-control design. Users who utilized the LIP were defined as cases, while users of the antenatal care service with gestational age 13 or more weeks and who reported having an unwanted pregnancy were defined as controls. Logistic regressions were fitted to estimate odds ratios. Higher level of education (OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.04-2.07), women's occupation (being student OR=7.31, 95% CI:1.58-33.95; worker OR=13.43, 95% CI:2.04-88.54), and number of previous abortions (OR=11.41, 95% CI:1.65-79.07) were identified as factors associated with the lookup of LIP. In Mexico City context, empowered women with a higher level of education, or having a work activity are the users of LIP services. Strategies for improving access of women with low empowerment conditions are needed.

  14. Personality traits, defense mechanisms and hostility features associated with somatic symptom severity in both health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Goulia, Panagiota; Carvalho, Andre F

    2013-10-01

    Somatic symptoms are widespread in clinical practice. The association of somatic symptom severity with impaired health status holds both when symptoms are medically unexplained and when they are medically explained. The role of personality dimensions in the formation of somatic symptoms in patients with established, chronic diseases when compared to healthy participants had not been investigated prior to this study. In samples of 411 healthy subjects and 810 participants with any of 9 established, chronic medical conditions, we measured psychological distress (SCL-90-R), personality traits (Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire), defensive profiles (Defense Style Questionnaire), individual defenses (Life Style Index) and hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire). Hierarchical multivariate models were used to assess the independent associations between personality dimensions and somatic symptom severity in both samples. The SCL-90-R somatization scale served as the outcome variable. In both samples, older age, less education, higher neuroticism, adoption of the displacement defense and depressive symptoms were independently and positively associated with somatic symptom severity. Higher somatic symptom severity was also associated with more "introverted" features (i.e., the self-sacrificing defensive style and self-criticism) among participants with established, chronic medical conditions. These data suggest that similar personality traits and defense mechanisms are associated with somatic symptom severity in health and disease, indicating that somatic symptoms are not simply consequences of having a medical condition. The specific associations of the self-sacrificing defensive profile and self-criticism with somatic symptom severity in the patient sample may have important clinical implications. © 2013.

  15. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic performance and ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression levels in our

  16. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Shawn R.; Blanchard, Eugene E.; Ronis, Martin J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls) liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control) animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Collectively, these

  17. Integration of danger peptide signals with herbivore-associated molecular pattern signaling amplifies anti-herbivore defense responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Tomonori; Yasuda, Shigetaka; Hyodo, Kiwamu; Tani, Rena; Hojo, Yuko; Fujiwara, Yuka; Hiruma, Kei; Ishizaki, Takuma; Fujita, Yasunari; Saijo, Yusuke; Galis, Ivan

    2018-03-07

    Plant defense against herbivores is modulated by herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) from oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva of insects. Furthermore, feeding wounds initiate plant self-damage responses modulated by danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as immune defense-promoting plant elicitor peptides (Peps). While temporal and spatial co-existence of both patterns during herbivory implies a possibility of their close interaction, the molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. Here we report that exogenous application of rice (Oryza sativa) peptides (OsPeps) can elicit multiple defense responses in rice cell cultures. Specific activation of OsPROPEP3 gene transcripts in rice leaves by wounding and OS treatments further suggests a possible involvement of the OsPep3 peptide in rice-herbivore interactions. Correspondingly, we found that simultaneous application of OsPep3 and Mythimna loreyi OS significantly amplifies an array of defense responses in rice cells, including mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and generation of defense-related hormones and metabolites. The induction of OsPROPEP3/4 by OsPep3 points to a positive auto-feedback loop in OsPep signaling which may contribute to additional enhancement of defense signal(s). Finally, the overexpression of the OsPep receptor OsPEPR1 increases the sensitivity of rice plants not only to the cognate OsPeps but also to OS signals. Our findings collectively suggest that HAMP-DAMP signal integration provides a critical step in the amplification of defense signaling in plants. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Legal and policy issues associated with monitoring employee E-mail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, M.A.; Rither, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program for monitoring outgoing e-mail to insure compliance with company policies, particularly those regarding protection of trade secrets and proprietary information, and to comply with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) procedures for protecting Export Controlled Information (ECI). Electronic communication has allowed companies to enhance efficiency, responsiveness and effectiveness. E-mail allows employees to transmit all types of data to other individuals inside and outside of their companies. The ease with which information can be transmitted by e-mail has placed trade secrets, proprietary information, and other sensitive data at risk from inadvertent disclosure by employees. As employers attempt to protect their interests through measures such as monitoring e-mail, they may expose themselves to liability under federal and state laws for violating employee privacy. Business use of e-mail has proliferated so rapidly that the federal and state legal systems have not been able to adequately address the issues arising out of its use in the workplace.

  19. Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick R Samuelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis. To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole via daily gavage for two weeks. A separate group of animals was fed a chronic alcohol (or isocaloric dextrose pair-fed controls liquid diet for 10 days. Microbiota-depleted mice were recolonized with intestinal microbiota from alcohol-fed or pair-fed (control animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hrs. post respiratory infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Klebsiella lung burden, lung immunology and inflammation, as well as intestinal immunology, inflammation, and barrier damage were examined. Results showed that alcohol-associated susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by gut dysbiosis, as alcohol-naïve animals recolonized with a microbiota isolated from alcohol-fed mice had an increased respiratory burden of K. pneumoniae compared to mice recolonized with a control microbiota. The increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with an increase in pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, and a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung following Klebsiella infection but an increase in T-cell counts in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, suggesting intestinal T-cell sequestration as a factor in impaired lung host defense. Mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also had increased intestinal damage as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein

  20. Oxidative stress is associated with an increased antioxidant defense in elderly subjects: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Flores-Mateo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs. We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px using multilevel statistical procedures. RESULTS: Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L, with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance =  013.5; P<0.001. Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population.

  1. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  2. MiRNA160 is Associated with Local Defense and Systemic Acquired Resistance of Potato Against Phytophthora Infestans Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Bhavani; Kalsi, Harpreet S; Godbole, Prajakta; Malankar, Nilam; Thiagarayaselvam, Aarthy; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Chakrabarti, Swarup K; Banerjee, Anjan K

    2018-01-30

    To combat pathogen infection, plants employ local defense in infected sites and elicit systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in distant tissues. MicroRNAs are shown to play a significant role in local defense, however, their association with SAR is unknown. Also, in potato-Phytophthora infestans interaction, no such studies are reported. We investigated the role of miR160 in local and SAR responses of potato during P. infestans infection. Expression analysis revealed induced levels of miR160 in both local and systemic leaves of infected wild-type plants. Both miR160 overexpression and knockdown plants exhibited increased susceptibility suggesting that miR160 levels equivalent to wild-type plant may be necessary for mounting local defense. Additionally, miR160 knockdown lines failed to elicit SAR and grafting assays indicated that miR160 is required in both local and systemic leaves to trigger SAR. Consistently, SAR-associated signals and genes were dysregulated in miR160 knockdown lines. Further, expression analysis of defense and auxin pathway genes and direct regulation of StGH3.6, a mediator of salicylic acid-auxin cross-talk, by miR160 target StARF10 revealed the involvement of miR160 in antagonistic cross-talk between SA-mediated defense and auxin-mediated growth pathways. Overall, our study demonstrates that miR160 plays a crucial role in local defense and SAR response during potato-P. infestans interaction. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. International legal and political issues associated with the export/import of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear power can be achieved by most nations only through international commerce that has been shaped by political considerations and implemented through legal instruments. The end product is a structure of legal agreements designed to implement the basic political and commercial decisions that are required for any nation to enter the nuclear power arena. The IAEA Statute, the Non-Proliferation Treaty and regional nuclear agreements have reflected the international political consensus concerning nuclear power. In recent years, however, events have occurred that in all probability will result in additional international arrangements. It is expected that the increase in terrorist activities will result in greater physical protection commitments, that concern for weapons proliferation will result in further definition of sanctions, and that such troublesome issues as double labelling of materials will be discussed by the international community. In areas such as bilateral agreements between nations, commercial arrangements and export licences, this is a period of rethinking, renegotiating, and readjusting. The result is a degree of uncertainty and lack of stability that could so jeopardize the potential for nuclear transfers that the nuclear energy option may not vest. While there always will be questions and issues, it is essential to settle some of the key problems without delay so that nuclear benefits can be realized. (author)

  4. Is the Legalization of Marijuana Associated With Its Use by Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven; Schwinn, Traci; Hopkins, Jessica; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Wahlstrom, Lindsey

    2017-01-28

    Growing moves in the U.S. toward relaxed laws surrounding adult use of marijuana raise concerns about concurrent increases in adolescent use of marijuana. This study collected and analyzed primary data on the relationship between marijuana legalization status in U.S. states and adolescents' marijuana use. Recruited through social networking sites and youth-services community agencies, a sample of 1,310 adolescents from 48 U.S. states and the District of Columbia reported their use of marijuana. Youths' use rates were compared with the marijuana legalization status of youths' states of residence. Study findings failed to show a relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and state laws regarding marijuana use. Relationships were found for increased marijuana use by older youths, females, and non-Hispanic youths. Youths whose parents completed 2 or more years of college were less likely to report marijuana use than those whose parents completed fewer than 2 years of college. Albeit study findings do not support predictions of growing marijuana use by adolescents in states with liberalized adult use laws, further monitoring of adolescents' use with larger and more representative samples is needed.

  5. Helicoverpa zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly induce defenses in tomato by triggering a salivary elicitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Peiffer, Michelle; Hoover, Kelli; Rosa, Cristina; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2017-05-01

    Insect gut-associated microbes modulating plant defenses have been observed in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, but the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in regulating plant induced defenses has not been adequately examined. We identified bacteria from the regurgitant of field-collected Helicoverpa zea larvae using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A combination of biochemical, molecular, and confocal electron microscopy methods were used to determine the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in mediating defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Laboratory-reared H. zea inoculated with one of the bacteria identified in field-collected H. zea, Enterobacter ludwigii, induced expression of the tomato defense-related enzyme polyphenol oxidase and genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA), whereas the salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related gene was suppressed. Additionally, saliva and its main component glucose oxidase from inoculated caterpillars played an important role in elevating tomato anti-herbivore defenses. However, there were only low detectable amounts of regurgitant or bacteria on H. zea-damaged tomato leaves. Our results suggest that H. zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly mediate plant-insect interactions by triggering salivary elicitors. These findings provide a proof of concept that introducing gut bacteria to a herbivore may provide a novel approach to pest management through indirect induction of plant resistance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Eliminating mental disability as a legal criterion in deprivation of liberty cases: The impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities on the insanity defense, civil commitment, and competency law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of laws that are associated with deprivations of liberty, including the insanity defense, civil commitment, guardianship of the person and numerous competency doctrines in the criminal context, require proof of mental disability as a predicate. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities commands signatory states to eliminate that predicate. Summarizing principles set out in my book Minding Justice: Laws That Deprive People With Mental Disability of Life and Liberty, I explain how this seemingly radical stance can be implemented. Specifically, this article proposes adoption of an "integrationist defense" in the criminal context, an "undeterrability requirement" when the state seeks preventive detention outside of the criminal process, and a "basic rationality and self-regard test" for incompetency determinations. None of these proposals requires proof of a mental disorder as a predicate condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, Derek

    2002-01-01

    ... that may threaten the critical information pathways of the armed forces An analysis of the history of computer information warfare reveals that there was an embarrassing lack of readiness and defense...

  8. The legal guardians' dilemma: Decision making associated with invasive non-life-saving procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background ICU patients frequently undergo non-life-saving invasive procedures. When patient informed consent cannot be obtained, legal guardianship (LG), often from a close relative, may be required by law. The objective of this cohort study was to investigate the attitudes of LGs of ICU patients regarding the process of decision making for invasive non-life-saving procedures. Methods The study was conducted from May 2009 until June 2010 in general medical/surgical ICUs in two large Israeli medical centers. All 64 LGs who met the study criteria agreed to participate in the study. Three questionnaires were administered: a demographic data questionnaire, the Family Satisfaction with ICU 34 Questionnaire, and the Attitudes towards the LG Decision Making Process questionnaire, developed by the authors. Results The sample consisted of 64 LGs. Most participants were married (n = 56, 87.5%), male (n = 33, 51.6%), who had either a high school (n = 24, 37.5%) or college (n = 19, 29.7%) education, and were at a mean age of 49.2 (±11.22). Almost all of the procedures performed were tracheotomies (n = 63, 98.4%). About two-thirds of the LGs preferred decisions to be made by the medical staff after discussing options with them (n = 42, 65.6%) and about three-fifths stated that decisions could be made without the need for the appointment of an LG (n = 37, 57.8%). Attitudes towards ease of obtaining information and honesty of information were more positive compared to those of consistency and understanding of information. Conclusions The legal guardianship process requires better communication and more understandable information in order to assist LGs in making decisions for others in at times vague and stressful situations. PMID:23006738

  9. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  10. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  11. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Historical, Ethical, and Legal Issues Associated With Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration. PMID:25031978

  12. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  13. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  14. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  15. Evidence of a role for the lateral hypothalamic area juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd in defensive behaviors associated with social defeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Rangel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior. Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: 1 pre-encounter habituation to testing context, 2 encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context, and 3 post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control.

  16. Evidence of a Role for the Lateral Hypothalamic Area Juxtadorsomedial Region (LHAjd) in Defensive Behaviors Associated with Social Defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Miguel J; Baldo, Marcus V C; Canteras, Newton S; Hahn, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior). Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: (1) pre-encounter habituation to testing context; (2) encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context; and (3) post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region) neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control.

  17. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.

  18. Transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria by nonhost seeds without induction of an associated defense reaction at emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrasse, Armelle; Darsonval, Arnaud; Boureau, Tristan; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Durand, Karine; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2010-10-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the different steps of bacterial disease epidemiology is essential to develop new control strategies. Seeds are the passive carriers of a diversified microbial cohort likely to affect seedling physiology. Among seed-borne plant-pathogenic bacteria, seed carriage in compatible situations is well evidenced. The aims of our work are to determine the efficiency of pathogen transmission to seeds of a nonhost plant and to evaluate bacterial and plant behaviors at emergence. Bacterial transmission from flowers to seeds and from seeds to seedlings was measured for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in incompatible interactions with bean. Transmissions from seeds to seedlings were compared for X. campestris pv. campestris, for Xanthomonas citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans in compatible interactions with bean, and for Escherichia coli, a human pathogen, in null interactions with bean. The induction of defense responses was monitored by using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of genes representing the main signaling pathways and assaying defense-related enzymatic activities. Flower inoculations resulted in a high level of bean seed contamination by X. campestris pv. campestris, which transmitted efficiently to seedlings. Whatever the type of interaction tested, dynamics of bacterial population sizes were similar on seedlings, and no defense responses were induced evidencing bacterial colonization of seedlings without any associated defense response induction. Bacteria associated with the spermosphere multiply in this rich environment, suggesting that the colonization of seedlings relies mostly on commensalism. The transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria to and by nonhost seeds suggests a probable role of seeds of nonhost plants as an inoculum source.

  19. Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. RESULTS: Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.

  20. Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Nappo, Solange A; Cruz, Joselaine I; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Carlini, Claudia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.

  1. APLICATION OD THE FREE ENTERPRISE AND OF LEGALITY PRINCIPLES IN THE INTERPRETATION OF ASSOCIATIVE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Ribeiro Rodrigues Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was believed that the welfare state would be able to provide everything for all citizens, although this is far from the reality. Mechanisms have been put in place for the continual improvement of social relations, including the interaction between state and civil society. This connection can not be too close, preventing the realization of basic rights and constitutional guarantees such as freedom of association. There is to be respected the freedom conferred by the legislature to the constitution, organization and development of the associations, in favor of constitutional principles and to the detriment of an undue state interference.

