Ober, Patrick; Decker, Janet R.
This case illustrates why future school leaders must be prepared to handle complex legal and political issues that commonly arise in school districts today. We discuss a long-standing and unresolved legal battle between a Hasidic Jewish community and the public school district in East Ramapo, New York. In particular, we examine the difficulties…
Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…
Full Text Available In most countries for which data are available, the size of the legal profession has continued to grow over the last 40 plus years. This continued growth reflects the perceived attractiveness of a career as a legal professional (i.e., the demand and the incentives of the institutions that provide legal education, and hence serve as primary gatekeepers, to maintain or increase the number of students they enroll. In some countries, perhaps most prominently the United States, structural changes in the opportunities for careers in the legal profession are likely to put pressure on law schools that could result in changes in the supply of opportunities to obtain the legal education required to become a lawyer. En la mayoría de los países de los que se dispone de datos, el número de abogados no ha dejado de crecer desde hace más de 40 años. Este crecimiento constante, refleja el atractivo que se percibe en una profesión como la abogacía (esto es, la demanda, y los incentivos de las instituciones que imparten estos estudios, y constituyen la primera barrera para mantener o aumentar el número de estudiantes que aceptan. En algunos países, tal vez de forma más destacada en Estados Unidos, es probable que los cambios estructurales en las oportunidades de trabajar como abogado obliguen a las facultades de derecho a modificar la oferta para acceder a la carrera de derecho.
Can the same numbers and letters which are the life blood of modern business and government computer systems be harnessed to protect computers from attack against known information security risks? For the past seven years, Foreign Service officers and technicians of the US Government have sought to maintain diplomatic operations in the face of rising cyber attacks and test the hypothesis that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. As eight out of ten attacks leverage known computer security vulnerabilities or configuration setting weaknesses, a pound of cure would seem to be easy to come by. Yet modern security tools present an unusually consequential threat to business continuity - too much rather than too little information on cyber problems is presented, harking back to a phenomenon cited by social scientists in the 1960s called 'information overload'. Experience indicates that the longer the most serious cyber problems go untreated, the wider the attack surface adversaries can find. One technique used at the Department of State, called 'risk scoring', resulted in an 89 per cent overall reduction in measured risk over 12 months for the Department of State's servers and personal computers. Later refinements of risk scoring enabled technicians to correct unique security threats with unprecedented speed. This paper explores how the use of metrics, special care in presenting information to technicians and executives alike, as well as tactical use of organisational incentives can result in stronger cyber defences protecting modern organisations.
Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C
Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Cort, Brian; Bouchard, Alain; Gouin, Denis; Proulx, Pascale; Wright, William
.... Visual Battle Rhythm (VBR) is a software prototype which updates the battle rhythm process with modern technology and careful information design to improve the synchronization, situational awareness and decision making ability of commanders...
Full Text Available This article deals with some crucial aspects of the legal history and culture of Jews in the late Russian Empire and the early Soviet Ukraine, 1905–32. Considering numerous unique archive and printed sources, this paper examines the following fields: the legal and political features of the Jews; the tax on kosher meat; the court cases involving participation by Jews; the development of legal terminology; and finally Jewish lawyers before and after 1917. The article argues that the so called »Jewish question« was in essence a legal question. The cases presented in this paper prove a continuity of certain norms and practices between the tsarist and Soviet periods.
Thompson, Geneva E. B.
Indigenous nations need to build a strategic resistance to dismantle the legal status quo and assert their inherent sovereignty and human legal rights to destroy the settler colonial project of climate change. This type of resistance needs to be internalized within the Indigenous nation and actively asserted throughout local, state, national, and international legal systems. This article takes a two-step approach: first, it argues that Native nations must internalize resistance to the settle...
Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris
By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks.
Tolk, Andreas; Galvin, Kevin; Hieb, Michael; Khimeche, Lionel
Battle Management Language (BML) is being developed as an unambiguous language to command and control forces and equipment conducting military operations and to provide for situational awareness and a shared common operational picture...
Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris
By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks. PMID:28502999
and finding himself now attacked frontally by 2d Armoured Brigade as well, the enemy 2-14 WWI -.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "’f...bazooka range and firing round after round into the foxholes and battle- scarred buildings. Artillery observers with the defenders called for numerous
From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…
Watson, Laurel B; Ancis, Julie R
The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which abuse that occurred during marriage/relationship continued within divorce and custody-related legal proceedings. Twenty-seven women participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed utilizing a grounded theory approach in order to inductively arrive at a theory explaining how abuse dynamics may continue during legal proceedings. Participants identified child support litigation, custody and visitation battles, intimidation/harassment, deliberately prolonging the case, manipulating finances, and distortions of information as methods by which their exes sought to maintain power and control. Counseling implications are described.
Table (Table lA ) and a Reaction Table (Table IB). In sum, METT-T is varied to increase the difficulty of the Tables- "crawl, walk, run." Training...Delay 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 I~~~ Frag OrdraOd f ofsty D , ,elay Snapshots of Battle Proposed as Bn and FS Tables 1~ lA Hasty Attack...for subsequent development of CSS vertical BCST Tabics whether executed in virtud or constructive simulation. Draw on the expertise and counsel of the
.... The reasons are obvious. It was a battle of attrition that never should have occurred. Throughout this case study the strategic impact of the battle and the decisions made by the leaders of the day are analyzed...
The battle towards zero defects consists of fast response to PPM signals, prevention of incidents and continuous improvement. In this paper elements of all three branches are treated. A PPM analysis tool called quality crawl charts is introduced that enables prediction of customer complaint levels
Battle of Midway as both a decisive battle, as well as the turning point, of that war. The historiography of Midway has evolved over time, yet the...Pacific War, scholars have commonly viewed the Battle of Midway as both a decisive battle, as well as the turning point, of that war. The historiography of...vast historiography of Midway and Pacific War literature, as well as several key primary source documents. This research leads to the conclusion
Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.
Ligações perigosas: indústria farmacêutica, associações de pacientes e as batalhas judiciais por acesso a medicamentos Dangerous liaisons: the pharmaceutical industry, patients associations and the legal battles for access to medicines
Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza Soares
Full Text Available O presente trabalho busca trazer novos elementos para o debate sobre a judicialização da saúde e sobre o acesso a medicamentos. Parte-se de um breve panorama do setor farmacêutico, seguido de um levantamento bibliográfico sobre demandas judiciais por medicamentos no Brasil, para fundamentar uma reflexão sobre as ligações entre a indústria farmacêutica e as associações de pacientes, que podem estar interferindo no processo. Tais ligações resultam das novas estratégias de expansão do mercado pelo setor farmacêutico, e podem agravar o panorama da saúde brasileira em relação ao uso crítico e responsável dos medicamentos. A necessidade de desmercantilização da saúde é incluída nesse debate.The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the legal claims for pharmaceutical drugs in Brazil, as part of the struggle for access to these products. A brief discussion about the pharma industry is made, followed by the state-of-the-art of the so-called process of "health judicialization". These are the basis for the reflections on the relationships between the corporations and patients' associations, which are part of the strategies used by the pharma industry in order to expand the market. These liaisons may be influencing the augmentation of court requests, thus damaging the responsible drug use. The role of commodification of healthcare is discussed.
Wheeler, David L.
Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)
Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Yizhou; El-nasr, Magy Seif; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.
Successful analysis of player skills in video games has important impacts on the process of enhancing player experience without undermining their continuous skill development. Moreover, player skill analysis becomes more intriguing in team-based video games because such form of study can help discover useful factors in effective team formation. In this paper, we consider the problem of skill decomposition in MOBA (MultiPlayer Online Battle Arena) games, with the goal to understand what player...
Nawaz, Ahmad; Toor, A H
We analysed quantum version of the game battle of sexes using a general initial quantum state. For a particular choice of initial entangled quantum state it is shown that the classical dilemma of the battle of sexes can be resolved and a unique solution of the game can be obtained
Dix, Suzanne Liacos
As advocates for reading, librarians cannot help but love a reading program. In this article, the author talks about the Battle of the Books, a reading enrichment program that had been in place since 1996. Battle of the Books promotes reading among middle school students by offering interesting books and a trivia-type competition. The author…
Kott, Alexander; Swami, Ananthram; West, Bruce J
The battlefield of the future will be densely populated by a variety of entities ("things") -- some intelligent and some only marginally so -- performing a broad range of tasks: sensing, communicating, acting, and collaborating with each other and human warfighters. We call this the Internet of Battle Things, IoBT. In some ways, IoBT is already becoming a reality, but 20-30 years from now it is likely to become a dominant presence in warfare. To become a reality, however, this bold vision wil...
This book provides a comparative legal study on the continuation of joint parental authority after divorce and the breakup of a relationship in Dutch and Danish law. In addition, the Principles regarding Parental Responsibilities which have been drafted by the Commission on European Family Law are
Lee, Anne W.M.; Ng, W.T.; Chan, Y.H.; Sze, Henry; Chan, Connie; Lam, T.H.
This is a review of the evolving efforts to understand and combat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a most peculiar cancer with a distinctly skewed geographic and ethnic distribution. Multifactorial etiology with dynamic interplay of genetic predisposition, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection and environmental carcinogens is suggested. With changing lifestyle in Hong Kong, the age-standardized incidence rate has decreased by more than 50% during the past 30 years. The advent of megavoltage radiotherapy has transformed this once lethal cancer into one that is readily curable. Advances in technology and addition of chemotherapy have led to gratifying improvements. Overall survival exceeding 75% at 5 years could now be achieved; series using advanced technique with intensity-modulation consistently achieved excellent locoregional control. Studies are on-going to develop more potent systemic therapy for distant control. Serious late toxicities remain a serious concern demanding further improvement in radiotherapy technique and optimization of dose fractionation. Translational researches are increasingly important for the ideal goals of prevention, early detection and more accurate prognostication/prediction to work toward personalized medicine. The battle against NPC is one of the most fascinating successes in oncology, it is highly hopeful that with international collaborations and concerted efforts, we can totally conquer this cancer.
Mayott, Gregory; Self, Mid; Miller, Gordon J.; McDonnell, Joseph S.
NVESD is developing a Sensor Data and Management Services (SDMS) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that provides an innovative approach to achieve seamless application functionality across simulation and battle command systems. In 2010, CERDEC will conduct a SDMS Battle Command demonstration that will highlight the SDMS SOA capability to couple simulation applications to existing Battle Command systems. The demonstration will leverage RDECOM MATREX simulation tools and TRADOC Maneuver Support Battle Laboratory Virtual Base Defense Operations Center facilities. The battle command systems are those specific to the operation of a base defense operations center in support of force protection missions. The SDMS SOA consists of four components that will be discussed. An Asset Management Service (AMS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interface definition required to interact with a named asset (sensor or a sensor platform, a process such as level-1 fusion, or an interface to a sensor or other network endpoint). A Streaming Video Service (SVS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interfaces required to interact with a named video stream, and abstract the consumers of the video stream from the originating device. A Task Manager Service (TMS) will be used to automatically discover the existence of a named mission task, and will interpret, translate and transmit a mission command for the blue force unit(s) described in a mission order. JC3IEDM data objects, and software development kit (SDK), will be utilized as the basic data object definition for implemented web services.
historiography of the battle does little to illuminate the context surrounding the Battle of Kasserine Pass, or what operational level effects the battle...used to describe the Battle of Kasserine Pass appropriate? What effect does the declassification of the ULTRA intercepts have on the historiography of...when it is used to analyze the constituent elements of war, to distinguish precisely what at first sight seems fused, to explain in full the
NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis by Kenneth J. Cox Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army...Title (Include Security Classification): The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis (UNCLASSIFIED) 9. Personal Authors...Security Classification of this page Unclassified 3 ABSTRACT The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis In May
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
This project concerns the Ukraine crisis, and how the crisis can be explained as a battle between Russia and the West. The project takes it departure in neoclassical realism, and uses this theory to understand how the actors in the crisis balance each other.
Evgeniy F. Krinko
Full Text Available The first information about the losses of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht in the Battle of Stalingrad, the deaths of the civilian population of the Stalingrad region during the Nazi occupation were published back in the years of the Great Patriotic War. Later many authors investigated these questions. In the early 1990s, Soviet losses were calculated by a group of specialists of the General Staff under the leadership of Colonel General G. F. Krivosheev. However, there are alternative points of view on this issue. In general, the demographic consequences of the Battle of Stalingrad as a complex scientific problem have not been sufficiently studied. The authors of the article consider different types of losses, mention major military associations and units that took part in the fights for Stalingrad, as well as the number of soldiers in military units. The special attention is paid to the losses of civilian population. According to the most conservative estimates, the military losses of both parties in the Stalingrad battle amounted to at least 2–2.5 million people. The population of the Stalingrad region declined as a result of evacuation, hostilities and occupation by more than 0.5 million people, or nearly by a quarter. Mass losses led to significant deformations in the demographic structure of the population of the Stalingrad and neighboring regions. The number of working age men suffere the especially sharp decline. These deformations had determined the unfavorable trends in the demographic development of the region for many decades. In the introductory part of the paper E.F. Krinko describes the main types of losses and correlation of military forces by the beginning of the Stalingrad Battle. The conclusions made by the author summarize the overall research results. M. V. Medvedev reveals specific types of military and civilian losses suffered as a result of the Stalingrad Battle.
A detailed account is given of recent technical and political activities in West Germany in connexion with nuclear waste management - plans for reprocessing plant, storage and final disposal. Headings are: historical and organizational introduction; waste disposal concept (including political activities of federal and state governments); the Gorleben Hearing (concerning reprocessing); the consequences of political and scientific opposition; reprocessing makes a fast come-back 1980-1983; new concepts - new risks (proposals for spent fuel storage and reprocessing); reprocessing experience; new toxicity (reference to ICRP-30); why reprocessing; intermediate storage of spent fuel and other wastes; development of final disposal 1979 to 1983 (particular reference to Gorleben salt dome); safety of final disposal - the million-year-gamble. (U.K.)
Polcaro, V. F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Verderame, L.
A total lunar eclipse occurred during the night preceding the decisive Battle of Gaugamela (20th September 331 BCE), when the Macedonian army, led by Alexander the Great, finally defeated the Persian king Darius and his army. This astronomical event, well known to historians, had a relevant role on the battle outcome. The eclipse was described in detail by Babylonian astronomers, though, unfortunately, the text of their report has only partially been preserved. We have reconstructed the evolution of the phenomenon as it appeared to the observer in Babylonia, by using the positional astronomy code "Planetario V2.0". On the base of this reconstruction we suggest a number of integrations to the lost part of the text, allowing a finer astrological interpretation of the eclipse and of its influence on the mood of the armies that set against each other on the following morning.
Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that Vukovar 1991 Battle traumatic memory wearing away process is a social issue and cannot be simply amputated by modernist narratives from accumulated traces of the past. Instead, those traumatic memories are constantly reconstructed, repressed, or transformed in some way or another under the pressure of manipulative power politics and competing ideologies in contemporary Croatian society. Therefore, the question this paper asks is whether war crimes and atrocities committed in Vukovar 1991 have its meaningful place in the Croatian cultural memory and whether social research techniques into contemporary cultural memory in Croatia can afford to avoid testimonial narrations of the Vukovar 1991 Battle and war experiences since they are an integral part of the collective memory?
The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....
The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...
Maksim M. Zagorulko
Full Text Available Center for study of the battle of Stalingrad was founded in October 2015 in order to comprehensively study the role of the battle of Stalingrad in world history, its influence on the course of the Great Patriotic war, displaying the results of the study in print and other publications. In 2016, seven seminars were organized and conducted at its base in the form of round tables on relevant and understudied topics on the great battle on the Volga, certain aspects of the historical-economic, socio-cultural life of the country and people during the battle of Stalingrad. In 2017 this work has been continued – for seven months five seminars have been held. In the framework of the round tables the attention is focused on the interaction of the front and rear, organization of mobilization economy, defense construction, problems of job search. Participants of the seminars inform about the introduction into scientific circulation of archival sources, summarize the results of research. The round tables bring together members of the Committee for Culture of the Volgograd region administration, state archives, the Museum-reserve Staraya Sarepta (‘Old Sarepta’, Museum and factory Krasny Oktyabr (‘Red October’, the local historians, teachers and students of universities, students of schools. The article presents a review of the scientific seminars in the form of “round tables” organized by the Centre for study of the battle of Stalingrad in 2016-2017, the authors introduce the reader to the topics of academic seminars, the content of the reports. The text of the article is prepared by permanent participant of the seminar I.A. Lysenko, academic editing – by Director of the seminar since its inception, veteran of the Great Patriotic war, doctor of economic sciences, Professor Maksim M. Zagorulko.
Dunn, III, Charles; Pressley, Corey S; Sheppard, Arthur
...) in a closed, distributed, simulation-rich environment. The configuration, maintenance, administrative and security responsibilities have been assigned to the Battle Command Battle Laboratory Gordon (BCBL-G...
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Calatayud, J.; Martin, F.; Colado, J. C.
Calatayud, J, Martin, F, Colado, JC, Benitez, JC, Jakobsen, MD, and Andersen, LL. Muscle activity during unilateral vs. bilateral battle rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res 29(10): 2854-2859, 2015High training intensity is important for efficient strength gains. Although battle rope training is m...
Juan Carlos Iglesias-Zoido
Full Text Available This article analyzes the way in which Lope de Vega conceives in his theater the pre-battle harangue, the most characteristic speech in ancient and renaissance historiography. Having this aim in mind, I have analyzed the role played by this type of speech in a group of plays dealing with historical and military subjects. These plays were written in a period when Lope was particularly interested in historical issues: La Santa Liga (1598-1603, Arauco domado (1599, El asalto de Mastrique (1595-1606 and Los Guanches de Tenerife (1604-1606.