  2. Social welfare and legal constraints associated with work among breast and prostate cancer survivors: experiences from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; Timmons, Aileen

    2011-12-01

    Around 40% of cancer survivors are of working age. We investigated employment outcomes among survivors in Ireland where sick leave and sick pay are at the employers' discretion and the law affords no protection against dismissal following extended absence. A questionnaire was mailed to 1,373 survivors, identified from the National Cancer Registry, 6-24 months post-diagnosis. The analysis included breast and prostate cancer respondents who were working at diagnosis. Factors associated with work continuation post-diagnosis and work resumption after cancer-related absence were identified using logistic regression. The response rate was 54%. Three hundred forty-six respondents were working at diagnosis (breast cancer = 246; prostate cancer = 100). Sixty-two (18%) continued working post-diagnosis. Factors significantly associated with work continuation were: self-employment, prostate cancer, lower pre-diagnosis household income, and not having surgery. Two hundred eighty-four took time off work post-diagnosis; of these, 51 (18%) had left the workforce, 187 (66%) had resumed working, and 46 (16%) planned to resume working. Factors significantly associated with work resumption were: tertiary education, not having chemotherapy, receiving sick pay, and not having a medical card (which provides free access to public health services). Among those who resumed working, the median absence was 30.1 weeks (inter-quartile range = 12.9-51.6). The length of absence varied significantly by socio-demographic, financial, medical, and job- and social welfare-related factors. Median working hours pre- and post-diagnosis differed significantly (pre-diagnosis = 38/week; post-diagnosis = 30/week; p<0.001). The high level of workforce departure and associations between self-employment, sick pay and medical cards, and employment outcomes suggest that social welfare and legal provisions are important determinants of the survivors' workforce participation. IMPLICATIONS FOR

  3. Notifying patients exposed to blood products associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: integrating science, legal duties and ethical mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T; Dossetor, J; Boshkov, L; Hannon, J; Sawyer, D; Robertson, G

    1997-01-01

    The issue of notifying people who have been exposed to blood products that have been associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has arisen at a time when the Canadian blood system is under intense scrutiny. As a result, the Canadian Red Cross Society issued a recommendation to health care institutions that recipients of CJD-associated blood products be identified, notified and counselled. Although Canadian jurisprudence in the realm of informed consent may support a policy of individual notification, a review of the scientific evidence and the applicable ethical principles arguably favours a policy of a more general public notification. Indeed, situations such as this require a unique approach to the formation of legal and ethical duties, one that effectively integrates all relevant factors. As such, the authors argue that individual notification is currently not justified. Nevertheless, if a system of general notification is implemented (e.g., through a series of public health announcements), it should provide, for people who wish to know, the opportunity to find out whether they were given CJD-associated products. PMID:9371070

  4. The Legal Structure of Defense Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-15

    Montesquieu and Blackstone.....................................................81 B. The Constitutional Grants of Power...executive, in large part for the purpose of ensuring efficiency. 2 A. The Theories of Locke, Montesquieu , and Blackstone 0 Prevailing theory, as well...34’" _" "" " " " " " " ’" "A""A" " ’""""-" "-7" • . l’. s ", were the writings of Locke, 3 Montesquieu , 4 and Blackstone, 5 whose works were dubbed "the political Bibles

  5. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management

  6. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management.

  7. Defensive self-presentation style is associated with reduced prepulse inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Raz; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Lichtenberg, Pesach; Edelman, Shany; Ebstein, Richard P; Heresco-Levy, Uriel

    2011-11-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a cross-species measure of sensorimotor gating that provides a valuable tool for assessing the capacity to effectively screen out irrelevant sensory input. Accumulating evidence suggests that PPI deficits may correlate with impairments in social cognition, i.e. the ability to construct representation about others, oneself and the relations between others and oneself. Social cognition deficits are commonly encountered within the framework of psychiatric disorders. In this study 113 healthy volunteers completed psychopyhsiological measures of sensorimotor gating (PPI) and social self-presentation style (the Concern for Appropriate (CAS) and the Revised Self-Monitoring (RSMS) scales). CAS measures a defensive and fearful social approach aiming at avoiding social threats; RSMS measures an active and flexible social approach aiming at gaining power and status. Analyses revealed an inverse correlation between PPI at the 120 ms prepulse-to-pulse interval and total CAS scores (r=-0.19, p=0.04), as well as with the Attention to Social Comparison Information (ASCI) subscale of the CAS (r=-0.23, p=0.01). These findings suggest that reduced PPI may contribute to the tendency to adopt a defensive and fearful "getting along" social approach. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to assess the relationship between sensorimotor gating and self-presentational style in humans. Its findings suggest that very basic perceptual deficits that can be assessed using the PPI paradigm, may reflect information processing abnormalities that impact negatively upon the perception of complex social interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  9. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  10. Sexual Responsivity and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Thomas; Bekker, Demoyne

    1976-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether high- and low-sexual responders on a double-entendre word association test differed in defensive preference on Gleser and Ihilevich's Defense Mechanism Inventory. (Author)

  11. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  12. [Accepting pessimistic thinking is associated with better mental and physical health in defensive pessimists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kodama, Masahiro

    2009-02-01

    The mental and physical health of defensive pessimists (DPs) is generally worse than that of optimists. However, some DPs who accept their pessimistic thinking style are in good health. This study examined the health of college students who were DPs related to how they accepted their thinking style. In Study 1 (F = 211, M = 131), self-esteem was compared among DPs, strategic optimists (SOs), and depressed persons (DEPs). In Study 2 (F = 376, M = 251, not indicated = 5), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ28) was compared among these groups. ANOVAs revealed that DPs were healthier than DEPs in self-esteem and on the GHQ28, but worse than SOs in self-esteem. However, ANCOVA examining self-esteem with acceptance of their thinking style as a covariate showed that DPs were better than DEPs and as good as SOs in health. Regarding the acceptance of their thinking style, DPs scored worse than SOs. This study concluded that DPs in better health had better acceptance of their pessimistic thinking style.

  13. A genome-wide association study of the maize hypersensitive defense response identifies genes that cluster in related pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode A Olukolu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR, a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R- genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21, were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genome-wide association (GWA analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants.

  14. A Genome-Wide Association Study of the Maize Hypersensitive Defense Response Identifies Genes That Cluster in Related Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata, Bala P.; Marla, Sandeep; Ji, Jiabing; Gachomo, Emma; Chu, Kevin; Negeri, Adisu; Benson, Jacqueline; Nelson, Rebecca; Bradbury, Peter; Nielsen, Dahlia; Holland, James B.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2014-01-01

    Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR), a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R-) genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21), were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants. PMID:25166276

  15. Toward a culture-bound syndrome-based insanity defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzen, Micah David

    2003-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association's recent inclusion of a Glossary of Culture-Bound Syndromes within DSM-IV draws upon decades of medical anthropological and cultural psychiatric research to afford culture-bound syndromes (CBSs) a newfound legitimacy within professional Western psychiatric nosology. While DSM-IV's recognition of the CBS concept as a category of psychosocial distress has important clinical implications for mental health care practitioners throughout the world, it also has significant legal implications. Given that several CBSs involve a degree of psychological impairment that may satisfy the standard for legal insanity under certain circumstances, this essay focuses on the potential emergence of an insanity defense based on the claim that an immigrant or minority defendant was suffering from a CBS at the time of his or her criminal act. Aimed at initiating interdisciplinary debate over the reification of the CBS concept, the essay discusses the theoretical ambiguity and status of CBSs within professional Western psychiatry, describes what a CBS-based insanity defense might look like, and considers the relevant challenges facing medical anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists, on the one hand, and legal practitioners, on the other. The essay identifies a pressing need for interdisciplinary debate concerning the validity, scope, and viability of CBS-based insanity defenses.

  16. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    Personnel within the Office of the Secretary of Defense, other DoD Components responsible for preparing the annual financial statements, and legal counsel who provide legal representations regarding...

  17. Malpractice liability and defensive medicine: a national survey of neurosurgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V Nahed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. METHODS: A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. RESULTS: A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%, laboratory tests (67%, referring patients to consultants (66%, or prescribing medications (40%. Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.

  18. Awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors, Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleto, Ayele; Markos, Jote

    2015-03-17

    Unsafe abortion has been recognized as an important public health problem in the world. It accounts for 14% of all maternal deaths in sub-Saharan African countries. In Ethiopia, 32% of all maternal deaths are accounted to unsafe abortion. Taking the problem of unsafe abortion into consideration, the penal code of Ethiopia was amended in 2005, to permit safe abortion under a set of circumstances. However, lack of awareness on the revised penal code is a major barrier that hinders women to seek safe abortion. The aim of this study is to assess awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors in Harari region, eastern Ethiopia. Institution-based descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 762 female students who are attending five higher educational institutions in Harari Region. Systematic sampling method was used to identify study participants from randomly selected colleges. Self administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 statistical packages. Frequency, percentage and ratio were used to describe variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to control confounders and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with awareness of female students to legalization of abortion. 762 study participants completed the survey questionnaire making the response rate 90.2%. Only 272 (35.7%) of the respondents reported that they have good awareness about legalization of safe abortion. Studying other fields than health and medicine [AOR 0.48; 95%CI (0.23, 0.85)], being the only child for their family [AOR 0.28; 95%CI (0.13, 0.86)], having no boy friend [AOR 0.34; 95%CI (0.12, 0.74)], using family planning [AOR 0.50; 95%CI (0.13 and 0.86)], being 25 years or older [AOR 1.64; 95%CI (1.33, 2.80)] were significantly associated with awareness

  19. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  20. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  1. Responsive Legal Approach to Law of Human Trafficking in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana

    2018-01-01

    Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…

  2. The defense of provincial identity in a literary association: the Pampean Association of Writers of Santa Rosa, La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bassa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the notion of provincial identity in the Pampean Association of Writers of Santa Rosa, province of La Pampa. Although the group was shaped around literature, discourses and actions overflow this purpose and present a particular ideological stance regarding Pampean identity. Analysis focuses on interviews to members and documents produced both by local writers and the Association.

  3. OCP TECD Report - TARDEC Blast Mitigation Program (BMP) and National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Michigan (MI) Chapter Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Report- U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center Detroit Arsenal Warren, Michigan 48397-5000 UNCLASSIFIED...Mile Road , Warren, MI 48397-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 29521 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING... Engineering Center (TARDEC) Blast Mitigation Program and the Michigan Chapter of the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) was created based

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-05-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  6. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  7. The defense of political prisoners in the early ‘70s: professional practice, law and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Chama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the relationship between law and politics in the early 70s. More precisely aims to identify and reconstruct the main features that assumes the defense of political prisoners in this period. Rather than a specific work, means that the defense of political prisoners in those years represented a new configuration that was able to articulate a new association of legal professionals, renewed defense strategies, a vast and systematic effort of denunciation, a fluid network of lawyers national and a peculiar rhetoric aimed at the formation of a “new law”. Conceived in these terms, we believe that the defense of political prisoners in the early ‘70s redefined the conventional modes of understanding the relationship between professional practice, law and politics, encouraging the emergence of a new model of counsel in the public sphere.

  8. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  9. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Shy Cian; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Makpol, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants ( α -tocopherol (ATF) and N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC)). Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) , catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  10. Legal Aspects of Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, William; Herbert, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A medical model is used to examine liability issues related to cardiac rehabilitation programs. Obtaining effective informed consent from patients, standardizing policies and procedures, and exercise prescription and monitoring are among the proposed elements of a risk management model for developing safe and legally defensible programs. (IAH)

  11. Factores asociados con la búsqueda del servicio de interrupción legal del embarazo en la Ciudad de México, 2010 Factors associated with the seeking of legal induced abortion services in Mexico City in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Figueroa-Lara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados con la búsqueda del servicio de interrupción legal del embarazo (ILE en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un diseño casos-controles. Usuarias del servicio de ILE fueron definidas como casos, y usuarias de control prenatal con 13 o más semanas de gestación con un embarazo no deseado constituyeron los controles. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística condicional. RESULTADOS: Los años de escolaridad (RM=1.47, IC:1.04-2.07, la ocupación (estudiante, RM=7.31, IC:1.58-33.95; tener empleo remunerado, RM= 13.43, IC:2.04-88.54 y número de interrupciones de embarazo previas (RM=11.41, IC:1.65-79.07 se asociaron con la búsqueda de ILE. El factor de mayor peso fue la ocupación; las mujeres que trabajan tuvieron 13.4 veces mayor posibilidad de demandar el servicio de ILE. CONCLUSIONES: En el contexto de la Ciudad de México, mujeres con más educación y participación laboral activa utilizan más los servicios de ILE. Se requieren estrategias dirigidas a incrementar el uso de estos servicios por mujeres menos favorecidas.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the seeking of the legal-interruption-pregnancy (LIP services in Mexico City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a case-control design. Users who utilized the LIP were defined as cases, while users of the antenatal care service with gestational age 13 or more weeks and who reported having an unwanted pregnancy were defined as controls. Logistic regressions were fitted to estimate odds ratios. RESULTS: Higher level of education (OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.04-2.07, women's occupation (being student OR=7.31, 95% CI:1.58-33.95; worker OR=13.43, 95% CI:2.04-88.54, and number of previous abortions (OR=11.41, 95% CI:1.65-79.07 were identified as factors associated with the lookup of LIP. CONCLUSIONS: In Mexico City context, empowered women with a higher level of education, or having a work activity are the users of LIP services

  12. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background:?Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual?s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performan...

  13. RTI Confusion in the Case Law and the Legal Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article expresses the position that the current legal commentary and cases do not sufficiently differentiate response to intervention (RTI) from the various forms of general education interventions that preceded it, thus compounding confusion in professional practice as to legally defensible procedures for identifying children as having a…

  14. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  15. Parental immigration status is associated with children's health care utilization: findings from the 2003 new immigrant survey of US legal permanent residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Katherine; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Curry, Leslie A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Desai, Mayur M

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between parental immigration status and child health and health care utilization. Using data from a national sample of immigrant adults who had recently become legal permanent residents (LPR), children (n = 2,170) were categorized according to their parents' immigration status prior to LPR: legalized, mixed-status, refugee, temporary resident, or undocumented. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare child health and health care utilization by parental immigration status over the prior 12 months. Nearly all children in the sample were reported to be in good to excellent health. Children whose parents had been undocumented were least likely to have had an illness that was reported to have required medical attention (5.4 %). Children whose parents had been either undocumented or temporary residents were most likely to have a delayed preventive annual exam (18.2 and 18.7 %, respectively). Delayed dental care was most common among children whose parents had come to the US as refugees (29.1 %). Differences in the preventive annual exam remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Parental immigration status before LPR was not associated with large differences in reported child health status. Parental immigration status before LPR was associated with the use of preventive annual exams and dental services. However, no group of children was consistently disadvantaged with respect to all measures.

  16. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  17. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Review. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  18. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Geary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK. Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design. Review. Results. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  19. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    provides a framework for examining spending patterns of the federal government by category of activity, rather than by agency or type of financing ...federal spending. Since federal agencies often have diverse, overlapping responsibilities , it is not uncommon for them to be associated with multiple...agency responsible for approximately 96% of spending within the National Defense Budget (050). Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function

  20. An enrichment of CRISPR and other defense-related features in marine sponge-associated microbial metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Horn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  1. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-10-01

    In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.

  3. Defensive Medicine in U.S. Spine Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ryan S; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Acosta, Michael A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-02-01

    .37). State-based medical legal environment is not a significant driver of increased defensive medicine associated with neurosurgical spine procedures. 3.

  4. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  5. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  6. Cost and price auditing: effectiveness in the procurement of defense services in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Romero,José Aguado; Hernández,Antonio M. López

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Contract auditing, or cost and price auditing, has been applied in Spain as a means of determining prices in non-competitive defense contracts since 1989. Factors such as Spain's participation in international defense organizations, the characteristics of the defense market and the contractual legal framework for the procurement of defense goods and services help underscore the need for the Spanish Ministry of Defense to implement cost and price auditing. With the evolution of cost a...

  7. Analysis of the Strength of Legal Firearms Restrictions for Perpetrators of Domestic Violence and Their Association With Intimate Partner Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; McCourt, Alexander; Buggs, Shani; Frattaroli, Shannon; Lilley, David; Webster, Daniel W

    2017-11-29

    In this research, we estimate the association of firearm restrictions for domestic violence offenders with intimate partner homicides (IPHs), based on the strength of the policies. We posit that the association of firearm laws with IPHs depends on the laws': 1) breadth of coverage of high-risk individuals and situations restricted; 2) power to compel firearm surrender or removal from prohibited persons; and 3) systems of accountability that prevent prohibited persons from obtaining guns. We conducted a quantitative policy evaluation using annual state-level data from 1980 through 2013 for 45 US states. Based on the results of a series of robust negative binomial regression models with state fixed effects, domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibition laws are associated with 9% reductions in IPH. Statistically significant protective associations were evident only when restraining order prohibitions covered dating partners (-10%) and ex parte orders (-12%). Laws prohibiting access to those convicted of non-specific violent misdemeanors were associated with a 23% reduction in IPH rates; there was no association when prohibitions were limited to domestic violence. Permit-to-purchase laws were associated with 10% reductions in IPHs. These findings should inform policymakers considering laws to maximize protections against intimate partner homicide. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  9. Legal Liability in Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty

  10. Economic, Legal, and Social Hardships Associated with HIV Risk among Black Men who have Sex with Men in Six US Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Moineddin, Rahim; Zhang, Nanhua; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Sa, Ting; Harawa, Nina; Regan, Rotrease; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Watson, Christopher C; Koblin, Beryl; Del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-02-01

    We assessed whether economic, legal, and social hardships were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among a sample of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether associations were moderated by city of residence. The study analyzed baseline and follow-up data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1553). Binary logistic regression assessed associations between hardships and HIV risk indicators. Multivariate regressions were used to test if city of residence had a moderating effect for hardships and HIV risks. Adjusted analyses showed that Black MSM with recent job loss were more likely to engage in condomless insertive anal intercourse (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and that those with recent financial crisis were more likely to have had two or more male sexual partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Black MSM with recent convictions were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 6 months (AOR = 3.97; 95% CI 1.58-9.94), while those who were unstably housed were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 12 months (AOR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.02 = 2.86). There were no city of residence and hardship interaction effects on HIV risks. Hardships are important factors that influence HIV risk for Black MSM. Integrating strategies that address structural factors that influence HIV risk may enhance HIV prevention interventions implementation efforts.

  11. Defense Acquisition: Observations Two Years After the Packard Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    businesses. 10 To clarify Costello’s funcions , Under S•cretary Taft issued a memorandum in December 1987. This , memEan-dumn is mproduced in Chapter 13. 7 I...Defense (For, Management and Personnel) Assistant Secretary of Defense (Reserve Affairs) Assistant Secretary of Defense ( Health Affairs) Assistant Secretary...Test and Evaluation which reports directly to the Secretary. d. Legal Uncertainty And Complexity Breeds Overly Cautious Mentality In discussing the

  12. Contrasting Regulation of NO and ROS in Potato Defense-Associated Metabolism in Response to Pathogens of Different Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek

    Full Text Available Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr P. infestans-potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR successfully arresting the pathogen. Relatively high levels of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosothiols concentrated in the main vein of potato leaves indicated the mobile function of these compounds as a reservoir of NO bioactivity. In contrast, low-level production of NO and ROS during virulent (vr P. infestans-potato interactions might be crucial in the delayed up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3 genes and compromised resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen. In turn, B. cinerea triggered huge NO overproduction and governed inhibition of superoxide production by blunting NADPH oxidase. Nevertheless, a relatively high level of H2O2 was found owing to the germin-like activity in cooperation with NO-mediated HR-like cell death in potato genotypes favorable to the necrotrophic pathogen. Moreover, B. cinerea not only provoked cell death, but also modulated the host redox milieu by boosting protein nitration, which attenuated SA production but not SA-dependent defense gene expression. Finally, based on obtained data the organismal cost of having machinery for HR in plant resistance to biotrophs is also discussed, while emphasizing new efforts to identify other components of the NO/ROS cell death pathway and improve plant protection against pathogens of different lifestyles.

  13. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess M S Neal

    Full Text Available This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process.

  14. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the “filtering” effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the “allegiance effect” in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process. PMID:27124416

  15. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  16. Associations between the legal context of HIV, perceived social capital, and HIV antiretroviral adherence in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J Craig; Webel, Allison; Rose, Carol Dawson; Corless, Inge B; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Voss, Joachim; Wantland, Dean; Nokes, Kathleen; Brion, John; Chen, Wei-Ti; Iipinge, Scholastika; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K; Johnson, Mallory O; Maryland, Mary; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Portillo, Carmen J; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Kirksey, Kenn M; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Reid, Paula; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Holzemer, William L

    2013-08-08

    Human rights approaches to manage HIV and efforts to decriminalize HIV exposure/transmission globally offer hope to persons living with HIV (PLWH). However, among vulnerable populations of PLWH, substantial human rights and structural challenges (disadvantage and injustice that results from everyday practices of a well-intentioned liberal society) must be addressed. These challenges span all ecosocial context levels and in North America (Canada and the United States) can include prosecution for HIV nondisclosure and HIV exposure/transmission. Our aims were to: 1) Determine if there were associations between the social structural factor of criminalization of HIV exposure/transmission, the individual factor of perceived social capital (resources to support one's life chances and overcome life's challenges), and HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among PLWH and 2) describe the nature of associations between the social structural factor of criminalization of HIV exposure/transmission, the individual factor of perceived social capital, and HIV ART adherence among PLWH. We used ecosocial theory and social epidemiology to guide our study. HIV related criminal law data were obtained from published literature. Perceived social capital and HIV ART adherence data were collected from adult PLWH. Correlation and logistic regression were used to identify and characterize observed associations. Among a sample of adult PLWH (n = 1873), significant positive associations were observed between perceived social capital, HIV disclosure required by law, and self-reported HIV ART adherence. We observed that PLWH who have higher levels of perceived social capital and who live in areas where HIV disclosure is required by law reported better average adherence. In contrast, PLWH who live in areas where HIV transmission/exposure is a crime reported lower 30-day medication adherence. Among our North American participants, being of older age, of White or Hispanic ancestry, and having

  17. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  18. Anxiety, depression and defense mechanisms associated with treatment decisional preferences and quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Almyroudi, Augoustina; Paika, Vassiliki; Degner, Lesley F; Carvalho, André F; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    Treatment decisional preferences impact breast cancer patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and may relate to psychological variables, although many aspects of this relationship remain unknown. This prospective study aimed to assess psychological correlates of treatment decisional preferences and predictors of HRQoL in women with early non-metastatic breast cancer. Of the 124 women initially assessed for anxiety (Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D)) symptoms, HRQoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and defense mechanisms (Life Style Index), 82 (66.1%) completed the 1-year follow-up. Mean age was 54.6 years (SD = 9.76), and mean disease duration was 19.4 months (SD = 25.55); 19.5% had stage I, 63.4% stage II and 17.1% stage III disease. The predictive power and moderator effects of psychological variables were tested using multiple and hierarchical regression models. Depressive symptoms and physical HRQoL improved significantly, state anxiety and mental and environment HRQoL remained stable, and social relations HRQoL deteriorated over the 1-year period. Older age (p = 0.021) and higher scores in repression defense (p = 0.044) were independently associated with passive decisional preferences. Earlier stage of cancer (p = 0.043), lower state anxiety (p = 0.039), lower repression scores (p = 0.021) and improvement in depressive symptoms (p Defense mechanisms are associated with treatment decisional preferences and interact with factors predicting HRQoL in women with breast cancer. Clinicians should address the patients' anxiety and depressive symptoms and refer patients with high repression tendencies for psychological evaluation and management. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  20. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  1. Segregated anatomical input to sub-regions of the rodent superior colliculus associated with approach and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane eComoli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The superior colliculus (SC is responsible for sensorimotor transformations required to direct gaze towards or away from unexpected, biologically salient events. Significant changes in external world are signalled to SC through primary multisensory afferents, spatially organised according to a retinotopic topography. For animals, where an unexpected event could indicate the presence of either predator or prey, early decisions to approach or avoid are particularly important. Rodents' ecology dictates predators are most often detected initially as movements in upper visual field (mapped in medial SC, while appetitive stimuli are normally found in lower visual field (mapped in lateral SC. Our purpose was to exploit this functional segregation to reveal neural sites that can bias or modulate initial approach or avoidance responses. Small injections of Fluoro-Gold were made into medial or lateral sub-regions of intermediate and deep layers of SC (SCm/SCl. A remarkable segregation of input to these two functionally defined areas was found. (i There were structures that projected only to SCm (e.g. specific cortical areas, lateral geniculate and suprageniculate thalamic nuclei, ventromedial and premammillary hypothalamic nuclei and several brainstem areas or SCl (e.g. primary somatosensory cortex representing upper body parts and vibrissae and parvicellular reticular nucleus in the brainstem. (ii Other structures projected to both SCm and SCl but from topographically segregated populations of neurones (e.g. zona incerta and substantia nigra pars reticulata. (iii There were a few brainstem areas in which retrogradely labeled neurons were spatially overlapping (e.g. pedunculopontine nucleus and locus coreuleus. These results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behaviour are almost entirely

  2. Fraud Indicators Applied to Legal Entities : An Empirical Ranking Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Braak; R. Choenni; M.S. Bargh

    2014-01-01

    Legal persons (i.e., entities such as corporations, companies, partnerships, firms, associations, and foundations) may commit financial crimes or employ fraudulent activities like money laundering, tax fraud, or bankruptcy fraud. Therefore, in the Netherlands legal persons are automatically screened

  3. Cannabis Use During the Perinatal Period in a State With Legalized Recreational and Medical Marijuana: The Association Between Maternal Characteristics, Breastfeeding Patterns, and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Juhl, Ashley L; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Hall, Katelyn E; Wymore, Erica; Borgelt, Laura M

    2018-03-28

    To evaluate state-level prevalence estimates of prenatal and early postnatal cannabis use in a state with legalized medical and recreational marijuana and the association with adverse neonatal outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 3,207 respondents from the 2014-2015 Colorado Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System with state-developed questions on cannabis use. Differences in perinatal cannabis use were evaluated according to maternal characteristics, breastfeeding patterns, and pregnancy intendedness. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated the relationship between prenatal cannabis use and adverse neonatal outcomes including low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The self-reported prevalence of cannabis use at any time during pregnancy was 5.7 ± 0.5% and the prevalence of early postnatal cannabis use among women who breastfed was 5.0% (95% CI, 4.1%-6.2%). Prenatal cannabis use was associated with a 50% increased likelihood of low birth weight, independent of maternal age, race/ethnicity, level of education, and tobacco use during pregnancy (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1; P = .02). Small for gestational age, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were not associated with prenatal cannabis use, independent of prenatal tobacco use. Our findings underscore the importance of screening for cannabis use during prenatal care and the need for provider counselling about the adverse health consequences of continued use during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  5. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, "bad me" (self-blaming) paranoia and "poor me" (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia.

  6. Peacetime Reprisals Under Article 51: An Argument for Legal Legitimacy in Cases of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coffey, Holly S

    1997-01-01

    This thesis proposes a change to Article 51 of the UN Charter. The use of peacetime reprisals should be afforded the same legal legitimacy under the Charter as are acts characterized as self-defense in situations of terrorism...

  7. Methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses are associated with elevation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Lycopersicon esculentum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengmeng; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Aijun; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-10-15

    It has been known that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) interacts with ethylene to elicit resistance. In green mature tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun), 0.02mM MeJA increased the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), and consequently influenced the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. Fruits treated with a combination of 0.02 MeJA and 0.02 α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB, a competitive inhibitor of ACO) exhibited a lower ethylene production comparing to that by 0.02mM MeJA alone. The increased activities of defense enzymes and subsequent control of disease incidence caused by Botrytis cinerea with 0.2mM MeJA treatment was impaired by AIB as well. A close relationship (Ptomato, and the concentration influence of MeJA on ACO was attributable to the variation of gene transcripts and enzymatic properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  9. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Archaeal Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-associated Complex for Antiviral Defense (CASCADE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA....... The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5......a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2...

  11. [Epidemiology of the medico-legal risk associated with the practice of ambulatory surgery in France: a study based on insurance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, A; Fuz, F; Catineau, J; Sultan, W; Beaussier, M; Carles, M; Raucoules-Aimé, M; Niccolai, P

    2014-03-01

    The medico-legal risk specifically associated with the practice of ambulatory surgery is still not well studied. SHAM insurances are the biggest French provider of medical liability insurances. The study of the insurance claims provided by this insurer is therefore a relevant source of data on the complications related to ambulatory surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the claim rate related to ambulatory surgery with non-ambulatory surgery. We did a retrospective study on insurance claims provided by SHAM insurances between 2007 and 2011 to compare the claim rate related to ambulatory surgery with non-ambulatory surgery. We searched the files in the SHAM database, and then analyzed them. On the study period, out of a total of 29565 registered claims, 467 (1.6%) originated from ambulatory surgery. On the total of 29,098 registered claims for non-ambulatory surgery, 2151 (7.4%) led to a condemnation whereas the rate was 7% (33 out of 467 claims) for ambulatory surgery. The condemnations linked to ambulatory surgery amounted to 1.5% of the total (33 out of 2184), for a cost of 1.7 M€ (versus 400,3 M€ for non-ambulatory surgery). The average cost of a compensation is therefore 50,500 € for ambulatory surgery and 186,000 € for non-ambulatory surgery. The medical specialties concerned are primarily ophthalmology, abdominal and orthopedics surgery. The main identified causes were medical errors (n=16) and nosocomial infections (n=13). The claim rate in ambulatory surgery is proportionally less frequent with compensations three times less and were related to the most frequent type of surgery done in ambulatory settings. These data should help strengthen quality approach in ambulatory surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparing South Africa for Cyber Crime and Cyber Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie Grobler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international scope of the Internet, the fast technological advances, the wide reach of technological usage and the increase in cyber-attacks require the South African administrative and legislative system to both intersect largely with the application and implementation of international legislation, take timeous precautionary measures and stay updated on trends and developments. One of the problems associated with the technological revolution is that the cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations that are not well suited to any lagging administrative and legal system. A further complication is the lack of comprehensive and enforceable treaties facilitating international cooperation with regard to cyber defense. The result is that many developing countries in particular, are either not properly aware, not well prepared, or adequately protected by both knowledge and legislation, in the event of a cyber-attack on a national level. Even if these countries realize the threats, the time to react is of such a long nature due to consultation and legislative processes, that the legal systems provide little support to ensure timeous and necessary counter-measures. This article will address this problem by looking at the impact of technological revolution on cybercrime and cyber defense in a developing country and will evaluate the relevant South African legislation. It will also look at the influence of cyber defense on the international position of the South African Government. South Africa at present does not have a coordinated approach in dealing with Cybercrime and does not have a comprehensive Cyber defense strategy in place. The structures that have been established to deal with Cyber security issues are inadequate to holistically deal with these issues. The development of interventions to address cybercrime requires a partnership between business, government and civil society. This article will provide an approach to

  13. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  14. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  15. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A Critique and a Defense of the Argument from African Metaphysical Epistemology. ... Africa, as it has the advantageous result of helping in the search for truth concerning such offences, thereby promoting the delivery of effective legal justice, and thus contributing ...

  16. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  17. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  18. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuo Nakamura,1 Tomomi Hayakawa,2 Aiko Okamura,3 Mutsumi Kohigashi,4 Kenji Fukui,1 Jin Narumoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Gojouyama Hospital, Nara, Japan; 3Yashio Hospital, Saitama, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Background: If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods: Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71. Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT, and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion: These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non

  19. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  1. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models......An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  2. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  3. Legal and regulatory considerations associated with use of patient-generated health data from social media and mobile health (mHealth) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, C; DeMuro, P

    2015-01-01

    Patient-generated health data are coming into broader use across the health care spectrum and hold great promise as a means to improve care and health outcomes. At the same time, rapid evolution in the social media and mobile health (mHealth) market has promoted an environment in which creation and transmission of personal health information is easy, quick, and appealing to patients. However, adoption of social media and mHealth by providers is hampered by legal and regulatory concerns with regard to data ownership and data use. This article defines common forms of patient-generated health data (PGHD) and describes how PGHD is used in clinical settings. It explores issues related to protection of personal health information, including that of children and adolescents, data security, and other potential barriers such as physician licensure. It also discusses regulatory and legal considerations providers and patients should consider before using social media and mobile health apps.