Full Text Available On September 28, 351 AD, Emperor Constantius II defeated the usurper Magnentius in the battle at Mursa. While the battle is described in several ancient sources, the present study focuses on the account given by Philostorgius. Philostorgius is the first known author to have included in his description of the battle the appearance of a cross in the sky, drawing on the writings of an unknown Arian historian. But for all its seemingly miraculous connotations, Philostorgius’ story is no mere figment of the imagination. It is based on a perfectly natural meteorological phenomenon, the parhelia or phantom suns, which had been observed on May 7, 351, in the sky above Jerusalem. They were interpreted at the time as the sign of Christ’s cross, and the contemporary Jerusalem bishop, Cyril, provided a detailed description in a letter to Emperor Constantius. But while the Bishop already saw this phenomenon as a sign of God’s favour to Constantius, the appearance of the cross above Jerusalem was not immediately associated with the slightly later conflict at Mursa. This connection was only established by Arian historians, who used the story of the vision before the Mursa battle to glorify Emperor Constantius, a supporter of Arianism. The earliest source known today is an anonymous Arian historian writing in the late 4th century: his work provided the basis for Philostorgius’ account of the Mursa battle. Still, the association of the visions above Jerusalem and Mursa is perhaps not to be attributed merely to the Arian authors’ partiality to Emperor Constantius. It may have been prompted by two natural but hardly everyday celestial phenomena as well: on May 28, 355, the Balkans, including Mursa, witnessed a total solar eclipse, while August 8, 351, brought a partial eclipse to an area of the Balkans (but not to Mursa. The two eclipses may have influenced Philostorgius’ account of the Mursa battle. While neither the eclipse nor the parhelia visible
for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen
This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.
In this respect, Israel may have contributed much to the reinvigoration of the modern comparative law agenda, and it may continue to do so in the future, as the system is not one of legal stasis (a mixed system) but one of legal kinesis (a mixing system). Keywords: Israeli legal system, Israeli Supreme Court, legal systemics, ...
Soller, Amy; Morrison, John
...) can moderate this degradation. The sources for this survey range from studies that describe the basic limits of human memory capacity to those that assess the number of battle managers needed to operate a partially automated missile defense system...
health efforts, and women's use of tobacco is still high in certain age groups. Smoking rates among indigenous people are similar to those in developing countries. But the battle against tobacco is just beginning in other parts of ...
Was the failure of the Army of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run a result of General John Pope being a failure as a leader or were there other circumstances that helped him in his loss? Conclusion...
Throughout the fall of 1944 and early spring of 1945, the Japanese defenders of Okinawa prepared a defensive battle strategy that resulted in Japanese defeat and the most casualties for both forces...
The author describes the film, The Battle of Algiers," and suggests discussion ideas for a classroom analysis: emotional response; labels, e.g., enemy; responsibility; alternatives; justice; warfare and crime. Learning activities and resources are also suggested. (Author/JB)
Rhone, Jon M
According to JP 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, battle management is "The management of activities within the operational environment, based on the commands...
Mishra, Saurabh Kumar
Men have traditionally dominated legal profession in India. Women’s entry could be possible only after long and protracted legal battles, and even then, their presence in the courts remained insignificant until the end of the twentieth century. However, the policy of globalisation in the twenty-first century has provided additional opportunities to Indian women in legal education and training. The invasion of modernity has not only moderated the court environment but has also put an end to th...
urbanization that follows population growth is not the only factor that increases the likelihood of UO in the future. Another important factor is...C. 2004. Urban Battle Fields of South Asia: lessons learned from Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan . Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. www.rand.org...SWEDISH EUROPEAN UNION BATTLE GROUP IN URBAN OPERATIONS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General
Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)
Web page capture of tickets to the Battle of Midway Memorial Dinner through Eventbrite. The Monterey Bay Commandery of the Naval Order of the United States will host the 73 Battle of Midway Dining-Out on Saturday 6 June at the Naval Support Activity, Monterey, Herrmann Hall, Naval Postgraduate School. This black-tie event is open to the all active and retired service members, military faculty, and civilians. Guests holding confirmed reservations will have gate access the evenin...
Haywood S. Hansell Jr. The Air Plan That Defeated Hitler The battle between British and German air forces in the summer and early...sent to observe the battle over southern England never issued an official after action report or survey. Unlike General Christian Smuts‟ airpower... Hansell Jr. The Air Plan That Defeated Hitler The observers that General Henry “Hap” Arnold sent to Europe to report on the 1940 air
Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ
The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.
Carver, Peggy L
Iron is an essential micronutrient for bacteria, fungi, and humans; as such, each has evolved specialized iron uptake systems to acquire iron from the extracellular environment. To describe complex 'tug of war' for iron that has evolved between human hosts and pathogenic microorganisms in the battle for this vital nutrient. A review of current literature was performed, to assess current approaches and controversies in iron therapy and chelation in humans. In humans, sequestration (hiding) of iron from invading pathogens is often successful; however, many pathogens have evolved mechanisms to circumvent this approach. Clinically, controversy continues whether iron overload or administration of iron results in an increased risk of infection. The administration of iron chelating agents and siderophore- conjugate drugs to infected hosts seems a biologically plausible approach as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of infections caused by pathogens dependent on host iron supply (e.g. tuberculosis, malaria, and many bacterial and fungal pathogens); however, thus far, studies in humans have proved unsuccessful. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Full Text Available The article shows the influence of extreme conditions on realization of professional duties of servicemen while participation in hostilities and in staff of peacemaking contingent and also influence of physical training on time saving of adaptation to specified conditions. It was analyzed a fair quantity of special psychological, battle and physical literature. It is defined a staging of adaptation formation of servicemen to battle conditions and it is found out directions of influence of physical training on its reduction.
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Nov 4, 2010 ... However, simply replacing a “corrupt” leader does not mean that the problem will go away. To be truly effective, says Githongo, an anti-corruption strategy should be built on seven pillars: leadership and political will; institutional reforms; legal reforms; transitional justice measures addressing the past; the ...
That vaccines do not cause autism is now a widely accepted proposition, though a few dissenters remain. An 8-year court process in the US federal vaccine injury compensation court ended in 2010 with rulings that autism was not an adverse reaction to vaccination. There were two sets of trials: one against the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and one against the mercury-based preservative thimerosal. The MMR story is more widely known because of publicity surrounding the main proponent of an MMR-autism link, British doctor Andrew Wakefield, but the story of thimerosal in court is largely untold. This study examines the credibility battles and boundary work in the two cases, illuminating the sustaining world of alternative science that supported the parents, lawyers, researchers, and expert witnesses against vaccines. After the loss in court, the families and their advocates transformed their scientific arguments into an indictment of procedural injustice in the vaccine court. I argue that the very efforts designed to produce legitimacy in this type of lopsided dispute will be counter-mobilized as evidence of injustice, helping us understand why settling a scientific controversy in court does not necessarily mean changing anyone's mind.
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis...
Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law.
V M Falin
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the Battle of Moscow in October- December, 1941. Author analyzes the causes of the failure of German army, who tries to encircle and capture Moscow, the events taking place on the outskirts of Moscow, German troops attempts to encircle Moscow. The author presents data on the speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin on October 5, 1941, in which he acknowledged the failure of the Blitzkrieg and the Battle for Moscow and its suburbs. The researcher uses the documents of the Wehrmacht High Command, which stated that after the Battle of Moscow, German troops could not on any further stage of the war to restore the quality and morale of the armed forces, with whom Reich rushed to a campaign for world domination. The author, a prominent public and political figure of the USSR, also relies on personal recollections, interviews with prominent generals of World War II, including I. Konev.
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
J.E. Mooij (Jos)
textabstractThis paper is one in a large collection of papers, articles, books and reports on food policy in India. Indeed, food policy is a widely researched topic in India. To name a few genres, there are several historical overviews and evaluations of PDS; there are economic models and
Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral
Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor of law schools; The educational legislation Questions of legal education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences about the teaching of law, the methodological approach and the didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.
Nye, Valerie, Ed.; Barco, Kathy, Ed.
Intellectual freedom is a core value of librarianship, but fighting to keep controversial materials on the shelves can sometimes feel like a lonely battle. And not all censorship controversies involve the public objecting to a book in the collection--libraries are venues for displays and meetings, and sometimes library staff themselves are tempted…
Reus, N. M.de; Krom, P.P.J. de; Schade, U.; Pullen, J.M.
The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 048 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) for Multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with Modeling and Simulation. At its May, 2007
This book addresses the issue of multicultural education and the political battles waged over it in U.S. schools. The volume examines the perspectives of both advocates and critics and applauds the true meaning of multiculturalism equality of opportunity and social justice. The fear is there is pulling away from certain cultural norms…
Bottles of life: where plastic bottles battle bacteria. Eric Wamanji. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(2) 2006: 80-82. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v18i2.15708 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...
Informal Science Learning (ISL) is a policy narrative of interest in the United Kingdom and abroad. This paper explores how a group of English secondary school science teachers, enacted ISL science clubs through employing the Periodic Table of Videos. It examines how these teachers "battled" to enact ISL policy in performative conditions…
BOOK AND VIDEO REVIEWS. BATTLES IN BRITAIN AND THEIR POLITICAL. BACKGROUND, 1066-1746. William Seymour. Wordsworth, Ware (Herts): 1997. 232 & 231 pages. Illustrated, maps. ISBN I 85326 672 8. R61-00. William. Seymour has produced the field guide to British battlefields for which military historians ...
Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.
Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in…
Discusses how "The Butter Battle Book" by Dr. Seuss can be used to introduce the moral issue of war to young children. Studies the written responses of 1,187 children in grades kindergarten to 6 to the story. Notes that only the fourth- through sixth-grade students (who felt themselves beyond Dr. Seuss) understood the allegorical nature…
Alejandro Anca Alamillo
Full Text Available On the base of official data and archives, the battle path of the Spanish 3 class gunboat ‘Delgado Pareho’, previously ‘Dart’ yacht purchased in the USA in 1895, was restored. The shows the influence of the gunboat during the Spanish-American War.
Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...
A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)
Full Text Available Critical care medicine is an emerging unique specialty developed from the later 20th century, since then, it has been enriched with theoretical and practical experiences and becomes the most active subject in the field of clinical medicine. Critical care medicine of the PLA has attained significant achievements in the treatment and research of severe trauma, sepsis, severe heat stroke, multiple organ failure and severe acute pancreatitis. Besides, it stands in the leading position in the organ function maintenance of critically ill patients, continuous hemofiltration and nutrition support in China. Furthermore, critical care medicine plays an important role in the rescue of critically ill patients, medical support and disaster relief. As the relationship between battle wound rescue system and critical care medicine has been increasingly close, transition in the form of war in the new period brings new tasks to battle wound treatment constantly. Combined with the characteristics of information-oriented war condition in the future, developing the PLA critical care medicine and advancing the level of battle wound treatment in the new period point out the direction for the future work of critical care medicine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.02.01
Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task
Vinícius Teixeira Pinto
Full Text Available This article presents theoretical analyses about the main features of "Batalha do Mercado", a rhyme battle led by MC’s in Porto Alegre (RS, southern Brazil. Created in 2012, the competition is a gathering of singers and fans of freestyle rap. Based on ethnographic experience, the text describes the sequence of events that happen in one of the battle editions, trying to think about concepts that immerge during these competitions. One of the perspectives led us to understand the opposition between improvisation and copy, central categories of this music genre. We also intend to highlight the performative quality of these songs, which are essential for the production of conflicts and social hierarchies in Porto Alegre rap.
Huygen, Michaele Lee; Marlatt, Greta E.
This compilation was prepared for the Dudley Knox Library, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. This is a selected, partially annotated bibliography listing books, periodical articles, web sites, and videos related to the Battle of Midway. Certain entries have brief annotations, many of which are taken from annotations in other bibliographies, books, and book reviews, when attributed, and directly from library cataloger’s notes when not. Although listings for materials in foreign langu...
within Sadr City threatened to make it simply a matter of time before they were killed or apprehended. According to Mao Zedong , the people are the...bombs, 86 Looney, Todd and checkpoint attacks, 44 and Operation Gold Wall, 73 on training, 33, 37 Mao Zedong , 101, 108 medical engagements, 91 Messmer... WWII , Austin, Tex.: Nortex Press, 1991. 56 Hort interview; Hammond interview; North interview; Collings interview. The Battle Begins 65 Iraqis
Blume, Peter Erik
This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...
NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER AD-A271 748 THE BATTLE FOR HUE: CASUALTY AND DISEASE RATES DURING URBAN WARFARE C. G. Blood M. E. Anderson DTIC...prior to the first casualties being sustained. 2 The Battle for Flue: Casualty and Disease Rates During Urban Warfare Renewed nationalism with the ending...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates Program Element: 63706N During Urban Warfare Work Unit Number: 6
diplomatic almost to the verge of dishonesty ” to the “establishment of the worship of the One God in Medinah and all...changes to [bin Laden‟s] philosophy” throughout their relationship.50 Originally, bin Laden was uninterested and undistinguished in academic and...what academic scholars have identified as the criteria for identifying decisive battle. Of all authors, Sir Edward Creasy remains the capstone; his
and Development Center (ERDC) is currently working on a software tool to semi-automate the process of COA creation and evaluation. The Battlespace...COAs that it produces. While this is an important feature of the software , it is important to understand how the genetic algorithm behaves and what...This variable is not completely implemented in the battle simulations but is expected in subsequent versions of the BBE. Stutter Start—Sets a
Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine. Demands for legal reform have come from both inside and outside Palestine. Inside Palestine, legal reform is seen as a prerequisite for democracy and good governance. Outside, legal reform is perceived as integral to the continued peace process with Israel.
Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A
To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.
Rhodes, A M
Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...
Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing
of remembrance, especially the verdicts for the “Vukovar Three”(V. Šljivančanin, M. Mrkšić and M. Radić. However, when Generals A. Gotovina and M. Markač were acquitted of war crimes on 16 November 2012, many concluded that Croatia won the legal war as well, and that the truth about the aggressors and victims was finally confirmed. In the third stage, after 2013, the main aspect of the remembrance culture is the discussion of the importance of the Battle of Vukovar for national identity and inside politics. The results of the 2011 Census showed that there were 34.9% of Serbs in Vukovar. The representatives of the Independent Democratic Serb Party demanded to be allowed to use Serbian language and the Cyrillic alphabet on the basis of that data. That caused debates in Croatian public, because it meant that the city that had been occupied until 1998, would again have street names in Cyrillic. That led to disagreements about the implementation of The Constitutional Act on The Rights of National Minorities in the Republic of Croatia in Vukovar. The attention was mostly focused on the valuation of heroic deeds and victim suffering in the Croatian War of Independence in comparison to other national goals. The division was especially noticeable during the memorial service for the Vukovar Remembrance Day in 2013. Vukovar then became an important part of the national identity and politics, where one side believed that the biggest problem was the lack of respect towards the victims, while the other side was more concerned about the fact that the civil rights of minorities were not respected. This period is predominated by the tension surrounding the rutinization of memory. Rutinization is a process predominated by debates about whether one historical event should be reconstructed using facts and given over to institutions, or it should get wider symbolic value, important for formation or preservation of the group’s opinion about itself. Some of the participants
Dorr, Robert F
In Washington, much of the attention of the nation's leaders is focused on the economy, on next year's election, and on the war's aftermath in Iraq. Polls show that a restive nation wants more jobs and fewer casualties in the war on terror. In the world of aerospace, few topics seem to be headline-grabbers lately, but the lawmakers are always working on air and space issues--some of them very familiar to Americans. The U.S. program for manned spaceflight remains controversial and a firm date for a return to flight elusive. The little-known air war in Colombia is receiving more attention than many in Washington would like. And the Air Force plan to lease air-refueling tankers continues to draw flak from the Hill.
Antivaccination activists have existed since variolation was introduced in Europe in the 18th century. Today, they continue to attempt to influence the vaccination decisions of parents. Commentators have expressed concern about the impact of such activists on vaccination rates and disease outbreaks. Some argue that public health advocates should engage in adversarial approaches involving public attempts to discredit or stop an antivaccination group or individual. This article argues that such adversarial advocacy may not be the most effective way to support vaccine programs. It argues this on the basis of what is known to influence vaccination attitudes and uptake, and the unintended negative consequences that can arise from an adversarial approach. These include drawing attention to such activists and their arguments, and potentially alienating the most important audience - hesitant parents - where the primary goal is to establish trust. The exception is when the antivaccination activists' actions may cause direct harm, such as encouraging a 'disease party' or illegal activities. Generally, however, advocacy should focus on areas where real gains can be made - on policies that directly address determinants of low coverage such as lack of opportunity to vaccinate and lack of acceptance of vaccination. This includes advocacy for accessible and affordable vaccines. In addressing the global problem of vaccine hesitancy, public health has a responsibility to better monitor public attitudes, support health professionals in communication, and develop and test strategies that engage vaccine-hesitant parents and communities.
The First South African Armoured Battle in Italy during the Second World War: The Battle of Celleno – 10 June 1944. ... The Division's combined-arms approach is also evaluated, with specific emphasis on changing patterns of leadership, command, and employment of the Division after Celleno. Keywords: Union Defence ...