  4. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  5. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  6. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  7. Criminal defense in Chinese courtrooms: an empirical inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; He, Ni Phil

    2014-10-01

    Scholars in the field of Chinese criminal procedure law study have long decried the meager legal protection afforded to criminal defendants on trial and the hapless status of Chinese criminal defense attorneys in the courtroom. Unfortunately, very little empirical evidence was available to shed light on how criminal defense was carried out in Chinese courtrooms. Based on observations of 325 actual criminal trials from 55 District People's Courts in J province, this study provides an opportunity to understand the mundane work performed by Chinese criminal defense attorneys. In particular, this study describes how criminal defense attorneys prepare and present their cases (as measured in terms of bail request, overall trial preparation, examination of defendants and witnesses, presentation of evidence, and overall defense strategy), and analyzes the outcomes of their performance. In addition, this study examines the discernible impact of criminal defense work due to types of legal representation utilized (legal aid vs. privately retained attorneys), numbers of attorneys representing the client, and the gender composition of the attorneys. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Infrastructure Damage/Fragility Models and Data Quality Issues Associated with Department of Defense Climate Vulnerability and Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-26

    floods , wind and snow storms, temperature extremes,  drought , fire,  and others. The associated hazard loads can be represented as quantitative estimates...10 For utility  systems , the estimated loss ($) of an asset may be estimated by the percent damage based on  flood   water depth with the value of the...occurs,  velocity of the floodwater, the duration of the  flood , sediment loads, and  warning  time (USACE,  2003). In addition, the future probability of

  9. The conservative proposal against the educational project of radical liberalism: the defense of catholic education through the press and associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of Colombian nineteenth century, conservatives and people who were close to the Catholic Church, opposed to the public educational project proposed by the Liberal government between 1860 and 1870, due to its secular orientation which was viewed as a threat to the stability of religion and Catholic Church in the country. Because of this, the “procatholic” groups launched an offensive against the government to fight its educative project and to promote at the same time their own pedagogical project. This article aims to examine two of the central mechanisms that they used with the goal mentioned, such were the press and the associations. Thus, it is intended that this review will help to better understand the transformation that took Colombian education, towards the last quarter of the nineteenth century, from a secular educational model to a confessional one.

  10. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-06-01

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments

  11. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscou, Matthew J; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with enhancement

  12. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Moscou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99 is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM doubled-haploid (DH population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with

  13. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  14. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The arabidopsis wall associated kinase-like 10 gene encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase and is co-expressed with pathogen defense related genes

    KAUST Repository

    Meier, Stuart

    2010-01-26

    Background: Second messengers have a key role in linking environmental stimuli to physiological responses. One such messenger, guanosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), has long been known to be an essential signaling molecule in many different physiological processes in higher plants, including biotic stress responses. To date, however, the guanylyl cyclase (GC) enzymes that catalyze the formation of cGMP from GTP have largely remained elusive in higher plants. Principal Findings: We have identified an Arabidopsis receptor type wall associated kinase-like molecule (AtWAKL10) as a candidate GC and provide experimental evidence to show that the intracellular domain of AtWAKL10431-700 can generate cGMP in vitro. Further, we also demonstrate that the molecule has kinase activity indicating that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain catalytic protein. A co-expression and stimulus-specific expression analysis revealed that AtWAKL10 is consistently coexpressed with well characterized pathogen defense related genes and along with these genes is induced early and sharply in response to a range of pathogens and their elicitors. Conclusions: We demonstrate that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain, kinase-GC signaling molecule that may function in biotic stress responses that are critically dependent on the second messenger cGMP. © 2010 Meier et al.

  16. Structural and functional characterization of an archaeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated complex for antiviral defense (CASCADE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K; Graham, Shirley; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H; Sdano, Matthew; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Copié, Valérie; Young, Mark J; White, Malcolm F; Lawrence, C Martin

    2011-06-17

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA. The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2-Cas5a complex is sufficient to bind crRNA and complementary ssDNA. The structure of Csa2 reveals a crescent-shaped structure unexpectedly composed of a modified RNA-recognition motif and two additional domains present as insertions in the RNA-recognition motif. Conserved residues indicate potential crRNA- and target DNA-binding sites, and the H160A variant shows significantly reduced affinity for crRNA. We propose a general subunit architecture for CASCADE in other bacteria and Archaea.

  17. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  18. [Relationship between defense mechanism and therapeutic alliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Cailhol, L; Pourcel, L; Thalamas, C; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Chabrol, H

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic alliance can be defined as a collaborative relationship between the patient and the practitioner. It represents an essential component of the psychotherapeutic process (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006; Martin et al., 2000). Some authors suggest that a good alliance can have a favorable impact on the therapeutic success (Barber et al., 2000; Hubble, Duncan, & Miller 1999; Horvath & Luborsky, 1993; Horvath & Symonds, 1991). This alliance can be influenced by psychological and behavioral factors (Cungi, 2006) Thus, some defense mechanisms could prevent change or, on the contrary could facilitate adaptation (Ambresin et al., 2007) and have an impact on the therapeutic success (Muris & Merckelbach, 1996). However, the relationship between therapeutic alliance and defense mechanisms represents an insufficiently explored field (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and twenty defense mechanisms in a sample of French psychiatric patients, by differentiating results in men and women. We also examined the positive and the negative therapeutic alliance. Sixty patients aged from 18 to 58 (M=41.50; SD=11.03) completed the French versions of the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and the Helping Alliance questionnaire-II (HAq-II). Therapeutic alliance was significantly associated with each defense style: mature (0.62), neurotic (0.45) Pdefense style was a significant predictor of therapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.39, β=0.65, Pdefenses, three neurotic defenses (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization) and four immature defenses (splitting, denial, somatization, passive aggression). Among men, three mature defenses were associated (anticipation, humor, sublimation), four neurotic (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization and undoing) and two immature (somatization and denial). The negative therapeutic alliance, in our total sample, was

  19. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  20. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  1. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  2. Legal and Regulatory Considerations Associated with Use of Patient-Generated Health Data from Social Media and Mobile Health (mHealth) Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, C.; DeMuro, P.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-generated health data are coming into broader use across the health care spectrum and hold great promise as a means to improve care and health outcomes. At the same time, rapid evolution in the social media and mobile health (mHealth) market has promoted an environment in which creation and transmission of personal health information is easy, quick, and appealing to patients. However, adoption of social media and mHealth by providers is hampered by legal and regulatory concerns with r...

  3. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  4. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  5. The legal mentality and the succession of the law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rybakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law. 

  6. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  7. Citing Legal Material in APA Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to authors on the correct citation format for legal references, including statutes and regulations, court decisions, and law review articles. Standards are based on those published by the Harvard Law Review Association and the American Psychological Association. (DB)

  8. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  9. Defense Co-Production: Collaborative National Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Robert R

    2005-01-01

    ...) and the defense industry at large. The aim of the study will be to examine the evolution of the procurement and contracting process since World War II with a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the increasingly symbiotic...

  10. Legal Education for Sustainability: A Report on US Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernbach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is an overview of sustainability efforts in US law schools. It describes two sets of drivers for these efforts--inside and outside the legal profession. Drivers from within the legal profession include the American Bar Association as well as several state and local bar associations; law firms and other law organisations; and current…

  11. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  12. Differentially expressed genes in mycorrhized and nodulated roots of common bean are associated with defense, cell wall architecture, N metabolism, and P metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Brenda-Mariana; Blanco, Lourdes; Lara, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Legumes participate in two important endosymbiotic associations, with phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM, soil fungi) and with nitrogen-fixing bacterial rhizobia. These divergent symbionts share a common symbiotic signal transduction pathway that facilitates the establishment of mycorrhization and nodulation in legumes. However, the unique and shared downstream genes essential for AM and nodule development have not been identified in crop legumes. Here, we used ion torrent next-generation sequencing to perform comparative transcriptomics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots colonized by AM or rhizobia. We analyzed global gene expression profiles to identify unique and shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that regulate these two symbiotic interactions, and quantitatively compared DEG profiles. We identified 3,219 (1,959 upregulated and 1,260 downregulated) and 2,645 (1,247 upregulated and 1,398 downregulated) unigenes that were differentially expressed in response to mycorrhizal or rhizobial colonization, respectively, compared with uninoculated roots. We obtained quantitative expression profiles of unique and shared genes involved in processes related to defense, cell wall structure, N metabolism, and P metabolism in mycorrhized and nodulated roots. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that most genes involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling, N metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism are variably expressed during symbiotic interactions. These combined data provide valuable information on symbiotic gene signaling networks that respond to mycorrhizal and rhizobial colonization, and serve as a guide for future genetic strategies to enhance P uptake and N-fixing capacity to increase the net yield of this valuable grain legume. PMID:28771548

  13. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  14. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  15. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  16. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  17. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  18. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  19. Contribution to the improvement of management in defense logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Ljubojević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Changes in social environment require adequate answers of all organizational systems, including defense systems and their logistic systems. Improvement of management in defense logistics involves good knowledge of management theory and practice, knowledge of the impact of ownership and market on management, knowledge of public and other macroeconomic sectors functioning, broader opening towards environment and the exchange of knowledge, information and lessons learned with international environment. The paper presents theoretical and practical knowledge that is prerequisite for improving the management of defense and the management of defense logistic systems.   Definition and the essence of management   Regarding its complexity and a lack of a comprehensive definition, the concept of management is nowadays considered in three ways: as a skill, as social categories - structure of management, as well as a theory - a scientific discipline. When we aanalyze the phenomenon of management, with respect to the historical aspect of its development, there is a necessity to distinguish between management as a scientific discipline and management practice.   Relation between organizational science and management In theory and practice, management is associated with the achievements of many other scientific fields. One of the areas closest to management is organizational science. Today, in the management theory and organization theory, the prevailing attitudes state that these two areas are non-separable and that they are focused on the explaination of the same phenomenon, with the same desire to improve effectivity and development of different purpose systems. There is no clear boundary between organizational science and management, both from theoretical and practical aspects.   Achievements and shortcomings of organizational schools   As a result of solving problems in real systems, a number of opinions and different organizational

  20. Participation of a Representative of a Foreign Country in the Procedure of the Legal Proceedings in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzakirov, Nail R.; Omarov, Yerbol A.; Mussilimov, Arman Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of foreigners' rights and freedoms protection during the criminal procedure in The Republic of Kazakhstan. The comparative analysis of national and international legal framework shows that principles of legal defense of foreigners' interests do not have a practical application. Examining the content of requests on…

  1. 32 CFR 750.54 - Payment of costs, settlements, and judgments related to certain medical or legal malpractice claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... related to certain medical or legal malpractice claims. 750.54 Section 750.54 National Defense Department... § 750.54 Payment of costs, settlements, and judgments related to certain medical or legal malpractice..., pharmacist, paramedic, or other supporting personnel (including medical and dental technicians, nurse...

  2. Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  3. Social disadvantage, mental illness and predictors of legal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, C T; Aubry, T D; Arboleda-Florez, J; Wasylenki, D; Goering, P N

    2006-01-01

    The following study evaluates the complex association between legal involvement and mental illness. It describes a population of consumers of community mental health programs, comparing those with legal involvement to those without legal involvement, on a number of demographic, clinical and social indicators. It is a secondary analysis of data collected in studies making up the Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative (CMHEI) in the province of Ontario, Canada. Legal involvement was a significant issue among community mental health program consumers; about one in five consumers had at least some contact with the legal system in the preceding nine months. Legally involved consumers were more likely to be in receipt of social assistance and be unstably housed than those legally uninvolved. However, there were no significant differences between legally involved and uninvolved consumers with respect to severity of symptomatology, current medication use or number of hospitalization days in the past 9 months. A predictive model compared the differential impact of clinical and social determinants upon legal involvement. Analyses failed to uncover a significant relationship between severity of psychiatric symptomatology and legal involvement. Significant predictors of legal involvement included gender, race, drug use as well as housing instability, and receipt of social assistance. Legal involvement was attributable to factors other than the severity of mental illness; these results challenge assumptions that the most symptomatically severe consumers are most at risk of legal involvement. Accordingly, the rate of legal involvement in a sample of community mental health program users must be considered in a broad context, with particular emphasis on social disadvantage.

  4. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  5. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  6. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  7. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  8. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine physical and chemical defenses associated with each step in host selection behavior sequence by mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly F. Wallin; Daniel S. Ott; Alvin D. Yanchuk

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic stressors exert selective pressures on plants, and over evolutionary time lead to the development of specialized adaptations and specific responses to stresses (Safranyik and Carroll 2006, Wallin and Raffa 2002). In this way, the environment in which plants evolve shapes their life cycles, range, growth, reproduction, and defenses. Insects and...

  9. How Lower- and Working-Class Youth Become Middle-Class Adults: The Association between Ego Defense Mechanisms and Upward Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarey, John R.; Vaillant, George E.

    1985-01-01

    Among 278 inner-city men studied for four decades and over three generations, eight variables captured 28 percent of the explained variance in upward social mobility: IQ, mother's education, mother's occupation, boyhood ego strength, and four ego defense mechanisms--intellectualization, dissociation, sublimation, and anticipation.…

  10. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  11. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  12. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  14. Legal nature of affatomia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...

  15. Regulatory risks associated with nuclear safety legislation after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in Japan. Focus on legal structure of the nuclear reactor regulation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety regulations enforced after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Act face the following regulatory problems that involve potential risk factors for nuclear businesses; 1) 'entity based regulation' unable to cope with business cessation or bankruptcy of the entity subject of regulation, 2) potential risk of the Nuclear Regulation Authority's inappropriate involvement in nuclear industry policy beyond their duty, and 3) compliance of backfits under vague regulations. In order to alleviate them, this report, through analyzing these regulatory problems from the view point of sound development of the nuclear industry, proposes the following regulatory reforms; (1) To clarify the rule for industry policy in nuclear regulations and enable the authority, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, to choose most appropriate industrial policy measure. (2) Through establishing safety goals as measures to promote continuous improvement of nuclear safety regulations, to stimulate timely adjustments of the regulations, and to introduce a legal mechanism into the nuclear regulation systems under which validity of administrative law and its application can be checked. (author)

  16. [Technical statement by the Spanish Paediatric Association in relation to gender diversity in childhood and adolescence: Ethical and legal view from a multidisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño Galán, Isolina; Del Río Pastoriza, Inés; Chueca Guindulain, María; Gabaldón Fraile, Sabel; de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Federico

    2018-03-19

    An ethical and legal view of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is presented from the perspective of the best interest of the child and the principle of protection against vulnerability. The identification of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a process that requires support, coordination and a multidisciplinary team that improves care and helps to obtain evidence that is lacking today. Secure, equitable and comprehensive access to care and health care should be guaranteed when required. It is necessary to promote a changing of social outlook, capable of overcoming the stereotypes that lead to discrimination and increase suffering. Respect for gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a fundamental Human Right. The recognition of a positive value in diversity is an ethical imperative. All of this, without forgetting that we are talking about minors often in contexts of vulnerability, and currently very uncertain, so prudence is the main rule that should guide decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...

  18. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  19. Legal Protections Gay Students Must Receive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses practical guidance on schools' legal rights and responsibilities with respect to students, programs, and curriculum. Like all other individuals, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students are guaranteed equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution and free speech and association under the…

  20. Legal Bases for Dealing with Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricault, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Academic dishonesty poses a threat to the goals of every educational institution. This article draws heavily from current literature and case law to provide an overview of academic dishonesty, paying particular attention to associated legal aspects, such as due process, the content and communication of policies, sanctions, prevention, and…

  1. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  2. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  3. Defense Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self defense is the basic response of every living organism. This response is readily observed in animals because of their physical movements typically involved in that pro- cess. Being immobile, plants have evolved highly complex defense mechanisms that differ from those commonly seen in animals. Plants are able to ...

  4. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  5. Legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues in cloud computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available a gap on reporting are on are legal , privacy, security, access and regulatory issues. This paper raises an awareness of legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues that are associated with the advent of cloud computing. An in...

  6. Comment: Some thoughts on the organization of legal Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now time to think in terms of organizing law firms in Ethiopia, and the Committee entrusted with a duty to revamp the Commercial Code of Ethiopia must see to it that the section on Business Organizations included the LLP to accommodate professional business associations including the legal practice. Keywords: Legal ...

  7. Assessing the Legal Risks in Network Forensic Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losavio, Michael; Nasraoui, Olfa; Thacker, Vincent; Marean, Jeff; Miles, Nick; Yampolskiy, Roman; Imam, Ibrahim

    This paper presents a framework for identifying the legal risks associated with performing network forensics on public networks. The framework is discussed in the context of the Gnutella P2P network protocol for which the legal issues related to authorized access have not yet been addressed.

  8. General Lines of Disregard for the Legal Personality on Irregular Dissolution the Company

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Augusto Barcelos Moreira Corrêa; Tereza Cristina Monteiro Mafra

    2016-01-01

    This article will analyze the Institute of disregard for the legal personality in situations involving irregular dissolution the limited liability company, in light of the jurisprudence of the Superior Court Tribunal. We highlight the impact that new code of Civil procedure will provide for analysis to safeguard the autonomy of assets of the legal person, as well as the guarantee of due process and of ample defense, directly impacting on business law. The analysis aims to contribute to the un...

  9. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development.

  10. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  11. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  12. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  13. Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-28

    forward the initial report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence . This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of Section 591...programs and policies associated with domestic violence in the military. These programs are commonly referred to within the Department of Defense as...Department in addressing domestic violence matters. During our initial meeting on April 24-26, 2000, we formed four standing workgroups: (1) Community

  14. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar......, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...

  15. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  16. Legal perceptions of forensic DNA profiling part I: a review of the legal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.

  17. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  18. Insegurança alimentar em domicílios com adolescentes da Amazônia Legal Brasileira: prevalência e fatores associados Inseguridad alimentaria en domicilios con adolescentes de la Amazonia Legal Brasileña: prevalencia y factores asociados Food insecurity in households with adolescents in the Brazilian Amazon: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Dias da Silva Guerra

    2013-02-01

    de Mato Grosso y raza/color (negro del adolescente. Los resultados apuntan la necesidad de acciones para la mejoría del acceso al saneamiento básico, la cualificación de recursos humanos con el objeto de generar empleo y renta y las acciones educativas que amplíen la comprensión sobre la inseguridad alimentaria y sus determinantes en los municipios.This cross-sectional population-based study in 2007 focused on prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors in households with adolescents in four towns in the Legal Amazonia located along highway BR-163, from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, to Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. The study applied the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale to a sample of 363 households. Anthropometric assessment was performed on 534 adolescents from 10 to 19 years of age. A Poisson model was used in the multiple regression analysis. The results showed 23.1% prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity, suggesting association with the following: low income, poor sanitation, head of household born in Mato Grosso State, and the adolescent's race (black. The results emphasize the need for improved access to basic sanitation, training of human resources to generate employment/income, and educational activities to improve understanding of food insecurity and its determinants.

  19. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  20. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  1. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Wei, Chao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20-24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and recent advances in understanding the roles of miRNAs involved in the plant defense against viruses and viral counter-defense. We also document the application of miRNAs in plant antiviral defense. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene silencing and provides insights on the never-ending arms race between plants and viruses.

  2. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  3. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that by ninth or tenth grade, males begin to externalize conflict while females tend to deal with conflict internally. This differentiation of defense choice by sex is clearly established by the last two years of high school. (JMB)

  4. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  5. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  6. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  7. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  8. Legal Rights in Education: Pendulum Swings. Papers [of the] Education Law Association (ELA) Annual Conference (44th, Charleston, South Carolina, November 19-21, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Law Association, Dayton, OH.

    This document is a collection of 32 1998 Education Law Association conference papers. The collection includes the following papers: "The More We Change: Meeting the Requirements of Unitary Status" (Angela M. Sewall and Ann E. Witcher); "Everything You Need To Know about Discipline of Students with Disabilities" (David T. Duff,…

  9. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  10. TUBERCULOSIS: MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vetrugno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behavior differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc. which follow a classically epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli capable of spreading them by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb them are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor, not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95% of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Further, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behavior of the disease in the early stages, it appears appropriate to engage in targeted monitoring, also for the early identification of persons who may become ill.

  11. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  12. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  13. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  14. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  15. Legal Cynicism and Parental Appraisals of Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that legal cynicism—a cultural frame in which the law is viewed as illegitimate and ineffective—encourages violence to maintain personal safety when legal recourse is unreliable. But no study has tested the impact of legal cynicism on appraisals of violence. Drawing from symbolic interaction theory and cultural sociology, we tested whether neighbourhood legal cynicism alters the extent to which parents appraise their children’s violence as indicative of aggressive or impulsive temperaments using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We find that legal cynicism attenuates the positive association between adolescent violence and parental assessments of aggression and impulsivity. Our study advances the understanding of micro-level processes through which prevailing cultural frames in the neighbourhood shape violence appraisals. PMID:24932013

  16. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  17. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  18. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  19. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  20. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  1. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  2. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  3. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  4. 78 FR 65933 - Restrictions on Legal Assistance With Respect to Criminal Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... within Indian country. Public Law 113-4, Sec. 904(c), 127 Stat. 122. ``Indian country'' is a term of art... in an Indian tribal court is not a `criminal proceeding.' '' 41 FR 38506, Sept. 10, 1976. Neither the... principal defense asserted involves rights arising from a treaty with Indians. A number of legal services...

  5. Gender-Based Pay Disparities in Intercollegiate Coaching: The Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, John; Glazier, Michael S.; Evans, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the legal issues surrounding pay disparities between men and women in intercollegiate coaching, including how courts have treated disparate wage claims under the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and Title IX, and the defenses used by institutions. Offers suggestions for defending claims and a detailed review of…

  6. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  7. Medical liability, defensive medicine and professional insurance in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Sergio; Testa, Domenico; Cesari, Ugo; Quaremba, Giuseppe; Motta, Gaetano

    2015-08-11

    This study aims at verifying relationships between the perception of medico-legal risks involved in the professional activity of Italian otolaryngologists, defensive medical behaviour and their understanding of professional liability insurance in matters of civil liability. One hundred specialists replied to a questionnaire pertaining to the psychological impact of medico-legal issues and to specific queries regarding insurance coverage, either privately stipulated or provided by the employer. Statistic analysis was carried out by χ(2) test and ANOVA multiple variance regression test, assuming P = 0.05 as the value of minimum statistical significance. It was found that in 50% of cases the behaviour of the doctor towards the patient had been decidedly influenced by concerns over medico-legal implications. In 29% of the sample these concerns had "often to always" influenced the choice of diagnostic procedures or treatment options, in order to safeguard themselves in case of legal dispute. The data obtained showed a statistically significant correlation between the level of concern (regarding potential medico-legal disputes) experienced by specialists on the one hand and variations in the doctor/patient relationship (P insurance clauses, regarding posthumous coverage (72%), informed written consent (89%), and the coverage provided by the healthcare centre where the specialist is employed (32%) (P insurance policy stipulated by specialists, to avoid inadequate coverage in the case of medico-legal disputes.

  8. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  9. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  10. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  11. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Wei, Chao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20–24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant–pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense ...

  12. Defense Islands in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes and Prediction of Novel Defense Systems ▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic “sinks” that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands. PMID:21908672

  13. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  15. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  16. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  17. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  18. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  19. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) and the US defense posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    Issues surrounding the Strategic Defense Initiative are discussed. Comments are made on the research and development program and the effect of this program on the defensive posture of the United States.

  20. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  1. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de León Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

  2. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts

  3. Audience Effects in Territorial Defense of Male Cichlid Fish Are Associated with Differential Patterns of Activation of the Brain Social Decision-Making Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleira, António; Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Lopes, João S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2017-01-01

    Animals communicate by exchanging signals frequently in the proximity of other conspecifics that may detect and intercept signals not directed to them. There is evidence that the presence of these bystanders modulates the signaling behavior of interacting individuals, a phenomenon that has been named audience effect. Research on the audience effect has predominantly focused on its function rather than on its proximate mechanisms. Here, we have investigated the physiological and neuromolecular correlates of the audience effect in a cichlid fish (Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus). A male was exposed to a territorial intrusion in the presence or absence of a female audience. Results showed that the presence of the female audience increased territorial defense, but elicited a lower androgen and cortisol response to the territorial intrusion. Furthermore, analysis of the expression of immediate early genes, used as markers of neuronal activity, in brain areas belonging to the social decision-making network (SDMN) revealed different patterns of network activity and connectivity across the different social contexts (i.e., audience × intrusion). Overall, these results suggest that socially driven plasticity in the expression of territorial behavior is accommodated in the central nervous system by rapid changes in functional connectivity between nodes of relevant networks (SDMN) rather than by localized changes of activity in specific brain nuclei. PMID:28620286

  4. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  5. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  6. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  7. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    evacuation , missile defense, reconnaissance and surveillance, sea lane control, search and rescue, special operations, strategic and theater airlift...decontamination technology advances. Recently, novel types of polymeric support termed “ starburst ” dendrimer polymers have been developed. The ability to...threats • Optimize military performance; survival and stabilization of combat casualties • Provide the world’s best casualty evacuation and medical

  8. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  9. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  10. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  11. Ministries of Defense: Driving Force in Defense Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction. For more effective democratic civilian control (and better defense decisions), Ministries of Defense bridge the gap between political institutions and the armed forces. These institutions translate political objectives into military capabilities. MODs, staffed with enough civilian defense experts, provide the continuity and stability needed in a democratic system.

  12. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  13. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  14. The Long and Winding Road to Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ours, J.C. van

    2011-01-01

    In almost all countries supply, distribution and use of cannabis is prohibited. Nevertheless, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug. Prohibition does not seem to work. The debate on legalization of cannabis is often emotional with strong views of both proponents and opponents but ignorance prevails. There are supposedly detrimental health effects of cannabis use but researchers debate whether they are causal or mere associations. As long as nowhere in the world cannabis is legalized it is...

  15. Emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems : The role of defensiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Kosson, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in defensiveness (typically measured with social desirability scales) may affect associations among self-report measures, little is known about the impact of defensiveness in the well-established relations between self-report emotion dysregulation and

  16. Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Learning ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the IT professionals in a Hong Kong public transport company have a general perception of influence of the organisational defensive patterns on learning of ICT; and whether skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork are positively associated with each…

  17. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV

  18. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk-Herbrink, M.; Andrea, H.; Verheul, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a

  19. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  20. Effective environmental protection by the reform of the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    The 52nd German Lawyers Meeting will be concerned in its legal department with the question of whether, from the points of view of the guaranteeing of the necessary environmental protection, additional regulations in the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights should be recommended. Here one is concerned, above all, with the problem of whether an administrative legal associations sueing or associations participation in administrative legal procedures is desirable in the interests of environmental protection. A negative answer must be given to this question. Discussion should concentrate on the problematical administrative legal interests, on the strengthening of administrative participation of popular opinion or interests in legal processes, on other improvements in administrative processes and on the legal control by Parliament of environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  1. "My older clients fall through every crack in the system": geriatrics knowledge of legal professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soones, Tacara; Ahalt, Cyrus; Garrigues, Sarah; Faigman, David; Williams, Brie A

    2014-04-01

    With the number of older adult arrestees and prisoners increasing rapidly, legal professionals increasingly provide front-line identification and response to age-related health conditions (including cognitive and physical impairments) that may affect legal outcomes, such as the ability to participate in one's defense or stay safe in jail. The goals of this study were to assess the ability of legal professionals to recognize and respond to age-related conditions that could affect legal outcomes and to identify recommendations to address important knowledge gaps. This was a mixed quantitative-qualitative study. Legal professionals (N = 72) in the criminal justice system were surveyed to describe their demographic characteristics, expertise, and prior aging-related training and to inform the qualitative interview guide. Those surveyed included attorneys (district attorneys (25%), public defenders and legal advocates (58%)), judges (6%), and court-affiliated social workers (11%). In-depth qualitative interviews were then conducted with a subset of 10 legal professionals who worked with older adults at least weekly. Results from the surveys and interviews revealed knowledge deficits in four important areas: age-related health, identification of cognitive impairment, assessment of safety risk, and optimization of services upon release from jail. Four recommendations to close these gaps emerged: educate legal professionals about age-related health, train professionals to identify cognitive and sensory impairment, develop checklists to identify those at risk of poor health or safety, and improve knowledge of and access to transitional services for older adults. These findings suggest that geriatrics knowledge gaps of legal professionals exist that may contribute to adverse medical or legal outcomes for older adults involved in the criminal justice system and that partnerships between healthcare and legal professionals are needed to address these challenges. © Published

  2. What Italian Defense Attorneys Know about Factors affecting Eyewitness Accuracy: A Comparison with U.S. and Norwegian Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein eMagnussen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed 100 Italian defense attorneys about their knowledge and beliefs about factors affecting eyewitness accuracy. The results of a series of similar surveys show that U.S. defense attorneys outperformed other legal professions, including U.S. prosecutors and U.S. and European judges. The present results for the Italian defense attorneys indicate a similar trend. However, analyses of the results suggest that the defense attorney’s’ superior performance on the eyewitness statements was, in part, a product of their skepticism about the accuracy of eyewitness testimony rather than their greater knowledge.

  3. What Italian Defense Attorneys Know about Factors Affecting Eyewitness Accuracy: A Comparison with U.S. and Norwegian Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Svein; Safer, Martin A; Sartori, Giuseppe; Wise, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 100 Italian defense attorneys about their knowledge and beliefs about factors affecting eyewitness accuracy. The results of similar surveys show that U.S. defense attorneys were significantly more knowledgeable than other legal professionals, including U.S. prosecutors and U.S. and European judges. The present survey of Italian defense attorneys produced similar results. However, the results suggest that the defense attorney's superior performance may be due at least in part to their skepticism of eyewitness testimony rather than their greater knowledge of eyewitness factors.

  4. What Italian Defense Attorneys Know about Factors Affecting Eyewitness Accuracy: A Comparison with U.S. and Norwegian Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Svein; Safer, Martin A.; Sartori, Giuseppe; Wise, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 100 Italian defense attorneys about their knowledge and beliefs about factors affecting eyewitness accuracy. The results of similar surveys show that U.S. defense attorneys were significantly more knowledgeable than other legal professionals, including U.S. prosecutors and U.S. and European judges. The present survey of Italian defense attorneys produced similar results. However, the results suggest that the defense attorney’s superior performance may be due at least in part to their skepticism of eyewitness testimony rather than their greater knowledge of eyewitness factors. PMID:23720639

  5. KEY DUTIES OF A COUNTRY’S ECONOMY RELATED TO NATIONAL DEFENSE IN CRITICAL TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruz MAMMADOV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A country’s economy has a special role in a country’s defense. The organization of the national defense is carried out not only through the development of national armed forces, but also by increasing the sustainability of the economic activity for provision of the State and population demands during war. For this reason, development of the economic potential, taking necessary measures for preparation and sustainability of labor, material and financial resources are one of the significant issues and studying the conceptual, legal and economic issues related to the duties of the economy in the organization of state defense in Azerbaijan is very crucial.

  6. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  7. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  8. DETERMINATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISM IN Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Field studies were conducted to determine the role of defense mechanism in various parameters associated with plant protection subjected to UV-B radiation in Phaseolus trilobus Ait. commonly used as green manure and fodder. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that UV-B radiation decreases the chlorophyll content ...

  9. Belowground herbivory and plant defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Belowground-feeding herbivores may be very destructive to plants. Roots are known to produce various defense compounds to protect themselves against these herbivores, both with direct and indirect—inducible—defense compounds. Recent literature reviews reveal no overall pattern for root-shoot defense

  10. Cross talk in defense signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves against attack by herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens. Some of these defense mechanisms are preexisting, whereas others are only activated upon insect or pathogen invasion. Induced defense responses entail fitness

  11. Defense Mechanisms in Group Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents considerations and strategies for conceptualizing, recognizing, and modifying defense mechanisms through the group counseling process. Provides awareness of defense mechanisms in planning for and implementation of group counseling, describes interaction patterns for identifying defenses among group participants, and clarifies modification…

  12. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  13. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  14. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  15. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation.