Adkins, Mike; Jones, Ralph
Union Army troops marched south through Indian territory on July 17, 1863, to face the Confederate Army forces in a battle that would help determine whether the Union or the Confederacy would control the West beyond the Mississippi River. The Confederate troops that these soldiers faced in the Battle of Honey Springs concealed themselves among the…
Rattigan, Peter; Biren, Greg
Physical education practitioners and programs have the opportunity and obligation to help children become physically educated, healthy, and active adults. This article discusses the battle against obesity in K-12 learners from an exercise physiology perspective and focuses on the fact that practitioners have all the tools they need to battle this…
In this article I explore some of the underlying mathematics of Poke´mon battles and describe ways that teachers at the secondary level could explore concepts of mathematical game theory in this context. I discuss various ways of representing and analyzing a Poke´mon battle using game theory and conclude with an example of applying concepts of…
Reviews the last major battle of World War II that occurred at Okinawa (Japan) in 1945. Explains why the Battle of Okinawa was the turning point in World War II. Includes two maps in the appendix and an annotated bibliography. (CMK)
pg 246 27 Chant, Christopher. 1975. Kursk. Great battles. London: Almark Publishing, pg 67 28 Overy, R. J. 1997. Russia’s war: blood upon the snow ...House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. 45 Mawdsley, Evan. 2005. Thunder in the East: the Nazi-Soviet war, 1941-1945. London; New York: Hodder...the Eastern.front, 1941. Novato, CA: Presidio Press. Fugate, Bryan I., and L. S. Dvoretski. 1997. Thunder on the Dnepr: Zhukov-Stalin and the defeat
XI Fliegerkorps. Though just settled in for a few hours rest, Student was awakened and received the news without emotion . He tiredly looked over the...Allies on the island. “Whenever the aircraft take off on a sortie, I feel like stuffing my fists into my ears so as not to hear the music of the...veterans proudly sporting the white “KRETA” cuffband, Student received no decoration for succeeding in Operation Merkur.305 He remembered, “The battle
This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.
Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman
Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...
Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard
This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....
Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we
This description of two courses of college level Legal Anthropology for senior citizens in continuing education shows how students with widely varying backgrounds examined legal dilemmas within their international cultural contexts using mystery stories and other fiction. The need for innovative teaching methods for adult learners is stressed. (AM)
Hatzinger, M; Stastny, M; Haferkamp, A
Apparently unimportant diseases of some prominent figures can have a considerable effect on the course of time at turning points in world history. It is quite conceivable that the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815 had been lost by France because Napoleon was not in full possession of his powers, because he was suffering from acute cystitis. Adverse weather conditions with continuous rain and coldness in advance of the battle, extremely primitive hygienic conditions and more than simple quarters for the night led to the development of cystitis. Based on the records of his biographers, his personal physician and the letters to his brother, we know that Napoleon was not able to give the command to attack in the early morning as intended, but in the early noon, only because of his bad general condition. This delay of several hours led, as we all know, to the intervention of Prussia and the devastating defeat of France. Thus it appears that a relatively unimportant urological disease influenced the course of world history crucially.
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.
Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.
Olesya A. Gomanenko
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of the Stalingrad Group of Troops. That military division was created after the end of the Battle of Stalingrad. The the Group’s creation was aimed at rest and training of the soldiers and officers who had left bloody battles to prepare them for the further military operations. For the first time in the Great Patriotic War the Group faced the practical challenge to help the civil authorities and administration to restore the economy and infrastructure of the region including the network of river lines, railways and highways. The Stalingrad Group of Troops had to carry out mine clearing of the area of military operations, to participate in collecting trophies, burial of the remains of fallen soldiers. Process of mine clearing was assigned to engineering parts of the 62nd, 64th, 66th armies. Four engineering and mine crews, two specialized battalions and one company, staff of Osoaviakhim, Management of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs were connected. The volume of the required works was considerable. The special plan was prepared, the territory was differentiated, terms were determined. During interrogations new developments of the German designers – mines, radio-controlled from Hamburg, and the jumping mines were found. Work on mine clearing of the district and collecting explosive objects continued during the whole reconstruction period. Activity of the Stalingrad Group of Troops allowed earlier beginning of the main reconstruction work in the city and the region.
Steinberg, Emma M; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Zickafoose, Joseph S; Kieffer, Edith; DeCamp, Lisa Ross
Providing safe and high-quality health care for children whose parents have limited English proficiency (LEP) remains challenging. Reports of parent perspectives on navigating language discordance in health care are limited. We analyzed portions of 48 interviews focused on language barriers from 2 qualitative interview studies of the pediatric health care experiences of LEP Latina mothers in 2 urban US cities. We found mothers experienced frustration with health care and reported suboptimal accommodation for language barriers. Six themes emerged relevant to health care across settings: the "battle" of managing language barriers, preference for bilingual providers, negative bias toward interpreted encounters, "getting by" with limited language skills, fear of being a burden, and stigma and discrimination experienced by LEP families. Parents' insights highlight reasons why effective language accommodation in health care remains challenging. Partnering with families to address the management of language barriers is needed to improve health care quality and safety for LEP patients and families.
Engh, Mari Haugaa
From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls....... This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15 years....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....
Today’s copyright wars can seem unprecedented. Sparked by the digital revolution that has made copyright—and its violation—a part of everyday life, fights over intellectual property have pitted creators, Hollywood, and governments against consumers, pirates, Silicon Valley, and open-access advocates. But while the digital generation can be forgiven for thinking the dispute between, for example, the publishing industry and Google is completely new, the copyright wars in fact stretch back three centuries—and their history is essential to understanding today’s battles. The Copyright Wars—the first major trans-Atlantic history of copyright from its origins to today—tells this important story. Peter Baldwin explains why the copyright wars have always been driven by a fundamental tension. Should copyright assure authors and rights holders lasting claims, much like conventional property rights, as in Continental Europe? Or should copyright be primarily concerned with giving consumers cheap and easy ac...
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Taylor, Kelley R.
The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro
This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...
Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).
great World War II 9th Air Force Commander, Major General Elwood P. " Pete " Quesada: - Close-in air ground cooperation is the difficult thing, the...Coordination -- A Time For Change!" Unpublished paper, U.S. Army War College, 1984. Rickett , Brigadier J.F. "Surviving the Air and Artillery
Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.
Full Text Available Descriptions of battle in Old English poetry frequently refer to noise: clattering weapons, howling beasts, and general clamor. Noises are particularly prominent in the type-scenes of the approach to battle and the beasts of battle, and they help evoke the psychological dimension of fighting, especially the mounting excitement and terror before the clash of armies. Further, beast-cries are often depicted as song; this is heavily ironic, but it also refers self-reflexively to the role of the poet. In _Exodus_ a contrast between trumpets and wolves articulates the drama of the Israelites’ struggle of faith. Trumpets are associated with courage, initiative, and communication, wolf-song with terror, paralysis, and loss of speech. The noisiness of the poem also helps to highlight, however, the poet’s mastery of a complex allegory. An exploration of battle noises enables us to relate Old English poetry to Elaine Scarry’s comments on language and war.
This report documents the methodology and lessons learned in the development of the Innovative Tools and Techniques for Brigade and Below Staff Training II - Battle Staff Training System II (ITTBBST-BSTS II...
Ceralde, Ray M
... (the blue picture). This paper argues that the projection of enemy vehicle locations and activity through spatial analysis tools will improve the enemy ground situation display in digital battle command and control systems...
Nelson, W. T; Bolia, Robert S
This paper describes the development of a human-machine interface style guide designed to promote a common look and feel among operator interfaces employed by air battle managers in the United States...
.... Following a relatively easy victory against the Vichy French after the amphibious landings of Operation Torch, the division lost a series of battles to the Germans, culminating in a decisive defeat at Kasserine Pass. Doctrine...
...) a directive instructing RDCs to ensure that the physical conditioning program for women is sufficient to prepare them for successful completion of the final physical readiness test and Battle Stations...
The purpose of this thesis is to determine which of three competing theories of what occurred at the Battle of Little Bighorn is the most plausible by utilizing the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS...
Gompert, David C; Lachow, Irving; Perkins, Justin; Smith, Raymond C; Wells, Linton
.... This is not so in the 21st century. Taking the information revolution as a starting point, Battle-Wise argues that only by strengthening the relationship between information technology and brain matter will the U.S...
This report demonstrates the application of a Bayesian Belief Network decision support method for Force Level Systems Engineering to a collection of projects related to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management...
.... The defeat of the Allied forces in the battle put doubt into the minds of many all of whom assumed the righteous democracies of the western Allies could not be defeated in the field by the armies of Fascism...
Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first
Badke, Lara K.
A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.
- political, social, intellectual, and legal -international eminent scholars offer their views on central aspects of the function of legal customs and of the development of one of the most debated concepts in legal historiography of the last century. Students and scholars of European legal history and legal...... culture and of medieval history in general should find this collection of essays a useful contribution to the continuing discussion about the development of European law, legal principles and notions of justice. Contents: Preface Introduction / John G. H. Hudson (University of St Andrews) Law and custom...
Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ducroux, R.
The climatic impact of massive releases of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels has become a major international issue. Atmospheric CO 2 concentration continually increases. At the present rate, it is predicted that by 2040 it will have doubled with respect to its pre-industrial level. In a growing world economy, now dependent on fossil fuels for 90% of its energy, only a drastic change in energy policy involving extensive use of CO 2 -free energies can make it possible to stabilize atmospheric CO 2 levels. With 35 % of its primary energy from nuclear reactors, France sets a good example for the greenhouse gas reduction. Using this energy has resulted in a 20% reduction in releases since 1973. During the same period, world emissions have increased by 45%. In view of the French experience in 25 years of managing a large number of nuclear reactors in respecting safety requirements and environmental impact, it appears that nuclear energy has an important role to play in the battle against greenhouse gases. (authors)
John J. Atherton
Full Text Available Heart failure represents an end-stage phenotype of a number of cardiovascular diseases and is generally associated with a poor prognosis. A number of organized battles fought over the last two to three decades have resulted in considerable advances in treatment including the use of drugs that interfere with neurohormonal activation and device-based therapies such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Despite this, the prevalence of heart failure continues to rise related to both the aging population and better survival in patients with cardiovascular disease. Registries have identified treatment gaps and variation in the application of evidenced-based practice, including the use of echocardiography and prescribing of disease-modifying drugs. Quality initiatives often coupled with multidisciplinary, heart failure disease management promote self-care and minimize variation in the application of evidenced-based practice leading to better long-term clinical outcomes. However, to address the rising prevalence of heart failure and win the war, we must also turn our attention to disease prevention. A combined approach is required that includes public health measures applied at a population level and screening strategies to identify individuals at high risk of developing heart failure in the future.
Atherton, John J.
Heart failure represents an end-stage phenotype of a number of cardiovascular diseases and is generally associated with a poor prognosis. A number of organized battles fought over the last two to three decades have resulted in considerable advances in treatment including the use of drugs that interfere with neurohormonal activation and device-based therapies such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Despite this, the prevalence of heart failure continues to rise related to both the aging population and better survival in patients with cardiovascular disease. Registries have identified treatment gaps and variation in the application of evidenced-based practice, including the use of echocardiography and prescribing of disease-modifying drugs. Quality initiatives often coupled with multidisciplinary, heart failure disease management promote self-care and minimize variation in the application of evidenced-based practice leading to better long-term clinical outcomes. However, to address the rising prevalence of heart failure and win the war, we must also turn our attention to disease prevention. A combined approach is required that includes public health measures applied at a population level and screening strategies to identify individuals at high risk of developing heart failure in the future. PMID:24278681
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.
In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won
Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...
Van Haute, J.S.R.; Kooy, J.
In February 1998, the Dutch Government initiated an MDW project ('Marktwerking, Deregulering en Wetgevingskwaliteit', i.e. market functioning, deregulation and quality of legislation) to review ways in which competition within the motorway segment of the Dutch retail fuel market could be improved. The project reviewed the entry barriers and considered ways to stimulate competition, including preferential treatment of new entrants. The Dutch Major oil companies protested against the original plans of the Government and announced legal proceedings. The Government agreed to engage in negotiations with the oil industry in order to reach a compromise solution and avoid a legal battle. This resulted in an alternative route, which is analyzed in this article from a legal perspective [nl
Koch, Christian; Vogelius, Peter
Managerial theory distilled into tidy concepts is continually and almost ritually launched into the international and national management audiences. The paper discuss the contemporary exemplar of such management concepts: Business Process Reengineering (BPR). By taking the management fads serious...... of enterprises. The moulding encompasses the role of management, consultants and possible participation of employees in the change.The contribution focus on exemplars of BPR promoted by actors or coalitions of actors. Taking the scene of Denmark as unit of analysis. The analysis show significant differences even...... by Champy & hammer. the differences seldom leads to open controversy, though the issue of the employment effect did expose different opinions in the professional press. most of the "battle" is however silently fought between managers and with consultants.the emphasis on differences between the bpr...
This article is focused on the jurisdictional battle between psychiatrists and psychologists over psychological expertise in legal contexts that took place during the first decades of the 20th century. Using, as an example, the debate between the psychologist William Stern, the psychiatrist Albert Moll, and the jurist Albert Hellwig, which occurred at the International Congress for Sexual Research held in Berlin in 1926, it aims to demonstrate the manner in which psychiatrists' responses to psychologists' attempts to gain admittance to Germany's courtrooms were shaped not only by epistemological and methodological objections, but also by changes to expert witnessing that had already encroached on psychiatrists' professional territory. Building upon recent work examining the relationship between psychologists and jurists prior to the First World War, this article also seeks to examine the role of judges and lawyers in the contest over forensic psychology in the mid-1920s, arguing that they ultimately became referees in the increasingly public disputes between psychiatrists and psychologists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available When I conducted fieldwork among the Darhad of northern Mongolia my informants repeatedly asserted that after a good singer’s performance even the most badly intoxicated lad stands still and keeps silent. In this article, I make three points in order to explain why this claim was made. In the first one, I show that the main concern about singing performance at social gatherings is not about revealing the singer’s inner emotional realm but rather about crafting a collective feeling that has the ability to make people temporarily shed their otherness and converge. The problem with drunkards lies in the fact that they are unable to participate and even noisily impede this rite of convergence. The main reason is that they are not sufficiently detached from their own inner realm. I then put the concept of noise in context, arguing that it forms the repulsive pole of a Mongolian sonic continuum. In my last point, I stress the fact that according to Mongolian linguistic ideology, noise brings misfortune to the entire community. That is why good singers must win their battle against drunkards.
[Name removed], after a four-year court battle, has been awarded visitation rights with his three daughters. [Name removed] separated from his wife [name removed] in [name removed] 1991 after telling her he was diagnosed with HIV. The custody dispute originally centered around not only [name removed]'s HIV status, but also his homosexuality (he had left his wife for the family friend and godfather to one of the couple's daughter's). Custody judge Audrey E. Melbourne allowed [name removed] to see his daughters at his home, excluding overnight, weekday or holiday visits. [Name removed]'s appeal focused on the medical aspects of HIV transmission in the household. Since Mrs. [Name removed]' expert witness conceded that he knew of no recorded instances of a person transmitting HIV to another person through bathing, cooking or breathing, the judge agreed the risk of transmission was so small as to pose no threat to the children's safety. [Name removed] was awarded visitation on alternating weekends, plus alternating Federal holidays.
de Zwaan, K.; gerber, adrian
This article offers a cross-national analysis of the historical reception of the American war film The Battle Cry of Peace (J. Stuart Blackton and Wilfred North/Vitagraph, 1915) in the neutral countries of the Netherlands and Switzerland during World War I. Treating propaganda as a mode de lecture,
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.
Z. Gonul BALKIR
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni
A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.
Joshua D. Wright
Full Text Available Supporters of the Confederate battle flag often argue that their support is driven by pride in the South, not negative racial attitudes. Opponents of the Confederate battle flag often argue that the flag represents racism, and that support for the flag is an expression of racism and an attempt to maintain oppression of Blacks in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners. In the aggregate, our latent variable model suggests that White support for the flag is driven by Southern pride, political conservatism, and blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks. Using cluster-analysis we were able to distinguish four distinct sub-groups of White Southerners: Cosmopolitans, New Southerners, Traditionalists, and Supremacists. The greatest support for the Confederate battle flag is seen among Traditionalists and Supremacists; however, Traditionalists do not display blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks, while Supremacists do. Traditionalists make up the majority of Confederate battle flag supporters in our sample, weakening the claim that supporters of the flag are generally being driven by negative racial attitudes toward Blacks.
The European Court of Justice has played a pivotal role in the transformation of international law obligations between Member States into an integrated legal order with direct applicability and effect in those Member States. This article explores whether or not the ECJ continues to be relevant to EU governance and integration and whether it continues to transform the legal orders of the Member States. It briefly outlines the early case law which transformed the legal order, and the preliminar...
Faundes; Anibal; Shah; Iqbal H.
Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal con...
... to secure support bases. The paper looks specifically at the battle of Dien Bien Phu during the French-Indochina War of 1946 to 1954 and the battle of Khe Sanh during the second Indochina War in 1967...
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund
This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....
Full Text Available It is well known that the breastplates of many armours from the later 16th century and the 17th century bear the hemispherical dents generally known as proof marks. It has been taken as axiomatic that these marks were made in order to demonstrate the armours’ effectiveness against firearms. If however some of these dents are compared with dents which are the result of battle damage, it appears that they were made by energy levels of a different order of magnitude, and offer little guarantee as to the “proof” of the armour. Como es bien sabido, muchos petos de armaduras de finales del siglo XVI y del XVII tienen abolladuras semiesféricas conocidas como pruebas de arcabuz. Se ha considerado axiomático que estas abolladuras fueron hechas para demostrar la efectividad de las armaduras frente a las armas de fuego. Sin embargo, si se comparan con otras debidas a daños en combate, parece que fueron producidas por energías de diferente orden o magnitud, al tiempo que ofrecen pocas garantías como “pruebas” de las armaduras.