  16. Registered nurses with disabilities: legal rights and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Miller, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this legal case review and analysis was to determine what kinds of cases involving nurses with disabilities are typically brought to attorneys, which cases tend to be successful, and how and when a nurse with a disability should pursue legal action. The review used the standard legal case analysis method to analyze legal cases that have been brought by registered nurses (RNs) with physical or sensory disabilities from 1995 to 2013. The cases span the period following the enactment of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 through the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) of 2008. A nurse attorney reviewed the background material to find every case involving an RN with a disability, excluding those with mental health disabilities or substance abuse issues. Case analysis was conducted using standard legal case analysis procedures. Fifty-six cases were analyzed. The cases were categorized into five types of legal claims: (a) disability discrimination (84%); (b) failure to accommodate (46%); (c) retaliation (12.5%); (d) association (3.6%); and (e) hostile work environment (7%). The cases were largely unsuccessful, particularly those brought under the ADA instead of the ADAAA. The case analysis revealed that several cases brought by RNs with disabilities using the ADA might have been successful under the ADAAA. In addition, the case analysis has provided vital information for administrators, leaders, and clinical nurses regarding when a case is appropriate for legal action. These findings from this review will help nurses recognize when they are being treated in a discriminatory way in the workplace, what their legal rights and responsibilities are, and at what point they should pursue legal action. This review has relevance to all RNs working in clinical and academic settings who may have a congenital or acquired physical or sensory disability. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Legal Professionals' Knowledge of Eyewitness Testimony in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jiang

    Full Text Available To examine legal professionals' knowledge of a wide range of factors that affect eyewitness accuracy in China.A total of 812 participants, including 210 judges, 244 prosecutors, 202 police officers, and 156 defense attorneys, were asked to respond to 12 statements about eyewitness testimony and 3 basic demographic questions (i.e., gender, age, and prior experience.Although the judges and the defense attorneys had a somewhat higher number of correct responses than the other two groups, all groups showed limited knowledge of eyewitness testimony. In addition, the participants' responses to only four items (i.e., weapon focus, attitude and expectations, child suggestibility, and the impact of stress were roughly unanimous within the four legal professional groups. Legal professionals' gender showed no significant correlations with their knowledge of eyewitness testimony. Prior experiences were significantly and negatively correlated with the item on the knowledge of forgetting curve among judges but positively correlated with two items (i.e., attitudes and exposure time among defense attorneys and with 4 statements (i.e., the knowledge of attitudes and expectations, impact of stress, child witness accuracy, and exposure time among prosecutors.The findings suggest that knowledge of the factors that influence eyewitness accuracy must be more effectively communicated to legal professionals in the future.

  18. Legal Professionals' Knowledge of Eyewitness Testimony in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lina; Luo, Dahua

    2016-01-01

    To examine legal professionals' knowledge of a wide range of factors that affect eyewitness accuracy in China. A total of 812 participants, including 210 judges, 244 prosecutors, 202 police officers, and 156 defense attorneys, were asked to respond to 12 statements about eyewitness testimony and 3 basic demographic questions (i.e., gender, age, and prior experience). Although the judges and the defense attorneys had a somewhat higher number of correct responses than the other two groups, all groups showed limited knowledge of eyewitness testimony. In addition, the participants' responses to only four items (i.e., weapon focus, attitude and expectations, child suggestibility, and the impact of stress) were roughly unanimous within the four legal professional groups. Legal professionals' gender showed no significant correlations with their knowledge of eyewitness testimony. Prior experiences were significantly and negatively correlated with the item on the knowledge of forgetting curve among judges but positively correlated with two items (i.e., attitudes and exposure time) among defense attorneys and with 4 statements (i.e., the knowledge of attitudes and expectations, impact of stress, child witness accuracy, and exposure time) among prosecutors. The findings suggest that knowledge of the factors that influence eyewitness accuracy must be more effectively communicated to legal professionals in the future.

  19. Cost and price auditing: effectiveness in the procurement of defense services in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aguado Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract Contract auditing, or cost and price auditing, has been applied in Spain as a means of determining prices in non-competitive defense contracts since 1989. Factors such as Spain's participation in international defense organizations, the characteristics of the defense market and the contractual legal framework for the procurement of defense goods and services help underscore the need for the Spanish Ministry of Defense to implement cost and price auditing. With the evolution of cost and price auditing in Spain in mind, this paper analyses the entire process, describes the audit procedures that are most commonly used today and assesses the main results achieved, in terms of financial savings. The results obtained show that cost and price auditing does indeed contribute to a more efficient use of public resources.

  20. Liberalism, legal moralism and moral disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuflik, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    According to "legal moralism" it is part of law's proper role to "enforce morality as such". I explore the idea that legal moralism runs afoul of morality itself: there are good moral reasons not to require by law all that there is nevertheless good moral reason to do. I suggest that many such reasons have broad common-sense appeal and could be appreciated even in a society in which everyone completely agreed about what morality requires. But I also critique legal moralism from the special perspective of liberal political justice. Liberalism requires that citizens who disagree with one another on a number of morally significant matters nevertheless coexist and cooperate within a political framework of basic rights protections. When it comes to working out the most basic terms of their political association, citizens are expected to address one another within the limits of what Rawls has called "public reason". Critics of liberalism claim that this is an essentially a-moral (or expedient) attempt to evade substantive moral issues--such as the moral status of the fetus. I argue, on the contrary, that liberalism's emphasis on public reason is itself grounded in very deep--though (suitably) "non-comprehensive"--moral considerations.

  1. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  2. Vertebrate defense against parasites: Interactions between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, Ines; Karvonen, Anssi

    2017-01-01

    Hosts can utilize different types of defense against the effects of parasitism, including avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. Typically, there is tremendous heterogeneity among hosts in these defense mechanisms that may be rooted in the costs associated with defense and lead to trade-offs with other life-history traits. Trade-offs may also exist between the defense mechanisms, but the relationships between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance have rarely been studied. Here, we assessed these three defense traits under common garden conditions in a natural host-parasite system, the trematode eye-fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and its second intermediate fish host. We looked at host individuals originating from four genetically distinct populations of two closely related salmonid species (Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar and sea trout, Salmo trutta trutta ) to estimate the magnitude of variation in these defense traits and the relationships among them. We show species-specific variation in resistance and tolerance and population-specific variation in resistance. Further, we demonstrate evidence for a trade-off between resistance and tolerance. Our results suggest that the variation in host defense can at least partly result from a compromise between different interacting defense traits, the relative importance of which is likely to be shaped by environmental components. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering different components of the host defense system when making predictions on the outcome of host-parasite interactions.

  3. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Boomeranging in structural defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known. PMID:22990448

  5. [Medico-legal aspects of hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Branislava; Segedi, Dimitrije; Mujović-Zornić, Hajrija

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the lawful implementations of surgical procedures, such as hysterectomy, raises practical questions concerning legal relations between a doctor and his patient, and consequences of this relationship, which may be legally relevant. The modern legal theory and practice consider doctors and patients to be partners. Medical practitioners performing surgical procedures are obliged to obtain informed consent. They are also required to inform their patients about indications, course of the operative procedure, postoperative treatment, possible complications during and after the procedure, and quality of life after the operation. Informed conversation should take into account the age, mental status and patient's intellectual abilities. Legal consequences ofsurgical procedures Malpractice litigation mostly concers medical error and negligence. Medical errors should not be confused with ineffective outcome, or complicated postoperative course. Even if the surgical procedure was followed correctly and uneventful outcome took place, there might be some problems. A patient has a right to receive complete information from a physician about the specific nature of a proposed treatment. A physician has an obligation to elucidate and justify, treatment he proposes. Certain codification of all operative procedures may facilitate this task. Codification instructions about procedures, in this case hysterectomy, must include indications for a certain type of hysterectomy (subtotal, total, radical), as well as for the operative technique (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic). Patient information brochures should be available in print, and include information about indications and potential risks associated with the proposed surgical procedure. In this way, it is possible to prevent the inconveniences which may arise from insufficient knowledge and information about surgical procedures.

  6. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  7. Legal protection against a lack of grounds in administrative judgements concerning public interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.

    1976-01-01

    Administrative legal protection, according to Basic Law, is the right of the individual for protection, i.e. protection of 'subjective' rights based on 'objective' law. The extension of this legal protection beyond the legal protection of the individual has been under discussion lately, mostly in connection with a joint board suit, not so often with citizen actions which comprise 'individual suit' and 'joint board suit', mainly in environmental protection law (e.g. actions brought against nuclear power plants). Such rights are not to be conceded to everybody and every association, but only to a few supraregional associations with legal status, e.g. the citizen association environmental protection. (HP) [de

  8. 77 FR 23468 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... outside the legal purview of the Director, Department of Defense Education Activity shall be referred to... meetings or conferences of the Council or otherwise engaged in the business of the Council, be entitled to... mission and DoD policies and procedures, may establish subcommittees deemed necessary to support the...

  9. Defense against Space Weapons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    which can be used at present are space defense missiles, killer satellites, high energy laser weapons and particle beam weapons. In 1962, the U.S... laser weapons and particle beam weapons have the ad- 4vantages of high power, concentrated energy, hit accuracy, and conven- ience of use. They have... weapons development amounts to 5 US$200,000,000. At present, irradiation by a laser weapon operating on the earth’s surface can cause optical and infrared

  10. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    capital assets, such as an F-35 Joint Strike Fighter or a Virginia-class submarine. Investment costs are distinguished from expenses, which are...procurement funds before a formal Milestone C approval. How else does DOD purchase goods and services? How does DOD procurement relate to defense...purchase services (e.g., research, architectural design, or cleaning services) and smaller goods (e.g., gauze or light bulbs) because such purchases

  11. Ligações perigosas: indústria farmacêutica, associações de pacientes e as batalhas judiciais por acesso a medicamentos Dangerous liaisons: the pharmaceutical industry, patients associations and the legal battles for access to medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho busca trazer novos elementos para o debate sobre a judicialização da saúde e sobre o acesso a medicamentos. Parte-se de um breve panorama do setor farmacêutico, seguido de um levantamento bibliográfico sobre demandas judiciais por medicamentos no Brasil, para fundamentar uma reflexão sobre as ligações entre a indústria farmacêutica e as associações de pacientes, que podem estar interferindo no processo. Tais ligações resultam das novas estratégias de expansão do mercado pelo setor farmacêutico, e podem agravar o panorama da saúde brasileira em relação ao uso crítico e responsável dos medicamentos. A necessidade de desmercantilização da saúde é incluída nesse debate.The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the legal claims for pharmaceutical drugs in Brazil, as part of the struggle for access to these products. A brief discussion about the pharma industry is made, followed by the state-of-the-art of the so-called process of "health judicialization". These are the basis for the reflections on the relationships between the corporations and patients' associations, which are part of the strategies used by the pharma industry in order to expand the market. These liaisons may be influencing the augmentation of court requests, thus damaging the responsible drug use. The role of commodification of healthcare is discussed.

  12. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  13. Case series on defense mechanisms in patients for reconstructive hand transplantation: consideration on transplant defense concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnig, Martin; Jowsey, Sheila G; Moreno, Elisa; Brandacher, Gerald; Azari, Kodi; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2014-05-16

    The technical demands of reconstructive hand transplantation (RHT) and need for complex multidisciplinary care have led to intense research efforts to improve patient care and outcomes. However, RHT is an extraordinary life event which carries the potential for long-term consequences including psychological distress, which invokes coping and defense mechanisms. Little is known about the relationship between psychological defense mechanisms and health outcomes in RHT patients. In an effort to elucidate this relationship, we studied seven RHT patients who underwent standardized psychological assessment either pre- or post transplantation. No single defense concept was identified as common to all patients, which we suspect was due in part to the varied mechanisms of hand loss. All seven patients demonstrated diverse psychological reactions to RHT. The self-reported defense styles were associated with psychological adjustment. The patients who reported defenses that distorted reality described less adaptive functioning and psychological well-being. These preliminary findings reveal the varied psychological mechanisms invoked in RHT patients. An assessment of defense mechanisms should be part of multicenter evaluation protocols that address unique psychosocial aspects of RHT in large samples, in order to better guide psychological management.

  14. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  15. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  16. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  17. The role of advocacy in occasioning community and organizational change in a medical-legal partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Cronin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities among low-income individuals remain a significant problem. A number of social determinants are associated with adverse health outcomes. Medical-legal partnerships address legal concerns of low-income individuals to improve health and wellness in adults and children. The Medical-Legal Partnership at Legal Aid of Western Missouri provides free direct legal services for patients with legal concerns affecting health. There is limited evidence regarding the association between advocacy-related efforts and changes within both the medical-legal partnership structure and in health-care facilities. Three health-care organizations in Kansas City, MO participated in implementing the medical-legal partnership model between 2007 and 2010. Advocacy efforts conducted by key medical-legal partnership personnel were strongly associated with changes in health-care organizations and within the medical-legal partnership structure. This study extends the current evidence base by examining the types of advocacy efforts required to bring about community and organizational changes.

  18. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  19. The Legal Junction: the complex promise of modern legal professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Kwak

    2005-01-01

    textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted

  20. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  1. General Lines of Disregard for the Legal Personality on Irregular Dissolution the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Barcelos Moreira Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the Institute of disregard for the legal personality in situations involving irregular dissolution the limited liability company, in light of the jurisprudence of the Superior Court Tribunal. We highlight the impact that new code of Civil procedure will provide for analysis to safeguard the autonomy of assets of the legal person, as well as the guarantee of due process and of ample defense, directly impacting on business law. The analysis aims to contribute to the understanding of the Institute, and the systematic procedure. Adopting the dialectical methodology and criticism.

  2. Legal and regulator framework of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Cassanello, Griselda; Mels Siningen, Celeste; Reina, Mariana; Vega, Hernan

    2009-01-01

    The present work intends to develop the legislative and regulatory framework in the matter of radioactive waste. The legal frame of the radioactive waste conformed by the National Constitution, the treaties and conventions, laws and decrees and regulatory norm in Argentine . The subject is approached from the international point of view considering the slogan of 36 The Annual Meeting of the Association Argentine de Nuclear Technology: 'The Nuclear Energy in the Present World'. This work also contains a special paragraph dedicated to the analysis of practical cases related to the subject and the activity of the National Commission of Atomic Energy. (author)

  3. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  4. On the technique of legal expertise of the essence of changes in legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Polyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to create algorithms for the study of normative legal acts and their drafts in order to solve the problem in favor of which legal subjects the changes in the legal regulation of the relations are implemented. Methods universal dialecticmaterialistic formal dogmatic comparative analysis and synthesis. Results the method of legal expertise of changes in the legislation is proposed. The method is used to obtain an objective and verifiable conclusions about what social groups associations state agencies and their officials legal entities benefit from the changes introduced into the legal regulation of relations with their participation. Comments to the method are given. The analysis is described of the legal expertise of the Law of the Perm region of March 5 2013 № 173PK quotOn amendments to the Law of the Perm region quotOn additional measures of social support of certain categories of people awarded with the degree of Doctor of sciencequot of November 11 2009 № 538PK law edition of 29.11.2011 № 873PK. Scientific novelty a new type of legal examination of normative legal acts and their drafts is proposed. Practical value the technique allows to make objective and verifiable conclusions about in whose favour the legal regulation of social relations is changed as well as to to reveal the real objectives of the authors of normative legal acts drafts.

  5. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  6. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.

  7. Legal aspects of storing CO2. Update and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-21

    CO2 emissions from energy production and consumption are a major contributor to climate change. Thus, stabilising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere by reducing these emissions is an increasingly urgent international necessity. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents one of the most promising potential solutions to contain emissions resulting from continued use of coal and other fossil fuels. However, challenges such as a lack of legal and regulatory frameworks to guide near-term demonstration projects and long-term technology expansion must be addressed to facilitate the expanded use of CCS. In October 2006, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) convened with legal experts,to discuss the range of legal issues associated with expanded use of CCS and to identify ways to facilitate further CCS development and implementation Participants examined gaps and barriers to the deployment of CCS and identified recommendations to guide further development of appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks. This publication provides policymakers with a detailed summary of the main legal issues surrounding the CCS debate, including up-to-date background information, case studies and conclusions on the best legal and regulatory approaches to advance CCS. These strategies can be used to enable further development, deployment and demonstration of CCS technology, potentially an essential element in global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  8. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  9. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  10. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  11. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  12. [Legal aspects of geriatric rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, T

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.

  13. Legal Handbook on School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…

  14. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  15. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  16. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  17. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  18. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  19. Defensive pride and consensus: strength in imaginary numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Nail, Paul R; Marigold, Denise C; Kang, So-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Failure (Study 1) and attachment separation thoughts (Study 2) caused exaggerated consensus estimates for personal beliefs about unrelated social issues. This compensatory consensus effect was most pronounced among defensively proud individuals, that is, among those with the combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (Study 1) and the combination of high attachment avoidance and low attachment anxiety (Study 2). In Study 3, another form of defensive pride, narcissism, was associated with exaggerated consensual worldview defense after a system-injustice threat. In Study 4, imagined consensus reduced subjective salience of proud individuals' troubling thoughts. Compensatory consensus is seen as a kind of defensive self-affirmation that defensively proud people turn to for insulation from distressing thoughts. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  1. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  2. [What is important in disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons from disaster relief missions to the Japan Self-Defense Forces Sendai Hospital and Haiti peacekeeping deployments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanichi, Masaaki; Tatsuki, Toshitaka; Saito, Taku; Wakizono, Tomoki; Shigemura, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the core factors necessary for mental health of disaster workers according to the following experiences: 1) the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Haiti peacekeeping deployment associated with the Great Haiti Earthquake, 2) conformations of the peacekeeping mission units of various countries deployed to Haiti, and 3) JSDF assistance activities to the Japanese earthquake victims. We learned that the basic life needs were the major premises for maintaining the mental health of the disaster workers. Food, drinking supplies, medical supplies were particularly crucial, yet overlooked in Japanese worker settings compared with forces of other countries. Conversely, the workers tend to feel guilty (moushi wake nai) for the victims when their basic life infrastructures are better than those of the victims. The Japanese workers and disaster victims both tend to find comfort in styles based on their culture, in particular, open-air baths and music performances. When planning workers' environments in disaster settings, provision of basic infrastructure should be prioritized, yet a sense of balance based on cultural background may be useful to enhance the workers' comfort and minimize their guilt.

  3. Effects of metenkephalin on the formation and fixation of defensive temporal associations and on the incorporation of C14-leucine in brain proteins of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglikov, R.I.; Gol' dberg, M.V.; Maizelis, M.Y.A.; Zabludovskii, A.L.

    When 25 microgram of metenkephalin is injected subcutaneously into rats, the development of temporal associations is somewhat impaired, but the fixation of them is enhanced. The latter effect is observed more clearly when metenkephalin is injected not before, but immediately after the development of conditioned reflexes. Under the influence of metenkephalin, there is an increase in the incorporation of C14-leucine into the insoluble proteins of the hippocampus and basal ganglia. It is hypothesized that metenkephalin mainly affects the process of consolidation.

  4. Case-Based Instruction to Teach Educators about the Legal Parameters Surrounding the Discipline of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Janet R.; Pazey, Barbara L.

    2017-01-01

    Allegations of improper discipline are commonly the focus of special education litigation filed against school districts. Because ignorance of the law is no defense, administrators and educators must understand special education law. Yet many educators receive little to no legal training. To address the lack of training and prevent future…

  5. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  6. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  7. Mental incapacity defenses at the War Crimes Tribunal: questions and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Landy F

    2005-01-01

    Following a report from the Secretary General in May 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 827 and its Statute establishing an International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) located in The Hague, The Netherlands. Although such action has been discussed in the past, this is the first time the international community has established a tribunal to indict and try individuals for war crimes. The crimes had been previously "created" by multilateral international treaties. The ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence allowed for "any special defense, including that of diminished or lack of mental responsibility." Precise legal parameters of the defense were not specified. In 1998, a defendant at the ICTY "Celebici" Trial named Esad Landzo raised the defense of diminished mental responsibility. The Celebici Trial Chamber thus became the first legal body to consider reduced mental capacity as it applies to international criminal law. This article is an examination of the application of the affirmative defense of diminished responsibility at the ICTY and relates the process to the need for further definition of mental incapacity defenses at the newly established International Criminal Court (ICC). At the ICC preparatory commission, drafting material elements of crimes was emphasized, with less consideration given to mental elements. That diminished capacity and diminished-responsibility defenses have often confused scholars and practitioners alike is explored in this article with suggestions for further directions.

  8. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Prey use a variety of mechanisms to avoid the risk of predation, including chemical defense, camouflage, and conspicuous coloration. Here we show that variation in these forms of protection can have profound effects on macroevolutionary patterns in amphibians. Chemical defense and conspicuous coloration both increase speciation rates, in line with the “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis. However, chemical defense also increases extinction rates, lowering net diversification. We therefore show tha...

  9. Teaching Psychological Defense Mechanisms: "The Defense Mechanisms Game."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Charles G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the rules for an educational game in which students reinforce psychology lecture material by creating and dramatizing defense mechanisms such as reaction formation, displacement, and fantasy. Provides definitions and examples of the various defense mechanisms that can be portrayed. (JP)

  10. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that enhancing defensive enzymes' activities and inducing new isozymes may be related to mitigating pathogen-induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be involved in the mechanisms of plant against fungal ...

  11. Sense and sensibility in a legal argument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  13. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  14. Legal regulation of the Commercial Register

    OpenAIRE

    Hanková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...

  15. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Codruta BADEA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  17. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  18. LEGAL AID AS SEEN IN THE LIGHT OF THE LAW NO. 270/2010 REGARDING THE AMENDMENT AND THE COMPLETION OF THE LAW NO. 51/1995 FOR THE ORGANIZATION AND THE PRACTICE OF THE LAWYER’S PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFAN NAUBAUER

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the explanatory memorandum of the Government as well as to the favorable opinion of the Legislative Council, the Law no. 270/2010 relate mainly to the correlation the OUG no. 51/2008 on legal aid in civil matters, by covering in detail the circumstances and the conditions for granting legal aid as well as the organization of the activity of granting such assistance. From the perspective of European law, the Legislative Council appreciated that the new law is placed within the sphere of the legislation as regulated at the European Union level, that are circumscribed to the European Area of freedom, security and justice, within the European legislation reserved to the judicial cooperation in civil matters.In this material we will analyze the following issues: granting legal aid in criminal matters, in which defense is mandatory according to the dispositions in the Criminal Procedural Code; granting legal aid in any other causes except criminal ones, as modality to grant public legal aid, according to the law; legal aid throughout a lawyer, granted at the request of the organs of the local public administration; appointing the lawyer for legal aid; extra-judiciary legal aid; competences of the bars regarding legal aid; the department for the coordination of legal aid; services of legal aid; legal aid registry; payment for the activity of legal aid and extra-judiciary legal aid.

  19. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  20. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella d’Ettorre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  1. Indirect plant defense against insect herbivores: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbory, Zainab; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2018-02-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching 2 types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to insect herbivores by affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all traits that by themselves do not have significant direct impact on the attacking herbivores, but can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and thus reduce plant loss. When plants recognize herbivore-associated elicitors, they produce and release a blend of volatiles that can attract predators, parasites, and other natural enemies. Known herbivore-associated elicitors include fatty acid-amino acid conjugates, sulfur-containing fatty acids, fragments of cell walls, peptides, esters, and enzymes. Identified plant volatiles include terpenes, nitrogenous compounds, and indoles. In addition, constitive traits including extrafloral nectars, food bodies, and domatia can be further induced to higher levels and attract natural enemies as well as provide food and shelter to carnivores. A better understanding of indirect plant defense at global and componential levels via advanced high throughput technologies may lead to utilization of indirect defense in suppression of herbivore damage to plants. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...

  3. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  4. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  5. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  6. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  7. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  8. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  9. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  10. 36 CFR 1275.14 - Legal custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...

  11. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.

  12. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  13. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  14. Legal Logic? Or can we do without?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid

  15. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  16. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  17. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  18. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...

  19. 33 CFR 327.6 - Legal adviser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...

  20. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...

  1. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  3. Legal foundations of adaptive licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V

    2013-09-01

    In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.

  4. Legal Aspects of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.

  5. Defense Styles in Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty-five serious suicide attempters, paired to neuropsychiatric controls on relevant variables, were tested within two weeks of their attempt with the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Attempters revealed more turning-against-self defenses as hypothesized but showed no differences from controls in use of fantasized hostility. Implications for…

  6. Assertion and Defense Mechanism Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massong, Stefan R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether assertive and nonassertive individuals differ in defense mechanisms they most typically rely on when confronted with interpersonal stress and conflict. Results indicated assertive males and females both endorsed the most adaptive defense mechanism cluster, whereas nonassertive males and females endorsed more primitive defense…

  7. Intelligence Community Legal Reference Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2) buy the plates and copyrights of existing maps, charts, books on navigation, and sailing directions and instructions. PILOT CHARTS SEC. 452. (a...regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. “(b) PROCESS FOR COMPULSION .—Process issued in a military commission under this chapter to...through which child pornography is advertised and traded; through which efforts are made by sexual predators to lure 869

  8. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...

  9. Wormuth: Work on Security, Defense 'Holistically'

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Concepts spawned at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security could be very valuable to government entities such as the Department of Defense as that agency expands its focus in...

  10. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  11. Contemporary medico-legal dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brad

    2012-03-01

    The advent of extraoral radiology in general dental practice has become more widespread since 2000, particularly with digital systems. With this comes a range of medico-legal risks for dentists not adverted to previously. These risks include a higher than expected radiation dose for some surveys, and the risk of a 'loss of a chance' for a patient whereby the images may disclose pathology not diagnosed by general dental practitioners using OPG and CBVT radiology. Practitioners need to apply relevant legal principles in deciding which surveys to order and record, and also need to explain to patients the dosages of the radiation that they will likely receive. Practitioners also need to assess whether the resultant survey ought to be interpreted by a radiologist to diagnose any wider pathology with which a general practitioner may not be familiar. Extra caution needs to be used in ordering high dose radiology in paediatric patients. Dentists should not assume patients fully understand the nature of CBVT and MCT, and its risks and benefits. Consideration ought to be given to the volume of CBVT ordered dependent on factors such as patient age, symptoms, history and procedural intent. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Mitochondrial transfer: Ethical, legal and social implications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitochondrial transfer: Ethical, legal and social implications in assisted reproduction. ... Mitochondrial transfer has also been closely associated with reproductive cloning, which is regulated differently worldwide. Children born from these techniques might experience an identity crisis. Although three gametes are needed to ...

  13. Student Disciplinary Issues: A Legal Compendium. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Valerie L., Ed.

    This compendium provides an overview of selected codes of student conduct, a selection of annotated legal decisions and important law review articles, and various National Association of College and University Attorney (NACUA) outlines on the issue of student discipline in both academic and nonacademic contexts. Part 1 lists nonacademic codes of…

  14. Ohio Legal Office Managment. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document, which lists core business and legal office management competencies identified by representatives from education and business and industry throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary associate degree…

  15. Counselors and the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Jerry D.

    1996-01-01

    With the shift in Americans' beliefs regarding legalizing physician-assisted suicide for the terminally ill, counselors must be prepared to counsel clients who have decided to end their lives. For counselors to avoid violating the ethical guidelines established by the American Counseling Association (ACA) regarding these clients, a reevaluation of…

  16. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  17. Archival Sources for Legal Biography at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...

  18. Preparing South Africa for cyber crime and cyber defense

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available of international legislation, take timeous precautionary measures and stay updated on trends and developments. One of the problems associated with the technological revolution is that the cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations... revolution on cybercrime and cyber defense in a developing country and will evaluate the relevant South African legislation. It will also look at the influence of cyber defense on the international position of the South African Government. South Africa...

  19. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  20. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...

  1. Psychologists' Advocacy for the Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake…

  2. The Social and Legal Status of Gay and Lesbian Students: An Update for Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Debora L.; Douvanis, Costas J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes current social and legal status of gay students. Examines scope of the problem; defines legal issues; and cites relevant cases regarding students' rights of association, access to university services/facilities, and privacy. Discusses homosexuality as "illegal act" and notes differences between private and public institutions. Discusses…

  3. University Lawyers: A Study of Legal Risk, Risk Management and Role in Work Integrated Learning Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Craig; Klopper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Work integrated learning (WIL) is in growing demand by multiple stakeholders within the higher education sector in Australia. There are significant and distinct legal risks to universities associated with WIL programmes. University lawyers, along with WIL administrators and university management, are responsible for managing legal risk. This…

  4. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.

  5. Defense Logistics Agency Family Housing Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Director, Defense Logistics Agency (Installation Support Group) requested the audit to review the process the Defense Logistics Agency installations use to determine family housing requirements...

  6. Legal problems of doing business with foreign energy cartels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on the uranium cartel - or marketing arrangement as its admitted participants styled it. The clash between US antitrust laws and cartels that fix prices is examined with particular emphasis on the uranium antitrust litigation and on a US antitrust lawsuit in which the courts rejected an attack on OPEC's price-fixing and output-limitation activities. Basic legal principles pertaining to this type of litigation are explained. Even more specialized defenses are available to complicate the litigation when foreign governments are involved with the cartel: sovereign immunity, act of state, and foreign governmental compulsion. It is concluded that antitrust litigation against a foreign cartel is not impossible, but it may be unwise in the long run if it precipitates an international reversion to protectionism. 35 references

  7. [Italian Decree D.lgs 231/2001--"Regulations regarding administrative responsibilities of corporate bodies of Companies and Associations including those not legally recognized"--an organizational model for the healthcare area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Giovanni; Fiore, Rosalia; Franco, Claudia; Pimpinella, Giovanni; Piscioneri, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare organizations must implement organizational and management models of regulation and control systems for effectively preventing possible administrative torts by personnel. We define an organizational management and control model for healthcare organizations, based on the legal dispositions of Decree n.231/2001. The model identifies critical points in the administrative and healthcare services delivery processes that are at high-risk of violations to the code. Its primary aim is to prevent torts by the personnel and safeguard the organization at the same time.

  8. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  9. Legal challenges in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  10. Legal challenges in neurological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra

    2016-10-01

    Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  11. Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    sources. Taking advantage of global competition could also result in benefits to the U.S. military such as better technological innovation, reduction... globalization of the DoD acquisition process and proves the U.S. defense industry is not the end-all answer to achieving technological superiority on...dominance, and even more so now that the defense industry is moving towards globalization . Numerous means of technology transfer exist, including

  12. Legal protection of the whistleblowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Safta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.

  13. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  14. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  15. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  16. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  17. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  18. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  19. [Psychiatric treatment--legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. HTA and its legal issues: a framework for identifying legal issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.

  1. Autonomous driving technical, legal and social aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdes, J; Lenz, Barbara; Winner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    This book takes a look at fully automated, autonomous vehicles and discusses many open questions: How can autonomous vehicles be integrated into the current transportation system with diverse users and human drivers? Where do automated vehicles fall under current legal frameworks? What risks are associated with automation and how will society respond to these risks? How will the marketplace react to automated vehicles and what changes may be necessary for companies? Experts from Germany and the United States define key societal, engineering, and mobility issues related to the automation of vehicles. They discuss the decisions programmers of automated vehicles must make to enable vehicles to perceive their environment, interact with other road users, and choose actions that may have ethical consequences. The authors further identify expectations and concerns that will form the basis for individual and societal acceptance of autonomous driving. While the safety benefits of such vehicles are tremendous, the auth...

  2. Legal access to alcohol and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Benjamin; Waddell, Glen R

    2017-08-14

    Previous research has found strong evidence that legal access to alcohol is associated with sizable increases in criminality. We revisit this relationship using the census of judicial records on criminal charges filed in Oregon Courts, the ability to separately track crimes involving firearms, and to track individuals over time. We find that crime increases at age 21, with increases mostly due to assaults that lack premeditation, and alcohol-related nuisance crimes. We find no evident increases in rape or robbery. Among those with no prior criminal records, increases in crime are 50% larger-still larger for the most socially costly crimes of assault and drunk driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Legal assistance for citizens' action groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwe, H.; Uhlenberg, K.P.; Vietor, G.