It is well known that the breastplates of many armours from the later 16th century and the 17th century bear the hemispherical dents generally known as proof marks. It has been taken as axiomatic that these marks were made in order to demonstrate the armours’ effectiveness against firearms. If however some of these dents are compared with dents which are the result of battle damage, it appears that they were made by energy levels of a different order of magnitude, and offer little guarantee as to the “proof” of the armour.
Como es bien sabido, muchos petos de armaduras de finales del siglo XVI y del XVII tienen abolladuras semiesféricas conocidas como pruebas de arcabuz. Se ha considerado axiomático que estas abolladuras fueron hechas para demostrar la efectividad de las armaduras frente a las armas de fuego. Sin embargo, si se comparan con otras debidas a daños en combate, parece que fueron producidas por energías de diferente orden o magnitud, al tiempo que ofrecen pocas garantías como “pruebas” de las armaduras.
data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...
Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.
This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered
Ovidiu – Horia Maican
Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.
Strelnick, A Hal; Lee-Rey, Elizabeth; Nivet, Marc; Soto-Greene, Maria L
Spurred by its rapidly changing demographics, the United States is striving to reduce and eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities. To do so, it must overcome the legacy of individual, institutional, and structural racism and resolve conflicts in related political and social ideologies. This has moved the struggle over diversity in the health professions outside the laboratories and ivy-covered walls of academic medicine into the halls of Congress and chambers of the US Supreme Court. Although equal employment opportunity and affirmative action programs began as legal remedies for distinct histories of legally sanctioned racial and gender discrimination, they also became effective means for increasing the representation of underrepresented minorities in higher education and the health professions. Beginning in the 1970s and continuing today, legal challenges to measures for realizing equal opportunity and leveling the playing field have reached the US Supreme Court and state-wide ballot initiatives. These historical challenges and successes are the subject of this article. Although the history is not exhaustive, it aims to provide an important context for the struggles of advocates to improve the representation of underrepresented minorities in medicine and reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.
Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України
In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...
Aleksandr A. Ogarkov
Full Text Available In 2012–2013, a project of high social significance, novelty, and a scientific challenge was implemented in Volgograd. The goal of the project was to prepare the manuscript of a biographic encyclopedia “Stalingraders in The Battle of Stalingrad”. The database of sources that have never been published consists of materials of 80 museums and archives of Volgograd and 30 municipal subjects of the Volgograd region. The novelty of the project consists in the fact that it constitutes the first case of biographic and prosopographic research on the local aspect of the battle. The manuscript includes more than 5 000 biographic articles. The project bears high social significance since it generalizes the data on people for whom the Battle of Stalingrad was the battle for their “little Motherland”. Introducing the biographies of Stalingraders into the research has a memorial goal. The research problems under the project are also important. The new research paradigm, defined as “human dimension of war” leads to collecting a huge amount of empirical data. The idea of the project, as well as the difficulties in its completion, are very characteristic for the current stage of Russian research of the Great Patriotic War. Data collection, large-scale search projects on war cites, interest to all new resources go beyond the professional society of historians. However, generalizing this material, and verifying sources remains within the competence of experts. The historians must evaluate the conceptual idea of quantitative methods in studying war history of Russia. In the project, the quantitative methods lead to supported conclusions about close interaction of the front and the rear at the level of everyday life; they remove the stereotypes of exclusively sacrificial role of civilians in the Battle of Stalingrad. The project overcomes the one-sided look at the war generation as to the “chosen” one, having a special part in history; this allows
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the socio-legal characteristics of succession battles, drawn from a large-scale empirical study of contemporary inheritance and probate procedures and conflicts in Israel. The study shows that litigating disappointed "heirs", i.e. people who challenge the division of the estate because their inheritance hopes have been shattered, are an exception to the rule of undisputed probate and administration of estates. Moreover, the findings point to the will as a risk factor which allows disappointed "heirs" to approach the court, while legal disputes in intestate cases are even scarcer. Based on the findings, the paper also offers a typology of the relational triangles – between the deceased, the alleged heirs, and the disappointed "heirs" - which characterize most of the cases studied. This typology is correlated to the finding that most succession conflicts are not among nuclear family members, but among parties who are remote relatives or with no family relation. Finally, the study documents two dominant outcomes of succession battles: out-of-court compromises that do not respect the prima facie deceased's last wishes; and the irreversible destruction of relationships between siblings. The paper ends with a discussion of the sociological question concerning the possible increase or decrease of the phenomenon of disappointed "heirs", and of the legal implications of the study's findings. Este artículo se centra en las características sociojurídicas de las disputas de sucesión, obtenidas a partir de un estudio empírico a gran escala de los procedimientos contemporáneos de herencias y sucesiones y los conflictos en Israel. El estudio demuestra que los “herederos” decepcionados que litigan, es decir, las personas que cuestionan la división de los bienes porque no se han colmado sus expectativas, son una excepción a la regla de las sucesiones y administración de bienes sin disputas. Es más, los resultados apuntan al
Jan M. Broekman
Full Text Available The work of the great American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 becomes more and more appreciated beyond the boundaries of his pragmatism, a philosophical mainstream he founded in the early 20th century. This essay is inspired by five points of interest, all of which focus on law and legal discourse. Firstly, one should acknowledge that his proposal pertaining to a general theory of signs, which he called ‘semeiotics’ around 1860, leads to an untraditional and in-depth understanding of legal discourse: in essence, of law as a system of specific meanings and signs. Semiotics in general became a substantial part of his ‘evolutionary cosmology,’ an all-embracing approach to tackle classical and modern philosophical issues. Secondly, his anthropological intuition based on semiotics, (concentrated in the formula ‘man is a sign’ became important for our understanding of a human subject’s position in law, as author of a legal discourse as well as an individual subjected to law. Thirdly, the tensions between chance and continuity in legal discourse are of focal interest for the creation of legal meaning in law’s practices. Novelty, Peirce suggested in this context, occurs by the grace of chance rather than of continuity and fixed traditions. Fourthly, Roberta Kevelson (1931-1998 explored and expanded the field of legal semiotics on the basis of the works of Peirce. In doing so, she established an American tradition of legal semiotics distinct from a European tradition, which related more to linguists, psychologists and philosophers embracing structuralism. Fifthly, Tyche, the Ancient Goddess of fate and fortune, is because of Peirce’s references more at home in the US legal semiotic tradition. Her fame and influence reaches beyond law and became supported by recent archaeological discoveries, publications and exhibitions, which not only provide information about her background, but also underline her possible influence on
Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D
The purpose of this study is to determine battlefield effectiveness of the self-healing minefield (''Frogs'') concept system compared to basecases of the standard AP/AT (anti-personnel/anti-tank) mixed minefield, the AT (anti-tank) pure minefield, and no minefields. This involves tactical modeling where a basecase with and without mines is compared to the concept system. However, it is first necessary to establish system characteristics and behavior of the Frog mine and minefield in order to do the tactical modeling. This initial report provides emerging insights into various minefield parameters in order to allow better program definition early in the conceptual development. In the following sections of this report, we investigate the self-healing minefield's ground pattern and several concepts for movement (''jump'') of a mine. Basic enemy breaching techniques are compared for the different mine movement concepts. These results are then used in the (Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation) JCATS tactical model to evaluate minefield effects in a combat situation. The three basecases and the Frogs concept are used against a North Korean mechanized rifle battalion and outcomes are compared. Preliminary results indicate: (1) Possible breaching techniques for the self-healing minefield were proposed and compared through simulation modeling. Of these, the best breaching counter to the self-healing minefield is the ''wide-lane'' breach technique. (2) Several methods for mine movement are tested and the optimal method from this group was selected for use in the modeling. However, continued work is needed on jump criteria; a more sophisticated model may reduce the advantage of the breach counter. (3) The battle scenario used in this study is a very difficult defense for Blue. In the three baseline cases (no mines, AT mines only, and mixed AT/AP minefield), Blue loses. Only in the Frog case does Blue win, and
Panumate, Chetprayoon; Xiong, Shuo; Iida, Hiroyuki
This paper explores the attractiveness of Pokemon which is a turn-based Role Playing Game (RPG) and has been very popular for the decades. In this study we focus on Pokemon battle which is the most important component in Pokemon. The game refinement theory is used as a tool to assess the degree of sophistication of Pokemon battle. For this purpose we apply two approaches of game progress modeling to derive game refinement measure, i.e., score limit sports approach and board game approach. We ...
it best about learning from mistakes in life: “There is no wisdom in the second kick of a mule .” Although he did not have 21st-century warfare in...part of our military leadership—can we expect to avoid the “second kick of a mule .” xii BATTLE-WISE PREFACE xiii xiii Preface This book is an inquiry...recruiting meth - ods. Depending on work experience before joining the military, it may be possible actually to identify battle-wise traits in recruits. For
Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.
Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.
This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...
... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...
... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...
Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)
The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Abat Ninet, Antoni
The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...
Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril
Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984
Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril
Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.
Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle
The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice
Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.
In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary
This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)
This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Full Text Available Abstract The art in law, like medicine, is in its humanity. Nowhere is the humanity in law more poignant than in BC Supreme Court Justice Ian Pitfield's recent judgment in the legal case aimed at protecting North America's only supervised injection facility (SIF as a healthcare program: PHS Community Services Society versus the Attorney General of Canada. In order to protect the SIF from politicization, the PHS Community Services Society, the community organization that established and operates the program, along with two people living with addiction and three lawyers working for free, pro bono publico, took the federal government of Canada to court. The courtroom struggle that ensued was akin to a battle between David and Goliath. The judge in the case, Justice Pitfield, ruled in favour of the PHS and gave the Government of Canada one year to bring the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA into compliance with the country's Charter of Rights and Freedoms. If parliament fails to do so, then the CDSA will evaporate from enforceability and law in June of 2009. Despite the fact that there are roughly twelve million intravenous drug addiction users in the world today, politics andprejudice oards harm reduction are still a barrier to the widespread application of the "best medicine" available for serious addicts. Nowhere is this clearer than in the opposition by conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his faithful servant, federal health minister Tony Clement, towards Vancouver's SIF ("Insite". The continued angry politicization of addiction will only lead to the tragic loss of life, as addicts are condemned to death from infectious diseases (HIV & hepatitis and preventable overdoses. In light of the established facts in science, medicine and now law, political opposition to life-saving population health programs (including SIFs to address the effects of addiction is a kind of implicit capital punishment for the addicted. This commentary
Alderson, C.J.; Hogg, P.
Allied health and nursing professionals are continuing to expand their responsibilities into clinical areas outside their traditional spheres of interest; typically, many of these new responsibilities are found within the medical (doctor) domain. Such responsibilities are often at an advanced clinical level and consequently higher demands are placed upon the professionals, not least in terms of clinical updating, competence to practice and also legal liability. This article explores the legal implications of practising at an advanced clinical level with particular reference to legal claims. The first part of the article commences with an outline of pertinent law in England and Wales. The latter part of the article explores actual cases from which allied health professionals (eg radiographers) can gain valuable information. Throughout the article suggestions for good practice are indicated. Examples of good practice include: the need to base your practice on evidence and peer practice; the need to keep detailed records (protocols) of such practice; the need to know when you are at the limit of your ability; and as such when to ask for advice from a medical practitioner/radiologist
Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda
Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 4 (1990) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The battle of Britain - as it really ...
Pullen, J.M.; Corner, D.; Singapogo, S.S.; Clarc, N.; Cordonnier, N.; Menane, M.; Khimeche, L.; Mevassvik, O.M.; Alstad, A.; Schad, U.; Frey, M.; Reus, N. M. de; Krom, P.P.J. de; Grand, N.P. le; Brook, A.
The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 48 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language for multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with modeling and simulation. Its initial work in defining and
We present the unique solution to the quantum Battle of the Sexes game. We show the best result to be achieved when the game is played according to Marinatto and Weber's scheme. The result which we put forward does not surrender the criticism of previous works on the same topic.
Dibbets, K.; Groot, W.
While the Netherlands tried to maintain neutrality during World War I, the belligerent nations watched the country and its public opinion closely. At the same time, the French, English, and German authorities used propaganda to influence Dutch public opinion. The famous documentary film The Battle
Gennady G. Matishov
Full Text Available The successor to Bogdan Khmelnitsky, the new hetman of Army of Zaporozhye Ivan Vygovsky in 1658 switched sides Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and entered into an alliance with the Crimean Khan. To suppress the rebellion came to Ukraine by Russian troops of Prince Alexey Trubetskoy. His support of the Ukrainian Cossacks. In Ukraine flared up a real civil war (Ruin. June 28, 1659, near Konotop Russian cavalry under the command of Prince Semen Pozharsky defeated. Trubetskoi had to retreat. But Vygovsky failed to take full advantage of the results of the battle. The article examines the historiography of Konotop battle about the politics of memory. Historiographical sources are pre-revolutionary, Soviet, Russian, Ukrainian, studies and textbooks of history. The authors show how one of the battles of Russian-Polish war (1654–1667 focus has been placed under the influence of political circumstances. Konotop battle was seen in Ukrainian historiography as one of the most significant victories of the Ukrainian people in the struggle for independence. This is reflected in the Ukrainian history textbooks and other forms of historical memory.
Løvlid, R.A.; Alstad, A.; Mevassvik, O.M.; Reus, N.M. de; Henderson, H.C.; Vecht, B.van der; Luik, T.T.
In the military, Command and Control Information Systems (C2ISs) are used for issuing commands to subordinate units. In training or decision support, simulations are used instead of live military forces. The Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) is currently being developed as an interface
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 43--Battle Creek, MI; Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone 43 was approved by the FTZ Board on October 19, 1978 (Board Order [email protected]trade.gov or (202) 482-0473. Dated: August 25, 2010. Andrew McGilvray, Executive Secretary. [FR Doc...
In the Green Tax Battle a team of professors, a team of professional accountants and a team of social and environmental organizations compete with each other to present the most effective and innovative proposal for a further greening of the tax system in the Netherlands. The emphasis is on commuter traffic. [nl
Schacher, G. E. (Gordon Everett); Pilnick, Steve; Irvine, Nelson; Gallup, Shelley
Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Field Training Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report contains results obtained on contributions made by the Joint Fires Network to Navy Time Sensitive Targeting and experiment lessons learned. NA
Wanneberg Pia Lundquist
Full Text Available Introduction. In order to examine the consequences that a changed view of the child had on early twentieth-century teaching in Sweden, this article analyses a battle that erupted when a proposal for new lesson content for Swedish school gymnastics was presented.
Geerten van de Kaa
Full Text Available The transition to a more sustainable personal transportation sector requires the widespread adoption of electric vehicles. However, a dominant design has not yet emerged and a standards battle is being fought between battery and hydrogen fuel cell powered electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to analyze which factors are most likely to influence the outcome of this battle, thereby reducing the uncertainty in the industry regarding investment decisions in either of these technologies. We examine the relevant factors for standard dominance and apply a multi-criteria decision-making method, best worst method, to determine the relative importance of these factors. The results indicate that the key factors include technological superiority, compatibility, and brand reputation and credibility. Our findings show that battery powered electric vehicles have a greater chance of winning the standards battle. This study contributes to theory by providing further empirical evidence that the outcome of standards battles can be explained and predicted by applying factors for standard success. We conclude that technology dominance in the automotive industry is mostly driven by technological characteristics and characteristics of the format supporter.
Fighting A Losing Battle: Assessing The Impact Of Mother-Tongue Education Advocacy In A Hostile Environment. ... One major challenge has been to decide on the medium of instruction that would be not only effective, but also acceptable to the relevant communities. Although UNESCO (1953) and a number of other ...
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.
A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...
Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to
І. M. Alieksieieva
Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts
Vladimir P. Trut
Full Text Available The paper deals with both the known and poorly studied aspects of the Stalingrad Battle. The study is based on the analysis of historiography and diverse sources. The author provides the most precise and objective data about the battle and the losses of Soviet troops in the Stalingrad defensive and Stalingrad offensive strategic operations. The documents of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation have been introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. Their study has allowed analyzing the tactical actions of the Soviet troops in the period of fierce fights in Stalingrad and during the counter-offensive of the Red Army. It’s contributed to filling the gaps in the study of the Battle of Stalingrad. Based on these new sources, the paper discusses the nature of military actions of specially formed assault groups of urban combat and their special tactics. These groups played a very important role in the complex conditions of street fighting, particularly during the liberation of the city. During the preparation for the general counter-offensive at the Stalingrad front, the Soviet Command developed a number of new different tactical techniques of the units, which contributed greatly to the success of their offensive operations. Active and large-scale use of the new warfare tactics by the Soviet army in Stalingrad and in the general counter-offensive of the Red Army during the Operation Uranus had let the soldiers successfully perform the military tasks, and inflict defeat. Eventually this played an important role in the victorious end of the Battle of Stalingrad. Using the experience of successful tactics by the Soviet troops during the Battle of Stalingrad played an important role in their subsequent large-scale offensive operations, including the operations in hard conditions of assaults on the cities occupied by the enemy.
Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...
Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.
. The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...
João Maurício Adeodato
Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.
Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl
This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.
Rodica Diana APAN
Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.
CO2 emissions from energy production and consumption are a major contributor to climate change. Thus, stabilising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere by reducing these emissions is an increasingly urgent international necessity. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents one of the most promising potential solutions to contain emissions resulting from continued use of coal and other fossil fuels. However, challenges such as a lack of legal and regulatory frameworks to guide near-term demonstration projects and long-term technology expansion must be addressed to facilitate the expanded use of CCS. In October 2006, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) convened with legal experts,to discuss the range of legal issues associated with expanded use of CCS and to identify ways to facilitate further CCS development and implementation Participants examined gaps and barriers to the deployment of CCS and identified recommendations to guide further development of appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks. This publication provides policymakers with a detailed summary of the main legal issues surrounding the CCS debate, including up-to-date background information, case studies and conclusions on the best legal and regulatory approaches to advance CCS. These strategies can be used to enable further development, deployment and demonstration of CCS technology, potentially an essential element in global efforts to mitigate climate change.
Full Text Available The purpose of article is to analyze the evolution of legal regulation of higher education in Russia since the beginning up to the beginning of reform in modern conditions.Characteristics of the problem field. Higher education is studied in various aspects (sociological, cultural, historical, economic. An independent institute of educational law is distinguished in the legal science. Serious transformations of higher education in the Russian Federation have actualized the need for understanding the domestic experience of legal regu-lation. The state policy in the sphere of higher education and the evolution of educational legislation are studied in historical and legal studies.The methodology. The narrative method is the method of description. It is necessary for the reconstruction of past events and phenomena. The narrative method is supplemented by a chronological method. The formal legal method is applied to the interpretation of norms. The sociological method establishes the links between state policy, regulatory legal regulations and the social result achieved. The comparative method is used fragmentarily.Results. Higher education is a relatively new social institution. In the European tradition it took shape during the Middle Ages. The completed model was formed in the XIX century in Germany.The Russian Empire used the German model. Higher education was regulated by the state. The main regulations governing educational relations at the university were the General Charters. These Charters reflected the autonomy of universities.Three stages are identified in the legal and regulatory framework of higher education in the Soviet period: 1917 – the first floor 1930s; second floor 1930s – the first floor 1950s; second floor 1950s – 1980s.At the first stage the state regulated only politically and ideologically important educational relations. Many questions were not regulated centrally. In the 1930s the state impact on higher education was
Goldberg, David J
Cosmetic laser surgery is a continuously evolving field of medicine. According to the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, over 100 million laser and light source cosmetic procedures were performed by its members. Procedures including hair removal, nonablative treatments, as well as removal of pigmented lesions, tattoos, and unwanted vascular lesions have revolutionized this field. With an increasing number of physicians and nonphysicians performing these procedures, and with the availability of increasingly powerful laser technologies, the potential for problems and their legal consequences continue to increase. This chapter will deal with the concept of negligence and the potential for a resultant medical malpractice that may arise in such a setting. An understanding of the basic principles of a cause of action in medical malpractice will likely protect a physician from losing such a case in a court of law.
Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a moral or ...
South Africa. She argues convincingly that the current unrecognised status of Muslim marriages is not favourable to women because their marriages fall outside the realm of the mainstream legal systems in South Africa (the common and the customary law). She continues to discuss two Bills in various stages of evolution ...
ABSTRACT. Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a ...
Mullen, Patrick R.; Griffith, Catherine; Greene, Jennifer H.; Lambie, Glenn W.
The use of social media continues to expand in prevalence and is a medium of communication for individuals of all ages. Schools are using social media to engage their stakeholders at increasing rates. Therefore, school counselors require the knowledge and appreciation of ethical and legal issues regarding the use of such technology. The purpose of…
This paper focuses on legal service delivery for the indigent by attorneys in private practice acting pro bono in civil rather than criminal matters. In this regard there have been and continue to be considerable gaps between the proper access to civil justice imperatives of constitutional South Africa and the status quo which ...
Eckes, C.; Neergaard, U.; Nielsen, R.
Notwithstanding the permanent state of crises of the European Union (EU or Union) in the past seven years, EU law continues to govern the legal relationships of individuals and Member States in ever more areas. Union law is self-reinforcing in the sense that it is constructed to increase in scope
van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C
Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by
United States Air Force (USAF) Aircraft Battle Damage Repair (ABDR) strategies, techniques and technologies are directly applicable to NASA efforts to develop on-orbit repair capabilities for the International Space Station (ISS...
Full Text Available This contribution is devoted to the tapestry cycle of the Battle of Pavia conserved at the Museo Capodimonte in Naples. Seven tapestries compose this prestigious tapestry set that commemorates the first military success of Charles V: the battle held in Pavia on 24 February 1525. Up to now the tapestries have been interpreted as independent panels representing different episodes of the battle. In this contribution we will show that the seven panels actually originated in one single design, which we rediscovered by assembling them in a different sequence. In fact, the panels provide a description of the battle in a fabulous and unique panoramic landscape: the most monumental siege city view ever conceived in the sixteenth century. This discovery not only changes our lecture of the tapestries, but also raises numerous questions that should be addressed in future studies.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2008, the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary (MNMS) commenced a multiyear project focusing on shipwreck sites associated with the Battle of the Atlantic. During...
Berlingher Remus Daniel
Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.
Hudson, P.; Hudson, R.; Philip, J.; Boughey, M.; Kelly, B.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.
Objective: Despite the availability of palliative care in many countries, legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) continues to be debated - particularly around ethical and legal issues - and the surrounding controversy shows no signs of abating. Responding to EAS requests is
Mika, Joseph J.; Shuman, Bruce A.
This fourth lesson in a continuing education course on legal issues affecting libraries and librarians discusses the library's rights and legal responsibilities in the areas of censorship and intellectual freedom, the Freedom of Information Act and patron privacy, problem patrons, and ethical considerations of library services. (14 references)…
Full Text Available The Narration of the Battle with Mamai (Skazanie o Mamaevom poboišče, dedicated to the famous Russian military victory over the Tatars on the Kulikovo Field (1380, is generally considered the central work of the Kulikovo cycle. The anonymous author develops a consistent reinterpretation of the historical event in a liturgical and commemorative key by constantly adopting forms of prayer and of hagiographic narrative. The analysis of the numerous biblical quotations that weave the plot introduces the deeper meaning of Narration: the final incorporation of the Hellenistic-Christian chronotope in the Slavic "Orthodox Christianity" in which Moscow and "Russian land" have become central.
Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches
this battle was (ought as the re- sult of a surprise attack on the Western Front. Since then the de - tails have gradually unfolded and the Battle of...Europe TABLE OP CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 THE FRONT ON 16 DECEMBER 1944 2 THE GERMAN STRIKE 2 THE MARCH TOST. VITH 5 THE DEFENSE IS...launched the first of the bitter attacks which were to be huiled at the 7th Armored Division during the next six days. The attack hit Reserve Command
The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)
depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...
Full Text Available This article, with reference to theoretical and polemical essays collected in L’Avventura novecentista (1938, retraces Bontempelli’s perspective on the project of cultural renewal (the Novecentism, which he himself promoted in the 1920’s. This article presents not only the battles he sustained and his farsightedness, but also the problems or rather the challenges of this project. Along these challenges came the utopian battle against relativism, the tendency to defend the autonomy of art and the contemporary requirement that this autonomy be open to the necessities of that time, as well the attempt to conciliate an artistic work, inclined to break the norms and expectations, with a concept of popular literature and art.
Shelepov, A M; Kriuchkov, O A
Covered and analyzed the state of medical support during the Battle for Moscow. The problems of organizing of medical support for troops during all stages of this war--defensive operations and counter-offensive strategic operations are considered. Analyzed errors and mistakes made in the course of medical support of combat operations of the fronts that participated in the battle for Moscow. The article traces the solutions of the problems encountered and assess the results of translating these decisions into practice. Particular attention is paid to problems of organization of work as a hospital base fronts and armies, and the medical units and divisional managers, as well as management of medical service, evacuate the wounded and sick, the dynamics of formation of the provision of specialized medical care and anti security forces.
Collinet, Cécile; Lessard, Coralie
La Street Dance, forme dansée issue de la culture hip-hop, se développe depuis les années 1990 en intégrant de plus en plus des modes d’affrontement compétitifs nommées battles. Ces derniers représentent une pratique « sportivisée » de « danse-combat » caractéristique de la population jeune, populaire et urbaine qui la pratique. Nous montrons que la forme sportivisée des battles contribue premièrement à transformer la pratique de cette activité en rationalisant les techniques du corps qui lui...
Congressional legislation seeking to overturn US government restrictions on international family planning assistance face a possible presidential veto. Dating back to the Reagan years, the 1984 Mexico City Policy prohibits foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGO) receiving US money from performing or actively promoting abortion as a family planning method. Even if abortion is legal in that particular country, the agency involved may not even discuss abortion as one of the medical options of a pregnant woman. In line with the Mexico City Policy, the US has withdrawn funding from both the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the largest NGO in the population field, and the Family Planning International Assistance, the international division of the Planned Parenthood federation of America. One of the effects of the Mexico City Policy has been to make family planning more controversial, and to increase opposition to birth control. In addition to the Mexico City Policy, the Reagan years also saw the implementation of a policy that denies funding to the UNFPA, charged by the US of "co-managing" China's population program that engages in coercive abortion and involuntary sterilization. The UNFPA has denied such charges. So far, President George Bush -- previously a supporter of family planning programs -- has sided with opponents of abortion, and has threatened a veto threat may soon be tested, since Congress has drafted a foreign aid appropriations bill that has includes a measure saying that NGOs should be treated in the same manner as their governments, which are exempt from the Mexico City Policy so long as US funds are not used to support abortions.
Masotti, P.; Zonta, F.
A new European directive concerning ionising radiation treatment of foodstuffs has been recently adopted, although National laws may continue to be applied at least until 31 December 2000. A brief updated review dealing with the legal and analytical aspects of food irradiation is presented. The legal status of the food irradiation issue presently in force in Italy, in the European Union and in the USA is discussed. Some of the most used and reliable analytical methods for detecting irradiated foodstuffs, with special reference to standardised methods of European Committee of Standardization, are listed [it
An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)
textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted
Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...
President Clinton ignited a new money battle for providers last week as he proposed an activist healthcare agenda in his proposal to balance the federal budget in the next fiscal year. In his $1.733 trillion fiscal 1999 spending plan, Clinton proposed that providers and health plans pay $659.2 million in new user fees to fund expanded provider audits, certification surveys and a host of other HCFA activities.
Chinese culture and tradition stand in direct opposition to American and European cultures. Chinese children must live according to the principles of metaconfucianism from an early age. Failure to do so threatens social ostracism. Amy Chua in her autobiographical novel Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother describes the education of her two daughters living in America according to the principles present in China. The educational methods used by Chua are considered controversial by western parent...
Poster presented at conference, 'On Boudica's Trail', Atherstone Civic Soc. at Warwick University, UK. First, take Tacitus’ description of the battle site - a defile facing an open plain - and as objectively as possible search the terrain of southern Britain for matching sites. Second, compute the river flows across Britain in August; calculate the water requirements for the protagonists; use both to identify rivers capable of supplying sufficient water to the Romans and Britons. Third, c...
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Lee, Uih Ran; Sundberg, Ralph; Spagat, Michael
Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors) that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002-2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI), defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1.) 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67%) refrained from targeting civilians. 2.) Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3.) In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4.) When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. Most warring groups in 2002-2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal behavior into targeting civilians, and less into battles, than groups in larger
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Lee, Uih Ran; Sundberg, Ralph; Spagat, Michael
Background Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors) that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002–2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI), defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1.) 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67%) refrained from targeting civilians. 2.) Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3.) In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4.) When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. Conclusions/Significance Most warring groups in 2002–2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal behavior into
Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002-2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI, defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1. 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67% refrained from targeting civilians. 2. Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3. In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4. When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most warring groups in 2002-2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal
and fractures (58% and 27%, respectively).1 The frequency of head and neck injuries accounts for 29% of all battle injuries in the conflicts, which is...of the man- dible fracture with external pin fixation. The mandibular soft tissue defect was temporarily closed and the patient evacuat- ed to BAMC in...with a free osteofasciocutaneous fibula flap option to recon- struct the chin, lower lip, floor of the mouth, and mandible. Due to the elapsed time
Cowan, Susanna M.
As we continue to revise our formal definitions of "information literacy" and to hone our delivery of information literacy across higher education, have we failed to see that information literacy as a programmatic aim, for all of its successes to date, is no longer relevant? The essay charts how the institutionalization of information…
van Teijlingen, K.
Continuously increasing demands of a planet hungry for commodities has opened the race for the resources of the Amazon region. Currently, 21 and 15 per cent of the Amazon is under concession to mining companies and hydrocarbon companies, respectively according to the Red Amazónica de Información
Feb 1, 2018 ... As South Sudan grapples with conflict, political instability and continuing poor health infrastructures among myriads of other problems, a growing number of cancer cases is causing alarm in the medical community. All the risk factors for cancer are rampant in South Sudan: tobacco smoking, alcohol ...
Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær
Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....
its support network of latent coalition. o Help to nominate high pay-off target lists as situation changes. • Promote active use of semiotics to...detecting semiotic signals and spatial cues; o (c) haptic or tactile cues for covert communications. Future BCS will need decision support tools...Loyalty is centered on the parent organization. Language learning will continue to be a constraint in coalition and/or joint environments using
combatant forces. The first group,was scheduled to arrive on November llth, and the second on November 12th. 27-2 The ZEILIN, LIBRA , and BETELGEUSE...near misses slightly damaged the LIBRA and BETELGEUSE. There were considerable personnel casualties. The vessels continued unloading after the...and LIBRA of Task Group 62.4 anchored two miles eastward of Lunga Point. Combatant vessels were disposed about the Transport Group in two protective
honor, and loyalty caused airmen to engage the enemy continually despite the understanding that they and their brethren were likely to become...honor and loyalty . Political beliefs have ties to the legitimacy of the conflict and belief in the cause. By evaluating...Vietnam, and did not experience an increase in aircraft losses. C.R. Anderegg, Sierra Hotel : Flying Air Force Fighters in the Decade after Vietnam
the interrogation techniques utilized at the Guantanamo detention facility, and concerns over the continuing policy of preemptive strikes against...amphibious doctrine was still in its infancy; the lessons on the tactics, techniques , and procedures required to gain access and conduct sustained...He was, in effect, conducting a symphony from the second violin section...What risks deserved his highest concern: the risk to the expeditionary
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery
Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.
In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,
Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.
National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.
In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…
Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.
Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations
Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…
Macdonald, R. St. J.
Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)
Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"
Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís
The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.
Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)
Odlind, V.; Ericson, A.
The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden
Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep
Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Lisett D. Páez Cuba
Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.
... approaches and techniques for improving team performance and enhancing effectiveness, concepts for battlespace visualization and decision support, and the integration of collaborative battle management systems...
Tamara M. Matović
Full Text Available Byzantine, Graeco-Roman, law is the organic continuation of Roman law. However, the legal system itself, and many legal institutions in it, had gone through certain evolution. In this article, by researching Greek acts conserved in various monastic arhives, and confronting them with stipulations in the Byzantine law codes, we question the issues of consensuality of a contract, form of a legal deed, and acquisation of a real right in Byzantine private law. The nature of contracts in Byzantine law has not been sufficiently studied. Richful theoretical studies had been written in regards to the contract of purchase in Roman and Justinians law, however various and sometimes confronting information from the later Greek codes did not give definite answers to this question. Byzantine codices on this theme encompass already familiar stipulations and legal institutes. The attention of the lawgiver was on the notary system, on the mechanism which produced a written instrument. We believe that the issue of the παράδοσις δι̉ ἐγγράφου was not sufficiently highlighted in the field of Byzantine studies mostly due to the lack of information in the sources. However, when regarding the Athonite documents, it can be seen that the formulae describing the act of law transfer could be concidered as a relevant material to comment on this legal institute.
monogamy , or repeated marriages and divorces, will continue to be the norm. It has become fashionable and acceptable to think of the married state as not...training will take precedence, although a number of educators are hoping for a return to liberal arts education, to build the "rounded man." Gay ...Fritz, Sara. New breed of workers". U.S. News & World Report, Sept. 3, 1979, 35-38. :i Gay , Geneva, Dembowski, F. L., and McLennan, Robert L. Preserving
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Mavani, Heena J; Wick, Jeannette Y
In 2016, the American health care system was faced with more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer, and individuals older than 65 years of age will be affected disproportionately. Many older individuals are poor candidates for traditional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) because of actual or potential treatment-related adverse events. Researchers continuously look for novel therapeutic strategies, and an exciting new one is on the horizon: virotherapy. Viruses' ability to infect and kill human cells makes them promising cancer treatments. The greatest success has been seen in acute lymphocytic leukemia. To date, four genetically engineered oncolytic viruses have been approved globally by several countries' health regulatory agencies, but several challenges remain. Only one, talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec), is available in the United States. Treatment-naive patients tend to respond better than patients receiving T-Vec as second-line therapy. Other good candidates for T-Vec include elderly patients who do not tolerate checkpoint inhibitors (the leading immunotherapy in advanced melanoma). Researchers continue to look for ways to increase oncolytic viruses' clinical potency. Once they do, these agents will become effective cancer therapy. GM-CSF = Genetically modified colony-stimulating factor, HIV = Human immunodeficiency virus, HSV-1 = Herpes simplex virus, OV = Oncolytic virus.
Force, Melissa K.
In forecasting the prospective use of small nuclear reactors for spacecraft and space-based power stations, the U.S. Air Force describes space as "the ultimate high ground," providing access to every part of the globe. But is it? A report titled "Energy Horizons: United States Air Force Energy Science &Technology Vision 2011-2026," focuses on core Air Force missions in space energy generation, operations and propulsion and recognizes that investments into small modular nuclear fission reactors can be leveraged for space-based systems. However, the report mentions, as an aside, that "potential catastrophic outcomes" are an element to be weighed and provides no insight into the monumental political and legal will required to overcome the mere stigma of nuclear energy, even when referring only to the most benign nuclear power generation systems - RTGs. On the heels of that report, a joint Department of Energy and NASA team published positive results from the demonstration of a uranium- powered fission reactor. The experiment was perhaps most notable for exemplifying just how effective the powerful anti-nuclear lobby has been in the United States: It was the first such demonstration of its kind in nearly fifty years. Space visionaries must anticipate a difficult war, consisting of multiple battles that must be waged in order to obtain a license to fly any but the feeblest of nuclear power sources in space. This paper aims to guide the reader through the obstacles to be overcome before nuclear fission technology can be put to use in space.
Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.
The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.
Full Text Available Video game accessibility may not seem of significance to some, and it may sound trivial to anyone who does not play video games. This assumption is false. With the digitalization of our culture, video games are an ever increasing part of our life. They contribute to peer to peer interactions, education, music and the arts. A video game can be created by hundreds of musicians and artists, and they can have production budgets that exceed modern blockbuster films. Inaccessible video games are analogous to movie theaters without closed captioning or accessible facilities. The movement to have accessible video games is small, unorganized and misdirected. Just like the other battles to make society accessible were accomplished through legislation and law, the battle for video game accessibility must be focused toward the law and not the market.
99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...
Elena Codruta BADEA
In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...
A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.
Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D
the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...
Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.
In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise
J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)
textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since
Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina
This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.
To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,
The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...
Meyer, John W.
Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...
The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.
M. Bodig (Matyas)
textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…
In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid
Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov
Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...
The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...
Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V
In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.
This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.
Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty
This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...
Sharma Vinod P
Full Text Available Abstract The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP of the Ministry of Health, Government of India is reporting about 2 million parasite positive cases each year, although case incidence is 30-fold or more under-estimated. Forty five to fifty percent of Plasmodium infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the killer parasite. Anti-malaria drug policy (2007 of the NVBDC recommends chloroquine (CQ as the first line of drug for the treatment of all malarias. In a Primary Health Centre (PHC reporting 10% or more cases of CQ resistance in P. falciparum, ACT blister pack is recommended and, so far, the policy has been adopted in 261 PHCs of 71 districts. The NVBDCP still depends on CQ to combat malaria and, as a result, P. falciparum has taken deep roots in malaria-endemic regions, causing unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. This policy was a subject of criticism in recent Nature and Lancet articles questioning the World Bank's decision to supply CQ to the NVBDCP. Continuation of an outdated drug in the treatment of P. falciparum is counterproductive in fighting drug resistant malaria and in the containment of P. falciparum. Switchover to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT in the treatment of all P. falciparum cases, ban on artemisinin monotherapy and effective vector control (treated nets/efficient insecticide spraying would be a rational approach to malaria control in India.
This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.
A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested
Rivera Izabal, L M
In Mexico, the nongovernmental organization Sevisio, Desarrollo y Paz, A.C. (SEDEPAC) is helping poor women acquire legal knowledge in an economic climate characterized by the increased feminization of poverty brought about by the Structural Adjustment Program. The Mexican legal system is grounded in a patriarchal tradition, and the codified laws continue to favor men. Women were not granted full citizenship until 1953, and discrimination against women was not addressed in Mexican law until 1974 as the country prepared to host the First UN International Women's Conference. However, legal advances are not being applied in the family or in larger society where men remain in power. Mexico also distinguishes between private law and public law. Because domestic violence falls in the realm of private law, authorities are loathe to follow-up on women's complaints in this area. Since its founding in 1983, SEDEPAC has applied a gender perspective to its activities and programs. SEDEPAC held its first women's legal workshop in 1987 and realized that most poor women have no knowledge of existing laws or their rights, that alternative legal services for women are scarce, that existing laws must be changed, and that the authoritarian and conservative legal system helps maintain cultural stereotypes. Since then, SEDEPAC has held annual workshops, follow-up meetings, and training sessions and has provided counseling. The main topics addressed are women's social conditions; violence and the penal code; civil rights, power, and dependency; women's bodies and reproductive rights; and women's organization and leadership. The workshops use techniques of popular education such as group participation and use of gossip as a communication tool. The workshops have changed participants' lives and led to the formation of an independent Popular Defenders' Coordination.
Higher education is one of the last democratic institutions in society and it is currently under attack by advocates of neo-liberalism. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how this "battle" can be framed as a battle over the direction of the Enlightenment. Critical Theory and neoliberalism both emerged from academia in response to…
The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...
Procurement (otherwise known as Investment) • Operating and Support (O&S) • Disposal As seen in a typical life cycle cost structure for a ship...deliveries of one ship, extensions of others, or simply the rearrangement of classification of ships within the battle force can all greatly impact...b2 b3 b4 b5 CVN-68 9.39277E-27 0.999031097 18841399.38 0.9997 1.01 Man Pwr 3.03901E-11 0.935288857 -10,572,406,323.83 5293066.75 52603.22 Fuel
Full Text Available Chinese culture and tradition stand in direct opposition to American and European cultures. Chinese children must live according to the principles of metaconfucianism from an early age. Failure to do so threatens social ostracism. Amy Chua in her autobiographical novel Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother describes the education of her two daughters living in America according to the principles present in China. The educational methods used by Chua are considered controversial by western parents. The author made an attempt to explain the motives of Asian mothers.
eaf.dtic.mil/htmlbriefs. 15 Ibid. 16 Looney, 7. 17 Lt Col Sheryl Guisto , “The Air Expeditionary Force: What You Need, When You Need It,” (Naval...Expeditionary Forces,” Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (Air Force Institute of Technology thesis, Sep 1997), 13. 19 Guisto , 9. 23 Chapter 4 The Carrier Battle...Aerospace Force.” Armed Forces Journal (August 1998): 18 – 19. Guisto , Lt Colonel Sheryl. “The Expeditionary Air Force: What You Need, When You Need It
Santos, G H
The Iliad is the story of the events related to the siege and battle of Troy presenting an unsurpassed view of the strengths and weaknesses of its main characters. And what a revelation it is to see that the human element that ignites and sustains the flames of war did not change through the centuries and was 3,000 years ago the same as it is today! An added source of fascination in Homer's work is his peculiar description of the injuries suffered by the combatants. That, as well as the presence of physicians in the battlefield, is of special interest for us surgeons.
Mazhnikov Viktor Ivanovich
Full Text Available Currently, such an event as the Great Patriotic War, the Battle of Stalingrad, which is an important part of the historical memory of our people, should be a major factor in shaping the relations of tolerance among peoples and nations. Objectivity and impartiality of emphasis in the interpretation of this historic event will contribute, in our view, the rational friendly coexistence of peoples. In a situation of manipulation of historical memory for political purposes will inevitably emerge alertness bias in international relations, which will inevitably lead to heighten ethnic tensions and conflicts.
David J. Purdy
Full Text Available It has been commonly thought that stabilising an out of balance gun on a moving platform (tank or ship is very difficult or impossible to achieve. Using models of a balanced and out of balance gun on a main battle tank this is shown not to be the case. The models of the guns used, include the effect of non-linear friction and out of balance. To improve the stabilisation of the out of balance gun, trunnion vertical acceleration feedforward is used.
Individual members of the astronomical community have, in recent months, begun to take up the charge and rally against the vast army of pseudoscience, superstition, and snake oil salesmen that is the 2012 phenomenon. EPO specialists and facilities are in a unique and vitally important position to move to the forefront of this battle, given our long-standing dedication to improving the astronomical education of the general public. This poster documents concrete ways in which the astronomy EPO community can (and should) combat the 2012 movement.
The focus of this paper is a small group of educated, francophone Algerian women who participated in the “Battle of Algiers” between January and October 1957 as members of the Front de libération nationale (FLN). Both during the colonial period and after Independence, in different ways and for different reasons, these women have been part of both a privileged minority and a discriminated against mass. So whilst the trajectories of these women are clearly exceptional, a consideration of how th...
Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...
María Jesús Cala
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to shed light on what makes women decide whether or not to continue with legal proceedings for intimate partner violence once they have commenced. Legal professionals, members of the police force, and women in Spain were interviewed to help draft a questionnaire that was applied to a sample of 345 women who had undertaken legal proceedings against their (expartners. Socio-demographic, emotional, and psychological variables were considered as possible predictor variables and included in a logistic regression analysis. Results show that the best equation for predicting disengagement from legal procedures includes the level of support received by the victim, contact with the aggressor, thoughts about going back with the aggressor, and a feeling of guilt. The essential role of the psychological support during the legal process is emphasized in conclusions
by Soviet troops saved the day. 6 Sp -’t’c "The actual conduct of the battle, covering 4-12 July, is the focus of Chapter 3. To simplify ease of...Panzer Divisions and the GrossDeutschland Panzer Grenadier Division. GrossDeutschland PGD , the Wehrmacht’s counter to Hitler’s SS, alone had 180 tanks and...Motorized Division and the 8tii Panzer Division. The 10th PGD and 8th Panzer Division were thrown into the battle for the ridgeline, achieving little
Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.
The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...
Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.
Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...
Kierski, W S
Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.
Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...
Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.
The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt
Cloney, T J
This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.
Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte
Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.
Full Text Available Two books in C.S. Lewis’s young adult fantasy series Chronicles of Narnia - The Horse and His Boy and The Last Battle - paint an uncomfortable portrait of the Calormen, the traditional foil for the Narnians. Throughout the text, the Calormen are clearly marked both culturally and racially as Middle Eastern, perhaps specifically as Turkish or Arab in their socio-political power structure with harems, arranged marriages, and facial hair designating status. Even Tashbaan, the capital city of Calormen, reads somewhat like a description of Istanbul. Throughout these two books, the Calormen are portrayed as a sinister and conquest-driven culture threatening the freedom enjoyed by Narnia. This textual indictment is fairly consistent. In demonizing this group, Lewis took part in a literary tradition extending back hundreds of years, a tradition that has enjoyed renewed resonance with increased fears over the growth of Islam. From Sir John Mandeville to post-9/11 concerns over terrorism, western depictions of Islam have often revolved around fear and distrust. The Last Battle is particularly problematic in its allegorical depictions of Islam, as Lewis seems to suggest that salvation is only reserved for those who follow the lion Aslan, clearly marked throughout the series as a stand-in for Jesus Christ.
Full Text Available The Battle of Orsha, part of the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw, an example of panel painting (1525–1535, is of paramount importance for the study of the military, as well as for the research in art history, material history, and the history of political and military elites of Central-Eastern Europe during the Renaissance. The article describes the ways Ruthenian and Lithuanian-Polish elites used material and intellectual products of chivalric culture, and tackles the problem of documentary and propagandist role of visual narrative. Since the publication of works by David Freedberg and Peter Burke the necessity to recreate the context of making, functioning, and reception of images has become evident. Daniel Arasse has further expanded methodological tools of this type of research. However, there are still numerous artworks whose historical and social context has either remained untouched by research, or has been researched insufficiently. Repeatedly, it has led to misinterpretations of such artworks in spite of their major position in culture. The Battle of Orsha is a spectacular example of this process.
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H
In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.
Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.
The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.
Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.
Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Donici, Andreea Nicoleta/NA; Maha, Andreea/A
This article approaches the problem of soft drugs legalization, from a liberalist point of view, underling the impact that this will have on Romania. Each year, in Romania, the number of soft drug users is increasing. Drug consumption exists and it will continue to exist, Romania being able to take advantage not only from an economic point of view. Another important thing that we have to take into account is that soft drugs do not lead to addiction, and however, continue to be prohibited by law.
Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan
Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MARY A. HERM
Full Text Available The authors explore the results of a study that assessed the types and frequency of legal issues encountered by counselors and counselors’ perceptions of their ability to respond to these issues. They also assessed whether the participants’ perceptions were related to practice setting, years of experience, completion of a course in ethics, recent completion of continuing education in ethics or legal issues, state licensure status, certification by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC, and highest degree earned. Results demonstrate that counselors feel most prepared to deal with situations encountered most often, but that school counselors do not feel as prepared to face most ethical and legal issues.
Mohd Daud Bakar
Full Text Available The question of, and the debate on, the origins of Islamic legal theory continues, largely in the academic circles of Western Islamicists. As for Muslim scholars, they have done little to redress the imbalance. This article presents a summary of the major arguments of Western Islamicists. The arguments are then re-examined to redress any misconceptions about the origins of Islamic legal theory. The ultimate aim is to suggest a new methodology for studying the early legal history of Islam.
Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.
Lyudmila V. Butko
Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.
Ivan Anatol’yevich Bliznets
Full Text Available The spread of disruptive technology in the digital era is the ruling condition of modern sustainable development. The authors proceed from the fact that legal tools for the creation and use, protection of advanced technologies provide the technology transfer process from the owner to interested parties for further practical, commercial application or further improvement. The article analyzes the legal positions of the concept of technology, legal ways to use modern technologies, stages of their implementation and practical application. In the innovation process legal mechanism in combination with the modern means of innovative development stimulates the creation and transfer of new technologies and at the same time it is a key factor for sustainable development in the context of modern digital technology revolution. In the modern digital revolution, the technology transfer acquires new features and ways for the dissemination of technical innovation, which creates new challenges for legal theory and practice, and legal tools should meet the challenges of the time.
Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.
Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer
This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...
This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...
The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi
The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...
Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene
Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...
Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio
We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...
Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen
To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.
For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction
Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.
Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels
At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....
А. А. Kablukov
Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.
Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J
Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.
The thesis deals with the legal aspects of Internet advertising. The main aim of this thesis is to define a legal code corresponding to this issue and to compare with the laws in Russia. The aim also is specify the efficiency of this legal aspects and review sufficiency of protection of consumers. Further explain the issue of spamming, find out its benefits to the retailer and negative aspects for consumers, and also to compare legal aspects of spamming with legislation in Russia.i
States provide two examples. The first battle in the 21st century, however, may well be in cyberspace. Coordinated cyber attacks designed to shape the...air was for most of the 20th century. In the future, cyber attacks may be combined with other means to inflict paralyzing damage to a nation’s critical
Münch, Miranda S.; Salvado, J.P.
Over the years the 1640 naval battle of Paraíba (Brazil) has attracted the attention of several historians, including F.A. Varnhagen, H. Wätjen and J.C. Warnsinck, who made extensive use of Dutch sources. By combining the Dutch and Portuguese accounts, C.R. Boxer and, more recently, M.J. Guedes shed
Data breach prevention is a battle, rarely plain and never simple. For higher education institutions, the Sisyphean aspects of the task are more complex than for industry and business. Two-year colleges have payrolls and vendor contracts like those enterprises. They also have public record and student confidentiality requirements. Colleges must…
Redkina Olga Yuryevna
Full Text Available The contribution of historians of Volgograd State University to studying of the history of the Battle of Stalingrad and restoration of Stalingrad is considered in the article: forming of the scientific schools, publication of monographs and collections of documents; holding of conferences, scientific work on the basis of the Museum of cadet regiments of VolSU.
... (group) tactical movement techniques, and to detect, identify, engage, and defeat stationary and moving... of an Infantry Platoon Battle Course at P[omacr]hakuloa Training Area, Hawai`i AGENCY: Department of... Course (IPBC) and associated infrastructure at P[omacr]hakuloa Training Area (PTA), Hawai`i. This...
At the Gates Chili High School near Rochester, New York, the cafeteria and kitchen are getting an overdue overhaul. Deep fryers and the fat-soaked foods that come dripping out of them are no longer welcome in the kitchens and dining halls of a growing number of the nation's schools and universities. Likewise, heavily marketed sugary soft drinks…
Your article on academia-industry collaborations ("A clean solution", January pp44-45) was extremely interesting, and I wish Durham University and Procter & Gamble every success in their challenging and worthwhile project - which, as the article described, is partly aimed at improving the formulation of biological washing powders.
This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities
Brakel, S J
Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna
State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behavior differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc. which follow a classically epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli capable of spreading them by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb them are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor, not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95% of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Further, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behavior of the disease in the early stages, it appears appropriate to engage in targeted monitoring, also for the early identification of persons who may become ill.
Full Text Available Contemporary accounts of battles are often incomplete or even erroneous because they reflect the-often biased-viewpoints of the authors. Battlefield archaeology faces the task of compiling an historical analysis of a battle and of gathering all the available facts. Besides cultural historical evidence and artefacts, the human remains of those who have fallen in battle also provide invaluable information. In studying mass graves from a military context, the injury types and patterns are significant. They allow us to reconstruct the circumstances surrounding the soldiers' deaths and provide information on the hostilities that occurred on the battlefield. One such mass grave was discovered in 2011 at Lützen, Saxony-Anhalt (Germany. Based on its geographical location and on the results obtained from archaeological examinations carried out in the area, the grave could be dated to the Thirty Years War (1618-1648. Further archaeological research confirmed that the dead had been soldiers from the Battle of Lützen (1632. The mass grave was block-lifted and then comprehensively examined at the State Museum of Prehistory in Halle (Saale. As well as osteological examinations to determine age, sex, height, state of health, i.e. diseases or injuries, imaging methods were also employed and histological and isotopic analyses carried out. The focus of this study was on the injuries sustained by the soldiers both prior to and during the battle. The results revealed that the 47 deceased had been between the ages of 15 and 50 when they died. Numerous healed injuries showed that the men had often been involved in violent encounters. Approximately three in every four soldiers had injuries that could have been fatal. Wounds inflicted by handguns, particularly to the skull, were predominant. The integrative analysis of the archaeological and anthropological data allowed us to conclude that the majority had been killed during a cavalry attack.
Nicklisch, Nicole; Ramsthaler, Frank; Meller, Harald; Friederich, Susanne; Alt, Kurt W.
Contemporary accounts of battles are often incomplete or even erroneous because they reflect the—often biased—viewpoints of the authors. Battlefield archaeology faces the task of compiling an historical analysis of a battle and of gathering all the available facts. Besides cultural historical evidence and artefacts, the human remains of those who have fallen in battle also provide invaluable information. In studying mass graves from a military context, the injury types and patterns are significant. They allow us to reconstruct the circumstances surrounding the soldiers’ deaths and provide information on the hostilities that occurred on the battlefield. One such mass grave was discovered in 2011 at Lützen, Saxony-Anhalt (Germany). Based on its geographical location and on the results obtained from archaeological examinations carried out in the area, the grave could be dated to the Thirty Years War (1618–1648). Further archaeological research confirmed that the dead had been soldiers from the Battle of Lützen (1632). The mass grave was block-lifted and then comprehensively examined at the State Museum of Prehistory in Halle (Saale). As well as osteological examinations to determine age, sex, height, state of health, i.e. diseases or injuries, imaging methods were also employed and histological and isotopic analyses carried out. The focus of this study was on the injuries sustained by the soldiers both prior to and during the battle. The results revealed that the 47 deceased had been between the ages of 15 and 50 when they died. Numerous healed injuries showed that the men had often been involved in violent encounters. Approximately three in every four soldiers had injuries that could have been fatal. Wounds inflicted by handguns, particularly to the skull, were predominant. The integrative analysis of the archaeological and anthropological data allowed us to conclude that the majority had been killed during a cavalry attack. PMID:28542491
Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H
Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Kitipornchai, Leon; Then, Shih-Ning
Public awareness and concern about cosmetic surgery on children is increasing. Nationally and internationally questions have been raised by the media and government bodies about the appropriateness of children undergoing cosmetic surgery. Considering the rates of cosmetic surgery in comparable Western societies, it seems likely that the number of physicians in Australia who will deal with a request for cosmetic surgery for a child will continue to increase. This is a sensitive issue and it is essential that physicians understand the professional and legal obligations that arise when cosmetic surgery is proposed for a child. This article reviews the current professional and legal obligations that physicians have to competent and incompetent children for whom cosmetic surgery has been requested. A case study is used to highlight the factors that Australian primary care physicians must consider before referring and conducting cosmetic surgery on children.
Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. South Africa has a strong legal framework that offers a high level of .... medical practitioners preformed the transplant without confirming the HIV status of the donor. A claim for damages is pending ...
Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.
This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…
Anichkin, Eugene S.
The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…
Henning, J; Waxman, S
Men's health issues have increasingly gained attention not only in the mass media, but also among most health-care providers. The diagnosis and treatment of male-related health problems, unfortunately, can lead to complications and error-related injuries resulting in claims of medical malpractice. This review article will look at the most common claims relating to complications and injuries in the management of men's health issues. Reviews of the literature over the past three decades using multiple search engines including PubMed were utilized. The most pertinent articles were selected on the basis of their relevance to men's health issues, complications and medico-legal ramifications. An evaluation of the literature reveals that although the number of claims against urologists has not increased over the past several decades, indemnity payments have continued to rise significantly. Claims can be divided into those relating to diagnosis and those relating to treatment. Providers of men's health care may become involved in claims of medical malpractice at some time during their careers. Patients' care can result in complications and injuries, most of which do not lead to claims. Certain areas of men's health lead to more claims than others. The keys to prevention and management of those claims are good communication, informed consent and documentation.
Novelli, G; Rossi, M; Poli, L; Morabito, V; Ferretti, S; Bussotti, A; Nudo, F; Mennini, G; Antonellis, F; Berloco, P B
Two opposing views of the human body have existed since time began. Can it be traded or does its value go beyond a monetary one? Today it is illegal to sell organs but the success of organ transplantation has give rise to an enormous controversy. The continued increase in the need for organs has lead to a major use of live donors. Consequently, clandestine selling of organs is becoming more widespread for two main reasons: scientific progress and market demand. Our aim was to consider the protection of ethical principles through legislation. Based on the principle that it is morally unacceptable for people to die on a waiting list, we analysed various ways in which the National Health Service could give incentives to live donors, including reimbursement of health expenses, tax relief, pension or early retirement benefits, or education grants for the children. Possible incentives for cadaveric organ donation included reimbursal of health and funeral costs, or increase in widow/er's pension. The tendency may be toward reimbursement of costs rather than actual payments. A legal, ethical organ market could save thousands of human lives, but it must be correctly regulated.
Notes that the American Indians actually have a chance of recovering their land from the present owner, for in addition to a moral claim it might have a solid legal claim to title as well. (Author/AM)
Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš
Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968
van den Bos, K.; Hulst, Liesbeth
In this paper we discuss some strengths, stumbling blocks, common mistakes, and controversial issues that can be important when conducting experiments in the legal domain. To this end, we first briefly introduce the experimental method and note some of its strengths when used in legal research
Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan
We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of
Palali, A. (Ali); J.C. van Ours (Jan)
textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential
Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...
Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...
Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.
This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the
In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions
Full Text Available the article describes different approaches in definition of transnational corporation’s legal personality. The reviewed approaches have become available for the last fifty years and they contain completely opposite views on the legal personality of TNC. The methods of analyze, synthesis, ranging have been used during preparation of this article.
Timmer, Sjoerd; Prakken, Hendrik; Meyer, John-Jules Charles; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart
Recent developments in the forensic sciences have confronted the field of legal reasoning with the new challenge of reasoning under uncertainty. Forensic results come with uncertainty and are described in terms of likelihood ratios and random match probabilities. The legal field is unfamiliar with
: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....
L. J. Du Plessis
Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.
Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.
The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…
Hawley, Richard A.
History reveals that drug legalization accelerates new use and contributes to a larger population of chronic users. When states energetically enforce antidrug laws and policies, illegal drug use is reduced and eliminated. Drug use is incompatible with healthy child development and learning. Legalizing drugs is the shallowest response to the…
Gasaway, Laura N.
Copyright and other intellectual property issues have dominated discussions of legal issues surrounding the Internet. There are other issues of considerable importance that also attract attention. Five legal issues affecting the Internet are addressed: copyright, online service-provider liability, database protection, obscenity, and privacy. Cited…
This article deals with the project on legal terminology in the African languages. It focuses on terminology aspects relating to the coining of terms for the legal profession. Terminology development in South Africa has been hampered by a number of sociolinguistic factors. During recent years South Africa has seen ...
Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask
complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...
Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)
Sellers, Mortimer; Sellers, Mortimer
The internationalization of commerce and contemporary life has led to a globalization of legal standards and practices. The essays in this text explore this new reality and suggest ways in which the new legal order can be made more just and effective.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203.100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”). The...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or...
However, its application in legal research could pose specific challenges to researchers and could impact on crucial aspects of .... electronic media channels. Rather, they emphasise that legal research ..... to the changing information environment and to exercise control over the digital tools and resources. This involves ...
and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.
Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...
Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Kamo, Toru; Inaba, Atsushi; Miki, Keiji; Sato, Yoshiki (National Research Inst. for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba, (Japan))
The composition changes in the recycle process including the hydrogenation process on hetero compounds in recycle solvent fraction derived from the liquefaction experiment with Battle River coal was examined. Oxygen compounds such as phenol and dibenzofuran increased and nitrigen compounds decreased in general. The reacting behaviours are different greatly, depending on respective nitrogen compounds, so that the study was carried out by using the model compound. Nitrogen compounds such as carbazole, etc. difficult to decompose increased in the recycle solvent. Indole decreased immediately with the recycling times but the OEA (o-ethylaniline) generated as intermediate denitrogenated product indicated comparatively low decreasing rate and the converting rate from OEA to perhydroacridine was slow. Acridine reacted to partially hydrogenated products like octahydroacridine or perhydroacridine rapidly but was not easily decomposed to final products, dicyclohexylmethane. Partial hydrogenation and dehydrogenation were repeated in the recycle solvent. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.
Chitwood, Mitchell R
The International Criminal Court ("ICC") is widely regarded within the international community as a positive and necessary step toward individual accountability for those who order and carry out the most heinous of crimes genocide, crimes...
Full Text Available Pemanfaatan kecerdasan buatan telah diimplementasikan kedalam banyak hal, salah satunya adalah game. Secara umum tujuan dibuatnya game adalah untuk membuat pengguna menjadi terhibur dan merasakan kesenangan ketika sedang atau telah bermain. Kecerdasan buatan di dalam game dibutuhkan untuk meningkatkan tantangan di dalam game dan membuat game menjadi lebih dinamis dan terarah. Sehingga akan menciptakan kesenangan bagi pengguna pada saat dan setelah memainkan game. Beberapa penerapan kecerdasan buatan di dalam game diantaranya adalah dengan menggunakan metode Support Vector Machine (SVM. Dalam beberapa kasus game ada juga yang menggunakan metode Decision tree yang akan mengatur perilaku computer player di dalam permainan. Metode yang lebih sederhana untuk mengatur perilaku computer player yaitu Rulebase. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perbandingan kecerdasan buatan untuk mengatur perilaku computer player di dalam game Role-Playing Game (RPG. Yang dimaksud computer player pada penelitian ini adalah pemain atau karakter yang dijalankan oleh sistem di dalam game.Tujuan dilakukannya perbandingan tersebut adalah untuk mengetahui metode kecerdasan buatan manakah yang paling baik diterapkan pada game berjenis battle RPG. Metode yang digunakan untuk menguji kecerdasan buatan yang diterapkan pada game battle RPG ini adalah dengan menggunakan skenario pertandingan.Berdasarkan analisis yang telah dilakukan didapatkan hasil bahwa kecerdasan buatan dengan menggunakan metode SVM memiliki keunggulan dalam faktor jumlah kemenangan. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan persentase kemenangan metode SVM sebesar 72.5%, Decision tree sebesar 50% dan Rulebase sebesar 22.5%. Berdasarkan data tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada penelitian ini metode SVM adalah metode pengambilan keputusan yang paling baik dibandingkan dengan metode decision tree dan Rulebase.
Vyacheslav N. Paramonov
Full Text Available The paper notes an increase in interest in studying the social moods of the population of the USSR rear during the Great Patriotic War. The problem of the “little man”, an ordinary worker of the war, is actively investigated. Domestic historiography was supplemented by a number of historical and psychological studies of mass consciousness and its components, its role in achieving victory. However, in the opinion of the author, it is premature to consider the study of the social moods of the population of the Soviet rear as almost completely finished. On the basis of archival materials (Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, Samara Regional State Archive of Socio-Political History, Central State Archive of the Samara Region, some of which have recently been declassified and introduced for the first time in scientific circulation, the paper analyzes the spectrum of public moods of the RSFSR citizens of the Soviet rear during the Stalingrad Battle of 1942–1943. The author also studies the factors that influenced the formation of moods and behavior of the population, including the influence of power on mass consciousness, the dynamics of moods, including attitudes toward war, the enemy and allies. The author shows the forms of behavior during the war, the reaction to events on the front, the perception of the war by population. The author comes to the conclusion that patriotic moods predominated as the conscious aspiration of Soviet people to defend the Fatherland at any cost, as a moral rejection of the Nazi policies by the people. The victory in the Battle of Stalingrad strengthened the conviction, the people’s confidence in victory on all fronts.
Full Text Available Since the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC in 2012, the CPC has made great efforts to implement Xi Jinping's blueprint for achieving the “China Dream”. The on-going anticorruption campaign is part of the road map towards the “China Dream”. There has been impressive progress in fighting corruption, but the CPC recognizes that the anticorruption campaign faces a huge challenge and is at a crucial stage. The anticorruption campaign is a life-and-death battle that the CPC cannot afford to lose. The critical question is: How can the CPC win the battle in the current Chinese political system? The intention of this paper is not to offer specific measures, but to discuss policy implications by elucidating why some existing anticorruption measures do not work through examining the relationship between corruption and Chinese market economy and the political system. The basic assumption of this paper is that corruption is universal, but the characteristics of China’s corruption are different from other nations due to the nature of the Chinese economic, political and cultural systems. The key to anticorruption is to find and deal with the real causes of China’s corruption in order to make effective anticorruption measures. There are two opposite perspectives concerning the causes of corruption: While one suggests that the primary source of corruption is the political system, the other contends that corruption has nothing to do with the socialist political system. This paper attempts to argue that either denying or overemphasizing the roles of the current political system in spreading corruption is one-sided.
Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…
Abdikeeva, Alphia; Covaci, Alina
Across Europe, Roma face exclusion and obstacles in access to health services, resulting in poorer health. While there are legal and policy frameworks for Roma inclusion, implementation often lags behind. Increasing the grassroots capacity of Roma to advocate for accountability in health care and against systemic impediments has been a central focus of Open Society Foundations (OSF) support. This analysis discusses the impact of an OSF-supported legal advocacy project on Roma health rights in Macedonia. The paper uses qualitative indicators to measure the capacity of nongovernmental organizations, accountability for violations, changes in law and practice, and impact on communities. The methodology for assessing the impact of legal advocacy was developed over the course of OSF's legal advocacy project and used to calculate the baseline and conduct the follow-up assessment to track progress across four strategies: legal empowerment, documentation and advocacy, media advocacy, and strategic litigation. Results show that legal advocacy has led to a notable increase in Roma awareness of their health rights. The number of lawsuits has risen dramatically, and cases are increasingly more sophisticated. Although accountability in health care is still the exception rather than the rule, blatant violations have been reduced. Some structural barriers have also been tackled. At the same time, new challenges require continuous and adaptable legal advocacy.
Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.
Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.
Burcu Umut Zan
Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.
Focuses on the Allied assault on Northwest Africa and the battle for Tunisia - the critical second front that secured the Mediterranean and increased the enemy's vulnerability to a massive invasion from Britain...
Sanders, Mary; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth
...) DO 6, Commander's Decision Aids for Predictive Battle-Space Awareness, (CDA4PBA) is to identify system requirements necessary to capture the entire software and systems engineering process from concept...
...." As background, this study presents a brief history of the Japanese in Hawaii and the United States, of the formation and record of the 100/442d RCT, and of the battle to rescue the Lost Battalion...
Kramer, Gregory M; Luxton, David D
The use of technology to provide telemental healthcare continues to increase; however, little has been written about the legal and regulatory issues involved in providing this form of care to children and adolescents. This article reviews existing laws and regulations to summarize the risk management issues relevant to providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents. There are several legal and regulatory areas in which telemental health clinicians need to have awareness. These areas include: 1) Licensure, 2) malpractice liability, 3) credentialing and privileging, 4) informed consent, 5) security and privacy, and 6) emergency management. Although legal and regulatory challenges remain in providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents, it is possible to overcome these challenges with knowledge of the issues and appropriate risk management strategies. We provide general knowledge of these key legal and regulatory issues, along with some risk management recommendations.
Smith, Katharine V; Witt, Jacki; Klaassen, Joann; Zimmerman, Christine; Cheng, An-Lin
Students in an undergraduate legal and ethical issues course continually told the authors that they did not have time to study for the course because they were busy studying for their clinical courses. Faculty became concerned that students were failing to realize the value of legal and ethical concepts as applicable to clinical practice. This led the authors to implement a transformational learning experience in which students applied legal and ethical course content in a high-fidelity human simulation (HFHS) scenario. A preliminary evaluation compared the new HFHS experience with in-person and online student groups using the same case. Based on both student and faculty perceptions, the HFHS was identified as the best of the three approaches for providing a transformational learning experience regarding legal and ethical content.
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D
Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420
Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.
Diconsiglio, J M
The anti-abortion movement operates in many different capacities, but its leaders are careful not to present a unified image for fear of federal investigation for conspiracy. Randall Terry is an ex-used car sales representative who runs Operation Rescue (OR). OR is easily the most visible part and also has the biggest image clinics and harass clinic staff and patients. Wanda Franz head the National Right-to-Life Committee which is the political part of the machine. They lobby in Washington to gain any political advantage they can. They supported Reagan and Bush, and they pressured them to appoint many anti-abortion federal and Supreme Court judges. Other groups operate over 2,000 bogus clinics that present themselves as being places where women can get abortions. When the women come, they are coerced into continuing their unwanted pregnancies. Other groups like Virginia's American Life League and Christian Action Council openly admit opposition to contraception and sex-education as well as abortion. The antiabortion groups have been accused of funding anti-abortion groups and they have openly been helping activists in other countries. World wide the anti-abortion movement is clearly stemming from America. The upholding of the gag rule, and the failure of Congress to override the president's veto of legislation that would have overruled it combined with the Webster decision have given the movement a big boost. However, the majority of Americans still support a woman's right to choose. Unfortunately for women, only the anti-abortion movement is willing to do something about it. The pro-choice movement is large, but it was caught off guard after Roe. It did not realize the winning Roe was just another battle in the war. Getting abortion rights was 1 thing, keeping them is another. The pro-choice movement has managed to get a number of anti-abortion politicians out of office, and the numbers are on their side. Now they just have to motivate the majority of people who
Papademetriou, D G
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 made 4 types of aliens eligible to receive legalization benefits: 1) those who resided "continuously" in the US since January 1, 1982; 2) those who had worked in the US perishable-crop agriculture for 90 "man-days" in specified time periods (Special Agricultural Workers [SAWS]); 3) those who were in the US since before January 1, 1972; and 4) those classified as Cuban/Haitian entrants and who had been in the US since January 1, 1982. Estimates of the number of aliens eligible for legalization, not including SAWS, ranges from 1.834 million to 2.56 million. Estimates of undercounts of undocumented aliens are 10% for those who entered before 1975 and 37.5% for those who arrived after 1975. Other refinements in the estimates of undocumented aliens include adjustments for 1) ethnic group and location, 2) the growth of the undocumented population between the census date and the legalization eligibility date under IRCA, and 3) emigration and deportation rates. Out of the 1,581,800 applicants entered into the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) computers (from a total of 2.15 million applicants) as of May 20, 1988, 73.7% were Mexican nationals. Only 5 other countries contributed more than 1%: El Salvador (6.5%), Haiti (2.3%), Guatemala (2.2%), the Philippines (1%), and Colombia (1%). The Mexican percentage was unexpectedly high, perhaps because the legalization had been much more successful in the Southwest than anywhere else in the country. Reasons that Mexicans have a higher legalization participation rate than other nationalities include 1) the distant eligibility date; 2) ethnic differences among non-Mexican nationalities; 3) particularly in the northeast, fears of exposing one's illegal status to INS; 4) the difficulty of information reaching ethnic communities, 5) the reluctance of those already undergoing the naturalization process to risk the legalization process; and 6) the reluctance of employees to
Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica
Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they
Vinding, Niels Valdemar
This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...
Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....
Frederico de Andrade Gabrich
Full Text Available There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strategic planning of business objectives. So it’s the need and the importance of developing a Legal Business Model that can be used in combination with Canvas.
Wall, Terry J.
The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed
Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi
Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.
Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.
Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.
An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working
Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.
Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.
One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.
The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing
Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.
3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.
Prada, Elena; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Juarez, Fatima
Although Colombia partially liberalized its abortion law in 2006, many abortions continue to occur outside the law and result in complications. Assessing the costs to the health care system of safe, legal abortions and of treating complications of unsafe, illegal abortions has important policy implications. The Post-Abortion Care Costing Methodology was used to produce estimates of direct and indirect costs of postabortion care and direct costs of legal abortions in Colombia. Data on estimated costs were obtained through structured interviews with key informants at a randomly selected sample of facilities that provide abortion-related care, including 25 public and private secondary and tertiary facilities and five primary-level private facilities that provide specialized reproductive health services. The median direct cost of treating a woman with abortion complications ranged from $44 to $141 (in U.S. dollars), representing an annual direct cost to the health system of about $14 million per year. A legal abortion at a secondary or tertiary facility was costly (medians, $213 and $189, respectively), in part because of the use of dilation and curettage, as well as because of administrative barriers. At specialized facilities, where manual vacuum aspiration and medication abortion are used, the median cost of provision was much lower ($45). Provision of postabortion care and legal abortion services at higher-level facilities results in unnecessarily high health care costs. These costs can be reduced significantly by providing services in a timely fashion at primary-level facilities and by using safe, noninvasive and less costly abortion methods.
MechWarrior Online (MWO) is a free-to-play combat simulation based on BattleTech, a tactical board game launched by FASA Corporation in 1984. MWO is only the latest of a long series of digital games based on the board game, yet both its commercial model and its dedicated online play set it apart...... from its predecessors. As with all online games, there is a lively discussion among players on both official and unofficial forums about the game, especially about the balancing of units. The most heavily contested issue is the upcoming first major expansion to the game, the Clan invasion. While...... this event means little more than additional units to players without a background in BattleTech, to veterans of the board game, it must appear highly problematic: Within the fictional world of the board game, set forth in dozens of rule books and over a hundred works of fiction, the invading Clans use...
MSG-048 Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) (Langage de gestion du champ de bataille (C-BML)) NMSG-048 Final Report. This document...BML) (Langage de gestion du champ de bataille (C-BML)) NMSG-048 Final Report. This document contains information authorized by NATO RTA for...coherence of a C-BML enabled approach in the future. It would be improper not to further extend my gratitude to Mark Pullen from the George Mason
Narrated ’Ubaidullah bin ’Adi bin Al -Khiyar: That Al -Miqdad bin ’Amr Al - Kindi , who was an ally of Bani Zuhra and one of those who fought the battle...27 Jihad, Dar al -Harb, & Dar al -Islam...poem by Al -Hamasah in a line describing bereavement and despair: “If only I knew what Mukhariq will say when my owl answers the screeching owls, and I
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Winkels, R.
While isomorphism of knowledge representation has been recognized as important, particularly to maintenance in legal knowledge representation, the requirements of the maintenance process in general get less attention. Traceability from knowledge resources used in the organization to the sources of
Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.
Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.
Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php
In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.
Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, international treaties ratified in accordance with the Constitution are considered part of the internal legal order and cannot be changed by an act of Parliament. This solution confirms the principle that international treaties have more legal authority than all the other legal acts, with the exception of the Constitution. This article aims to give an insight on the constitutional provisions that regulate the position of international treaties in the Macedonian legal order. It identifies its advantages and shortcomings and offers some solutions that might be taken into account by the lawgiver in the future. The article also analyses the profound impact that the European Convention on Human Rights has exerted on the substantial nature of the catalogue of fundamental rights and freedoms prescribed in the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.
This article deals with various opinions and assertions regarding drug legalization. Societal and clinical implication regarding the effect of decrease or increase in the use of psyhoactive substances, on public health, violence and criminal activities have been pointed out. The relation between legal and illegal drugs has been considered. Special attention has been paid to arguments on legalization and decriminalization of marihuana and possible consequences on the risk group-children and adolescents. Experiences from USA and some European countries have been presented. Having in mind the specific situation in BiH, the author of article gives her own view and suggest the introduction of harm reduction strategy into BiH drug policy, without changing the legal drug status.
Marc Simon Thomas
Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing interest in mediation in the Netherlands, as part of a set of ‘alternative dispute resolution’ methods. Politicians, lawyers and practitioners have embraced mediation as a legitimate method for settling disputes, alongside the adjudication of conflicts in courts of law. However, there is a striking lack of literature aimed at theorizing mediation from a legal perspective. This article argues that the legal anthropology literature on disputes and dispute settlement offers useful insights for understanding mediation from a ‘legal research’ point of view. This is because a lot of current common knowledge on mediation has its roots in a legal anthropological understanding. The argument that is set forth in this article is that the most important lesson that can be learned is that mediation should not be seen in isolation, but as part of a social process.
Weber, Rolf H
Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.
Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensati...
This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...
Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C
textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...
John Armour; Douglas Cumming
Must policymakers seeking to replicate the success of Silicon Valley’s venture capital market first replicate other US institutions, such as deep and liquid stock markets? Or can legal reforms alone make a significant difference? In this paper, we compare the economic and legal determinants of venture capital investment, fundraising and exits. We introduce a cross-sectional and time series empirical analysis across 15 countries and 13 years of data spanning an entire business cycle. We show t...
Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.
Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas
The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...
Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.
Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section
Frederico de Andrade Gabrich
There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strateg...
O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.
The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)
Full Text Available Due to increasing the cases of complaint from therapeutic staff, referred to Legal Medicine decided to mention a few examples of these actions and by reviewing them, we want to do something even nothing to prevention. Three cases were given and discussed in this article. 1. Patient is a 68-year-old woman complaining of weakness of her left side and speech disturbance that started about 2 hours earlier, was admitted to hospital at 8 am. Patient with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke in progress is placed in antiplatelet therapy (Plavix 4 initial dose and one per day and an 80 mg aspirin per day and anti-Coagulation Heparin (initial dose of 6000 units and 1000 units per hour.Patient conflicts with loss of consciousness at 17:45. By doing CT, they have found a large hemorrhage in the right parietal Frontó with severe shift from midline, IVH, SAH. Currently, patient has movement disorders and several cerebral complications. 2. The patient took under angiography because of chest pain. Patient had an unpleasant feeling in organs at the time of angiography and the symptoms have been intensified in the afternoon of that day and conflicted with headache and blurred vision. The next day, he also afflicted with weakness of organs and at 8 am neurology consultation is requested, and according to a neurologist takes MRI. The patient was suffered from speech impairment and right hemiparesis. MRI indicates stroke. Two days later, intravenous heparin begins. The Patient discharged on 31/4/ … . 3. The patient hospitalized because of headache and weakness of right organs and with a presumptive diagnosis of stroke. Headache had progressive trend. There were not seen certain lesions on the initial CT. 5000 units of heparin with 1000 units of infusion in an hour starts with telephone orders at 8 am. The morning 1/8 /..., he afflicted with loss of consciousness, and transferred to the ICU. In morning experiment, patient’s platelet is reported low (47000.The patient
The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it
Beisser, K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; McFadden, T.
Is Pluto a planet? Some creative low income Bay-area middle-schoolers put a musical spin on this hot science debate with a video rap ';battle' over tiny Pluto's embattled planetary standing. The students' timing was perfect, with NASA's New Horizons mission set to conduct the first reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons in July 2015. Pluto - the last of the nine original planets to be explored by spacecraft - has been the subject of scientific study and speculation since Clyde Tombaugh discovered it in 1930, orbiting the Sun far beyond Neptune. Produced by the students and a very creative educator, the video features students 'battling' back and forth over the idea of Pluto being a planet. The group collaborated with actual space scientists to gather information and shot their video before a 'green screen' that was eventually filled with animations and visuals supplied by the New Horizons mission team. The video debuted at the Pluto Science Conference in Maryland in July 2013 - to a rousing response from researchers in attendance. The video marks a nontraditional approach to the ongoing 'great planet debate' while educating viewers on a recently discovered region of the solar system. By the 1990s, researchers had learned that Pluto possessed multiple exotic ices on its surface, a complex atmosphere and seasonal cycles, and a large moon (Charon) that likely resulted from a giant impact on Pluto itself. It also became clear that Pluto was no misfit among the planets - as had long been thought - but the largest and brightest body in a newly discovered 'third zone' of our planetary system called the Kuiper Belt. More recent observations have revealed that Pluto has a rich system of satellites - five known moons - and a surface that changes over time. Scientists even speculate that Pluto may possess an internal ocean. For these and other reasons, the 2003 Planetary Decadal Survey ranked a Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission as the highest priority mission for NASA's newly created
Sanders, B.; Rainer, R.
The application of Agency safeguards requires treaty arrangements (''Safeguards Agreements'') between the State or States concerned and the Agency. The authority for the Agency to conclude such agreements and to implement them is provided for in the Agency's Statute (Articles II, III A.5 and XII). On the basis of the statutory provisions safeguards principles and procedures have been elaborated. These have been laid down in: (a) The Agency's Safeguards System 1965, extended in 1966 and 1968 (INFCIRC/66/Rev.2); and (b) The basis for negotiating safeguards agreements with NNWS pursuant to NPT (INFCIRC/153). The verification of the undertaking by the State concerned not to use items subject to safeguards for purposes contrary to the terms of the agreement is verified through the application of various safeguards measures (design review, records, reports and inspection). Containment and surveillance measures are expected to play an increasingly important role. NPT Safeguards Agreements foresee as one of their specific features the establishment of national systems of accounting and control of nuclear material. The majority of the agreements concluded under document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 - i.e. the non-NPT safeguards agreements - implement obligations undertaken under co-operation agreements between States for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These agreements naturally reflect approaches adopted by the parties, in particular as to the circumstances under which safeguards should be applied. Thus, the concepts used in the non-NPT safeguards agreements and the safeguards system of document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 which is incorporated in these agreements by reference are in continuous evolution. Document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 continues to be supplemented in practical application and through explicit decision by the Board. The non-NPT safeguards agreements contain, besides technical safeguards provisions from document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2, and further provision for notification, inventories
Richman, Barak D; Kitzman, Nick; Milstein, Arnold; Schulman, Kevin A
To develop an effective legal mechanism to combat chargemaster abuses and to facilitate price transparency. Applying legal doctrines to out-of-network (OON) billing disputes. We reviewed rudimentary contract law and examined the law's handling of contracts where prices have not been specified in advance. These cases are the controlling authority to guide courts, handling of surprise and OON billing problems. We then compared legal remedies that correct OON billing abuses to prevailing legislative and regulatory approaches. Our analysis suggests that providers have no legal authority to collect chargemaster rates from surprise and OON billing abuses. A proper application of contract law can end such abuses and would facilitate superior pricing incentives to other strategies designed to end balance billing disputes. Chargemaster rates on uninsured and OON patients impose significant financial burdens on the vulnerable, distort medical prices, and inflate healthcare costs. Applying rudimentary contract law to these practices offers a solution that is simpler and more effective than other administrative and legislative schemes recently adopted in several states. It will prevent providers from hiding behind a convoluted hospital pricing system, encourage the development of attractive narrow-network insurance products, and shield urgently sick individuals from the dread of medical predation. Patients and payers should know that they are under no obligation to pay surprise bills containing chargemaster rates, and state attorneys general can use the law to prevent providers from pursuing chargemaster-related collection efforts against patients.
Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376
Kegel, Peter; Letzel, Stephan; Rossbach, Bernd
To analyse differences in uptake of the insecticide permethrin in wearers of non-impregnated and permethrin impregnated battle dress uniforms (BDU) in Afghanistan and Germany. In two separate studies, in April 2003-January 2004 (study I, n=549) and in February-April 2005 (study II, n=195), healthy female and male members of the German Federal Armed Forces were equipped with permethrin impregnated BDU (two sub-cohorts in Germany and one in Afghanistan) while members equipped with non-impregnated uniforms served as a control group. Human biomonitoring was conducted before, during and after wearing the uniforms by measuring permethrin metabolites in urine samples via GC-MS. Subjects of the Afghan and German control groups had permethrin levels in the range of the German general population. In contrast, subjects wearing impregnated BDU had about 200-fold higher exposure levels. Within this group, subjects located in Afghanistan and smokers had significantly higher exposure levels. Internal exposure decreased with increasing duration of use of impregnated BDU. There is no evidence for a higher background permethrin contamination in military bases located in Afghanistan compared to Germany. Daily use of permethrin impregnated BDU is associated with significantly higher permethrin uptake compared to the general population. Hand-mouth contact by smoking can increase uptake which also seems to be influenced by the duration of use of impregnated BDU.
Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.
Peter L. McCall
Full Text Available Beginning in 1990, the US Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC began testing a prototype cannon mounted in a non-armored turret fitted to an M1A1 Abrams tank chassis. The cannon design incorporated a longer gun tube as a means to increase projectile velocity. A significant increase in projectile impact dispersion was measured early in the test program. Through investigative efforts, the cause of the error was linked to the increased dynamic bending or flexure of the longer tube observed while the vehicle was moving. Research and investigative work was conducted through a collaborative effort with the US Army Research Laboratory, Benet Laboratory, Project Manager – Tank Main Armament Systems, US Army Research and Engineering Center, and Cadillac Gage Textron Inc. New test methods, instrumentation, data analysis procedures, and stabilization control design resulted through this series of investigations into the dynamic tube flexure error source. Through this joint research, improvements in tank fire control design have been developed to improve delivery accuracy. This paper discusses the instrumentation implemented, methods applied, and analysis procedures used to characterize the tube flexure during dynamic tests of a main battle tank and the relationship between gun pointing error and muzzle pointing error.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.
Full Text Available Achieving high hitting accuracy for a main battle tank is challenging while the tank is on the move. This can be reached by proper design of a weapon control and gun system. In order to design an effective gun system while the tank is moving, better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the gun system is required. In this study, the dynamic behaviour of a gun system is discussed in this respect. Both experimental and numerical applications for the determination of the dynamic behaviour of a tank gun system are investigated. Methods such as the use of muzzle reference system (MRS and vibration absorbers, and active vibration control technology for the control and the reduction of the muzzle tip deflections are also reviewed. For the existing gun systems without making substantial modifications, MRS could be useful in controlling the deflections of gun barrels with estimation/prediction algorithms. The vibration levels could be cut into half by the use of optimised vibration absorbers for an existing gun. A new gun system with a longer barrel can be as accurate as the one with a short barrel with the appropriate structural modifications.
Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene
Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Tameru Wondim Agegnehu
to this day, legal service in Ethiopia is a sole practice that has not been able to organize itself into a law firm1. ... As elsewhere lawyering started as a personal skill fit for sole practice and continued as such in ..... 41 See Assefa Ali, Bayisa Besie, Shibru Belete, Who are Traders: The subjective and objective approach , A ...
Tanabe, Clifton S.
Given the extent to which our society values education, it is perplexing to learn that we continue to struggle to provide all children, especially homeless children, an adequate education. This troubling issue is the focus of this paper. Specifically, this paper will center around two basic questions; 1) what has the legal system done to ensure…
Curnow, P. (Baker and McKenzie, London (United Kingdom)); Hodes, G. (UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU, Roskilde (Denmark))
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) continues to evolve organically, and many legal issues remain to be addressed in order to maximise its effectiveness. This Guidebook explains through case studies how domestic laws and regulatory frameworks in CDM Host Countries interact with international rules on carbon trading, and how the former can be enhanced to facilitate the implementation and financing of CDM projects. (author)
... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Filing of Documents with TTB § 73.33 Am I legally bound... paper document submitted to satisfy the same reporting requirement. Persons using electronic signatures...
Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.
Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…
Tameru Wondim Agegnehu
Background: Lawyering in Ethiopia, 1940s Onward. As elsewhere lawyering started as a personal skill fit for sole practice and continued as such in Ethiopia long after the basis for its legal recognition was. ♧. Tameru Wondim Agegnehu: LL.B, (Haile Selassie I University, currently Addis Ababa. University, 1972), LL.
, this agency does not inescapably lead to the normalization of targeted killings. The article therefore concludes that acknowledging the agency of drones is important for understanding how legal expertise is formed but especially for underscoring the continued potential for controversy and politics....
This study deals with legal language, the bridging of communication problems in a legal setting by especially court interpreters, and difficulties these legal linguists may experience in this endeavour. Some word-forming principles are discussed and examples are given of typical multilingual coinages in the legal profession.
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal responsibility is established, including legal custody and/or guardianship, as appropriate, in accordance with...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal adoption...