    1982-01-01

    'Whenever right turns to wrong, it is our duty to offer resistance'. More and more people have come to realize that it is not enough to go to the polls every four years or to commit oneself to working in one party. Politics, administration and industry do follow principles of their own, taking shelter behind self-made factual obligations. However, those concerned have started to go for their own interests, standing up against threats in great things as well as against changes in little things. How to offer legal assistance, what to note when in action and which consequences 'violations of law and order' may have is described in this law guide in a manner easy to understand, and is demonstrated by means of numerous working examples to all those who have become active members of citizens action groups and associations. (orig.) [de

  4. Defense mechanisms in congenital and acquired facial disfigurement: a clinical-empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Perry, J Christopher; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J

    2012-04-01

    It is of clinical interest to investigate the degree to which patients with facial disfigurement use defense styles. Therefore, 59 adults born with rare facial clefts, 59 patients with facial deformities acquired at an adult age, and a reference group of 141 adults without facial disfigurements completed standardized questionnaires. There was a significant difference between the group with and the group without disfigurements on immature defense styles, with the disfigured group using the immature style more frequently. There was a trend for the nondisfigured group to use more mature defense styles. No difference between congenital and acquired groups was seen on individual types of defense style. Self-esteem had the strength to differentiate mature and immature defense styles within our disfigured groups. The association of low self-esteem and the utilization of immature defense styles suggests that professional help may tailor treatment on discussing immature defense style and problems triggering or maintaining this style.

  5. European defense industrial policy and the United Kingdom's defense industrial base

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Hartley

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between European and U.K. defense industrial policy. It considers recent initiatives to create a European Defense Equipment Market and the U.K.’s Defense Industrial Strategy. The European and U.K. defense industries are evaluated and some of the future policy choices are assessed. The future defense firm will be different and there will be conflicts between efforts to open up national defense markets and the desire to maintain national defense industrie...

  6. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  7. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  8. Defense Security Assistance Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... $10 billion Foreign Military Sales Program. As envisioned, it will replace 13 automated information systems used by the Military Departments and Defense Security Assistance Agency and will provide standardized and improved security assistance...

  9. THE FUNCTION OF LEGAL REASONITY IN COURT JUDGEMENT (MODEL ON FINDING THE LAW REFLECTY PANCASILA VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Rachman Budihanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Legal research is a process to determine the rule of law, principles of law and legal doctrines in order to address the legal issues at hand. This study using a type of normative juridical (legal research. Rechtvinding understanding in Indonesian as legal discovery (translated literally could mislead rechtvinding function is to find concrete norm to associate the relevant legal facts. Adhering to the understanding of the rechtvinding the judge in carrying out its functions prosecute a legal case can not be separated from efforts to find concrete norms to be linked to the fact the law. Furthermore, when the facts of law has no grounding norms that govern mutatis mutandis thus not regulated in the rules of positive law and customary law. Scholasticism and dialectic method is used as a support hermeneutic interpretation of legal facts to me recht construction of a new legal norm normative ideas should not be separated from Idee recht itself. Rechvinding model contained in the provisions of the Basic Law of Judicial Authority Article 1 in Conjunction with Article 5, Article 10 in conjunction with Article 50 1 for the model Rechtvinding is the approach taken by norma series is a concept of morals and justice and practices considered society as law and the criminal law model rechtvinding is also banned norma concrete (new, to assess the actions (act so that an exit permit from the actions that have not been regulated in the act so that such actions are not punished.

  10. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  11. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  12. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  13. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  15. Defense economics: Achievements and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Hartley

    2007-01-01

    Defense economics is now an established part of economics. This article reviews its achievements as represented by papers published in the research journal Defense and Peace Economics. The range of topics in the journal is reviewed, especially since 2000, and major gaps in coverage are identified. A changing research agenda reflects new developments such as terrorism and international peacekeeping. Gaps remain such as the need for good quality case studies of conflict (e.g., Iraq) and of majo...

  16. Antimicrobial defense of the earthworm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; De Baetselier, P.; Beschin, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2000), s. 283-300 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/1385; GA ČR GA310/00/1372 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cellular defense mechanisms * humoral defense mechanisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2000

  17. Legal Care as Part of Health Care: The Benefits of Medical-Legal Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastrointestinal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hyder; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-11-01

    To summarize and illuminate the recent findings regarding gastroduodenal mucosal defense mechanisms and the specific biomolecules involved in regulating this process, such as glucagon-like peptides (GLPs). There has been a growing interest in luminal nutrient chemosensing and its physiological effects throughout the digestive system. From the ingestion of food in the oral cavity to the processing and absorption of nutrients in the intestines, nutrient chemosensing receptors signal the production and release of numerous bioactive peptides from enteroendocrine cells, such as the proglucagon-derived peptides. There has been a major emphasis on two proglucagon-derived peptides, namely GLP-1 and GLP-2, due to their apparent beneficial effect on gut structure, function, and on metabolic processes. As an incretin, GLP-1 not only enhances the effect and release of insulin on pancreatic βcells but also has been implicated in having trophic effects on the intestinal epithelium. In addition, GLP-2, the other major proglucagon-derived peptide, has potent intestinotrophic effects, such as increasing the rate of mucosal stem cell proliferation, mucosal blood flow, and fluid absorption, as well as augmenting the rate of duodenal bicarbonate secretion to improve gastric mucosal health and longevity. Understanding the mechanisms underlying nutrient chemosensing and how it relates to GLP release can further elucidate how the gut functions in response to cellular changes and disturbances. Furthermore, a more in-depth comprehension of GLP release and its tissue-specific effects will help improve the utility of GLP-1 and GLP-2 receptor agonists in clinical settings. This, in turn, should help patients suffering from intestinal failure, malabsorption, and mucosal injury.

  19. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  20. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  1. Technology Transfer in Digital Era: Legal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Anatol’yevich Bliznets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of disruptive technology in the digital era is the ruling condition of modern sustainable development. The authors proceed from the fact that legal tools for the creation and use, protection of advanced technologies provide the technology transfer process from the owner to interested parties for further practical, commercial application or further improvement. The article analyzes the legal positions of the concept of technology, legal ways to use modern technologies, stages of their implementation and practical application. In the innovation process legal mechanism in combination with the modern means of innovative development stimulates the creation and transfer of new technologies and at the same time it is a key factor for sustainable development in the context of modern digital technology revolution. In the modern digital revolution, the technology transfer acquires new features and ways for the dissemination of technical innovation, which creates new challenges for legal theory and practice, and legal tools should meet the challenges of the time.

  2. Medical malpractice concerns and defensive medicine: a nationwide survey of breast pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Lisa M; Carney, Patricia A; Oster, Natalia V; Weaver, Donald L; Nelson, Heidi D; Frederick, Paul D; Elmore, Joann G

    2015-12-01

    "Assurance behaviors" in medical practice involve providing additional services of marginal or no medical value to avoid adverse outcomes, deter patients from filing malpractice claims, or ensure that legal standards of care were met. The extent to which concerns about medical malpractice influence assurance behaviors of pathologists interpreting breast specimens is unknown. Breast pathologists (n = 252) enrolled in a nationwide study completed an online survey of attitudes regarding malpractice and perceived alterations in interpretive behavior due to concerns of malpractice. Associations between pathologist characteristics and the impact of malpractice concerns on personal and colleagues' assurance behaviors were determined by χ(2) and logistic regression analysis. Most participants reported using one or more assurance behaviors due to concerns about medical malpractice for both their personal (88%) and colleagues' (88%) practices, including ordering additional stains, recommending additional surgical sampling, obtaining second reviews, or choosing the more severe diagnosis for borderline cases. Nervousness over breast pathology was positively associated with assurance behavior and remained statistically significant in a multivariable logistic regression model (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-6.1; P = .043). Practicing US breast pathologists report exercising defensive medicine by using assurance behaviors due to malpractice concerns. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  3. A Hierarchal System of Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Constructs a hierarchy of defense mechanisms through the addition of the concepts of secondary and tertiary defenses to the already existing psychoanalytic defenses and increases the explanatory power of the concept of defense. Research generated from this theoretical model is presented. (Author/BEF)

  4. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  5. Legal origin, colonial origin and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...

  6. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  8. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  9. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  10. Civil Legal Services and Medical-Legal Partnerships Needed by the Homeless Population: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.

  11. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  12. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  13. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  14. Legal training of students in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Kablukov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.

  15. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  16. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  17. Internet advertising and its legal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, Evgeniia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal aspects of Internet advertising. The main aim of this thesis is to define a legal code corresponding to this issue and to compare with the laws in Russia. The aim also is specify the efficiency of this legal aspects and review sufficiency of protection of consumers. Further explain the issue of spamming, find out its benefits to the retailer and negative aspects for consumers, and also to compare legal aspects of spamming with legislation in Russia.i

  18. Change in defense mechanisms during long-term dynamic psychotherapy and five-year outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Bond, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Research suggests that defense mechanisms may underlie other aspects of functioning and psychiatric symptoms. The authors examined whether defenses change in accordance with the hierarchy of defense adaptation during long-term dynamic psychotherapy and whether such change is associated with long-term outcomes on other measures. Twenty-one adults with depressive, anxiety, and/or personality disorders entered long-term dynamic psychotherapy (mean=248 weeks) and subsequent follow-along (mean duration, 5.1 years). Measures of functioning and symptoms were gathered in periodic follow-along interviews, external to the therapy. A median of eight psychotherapy sessions over 2.5 years for each participant were rated using the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales quantitative method. Overall, the lowest (action) and highest (high adaptive) defense levels in the hierarchy of defenses improved significantly, as did overall defensive functioning (median effect size=0.71, 95% CI=0.01-1.83). Overall defensive functioning still remained below the healthy-neurotic range. A higher number of axis I disorders and childhood histories of sexual abuse and witnessing violence were associated with a slower rate of improvement in defenses. Change in defenses within therapy by 2.5 years was highly associated with significant levels of change at 5 years in external measures of both functioning (rs=0.60) and symptoms (rs=0.58), controlling for initial levels. Change in defensive functioning in long-term psychotherapy largely follows the hierarchy of defense adaptation. The relationship to long-term improvement in outcomes suggests that defenses be considered candidates for mediating improvement in functioning and symptoms.

  19. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  20. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  1. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  2. GAO's Study of Overseas Department of Defense Dependents' Schools. Testimony: Statement of William J. Gainer, Associate Director, Human Resources Division before the Subcommittee on Military Personnel and Compensation Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report summarizes the 1988 study of Overseas Department of Defense Dependents' (DODD) Schools. The study assessed the quality of education, organizational structure, drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, and teacher evaluation systems by sampling 10 schools located in the Philippines and by interviewing concerned administrators in the…

  3. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  4. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.

  5. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  6. The defendant in a medical malpractice suit: an integral part of the defense team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrek, F.R. Jr.; Slovis, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    This article explains the litigation process of a medical malpractice suit and offers suggestions to help pediatric radiologists cope with the stress of being sued. It provides tangible ways in which the pediatric radiologist can become an important part of the defense team. Our goal is to enable the pediatric radiologist to place the lawsuit in a proper perspective and demonstrate the importance of providing medical insight to aid in forming legal strategy. (orig.)

  7. The defendant in a medical malpractice suit: an integral part of the defense team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrek, F.R. Jr.; Slovis, M.R. [Bollinger, Ruberry and Garvey, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This article explains the litigation process of a medical malpractice suit and offers suggestions to help pediatric radiologists cope with the stress of being sued. It provides tangible ways in which the pediatric radiologist can become an important part of the defense team. Our goal is to enable the pediatric radiologist to place the lawsuit in a proper perspective and demonstrate the importance of providing medical insight to aid in forming legal strategy. (orig.) With 3 tabs.

  8. LEGAL FRAMEWORK AS A BASIS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS (FOREIGN COUNTRIES CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulia Fagimovna Galiullina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the conditions of attracting the potential private business investments to a defense industry to enhance the country's defense and national security on the basis of the following argument: "business wins if the state wins". The authors suggest to supplement the existing forms of cooperation between the state and business in the defense industry by the mechanism of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP, which is based on cooperation and risks sharing between the state and business. Also a constraints range which wear a systemic character and act as a barrier on the way of PPP investment projects creation and realization in the defense industry is grouped in four areas: in terms of economics, management, law and policy aspects.Objective: to substantiate the necessity for a public-private partnership mechanism use in Russia's defense industrySubject of study: PPP as a legal form of projects in the defense industry of Russia.Result: a role of PPP in the development of the defense industry is explained and PPP projects implementing constraints are systematized in this area in terms of economics, management, law and policy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-3-5

  9. Navigating New Legal Demands For Franchisor Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Plump, Esq.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Franchising is a relationship wherein one organization (i.e., the franchisor allows other organizations (i.e., franchisees to use its brand name, products, and processes in exchange for fees. Because franchising offers franchisors the opportunity to build their brands quickly, it is perhaps not surprising that many firms rely on franchising as a key tool for organization design. One caution about franchising is that its use brings a complex array of legal issues into play. As franchising increases in popularity, so too does the scrutiny paid to this organizational form by the legal system. Indeed, the courts appear to be demanding increased accountability from franchisors. The goal of this Point of View article is to explain how organizations can avoid problems associated with increased accountability and even benefit from it. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  10. Perspective Reforms for Approximation of the Ukrainian Legal Framework for Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    This article studies Ukrainian legal and regulatory rules for telecommunications services markets against the backdrop of Ukrainian commitments under the GATS and especially the Association Agreement with the EU. The study elucidates to what extent the Ukrainian telecoms regulatory framework...

  11. medico-legal an overview of some of the key legal developments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. South Africa has a strong legal framework that offers a high level of .... medical practitioners preformed the transplant without confirming the HIV status of the donor. A claim for damages is pending ...

  12. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  13. Constitutionally-Legal Policy as Base Type of Legal Policy of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichkin, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…

  14. INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF UKRAINIAN DEFENSE LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazhа Y.P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The management and evaluation of defense land was revealed in the article. Specific institution is the military institutе in the institutional framework for defense land. A special regime and zoning, evaluation, payment and exclusion conditions were established for these lands. The market economy has changed the land-property relations in the country. Lands for defense used only in the framework that established the state. Recently there was a tendency of land release this subcategory. This has led to their misuse, belonging to other owners. The research problem consists of the setting clear boundaries of defense land and legal regulation mechanisms of land relations. Public ownership rights applies only to the defense lands. They are located only in the state ownership. The subject is the state that implements ownership (right to possess, use and dispose of the lands of Defense. It ensures the defense of the country and territory for military sites, airfields, parts, ammunition depots. Functional use of defense land is divided into public (military schools, socio-cultural (health centers, recreation centers, industrial (military and industrial objects, residential (cantonment, commercial (commissary, special (military installations, transport ( carpark, bridges, engineering (antennas, radars, storage (defense deport. The land for military unit were given for permanent use with the justification of the project design documentation sizes. The military part of the land for permanent use with the justification sizes by the project design documentation. Safety, security and other areas are created around military and other defense installations. There are restricted areas, prohibited areas. They have a special regime. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real estate. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real

  15. FRENDAK to PHENIS to BREIVIK: An Examination of the Imposed Insanity Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Donald Richie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The imposition of the insanity defense is a complicated psycho-legal scenario. Globally, definitions of insanity differ from country to country. In a multitude of cases, a determination of insanity at the time of a criminal act means the offender will not be considered responsible for his or her action(s. In many jurisdictions, concerns have been raised that the insanity defense has been used to mitigate punishment, usually after a particularly heinous crime. In this review, the authors use three cases - FRENDAK, PHENIS, and BREIVIK to demonstrate how the imposition of the insanity defense has been used for legal purposes in the past and present. In an effort to give more background to each of the above-mentioned cases, the writers have provided some details to aid comprehension. The authors offer recommendations for the ethical forensic evaluator unburdened by partisan allegiance and invested in the search for truth. This review article relies on peer-reviewed articles available from PubMed, Meharry Online Library and legal dictionaries. We also cross-referenced reputable news sources to ensure the validity of the facts we present.

  16. Defensive sexualization: a neurobiologically informed explanatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Matthew E

    2011-09-01

    Sexualization is a defense mechanism frequently referred to in clinical psychoanalytic literature. Despite this, there is no research linking the theoretical nature of this observed phenomenon to social or neurobiological theory. This discussion paper proposes an interaction between social learning and neural maturation in the development of sexualized tendencies. When anxiety within peer interactions is alleviated repeatedly through sexualized behavior, learned associations develop. This explanation allows understanding and empathy for individuals demonstrating a broad spectrum of sexualized responses since such learning is argued to be functional within their historic social climate.

  17. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  18. On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, K.; Hulst, Liesbeth

    In this paper we discuss some strengths, stumbling blocks, common mistakes, and controversial issues that can be important when conducting experiments in the legal domain. To this end, we first briefly introduce the experimental method and note some of its strengths when used in legal research

  19. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  20. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A. (Ali); J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential