WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal authoritarian beliefs

  1. Do hostile attributions and negative affect explain the association between authoritarian beliefs and harsh parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Authoritarian Disbeliefs in Diversity.

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    Asbrock, Frank; Kauff, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic diversity poses a threat to authoritarians, as it indicates non-conformism to group norms and poses a threat to group conformity. According to authoritarian dynamic theory, threats elicit authoritarian reactions in people with authoritarian predispositions. In the present article we tested a mediation model derived from authoritarian dynamic theory in a sample of 171 students. As expected, authoritarian predisposition negatively predicted diversity beliefs. This effect was fully mediated by an authoritarian manifestation, that is, authoritarian aggression. The two other components of right-wing authoritarianism, authoritarian submission and conventionalism, did not mediate the effect. Results confirm contemporary research on authoritarianism and the differentiation of authoritarian predispositions and its manifestations.

  3. Side effects of multiculturalism: the interaction effect of a multicultural ideology and authoritarianism on prejudice and diversity beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Asbrock, Frank; Thörner, Stefan; Wagner, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    We studied the influence of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) on the relationship between a multicultural ideology and attitudes about ethnic diversity and immigrants. We hypothesized that a multicultural ideology poses a threat to authoritarian individuals, which leads to a decrease in positive diversity beliefs and an increase in prejudice toward immigrants. On the basis of representative survey-data from 23 European countries, we showed that the negative relationship between RWA and positive diversity beliefs was stronger the more a country engages in multiculturalism (Study 1). In addition, in two experiments we demonstrated that RWA moderated the relationship between a video promoting multiculturalism (Study 2) or a picture showing a multicultural group (Study 3) and attitudes toward immigrants and diversity. As expected, for high-RWAs, both stimuli led to an increase in prejudice. In Study 3, perceived threat mediated the relationship between a multicultural norm and prejudice for people high in RWA.

  4. Belief and legal philosophy: a conceptual framework for Christian scholarship in undergraduate legal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal education in South Africa has arrived at a discursive juncture that demands clarity on what the “purpose” of legal education should be. Debate on the purpose of legal education, more specifically for the Christian law student, becomes especially important in a society dominated by positivism, mate-rialism and pragmatism. With specific reference to the under-graduate Christian law student, this article firstly explains that the purpose of legal education should include the nurturing of the student’s belief – a belief encompassing his/her foun-dational perspective(s on reality. Secondly, in order to achieve the proper nurturing and development of the Christian law student’s belief, the importance of the teaching of legal philo-sophy is explained. In this regard, proposals are postulated pertaining to specific means by which such nurturing and development of the undergraduate Christian law student’s foundational belief can be attained.

  5. Social Cognition and Democracy: The Relationship Between System Justification, Just World Beliefs, Authoritarianism, Need for Closure, and Need for Cognition in Hungary

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    László Kelemen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at examining just-world beliefs, system justification, authoritarianism, and cognitive style in a nationally representative sample (N = 1000 in Hungary, and at relating these phenomena to various demographic and political variables to find out whether the findings in Hungary would differ from its Western counterparts. According to system justification theory, there is a psychological motive to defend and justify the status quo. This theory has been tested several times in North American and Western European samples. The core finding of our study was that Hungarian people, unlike people in Western democracies, did not justify the existing establishment. There was strong pessimism with regard to the idea that the system serves the interests of the people. Members of disadvantaged groups (people with low economic income and/or far right political preference strongly rejected the system. System justification beliefs were moderately related to just world beliefs, and there was a significant relationship between some aspects of need for closure (need for order, discomfort with ambiguity, and closed-mindedness and authoritarian beliefs. Need for cognition was only related to one aspect of need for closure: closed-mindedness. The voters of right-wing parties did not display higher levels of authoritarianism than the voters of the left social-democrat party. The role of demographic and political variables, limitations, and possible developments of this research are discussed.

  6. Can Legal Interventions Change Beliefs? The Effect of Exposure to Sexual Harassment Policy on Men's Gender Beliefs

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    Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…

  7. Authoritarianism, dominance and assertiveness.

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    Ray, J J

    1981-08-01

    It is shown that there are definitions of the three constructs of authoritarianism, dominance and assertiveness which read very similarly; so much so that no distinction is immediately evident. It is proposed that authoritarianism might be conceived as aggressive dominance and at least some types of assertiveness as nonaggressive dominance. A new scale of Dominance suitable for general population use was produced, and compared with the existing Ray (1976) behavior inventory of authoritarianism. Both scales showed highly significant correlations with peer rated dominance and submission (the latter being negative in sign) but only the authoritarianism scale showed significant correlations with rated aggressiveness and rigidity. It was concluded that the new definitions could be operationalized into valid scales.

  8. Authoritarianism in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    only have been completed with the support and tolerance of my two sons. Tristan and Sebastian, thank you for letting dad spend so much time on this...leads to or reinforces authoritarian behavior by the wealthy and acceptance by the poor due to relative power. The basis for the conclusion lies in...mineral rich states often experience economic inequality and authoritarian government, it is possible to mitigate these problems through domestic

  9. Age and recovery from brain injury: legal opinions, clinical beliefs and experimental evidence.

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    Johnson, David A; Rose, F D; Brooks, B M; Eyers, S

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable scientific evidence to the contrary, many medical practitioners maintain that children recover from brain injury better than adults. This belief, which is commonly referred to as the "Kennard Principle", has important ramifications for personal injury compensation claims in which the amount of financial damages claimed is partly based on medical experts' prognoses for recovery and long-term outcome. The present study investigated whether legal practitioners' beliefs are consistent with those of medical practitioners. Lawyers were asked to estimate their confidence in consultant neurologists' estimates of recovery in four clinically-based but fictitious case studies which differed only in the reported age of the patient. The lawyers showed more confidence in estimates which coincided with the Kennard Principle than those which did not. These results support previous findings in showing widespread belief that "younger is better" in recovery from brain injury. In consequence, it is likely that financial compensation for children with brain injury is currently being underestimated in litigation, thereby prejudicing the long-term outcome of the child.

  10. Authoritarianism and Ethical Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHoskey, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys undergraduate psychology students in an attempt to ascertain the relationship among right wing authoritarianism (RWA) thinking, relativism and idealism, and political orientation. Discovers an inverse relationship between RWA and relativism but a surprising positive correlation between idealism and RWA. (MJP)

  11. Do authoritarians vote for authoritarians? Evidence from Latin America

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    Mollie J. Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.

  12. Authoritarian and benevolent god representations and the two sides of prosociality.

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    Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    The Big Gods model focuses on belief in an authoritarian God as a psychological mechanism that inhibits antisocial behavior and facilitates the formation of tight, cohesive groups. Recent empirical evidence suggests, however, that belief in a benevolent God is more likely to inspire helping and inclusivity. Both kinds of beliefs are necessary to explain the development of large-scale societies.

  13. Authoritarian Personalities, 1950-1973

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    Whitten, Norman E.

    1976-01-01

    American college graduates of the post Kent State era are compared with those of the post Hitler era as to authoritarian type personality. A short rating scale, which is included in the article, administered to graduates in 1950 was again administered to graduates of the same college in 1973. The 1973 group was less authoritarian than the 1950…

  14. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  15. Bioethics and authoritarian discourse

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    Tolga Güven

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]This paper has been planned as a critical response to Murat Civaner's article entitled 'Medical Ethics arguments should be concordant with scientific knowledge and certain values', published in the Autumn 2015 issue of Turkish Journal of Bioethics. It also aims to provide an evaluation of the way the authoritarian discourse manifests itself in ethical arguments.[¤]METHODS[|]For this purpose, the paper first presents the views of Orhan Hançerlioğlu on Karl Marx and Karl Popper and treats these views as a written example of such authoritarian discourse, which is essentially a problematic attitude that results from an inability to acknowledge the value-laden aspects of a given perspective. [¤]RESULTS[|]In order to show that problems in Hançerlioğlu's approach is also present in Civaner's arguments, several examples where the author did not recognize the value-laden aspects and the subjective nature of information are provided. The paper then examines the recent claim by Celal Şengör, who asserted that force feeding of feces to individuals do not qualify as torture. Based on the presentation and the justification of this reductionist claim, it is emphasized that the relationship between information and values is much more complicated than those presented by Civaner. Civaner's claim, which asserts that the concept of conscience should have no place in medical ethics arguments, is also evaluated on this basis and the dangers of excluding the moral agent in ethical evaluation are underlined. In addition, the relationship of the paternalist tradition with the perspective which I refer to as the 'macro axis' is examined. Last but not least, the paper deals with the concept of 'ethics of ethics' by using examples from national and international ethics literature and emphasizes the reason why it is important for the ethicist to become aware of her own scheme of values. [¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]The paper concludes that contrary

  16. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  17. Highly dominating, highly authoritarian personalities.

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    Altemeyer, Bob

    2004-08-01

    The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements.

  18. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

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    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  19. A comparison of the responsible drinking dimensions among underage and legal drinkers: examining differences in beliefs, motives, self-efficacy, barriers and intentions.

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    Barry, Adam E; Stellefson, Michael L; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2014-01-22

    To date, scholarly discourse over the Amethyst Initiative has primarily debated the relative effectiveness of the 21 year-old Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA). Unfortunately, this discourse has failed to account for the Amethyst Initiative's central tenet/mission: facilitating responsible drinking among college students. This investigation seeks to help fill this gap by quantitatively determining whether a random sample of underage (n = 158) and legal (n = 298) drinkers differed with regard to their alcohol-related behaviors, responsible drinking behaviors, and responsible drinking beliefs. Compared to legal drinkers, underage drinkers reported: (a) significantly less confidence to perform responsible drinking behaviors during their next drinking episode [t(446) = -2.97, p responsible drinking [t(388) = 3.44, p responsible drinking behaviors the next time they consumed alcohol [t(437) = -3.45, p students both above and below the 21 year-old MLDA have similar beliefs regarding what constitutes responsible drinking, students below the current MLDA have less intention to drink responsibly regardless of their behavioral beliefs and/or motives. College/university administrators should consider the negative repercussions that are possible if underage students who are less confident in their ability to drink responsibly are given the legal right to drink on campus.

  20. Change over time in parents' beliefs about and reported use of corporal punishment in eight countries with and without legal bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Cappa, Claudia; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H

    2017-09-01

    Stopping violence against children is prioritized in goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. All forms of child corporal punishment have been outlawed in 50 countries as of October 2016. Using data from 56,371 caregivers in eight countries that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, we examined change from Time 1 (2005-6) to Time 2 (2008-13) in national rates of corporal punishment of 2- to 14-year-old children and in caregivers' beliefs regarding the necessity of using corporal punishment. One of the participating countries outlawed corporal punishment prior to Time 1 (Ukraine), one outlawed corporal punishment between Times 1 and 2 (Togo), two outlawed corporal punishment after Time 2 (Albania and Macedonia), and four have not outlawed corporal punishment as of 2016 (Central African Republic, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, and Sierra Leone). Rates of reported use of corporal punishment and belief in its necessity decreased over time in three countries; rates of reported use of severe corporal punishment decreased in four countries. Continuing use of corporal punishment and belief in the necessity of its use in some countries despite legal bans suggest that campaigns to promote awareness of legal bans and to educate parents regarding alternate forms of discipline are worthy of international attention and effort along with legal bans themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Authoritarianism without Dominant Ideology: Political Manifestations of Authoritarian attitudes in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, B.; Enyedi, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Since the publication of Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford's (1950) classic study, considerable debate has developed concerning the political and ideological correlates of authoritarianism. This paper examines relationships between authoritarianism, on the one hand, and

  2. Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes

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    Lindholm, Torun; Hawley, Caitlin B.; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Ekström, Ingrid; Olsson, Mats J.; Olofsson, Jonas K.

    2018-01-01

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions. PMID:29515834

  3. Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Lindholm, Torun; Hawley, Caitlin B; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Ekström, Ingrid; Olsson, Mats J; Olofsson, Jonas K

    2018-02-01

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.

  4. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  5. Combat Leadership Styles: Empowerment versus Authoritarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism FARIS R. KIRKLAND Recent research in Israel and the United States suggests that...Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility Under Authoritarian Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman, Peter S.; Moon, Jeremy; Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seemingly oxymoronic context of Chinese “authoritarian capitalism.” Following an introduction to the emergence of authoritarian capitalism, the article considers the emergence of CSR in China using Matten and Moon...

  7. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills among Authoritarian Students

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    Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…

  8. Gender inequality and gender differences in authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J

    2012-10-01

    Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.

  9. On the eve of war: authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq.

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    McFarland, Sam G

    2005-03-01

    In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.

  10. Authoritarian versus responsive communitarian bioethics.

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    Etzioni, Amitai

    2011-01-01

    A communitarian approach to bioethics adds a core value to a field that is often more concerned with considerations of individual autonomy. Some interpretations of liberalism put the needs of the patient over those of the community; authoritarian communitarianism privileges the needs of society over those of the patient. Responsive communitarianism's main starting point is that we face two conflicting core values, autonomy and the common good, and that neither should be a priori privileged and that we have principles and procedure that can be used to work out this conflict but not to eliminate it. Additionally, it favours changing behaviour mainly through the creation of norms and by drawing on informal social control rather than by coercion.

  11. Gender, sexuality, and the authoritarian personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2010-12-01

    The political correlates of the authoritarian personality have been well established by researchers, but important linkages to other major constructs in psychology need fuller elaboration. We present new data and review old data from our laboratories that show the myriad ways in which authoritarianism is implicated in the important domain of gender roles. We show that women and men high in authoritarianism live in rigidly gendered worlds where male and female roles are narrowly defined, attractiveness is based on traditional conceptions of masculinity and femininity, and conventional sexual mores are prescribed. As a construct, authoritarianism is not just relevant for understanding people's politics, but it also affects the most personal of domains--romantic partnerships, lifestyle goals, and basic attitudes about male and female relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Intercultural Effectiveness, Authoritarianism, and Ethnic Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.

  13. Increased nature relatedness and decreased authoritarian political views after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Taylor; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that classical psychedelic compounds can induce lasting changes in personality traits, attitudes and beliefs in both healthy subjects and patient populations. Here we sought to investigate the effects of psilocybin on nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). This open-label pilot study with a mixed-model design studied the effects of psilocybin on measures of nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with moderate to severe TRD ( n=7) versus age-matched non-treated healthy control subjects ( n=7). Psilocybin was administered in two oral dosing sessions (10 mg and 25 mg) 1 week apart. Main outcome measures were collected 1 week and 7-12 months after the second dosing session. Nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective were assessed using the Nature Relatedness Scale (NR-6) and Political Perspective Questionnaire (PPQ-5), respectively. Nature relatedness significantly increased ( t(6)=-4.242, p=0.003) and authoritarianism significantly decreased ( t(6)=2.120, p=0.039) for the patients 1 week after the dosing sessions. At 7-12 months post-dosing, nature relatedness remained significantly increased ( t(5)=-2.707, p=0.021) and authoritarianism remained decreased at trend level ( t(5)=-1.811, p=0.065). No differences were found on either measure for the non-treated healthy control subjects. This pilot study suggests that psilocybin with psychological support might produce lasting changes in attitudes and beliefs. Although it would be premature to infer causality from this small study, the possibility of drug-induced changes in belief systems seems sufficiently intriguing and timely to deserve further investigation.

  14. Influence of Response Sets on Authoritarian and Non-Authoritarian Attitude Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James A.; And Others

    An attempt was made to examine authoritarian and non-authoritarian scales of social attitudes and their reversals as a function of: (1) content consistency; (2) acquiescence; and (3) a tendency to use extreme categories of response. The study questioned whether Adorno's fascism (F), dogmatism (D), ethnocentrism (E), and anti-Semitism (A-S) scales…

  15. Competence to stand trial evaluations of sovereign citizens: a case series and primer of odd political and legal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, George F

    2014-01-01

    Sovereign citizens hold a variety of beliefs that challenge the legitimacy of the United States government and criminal justice system. In criminal cases, sovereign citizens typically raise a variety of seemingly strange objections to the proceedings that can cause court participants to believe the defendant is not competent to stand trial. The author's case files were reviewed to identify all defendants who espoused sovereign citizen beliefs during a court-ordered competence-to-stand-trial evaluation. This case series consisted of nine evaluations completed between 2003 and 2012. A review of the outcomes in these cases showed that sovereign citizens typically have the capacity to understand criminal proceedings and assist an attorney. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  16. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein.

  17. Heralding the authoritarian? Orientation toward authority in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifen Tagar, Michal; Federico, Christopher M; Lyons, Kristen E; Ludeke, Steven; Koenig, Melissa A

    2014-04-01

    In the research reported here, we examined whether individual differences in authoritarianism have expressions in early childhood. We expected that young children would be more responsive to cues of deviance and status to the extent that their parents endorsed authoritarian values. Using a sample of 43 preschoolers and their parents, we found support for both expectations. Children of parents high in authoritarianism trusted adults who adhered to convention (vs. adults who did not) more than did children of parents low in authoritarianism. Furthermore, compared with children of parents low in authoritarianism, children of parents high in authoritarianism gave greater weight to a status-based "adult = reliable" heuristic in trusting an ambiguously conventional adult. Findings were consistent using two different measures of parents' authoritarian values. These findings demonstrate that children's trust-related behaviors vary reliably with their parents' orientations toward authority and convention, and suggest that individual differences in authoritarianism express themselves well before early adulthood.

  18. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  19. TRENDS IN AUTHORITARIANISM: EVIDENCE FROM 31 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina de Regt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, few studies have been conducted on trendsin authoritarian attitudes,despite the importance of this research in our understanding of undemocraticmovements in society. Studies that have surveyed trends in authoritarianism arealready rather outdated, often based on student samples and conducted in only alimited number of countries. Furthermore, until now, no study had tested whetherthe meaning of authoritarianism is invariant acrosstime. Using theEuropeanValues Study,we examined trends in authoritarianism in 31 European countriesover the last decade (1999-2008, based on representative samples. It was foundthat in many Western European countries, with the exception of the Netherlands,authoritarianism declined significantly over the last decade. However, in some,mostly Eastern European countries, levels of authoritarianism actually increasedsignificantly during the last decade. Changing levels of authoritarianism werelinked to extreme-right and anti-democratic sentiment in European societies.

  20. The authoritarian reign in American health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Kathryn A; Landreneau, Kandace J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this article is to increase understanding of the mechanisms of the continuation of elite hegemonic control of a highly valued social system--American health care. White, male physicians and administrators achieved control of the health care industry and its workers, including nurses, at the start of the 20th century. Using critical theorists' work on authoritarianism and incorporating gender analysis, the authors describe the health care system from a critical social- psychological perspective. The authors discuss the meaning and presence of authoritarian hierarchy and gender effects in today's health system through a critical analysis of the profession of medicine, the profession of nursing, corporate and bureaucratic health care, and patients or consumers. It is concluded that the social-psychological behavior of the American health care system has profound implications that must be taken into account in any recommendations for change.

  1. Humanitarian NGOs: Dealing with authoritarian regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges facing humanitarian NGOs that work in authoritarian settings. Drawing on examples from North Korea, Myanmar, Darfur, and Sri Lanka, the paper examines some of the central dilemmas facing humanitarian actors in these contexts and the strategies they have deployed to address these. The paper then examines the oft-repeated recommendation that humanitarian agencies need to engage in more rigorous and more strategic analysis of their work in order to improve prac...

  2. Is political conservatism synonymous with authoritarianism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, H Michael; Thoma, Stephen J; Hestevold, Nita

    2005-10-01

    The authors performed 2 studies that tested the distinction between conservative political ideology and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Across these studies, moderate relationships emerged between RWA and our measures of cognitive rigidity, whereas the relationship between rigidity and mainstream conservative ideology was not as strong. The authors used partial-correlation and path analyses to assess the possibility that RWA mediates the relationship between (a) cognitive rigidity and (b) mainstream conservative attitudes and self-identified conservatism. The results indicated that conservatism is not synonymous with RWA. Additionally, RWA appeared to partially mediate the relationship between cognitive rigidity and mainstream conservatism.

  3. Evolving Beliefs about Teaching and Learning. The View from Hofstra University: A Perspective on Teachers' Beliefs and Their Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Michael

    This paper examines the notion of teacher beliefs as complex ideological systems which have a bearing on actions. The focus is on the beliefs that students bring into their formal teacher education program, which are based on their predominantly authoritarian and didactic schooling experience. These students enter teacher education with…

  4. Pathogens and politics: further evidence that parasite prevalence predicts authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Damian R; Schaller, Mark; Suedfeld, Peter

    2013-01-01

    According to a "parasite stress" hypothesis, authoritarian governments are more likely to emerge in regions characterized by a high prevalence of disease-causing pathogens. Recent cross-national evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but there are inferential limitations associated with that evidence. We report two studies that address some of these limitations, and provide further tests of the hypothesis. Study 1 revealed that parasite prevalence strongly predicted cross-national differences on measures assessing individuals' authoritarian personalities, and this effect statistically mediated the relationship between parasite prevalence and authoritarian governance. The mediation result is inconsistent with an alternative explanation for previous findings. To address further limitations associated with cross-national comparisons, Study 2 tested the parasite stress hypothesis on a sample of traditional small-scale societies (the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample). Results revealed that parasite prevalence predicted measures of authoritarian governance, and did so even when statistically controlling for other threats to human welfare. (One additional threat-famine-also uniquely predicted authoritarianism.) Together, these results further substantiate the parasite stress hypothesis of authoritarianism, and suggest that societal differences in authoritarian governance result, in part, from cultural differences in individuals' authoritarian personalities.

  5. The University Depoliticized: Research and Knowledge in an Authoritarian State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odencrantz, Joana Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the impact of an authoritarian state on the university as represented by the Faculty of Economics and Political Science at Cairo University in Cairo, Egypt. I examine how academics negotiate their tasks of acquiring, disseminating and producing knowledge within the confines of an authoritarian state. "The 2003 Arab…

  6. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.

  7. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  8. The Effect of Socio-economic Status on Authoritarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollah Pour Afkari; Behzad Hakiminya; Arash Heydari; Shahrooz Foroutankia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Scientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the ...

  9. The Organizational Weapon: Ruling Parties in Authoritarian Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This project examines party building in authoritarian regimes. The overarching puzzle I seek to address is: why are some autocratic ruling parties stronger organizations than others? What explains variation in the institutional capacity of autocratic rule? The collection of three essays in this dissertation outline the strategic logic of party institutionalization, in addition to providing new and original ways in which to measure this key concept of authoritarian party strength. It tests pre...

  10. Authoritarianism and Intolerance Under Autocratic and Democratic Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Dunn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on findings indicating that authoritarians express greater intolerance in situations where diversity is more apparent, Stenner (2005 proposes that democracies may sabotage their stability by allowing the unbridled expression of societal pluralism. She therefore suggests that pluralism in democracies be suppressed in order to pacify authoritarians and the threat their unbridled intolerance may pose to the stability of these countries. Based on data from the World and European Values Surveys, I examined 75,478 individuals across 75 countries to determine if authoritarians are indeed more intolerant in more democratic societies; a key assumption upon which Stenner’s suggestion rests. While authoritarianism was more strongly and negatively related to tolerance in more democratic countries, authoritarians in more democratic countries were more tolerant than were authoritarians in more autocratic countries. I argue that Stenner’s concern may be valid if we strictly consider rapid pluralization within a single generation within consolidating democracies, but for established democracies, her concern appears unwarranted.

  11. Legal Education in Brazil: maintaining the scientific positivism and consoliding the authoritarism in the criminal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Regina Pastana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports analyses and conclusions formulated from comments about Brazilian Criminal Justice and that they had given to origin the thesis “Criminal Justice in Current Brazil: Democratic speech - practical authoritarian”. Focusing specifically national legal education, this text looks for to associate the maintenance of the authoritarianism in the criminal control to the positivist tradition of national legal science.

  12. The Influence of the Concept of Authoritarian Personality Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Smolík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article will briefly introduce the concept of authoritarian personality as its team of authors T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, D. J. Levinson and R. N. Sanford, presented it, describe the contemporary influence of the concept and focus on possible implications for the study of non-democratic regimes. The reader will also learn about findings of political psychology and reflections about the concept of authoritarianism, including the approaches of S. Freud, E. Fromm, A. Maslow and others. The following text is based on the theoretical conclusions of political psychology, which by applying its scholarly perspective can uncover some contexts of the study of non-democratic regimes.

  13. The relationship between authoritarianism and life satisfaction changes depending on stigmatized status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Henry, PJ; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Members of stigmatized social groups are typically more authoritarian than their nonstigmatized or higher status counterparts. We draw on research demonstrating that authoritarianism compensates for the negative effects of stigma to predict that this endorsement will be more psychologically

  14. From the web to the streets : Internet and protests under authoritarian regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, K.

    2017-01-01

    This article systematically investigates the relationship between internet use and protests in authoritarian states and democracies. It argues that unlike in democracies, internet use has facilitated the occurrence of protests in authoritarian regimes, developing a theoretical rationale for this

  15. Authoritarian Neoliberalism, the Occupy Movements, and IPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bruff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of any kind of hegemonic aura, neoliberal practices have proved increasingly unable to garner the consent, or even the reluctant acquiescence, necessary for more ‘normal’ modes of governance. Of particular importance in the post-2007 crisis has been the growing frequency with which constitutional and legal changes, in the name of economic ‘necessity’, are seeking to reshape the purpose of the state and associated institutions. This attempted reconfiguration is three-fold: (1 the more immediate appeal to material circumstances as a reason for the state being unable, despite ‘the best will in the world’, to reverse processes such as greater socioeconomic inequality and dislocation;(2 the deeper and longer-term recalibration of what kind of activity is feasible and appropriate for ‘non-market’ institutions to engage in, diminishing expectations in the process; and (3 the reconceptualisation of the state as increasingly non-democratic through its subordination to constitutional and legal rules that are ‘necessary’ for prosperity to be achieved.

  16. Father-Son Inter-Generational Transmission of Authoritarian Paternal Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Statum, Jo Ann

    1984-01-01

    Attempted to determine authoritarian paternal attitude inter-generational transmission in fathers and sons (N=75). Results suggested that authoritarian paternal attitudes could be indicated in terms of five factors: Dominant, Rigidity, Conformity, Intolerant, and Uncreative; and that the sons expressed strongly the authoritarian attitudes of their…

  17. They claim that the executive branch has become too authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE EFFECTS oF GooD GovERNANCE AND EDUCATION ON. EcoNOMIC STABILITY AND ... authoritarian system with a strong village chief and local Emir. .... In the. United States of America, for example, the framers of the U.S.. Constitution ...

  18. Socially Rooted Authoritarianism in Lygia Fagundes Telles's "As Meninas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Rex P.

    2017-01-01

    Lygia Fagundes Telles's novel "As meninas" portrays the oppressive social atmosphere of Brazil's authoritarian military dictatorship in a way that few other novels accomplish. Though the novel eschews the documentary "romance-reportagem" mode famously adopted by other writers from the period, "As meninas" provides a…

  19. Civil society in Syria and Iran: activism in authoritarian contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.; Cavatorta, F.

    2013-01-01

    What are the dynamics of civic activism in authoritarian regimes? How do new social actors--many of them informal, "below the radar" groups--interact with these regimes? What mechanisms do the power elite employ to deal with societal dissidence? The authors of Civil Society in Syria and Iran explore

  20. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    only contributed to corruption, violent conflict, poverty, human rights abuses and the throttling of social justice. The contradiction in Africa's democratisation is further shown by the increasing metamorphoses of many African ruling political parties into what can be called 'democratic authoritarianism'. The process of this met-.

  1. Differential and Domain-Specific Associations Among Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation, and Adolescent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Shook, Natalie J; Clay, Russ; Metzger, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    Using a dual-process model (DPM) framework, this research examined whether right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) are differentially associated with adolescent delinquency. In Study 1 ( N = 847; M age = 15.96) and Study 2 ( N = 340; M age = 16.64), adolescents completed measures of RWA, SDO, and engagement in different forms of delinquency. In Study 2, adolescents also reported their beliefs about obeying different laws. Across both studies, adolescents who endorsed greater RWA engaged in lower levels of delinquency and those who endorsed greater SDO engaged in higher levels of delinquency. Findings from Study 2 suggest that these associations are contingent on the domain-specific purpose of the law being violated and are also present with adolescents' beliefs about their obligation to obey laws. These results extend the DPM, demonstrating that RWA and SDO are differentially linked with youth delinquency.

  2. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs.

  3. The Romanian Social Democratic Party versus the authoritarian monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating workers to go on strike, and to accept the governmental policies. The freedom of speech and the political actions were ceded to the monarch, who governed at the place of the political parties and he controlled the unions, by using the guilds.

  4. Authoritarian Inheritance and Conservative Party-Building in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, James Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s, with the onset of the third wave of democratization, a host of new conservative parties emerged in Latin America. The trajectories of these parties varied tremendously. While some went on to enjoy long-term electoral success, others failed to take root. The most successful new conservative parties all shared a surprising characteristic: they had deep roots in former dictatorships. They were "authoritarian successor parties," or parties founded by high-level in...

  5. Implications of Ideology in the Endurance of Competitive Authoritarian Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE March 2018 3...count. In order to gain access, the PAP leadership stroke a deal with their previous foe, the National Odriísta Movement, and together they...Neopopulist Leadership ,” in The Fujimori Legacy: The Rise of Electoral Authoritarianism in Perú, ed. 13 Julio F. Carrión (University Park: The University

  6. Discriminating individually considerate and authoritarian leaders by speech activity cues

    OpenAIRE

    Feese, Sebastian; Muaremi, Amir; Arnrich, Bert; Tröster, Gerhard; Meyer, Bertolt; Jonas, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Effective leadership can increase team performance, however up to now the influence of specific micro-level behavioral patterns on team performance is unclear. At the same time, current behavior observation methods in social psychology mostly rely on manual video annotations that impede research. In our work, we follow a sensor-based approach to automatically extract speech activity cues to discriminate individualized considerate from authoritarian leadership. On a subset of 35 selected...

  7. Career unreadiness in relation to anxiety and authoritarian parenting among undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authoritarian parenting and anxiety, after minimising their measurement errors. Career unreadiness mediated the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on anxiety. Nevertheless, authoritarian parenting still maintained a negative direct effect on anxiety, after controlling for career unreadiness. The findings imply that reducing undergraduates' career unreadiness is justifiable to prevent their anxiety. Such a reduction would benefit from neutralising the demands of authoritarian parenting. More fundamentally, diverting authoritarian parenting is advisable. PMID:25431512

  8. Career unreadiness in relation to anxiety and authoritarian parenting among undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph

    2014-07-03

    Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authoritarian parenting and anxiety, after minimising their measurement errors. Career unreadiness mediated the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on anxiety. Nevertheless, authoritarian parenting still maintained a negative direct effect on anxiety, after controlling for career unreadiness. The findings imply that reducing undergraduates' career unreadiness is justifiable to prevent their anxiety. Such a reduction would benefit from neutralising the demands of authoritarian parenting. More fundamentally, diverting authoritarian parenting is advisable.

  9. Emergence of Industrial Ecosystems in Post-Authoritarian Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Grumadaite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: This article analyses cluster emergence in post-authoritarian countries with immature socio-economic context by adapting the approach of industrial clusters as industrial ecosystems and analysing cluster emergence cases. Methodology/methods: Review of scientific literature, case analysis. Scientific aim: This article presents different scenarios of cluster emergence based on cases of industrial clusters in a Lithuanian context and provides solutions for cluster emergence in post-authoritarian countries. Findings: The analysis of scientific literature revealed the following solutions of cluster emergence in postauthoritarian contexts: 1 Large firm(s acting as anchors for attracting smaller companies into cluster; 2 Cluster emergence as a means to serve the needs of large customer outside the cluster; 3 Cluster emergence via local business entrepreneurs; 4 Cluster emergence via local science representatives; 5 Cluster emergence through adapting historically formed regional knowledge and networks; 6 Government as the main agent for change. The analysis of industrial clusters emergence in Lithuania revealed four different combinations of planned/ unplanned non-equilibrium phenomena and the first explicit/inexplicit initiatives toward the emergence of selforganising industrial systems by analysing the cases of cluster emergence in Lithuanian context. These cases highlighted the importance of leaders-initiators that were local large or simply very experienced enterprises, groups of managers of small and medium sized enterprises, mediators-communication facilitators from nonbusiness enterprises. These actors helped to cope with unplanned and planned non-equilibrium phenomena. Conclusions: Since the empirical analysis concentrated only in the first stage of cluster emergence of postauthoritarian context, a further research is needed to take a deeper look at the development of industrial clusters as industrial ecosystems in post-authoritarian

  10. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  11. Ideological Support for the Indian Caste System: Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Karma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cotterill

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the social dominance perspective to the Indian context by examining the role of belief in Karma (sanchita in the justification of the Indian caste system. Using social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 and the dual process model (Duckitt, 2001 as guiding theoretical frameworks, we tested four related hypotheses within a sample of 385 Indian university students. In particular we expected that social dominance orientation (SDO and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA would both make relatively strong and independent contributions to participants’ endorsement of Karma (H1, as well as their support for antiegalitarian social policies and conventions (H2. We also predicted that endorsement of Karma, itself, would be strongly related to support for these policies, net of the influence of SDO, RWA, as well as generalized prejudice (H3. Finally, and consistent with the notion that Karma functions as a legitimizing ideology, we hypothesized that it would at least partially mediate, net of generalized prejudice, the relationships between SDO and RWA, on the one hand, and antiegalitarian and conventional social policies, on the other (H4. Results of latent variable structural equation modeling provided support for all four hypotheses. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  13. Maternal Beliefs as Long-Term Predictors of Mother-Child Interaction and Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    1990-01-01

    Two kinds of parental beliefs, endorsed rearing philosophy (authoritative-authoritarian dimension) and affective attitude toward child (positive-negative affect dimension), were examined in 20 normal and 36 depressed mothers as long-term predictors of child rearing behaviors and interaction patterns with their children. (BC)

  14. Endorsement of sexist ideology in Taiwan and the United States: social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and deferential family norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Despite close relationships between men and women in daily lives, gender inequality is ubiquitous and often supported by sexist ideology. The understanding of potential bases of sexist ideology is thus important. According to Duckitt's dual-process model (2001), different worldviews may explain different types of sexist ideology. Individuals who hold a "competitive world" worldview tend to endorse group-based dominance. This lends itself to the endorsement of hostile sexism, because hostile sexism is an obvious form of male dominance. Conversely, individuals who hold a "dangerous world" worldview tend to adhere to social cohesion, collective security, and social traditions. This lends itself to the endorsement of benevolent sexism, because benevolent sexism values women who conform to gender norms. As predicted by Duckitt's model, research has shown that social dominance orientation, a general orientation towards the endorsement of group-based dominance, is closely associated with hostile sexism. Furthermore, right-wing authoritarianism, which measures adherence to social traditions, is closely associated with benevolent sexism. Due to the interdependent nature of gender relationships, the current research proposed that a relationship-based belief in hierarchy, deferential family norms, and norms depicting proper manners among family members should predict the endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism, after controlling for social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. As predicted, according to student samples collected in Taiwan and the US, the endorsement of deferential family norms predicted the endorsement of hostile sexism and of benevolent sexism, respectively. In addition, among men and women, social dominance orientation predicted hostile sexism more strongly (as opposed to benevolent sexism), whereas right-wing authoritarianism predicted benevolent sexism more strongly (as opposed to hostile sexism). Implications regarding relationship

  15. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  16. Effects of Authoritarianism on the Teaching of National History: The Case of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abens, Aija

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on history teaching has begun to focus on political motivation. This paper is the result of the author's dissertation, which investigates Latvian history teaching under the authoritarian regimes of Ulmanis and Stalin. It reveals the effects of authoritarianism on goals, curriculum, teaching materials and methods, and the teacher's…

  17. Middle East authoritarianisms: governance, contestation, and regime resilience in Syria and Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydemann, S.; Leenders, R.

    2013-01-01

    The developments of early 2011 have left the political landscape of the Middle East changed but recognizable. Even as urgent struggles continue, it remains clear that authoritarianism will survive this transformational moment. The study of authoritarian governance, therefore, remains essential for

  18. Parental Inconsistency versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb

    2008-01-01

    While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…

  19. Is Respecting Children's Rationality in Their Best Interest in an Authoritarian Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazinejad, Parvaneh; Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experiences of one of the authors teaching philosophy for children (P4C) in Iran, the paper asks whether respecting children's rationality, in the form of cultivating their ability and disposition to think critically, is in their best interest in an authoritarian context such as Iran. It argues that, in authoritarian contexts, respect…

  20. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  1. Religiosity and Authoritarianism as Predictors of Attitude toward the Disabled: A Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Roy H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study identifies predictors and correlates of attitudes toward the disabled. Authoritarianism, church attendance, religious orthodoxy, age, and education were significantly related to these attitudes of people in a Rocky Mountain Community. Significant predictors of the criterion were authoritarianism, religiosity, and age. Recommendations…

  2. The HEXACO correlates of authoritarianism's facets in the U.S. and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jie; Ludeke, Steven G.; Zettler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    was the predictable differences in the relations the facets had with Honesty-Humility, which was more positively related to conventionalism than authoritarian aggression in the U.S. sample, but not in the Danish sample. Interestingly, the U.S. sample scored significantly higher in authoritarianism and its facets than...

  3. Differential impact of fathers' authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  5. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  6. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  7. Self-esteem, authoritarianism, and democratic values in the face of threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Barbara A; Hastings, Brad M

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the associations among terrorist threat, right-wing authoritarianism, self-esteem, and their relations in support for democratic values. Students (n = 140) completed Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, and the Democratic Values Scale. The participants also read an editorial regarding the events of 9/11/01 and completed two mortality-salience questions to induce a sense of threat. Results showed that self-esteem was a significant contributor to the prediction of scores on the Democratic Values Scale. Furthermore, the interaction between self-esteem and right-wing authoritarianism explained significant variance in the Democratic Values Scale scores. The results are interpreted in light of theories addressing authoritarianism and self-esteem.

  8. Do authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development finance than democratic ones? Empirical evidence for Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This study is part of an emerging literature that aims to shed light on China's development finance activities in Africa using quantitative estimation techniques. This paper empirically investigates whether African authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development assistance than democratic

  9. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen

    2018-01-01

    Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed. PMID:29628902

  10. Authoritarian parenting attitudes as a risk for conduct problems Results from a British national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne; Hollis, Chris; Dagger, David Richards

    2003-04-01

    This study examines the associations, and possible causal relationship, between mothers' authoritarian attitudes to discipline and child behaviour using cross-sectional and prospective data from a large population sample surveyed in the 1970 British Cohort Study. Results show a clear linear relationship between the degree of maternal approval of authoritarian child-rearing attitudes and the rates of conduct problems at age 5 and age 10. This association is independent of the confounding effects of socio-economic status and maternal psychological distress. Maternal authoritarian attitudes independently predicted the development of conduct problems 5 years later at age 10. The results of this longitudinal study suggest that authoritarian parenting attitudes expressed by mothers may be of significance in the development of conduct problems.

  11. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen

    2018-01-01

    Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed.

  12. Daycare Center Attendance Buffers the Effects of Maternal Authoritarian Parenting Style on Physical Aggression in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José M; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2017-01-01

    A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children's level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother's authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys.

  13. From Authoritarian to Democratic Regimes: The New Role of Security Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margarita, Ana

    2001-01-01

    ... for the rule of law and human rights, accountability and transparency. This thesis compares the intelligence systems of Argentina, Romania, and El Salvador under their different regimes, authoritarian as well as democratic...

  14. Daycare Center Attendance Buffers the Effects of Maternal Authoritarian Parenting Style on Physical Aggression in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, José M.; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R.

    2017-01-01

    A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked ...

  15. Cultural value orientation and authoritarian parenting as parameters of bullying and victimization at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N; Fousiani, Kyriaki; Michaelides, Michalis; Stavrinides, Panayiotis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the existing association between cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, and bullying and victimization at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents, randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. Participants completed self reports measuring cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, bullying, and victimization. These instruments were the following: the cultural value scale (CVS), the parental authority questionnaire (PAQ), and the revised bullying and victimization questionnaire (BVQ-R). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine mediation effects. It was found that vertical individualism acted as a mediator between authoritarian parenting and bullying. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between authoritarian parenting and the vertical dimensions of both cultural value orientations (individualism and collectivism), but not with the horizontal dimensions of either cultural orientation. Further, authoritarian parenting was also positively associated with bullying and victimization at school. The main contribution of the present study is the finding that vertical individualism significantly mediates the relationship between authoritarian parental style and bullying propensity.

  16. Authoritarianism as an element of social character and a factor of gendered social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovančević Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediacy of daily encounters with gender roles, as well as the specific features of authoritarian mediation in their social shaping, make an analysis of gendered social interaction indispensable. In this paper the analysis is centered on the concept of social character, with special emphasis on authoritarianism as a continuous determinant of the transformation of natural sex into social construct of gender. It is precisely the authoritarian personality type that is the basis for alienated gender, dominated by sexism, a “natural” belonging to the private or the public sphere of social life, suppression of individual human capacities, and reduction of choice. After a review of the theoretical conceptions of social character and authoritarianism, a historical-comparative analysis of authoritarianism is offered, where the latter is seen as an element of the social character within the perspective of the typology traditional - modern - postmodern society. It is argued in conclusion that, in spite of certain emancipatory achievements, men and women still tend to escape into the security of authoritarian alienation. Feminist theory remains a basic source for reflecting on these processes; therefore the author pleads for a wider acceptance of feminist insights as contributions to establishing a postmodern, interpretive “sociology in a new key”.

  17. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states: a symbiotic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Hernan; Healy, Sean

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states is of growing concern to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), given the recurring difficulties experienced in negotiating access and implementing operations in such contexts. The effort to negotiate and gain approval from states to operate on their territory prompts reflection on the sources of legitimacy for action. Drawing on direct field examples in two countries only very rarely examined--Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan--this paper explores MSF's attempts to offer live-saving medical care there. It shows that successful access negotiations hinged heavily on demonstrating added value (medical relevance) while simultaneously building relationships with authorities, identifying possible allies within health ministries, and hoping that such measures could promote a level of acceptance or trust needed to operate. It is clear that the operational space achieved is bound to remain limited and fragile, and that many compromises have to be considered and judged against ethical principles and the overall impact of the intervention. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  19. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The legacy of legal culture and Serbia's European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Slaviša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the EU integration, it is certainly insufficient to harmonize only the positive law and the institutional regulatory framework. In order to provide for the implementation and application of the positive law, the political and legal culture must be congruent with the legal tradition of the European Union. The 'implantation' of legal institutes is a fashionable trend common to all transition countries, which fail to recognize a significant and inevitable fact that law is created and applied in the country-specific traditional, cultural and social context. Legal norms achieve their intended purpose only when they are reinforced by a number of other traditional, cultural, political, economic, and social circumstances. Hence, there is a specific functional and structural relation between law and social culture: on the one hand, law is the product of society; on the other hand, law is also the creator of social norms. Consequently, instead of 'copying' the legal norms of the European Union, it is necessary to create a social framework for the implementation of applicable, effective and equitable EU law. In addition to nomotechnics, scientific research on the 'harmonization of Serbian law with the EU law shall include the analysis of other factors, which are only apparently outside the legal framework but which are important for the general outcome of this process. Our legal culture is largely authoritarian, which is evident in the prevalence of power in the process of making and applying the law and in the dependence of the judicial system from the executive branch of government. Law is an instrument of political power of the legally unaccountable executive branch of government. The authoritarian legal rules are not an expression of reason, prudence, wisdom and general public interest but a temporary constellation of interests of power-holders while the normative activity is a short-term tactics for accomplishing these interests. As

  1. 'All’s well that ends well' : the strategy of electoral (mis)behavior in competitive-authoritarian regimes

    OpenAIRE

    LEVIN, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In competitive authoritarian regimes, formal democratic institutions and periodic elections are sponsored by the authoritarian ruler, but voting outcomes are sometimes manipulated to prevent government turnover. In this paper, I investigate the conditions under which a unified opposition might decide to challenge the official election outcome, the conditions under which the authoritarian incumbent might find it profitable to manipulate the election outcome, as well as the conditions under whi...

  2. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...

  3. A dual-stage moderated mediation model linking authoritarian leadership to follower outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John M; Shen, Yimo; Chong, Sinhui

    2017-02-01

    Although authoritarian leadership is viewed pejoratively in the literature, in general it is not strongly related to important follower outcomes. We argue that relationships between authoritarian leadership and individual employee outcomes are mediated by perceived insider status, yet in different ways depending on work unit power distance climate and individual role breadth self-efficacy. Results from technology company employees in China largely supported our hypothesized model. We observed negative indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on job performance, affective organizational commitment, and intention to stay among employees in units with relatively low endorsement of power distance, whereas the indirect relationships were not significant among employees in relatively high power distance units. These conditional indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on performance and intention to stay were significantly stronger among employees with relatively high role breadth self-efficacy. We discuss how the model and findings promote understanding of how, and under what circumstances, authoritarian leadership may influence followers' performance and psychological connections to their organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Gender Differences in the Relations among Patriarchal Beliefs, Parenting and Teen Relationship Violence in Mexican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Castaneda, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Teen relationship violence is a global phenomenon associated with adverse outcomes. As in other countries, teen relationship violence is of concern in Mexico. However, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors of teen relationship violence among Mexican adolescents. The current study examined whether patriarchal beliefs and exposure to authoritarian parenting among Mexican adolescents are associated with perpetration and victimization of physical and verbal-emotional teen relationship violence. Two hundred and four students (15 – 18 years old) from Monterrey, Mexico completed questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for age revealed that among girls, authoritarian parenting was associated with physical and verbal-emotional victimization and verbal-emotional violence perpetration. Among boys, higher endorsement of patriarchal beliefs was associated with lower reports of physical perpetration and physical victimization. PMID:23277734

  5. The Relationship between the Brexit Vote and Individual Predictors of Prejudice: Collective Narcissism, Right Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Guerra, Rita; Simão, Cláudia

    2017-01-01

    The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness), right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment. PMID:29230185

  6. The Relationship between the Brexit Vote and Individual Predictors of Prejudice: Collective Narcissism, Right Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golec de Zavala

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment.

  7. Perceptions of sexual harassment by evidence quality, perceiver gender, feminism, and right wing authoritarianism: Debunking popular myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Gargi; Stockdale, Margaret S

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the critique in public discourse that sexual harassment (SH) victim advocates, particularly women and feminists, ignore the quality of evidence in a SH claim and are reluctant to find evidence of a false accusation. To balance the inquiry, the study also examined whether right wing authoritarians (RWAs) also ignore evidence quality and presume such claims are false accusations. Participants were 961 U.S. adults (51% female) who completed an online experiment in which they read either a gender harassment (GH) or unwanted sexual attention (USA) scenario of hostile work environment SH and rated the scenario on severity, perceived guilt of the accused, belief that the accused should receive negative job consequences, and likelihood that the claimant was making a false accusation. Scenarios varied by the strength of the evidence in support of the SH claim. Participants completed measures of identification with and support for feminism, RWA, and demographic variables. Results found that contrary to expectations, evidence had a stronger effect on women's, feminists', and feminism supporters' perceptions and to a lesser extent RWAs' perceptions of the scenarios. When evidence was weak, women and feminists, compared to others, were less supportive of the prosecution, but when evidence was strong they were more supportive of the prosecution than were others. These findings address criticisms that advocates for gender equity and victim's rights, particularly women and feminists, are unable to reach fair judgments of SH complaints. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Nationalism and legitimation for authoritarianism: A comparison of Nicholas I and Vladimir Putin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Cannady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article draws parallels between Tsar Nicholas I and current Russian President Vladimir Putin with respect to their use of nationalism to justify statist policies and political authoritarianism. Building upon insights by Alexander Gerschenkron about the economic development of “backwards” states, it argues that both Nicholas and Putin have rhetorically used Western concepts such as nationalism and democracy to legitimize their rule but have modified them to give them more statist content. Under Nicholas, this was exemplified in the tripartite (Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality Official Nationality policy. Putin has emphasized patriotism, power, and statism to justify centralization of power and authoritarian policies. Putin's policies and rhetoric are strong analogs to those of Nicholas. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to explain state-inspired Russian nationalism and how it has been aligned with authoritarian politics, as well as specifying similarities between present and past in Russia.

  9. Education effects on authoritarian-libertarian values: a question of socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubager, Rune

    2008-06-01

    Over the past decades an authoritarian-libertarian value dimension has become increasingly important to electoral behaviour across western countries. Previous analyses have shown that education is the most important social antecedent of individuals' positions on this value dimension; high education groups tend towards the libertarian pole and low education groups tend towards the authoritarian pole. It remains an open question, however, what aspects of education cause this relationship. The article examines a range of explanatory models: a psychodynamic, a cognitive, a socialization, and an allocation effects model. The results strongly favour the socialization model in which the relationship between education and authoritarian-libertarian values is explained as a result of differences in the value sets transferred to students in different educational milieus. The value differences between the educational groups should thus not be seen as reflecting economic differences between the groups but rather as the result of a more fundamental value conflict.

  10. Indigenous people and International Law practice in Chile: New horizons before the weakening of the authoritarian legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Álvez Marín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available International law, since the 1990s has come to recognize indigenous peoples’ demands. Since then, indigenous people have acquired the status of international legal subject. For Chile, this should have marked a significant departure. The 1990s inaugurated not only the end of the cold war and thus the renewed relevance of international law, but also the return to democratic rule. Following global trends, Chile started to confront the violation of human rights occurring during the dictatorship. But Chile’s colonial past and the demands of indigenous peoples continue to be ignored. We argue that the legacies of authoritarianism in the Chilean practice of international law, explain in part the inability to respond to these demands. We conclude exploring the possibility of disciplinary renewal in in light of the end of the political consensus that marked the Chilean transition to democracy. It remains to be seen if these shifts will render Chilean international lawyers more receptive to indigenous peoples’ demands.

  11. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  12. Hot Water after the Cold War – Water Policy Dynamics in (Semi-Authoritarian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article of the special section introduces the central question that the section addresses: do water policy dynamics in (semi-authoritarian states have specific features as compared to other state forms? The article situates the question in the post-Cold War global water governance dynamics, argues that the state is a useful and required entry point for water policy analysis, explores the meaning of (semi-authoritarian as a category, and finally introduces the three papers, which are on China, South Africa and Vietnam.

  13. A Within-Group Analysis of African American Mothers’ Authoritarian Attitudes, Limit-Setting and Children's Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A.; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that higher levels of authoritarian parenting exist in African American (AA) families than in European American (EA) families, and that authoritarian attitudes may be associated with more positive outcomes in AA families than EA families. However, less is known about authoritarian attitudes and children's development within AA families. This within-group study of 50 African American mothers and their 3-year-old children examined associations between maternal authoritarian attitudes, observed maternal limit-setting strategies, and children's self-regulation during a limit-setting interaction. The findings indicate that while AA families may hold more authoritarian attitudes than EA families, the direction of effect of authoritarian attitudes on children's outcomes appears to be the same in both ethnic groups. In this sample, when examining AA authoritarian attitudes relative to those of other AA mothers, less or lower authoritarian attitudes were associated with authoritative limit-setting behavior (firm limits within the context of overall warmth and responsiveness) and better children's self-regulation. PMID:28408794

  14. A Within-Group Analysis of African American Mothers' Authoritarian Attitudes, Limit-Setting and Children's Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2017-03-01

    Research suggests that higher levels of authoritarian parenting exist in African American (AA) families than in European American (EA) families, and that authoritarian attitudes may be associated with more positive outcomes in AA families than EA families. However, less is known about authoritarian attitudes and children's development within AA families. This within-group study of 50 African American mothers and their 3-year-old children examined associations between maternal authoritarian attitudes, observed maternal limit-setting strategies, and children's self-regulation during a limit-setting interaction. The findings indicate that while AA families may hold more authoritarian attitudes than EA families, the direction of effect of authoritarian attitudes on children's outcomes appears to be the same in both ethnic groups. In this sample, when examining AA authoritarian attitudes relative to those of other AA mothers, less or lower authoritarian attitudes were associated with authoritative limit-setting behavior (firm limits within the context of overall warmth and responsiveness) and better children's self-regulation.

  15. Correlates of Authoritarian Parenting in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures and Implications for Understanding the Transmission of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E.

    2001-01-01

    Administered measures of authoritarianism, collectivism, warmth, anger, attributions for children's misbehavior, and parental feelings of control over failure to Egyptian- and Anglo-Canadians. Egyptians were higher on authoritarianism, collectivism, and anger. Men were higher on perceived control over failure. The best predictors of authoritarian…

  16. Attitudes Toward Medical Cannabis Legalization Among Serbian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Isidora; Pavlovic, Aleksandar; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2017-07-29

    Currently, medical cannabis polices are experiencing rapid changes, and an increasing number of nations around the world legalize medical cannabis for certain groups of patients, including those in Serbia. To determine medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Fourth-year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, had participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire. Overall, 63.4% students supported medical cannabis legalization, and only 20.8% supported its legalization for recreational use. Students who previously used marijuana (p medical cannabis legalization compared with students who never used them. Support for marijuana recreational use was also related to prior marijuana (p cancer (90.4%) and chronic pain (74.2%) were correctly reported approved medical indications by more than half the students. Students who supported medical cannabis legalization showed better knowledge about indications, in contrast to opponents for legalization who showed better knowledge about side effects. Beliefs that using medical cannabis is safe and has health benefits were correlated with support for legalization, and previous marijuana and alcohol use, while beliefs that medical cannabis poses health risks correlated most strongly with previous marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance: The medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization were significantly correlated with previous use of marijuana and alcohol, knowledge about medical indications and side effects, and their beliefs regarding medical cannabis health benefits and risks.

  17. Authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and children's self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E

    2006-03-01

    Mothers and children between the ages of 7 and 12, from individualist (Western European) and collectivist (Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani) backgrounds, completed assessments of children's self-esteem, maternal authoritarianism, and mothers' thoughts and feelings about their children. Collectivist mothers endorsed authoritarian parenting more than did individualist mothers but did not feel or think more negatively about their children, and collectivist children were not lower in self-esteem. Within both groups, maternal negative affect and cognition were associated with lower self-esteem in children. However, maternal authoritarianism was associated with maternal negative emotion and cognition only in the individualist group. The results suggest that maternal negative thoughts and feelings, associated with authoritarianism in individualist but not collectivist groups, may be more detrimental to children's self-esteem than is authoritarianism in and of itself. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available in the presence of Vacuity. 3.2 Partial meet theory contraction The preceding construction works equally well when B is taken to be a theory K. But in this case, since the input to contraction is a theory, we should expect the output to be a theory too... that is analogous to that of a belief set K in theory change. Intuitively, E is the ?current? set of expectations of the agent, and the plausible consequences of a sentence ? are those sentences ? for which ? |?? holds. The set of expectations E is not explicitly...

  19. Juror Decision Making: A Case of Attitude Change Mediated by Authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied individuals important to jury decision-making processes, i.e., those who change their minds. Results showed no consistent differences in race, sex, or age for changers and nonchangers and authoritarians changed attitudes about defendent's guilt more than equalitarians. (PAS)

  20. History Textbook Writing in a Post-Totalitarian and Authoritarian Context: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadora, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses school history writing in a specific context: Belarus--a post-totalitarian and authoritarian state. School history teaching has always been a powerful instrument for transmitting national identity and legitimising political structures, and political authorities tend to control it. Perestroika marked the beginning of a new…

  1. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…

  2. The Psychological Effect of Television Characters: The Case of Archie Bunker and Authoritarian Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Bowden, Elizabeth

    Reference group theory suggests that a perceived similarity between interacting individuals leads to future interaction, increased source credibility, and more frequent agreement on specific issues. This study shows how the reference group theory applies to the authoritarian television character Archie Bunker and television viewers that watch…

  3. Electoral Violence in Putin´s Russia: Modern Authoritarianism in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mochtak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and analyses the acts of electoral violence that occurred during the 2011 parliamentary and 2012 presidential elections in the Russian Federation, and connects them with the practices of modern authoritarian regimes. The analytical tool employed is based on an electoral violence research framework, which provides insight into the negative dynamics of an electoral competition and its outcomes. The authors argue that electoral violence is used to advance the Russian authoritarian regime, which is a modern form of authoritarian rule. By analysing the post-electoral turmoil and the response of authorities to public demonstrations, we depict the regime's ability to adapt its position to maximise outcomes in the political conflict and opportunistically select the best tool to achieve its goals. We further argue that Russia, with its authoritarian tendencies, utilises confrontation dynamics during elections in order to allow the politicisation of various latent conflicts (interest- or value-oriented that are impossible to solve in the everyday depoliticised routine of the undemocratic system.

  4. Assessing Mothers' and Fathers' Authoritarian Attitudes: The Psychometric Properties of a Brief Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, Jeffrey K.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; McKelvey, Lorraine; Selig, James

    2008-01-01

    This study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure and factor loadings of an authoritarian parenting scale. The study used data from 315 married couples who had toddlers participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project located in 14 communities across the United States. The sample was diverse and consisted…

  5. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  6. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others

    To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…

  7. Theory of Mind at Home: Linking Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Styles to Children's Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.

    2014-01-01

    Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their children's development of…

  8. Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Sexism, and Prejudice toward Women in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Wojda, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference,…

  9. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  10. Humanistic versus Authoritarian Teachers: A Reflection on Students' Academic Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study using self-determination theory was conducted to predict the students' motivation and academic performance based on their perceived teachers' humanistic vs. authoritarian orientations in the classrooms. The sample consisted of 300 students aged 14-18 years taken from different schools of Multan. The Pupil Control Behavior…

  11. Right-wing authoritarianism : Protective factor against or risk factor for depression?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duriez, B.; Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Beyers, W.; Soenens, B.

    2012-01-01

    Because the authoritarian personality was introduced to explain the rise of fascism during World War II, research focused on its ability to predict prejudice, leaving its associations with well-being largely unexplored. Studies that did examine these associations yielded inconsistent results, and

  12. Employing Active Learning Strategies to Become the Facilitator, Not the Authoritarian: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional higher education instruction involves an authoritarian educator who is charged with delivering information in lecture format to passive students. Within the past few decades, a new approach has gained popularity. Active learning allows the students to become more involved in their own learning. The educator becomes more of a…

  13. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.

  14. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L. de

    1986-01-01

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  15. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees’ Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB. PMID:28536550

  16. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees' Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB.

  17. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees’ Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB, as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB.

  18. Do we see eye to eye? Chinese mothers' and fathers' parenting beliefs and values for toddlers in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Susan S; Su, Yanjie

    2009-06-01

    This study explores maternal and paternal parenting practices (authoritative or authoritarian) and parental values and goals for toddlers among Chinese mothers and fathers in Canada and China. The participants included 126 families of 1-year-old toddlers (67 Chinese Canadians and 59 mainland Chinese). The findings revealed that Chinese Canadian parents were more supportive of authoritative practices, and Chinese parents were more likely to support authoritarian practices. Between mothers and fathers, gender differences were found within countries. Interparental agreement for parenting beliefs varied by infant gender and country. For parental values, parents generally endorsed self-confidence as the most important trait for their toddlers. Endorsement of other traits (collectivistic and individualistic) varied in importance. Links among parenting beliefs and desired personality traits for their children were also explored. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  20. The Influence of the Authoritarian Syndrome on the Process of Legitimation of Government Institutions in Today’s Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Борисовна Григорьева

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of the authoritarian syndrome on the process of legitimization of various bodies and institutions of government, in particular, to establish and maintain a personal type of legitimation. The author offers the analysis of prospects for the transformation of Russian political regime, namely the transfer from the personal type of legitimacy of the political system to the structural type. It shows the dynamics of components of the authoritarian syndrome is widely spread in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1992 to 2012. The article describes a new approach to the authoritarianism, along with cultural, neo-institutional, institutional explanation of the reasons supporting the communication, trust, and an uncritical attitude to the president, stands authoritarian syndrome.

  1. Authoritarianism, conservatism, racial diversity threat, and the state distribution of hate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of K. Stenner's (2005) authoritarian dynamic theory, the author hypothesized that there is an interaction between U.S. state conservatism-liberalism and state racial heterogeneity threat, such that greater diversity threat tends to be associated with more hate groups in more conservative states and fewer hate groups in more liberal states. State aggregates of the conservative-liberal ideological preferences of 141,798 participants from 122 CBS News/New York Times national telephone polls conducted between 1976 and 1988 (R. S. Erikson, G. C. Wright, & J. P. McIver, 1993) served as proxies for authoritarian-nonauthoritarian dispositions. For the 47 states with complete data, the hypothesized interaction was tested for 2000, 2005, and 2006 with hierarchical multiple regression strategies and supported. The author's hypothesis was also affirmed with SES and the interaction of SES and diversity threat controlled for. In contrast, SES entirely accounted for simple relationships between threat and hate group frequency.

  2. The experience of parents implementing authoritarian parenting for their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti

    2018-02-01

    To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Defending Democracy: Citizen Participation in Election Monitoring in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Suryani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the authoritarian regime in 1998 has made Indonesia as one of the most democratic country in Southeast Asia. To ensure the quality of democracy, in particular electoral democracy, supervision and monitoring of elections has a veryimportant role. Although the Badan Pengawas Pemilu (Bawaslu or Election Supervisory Body of Indonesiahas experienced institutional strengthening, this institution has not yet become effective in supervisingand monitoring the elections. Therefore, electionmonitoring conducted by non-state agencies, particularly the citizens become important to complement the performance of Bawaslu. This article aimsto explore how the election monitoring conducted by citizens in the aftermath of post authoritarian era,affect the quality of Indonesian democracy. This article argues that although the citizen participation in monitoring the elections is likely to decline, but thecrowd sourced method that appeared in the 2014election has succeeded in improving the quality of the electoral process as well as defending the democratic regime in Indonesia.

  4. Authoritarian Parenting and Asian Adolescent School Performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference in the parenting–school performance relationship is due largely to differential sample sizes. When we select a random sample of European-American students comparable to the sample size of Asian-American students, authoritarian parenting also shows no effect for European-American students. Furthermore, analysis of TEPS shows that authoritarian parenting is negatively associated with children's school achievement, while authoritative parenting is positively associated. This result for Taiwanese Chinese students is similar to previous results for European-American students in the US. PMID:24850978

  5. Authoritarian Parenting and Asian Adolescent School Performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-Ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference in the parenting-school performance relationship is due largely to differential sample sizes. When we select a random sample of European-American students comparable to the sample size of Asian-American students, authoritarian parenting also shows no effect for European-American students. Furthermore, analysis of TEPS shows that authoritarian parenting is negatively associated with children's school achievement, while authoritative parenting is positively associated. This result for Taiwanese Chinese students is similar to previous results for European-American students in the US.

  6. Authoritarian personality and rape sentence length in conservative and liberal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-06-01

    The author tested the claim that authoritarians desire exceptionally strong punishment for rapists. Given data on 55,966 felons sentenced in 32 U.S. states in 1986 for homicide, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and drug offenses (D. A. Bowers & J. L. Waltman, 1993) and given state conservatism scores of 141,798 respondents to 122 1976-1988 CBS and The New York Times national telephone polls (R. Erikson, G. Wright, & J. McIver, 1993) as proxies for authoritarianism, regression analyses showed state conservatism accounted for 18.9%, F(1, 18) = 7.11, p < .01, of the rape sentence length variance when sentence lengths for the 7 other offenses were controlled for and 12.5%, F(1, 27) = 8.16, p < .01, with means substituted for missing data. In both analyses, state conservatism and rape sentence length were positively correlated.

  7. Selective responsiveness: Online public demands and government responsiveness in authoritarian China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheng; Meng, Tianguang

    2016-09-01

    The widespread use of information and communication technology (ICT) has reshaped the public sphere in the digital era, making online forums a new channel for political participation. Using big data analytics of full records of citizen-government interactions from 2008 to early 2014 on a nationwide political forum, we find that authoritarian China is considerably responsive to citizens' demands with a rapid growth of response rate; however, government responsiveness is highly selective, conditioning on actors' social identities and the policy domains of their online demands. Results from logistic and duration models suggest that requests which made by local citizens, expressed collectively, focused on the single task issue, and are closely related to economic growth are more likely to be responded to. These strategies adopted by Chinese provincial leaders reveal the scope and selectivity of authoritarian responsiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mauritania: an authoritarian regime and the reconfiguration of the party system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ojeda García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation raises the question of whether Mauritania should be considered an authoritarian regime. The explanatory variable used is not the only factor, but in Mauritania’s case it is one that has been given little attention. It is an analysis of the party system and its level of institutionalisation through five indicators: the social rooting of the parties; personalism and the profile of the leader; the level of volatility; the calling and participation of the opposition parties in the boycott of the elections and the ultimate acceptance by those parties of their results. It starts from the premise that representative democracy is built on a party political structure and draws conclusions about the low level of institutionalisation of the party system and the authoritarianism of the Mauritanian regime.

  9. Hegel’s Zeitgeist and Authoritarian Populist Political Discourse: A Reading on Trump

    OpenAIRE

    Bozoğlu, Tülin

    2017-01-01

    Today, when viewing the populism, as a dominantspirit of time, together with the spirit-history relation established by Hegeland the thought of holism in the dialectical system, the reflections ofpopulism can be seen everywhere. The prevailing worldview of a certain periodshapes the individual, the society, the state and reflects itself in every ofthem. In this context, the relationship between authoritarianism and politicalpopulism’s rising in the world, together with Hegel's understand...

  10. The Rise of Democratic and Authoritarian POST - States: the Case of Indonesia and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatas, Syed Farid

    1991-02-01

    The theoretical framework of this study on democratic and authoritarian post-colonial states is based on an historical study of the emergence of the dominant class forces that shaped the types of regimes found in Malaysia and Indonesia. Both emerged as democratic post-colonial states. However, in Indonesia the democratic process was suspended altogether and after about a decade of independence, an authoritarian state emerged there. Meanwhile, Malaysia still retains a functioning democratic system. The contrast between Indonesia and Malaysia, then, is an opportunity to study the conditions under which democracy can be sustained in post-colonial states. Three conditions under which democracy can survive in post-colonial states, based on the experience of Malaysia and Indonesia, are (1) the absence of mass resistance against the state, (2) a homogeneous ruling elite, and (3) an internally strong state. The imposition of colonialism upon the precapitalist societies of Malaysia and Indonesia left several classes with competing interests in these countries upon formal independence. It is in the context of this class structure that the three factors of the lack of resistance against the state, homogeneity of the ruling elite, and internal state strength were examined. The presence of these factors leads to democratic outcomes, as in Malaysia, while their absence leads to authoritarian outcomes, as in Indonesia. The significance of this study lies in the fact that there has not been any comparative work done on the state in Malaysia and Indonesia. Furthermore, the few works on the state in the two countries tend to focus on issues not directly related to the question of the origins of the post-colonial state. Democracy in post-colonial states is not to be explained in terms of its emergence because it is a given, having been introduced from without. What needs explanation is how and why democracy persisted in some post-colonial states and gave way to authoritarianism in

  11. Career unreadiness in relation to anxiety and authoritarian parenting among undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authori...

  12. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  13. Authoritarian populism contra "Bildung": anti-intellectualism and the neoliberal assault on the Liberal Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Morelock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A synergistic movement is taking place in American society combining authoritarian populism, the neoliberal transformation of the university, and anti-intellectualism. In the first part of this paper, I pin my notion of intellectualism (and hence anti-intellectualism to a specific frame of reference, namely the German notion of "Bildung" as it is discussed in writings of Nietzsche and Adorno, which I associate loosely with the traditional American liberal arts model of higher education. In the second part of the paper, I outline the neoliberal assault on the liberal arts, rooting my analysis in Wendy Brown’s work, which is influenced by Foucault. In the third part of the paper, I describe the relationship of this anti-intellectualism to the rise of populism and the threat of authoritarianism in the United States. In the final section I tie the discussion into the general analysis of Horkheimer and Adorno’s analysis of fascist tendencies in liberal-democracies, emphasizing the continued relevance of their ideas to contemporary developments in education and beyond. Keywords: Liberal arts; Neoliberalism; Intellectuals; Populism; Authoritarianism.

  14. Political conservatism, authoritarianism, and societal threat: voting for Republican representatives in U.S. Congressional elections from 1946 to 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-07-01

    The author found that the degree of national societal threat preceding congressional elections from 1946 to 1992 was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives, supporting a conventional threat-authoritarianism hypothesis. However, threat was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives in conservative states but not in liberal states, and the conventional threat-authoritarianism link was entirely driven by the relation in conservative states. The author classified states with a composite measure (alpha = .92) on the basis of state ideological identification, religious fundamentalism, composite policy liberalism, Republican Party elite ideology, and Democratic Party elite ideology. These results offer support to an interactive threat-authoritarianism hypothesis derived from the authoritarian dynamic theory of K. Stenner (2005), which postulates that only authoritarian persons are activated to manifest authoritarian behavior in times of normative threat. Also, the author discusses potential alternative explanations on the basis of system justification, need for closure, and terror-management theories.

  15. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  16. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  17. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  18. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...

  19. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  20. College Students' Beliefs About Domestic Violence: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.

  1. The Legal Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied

  2. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  3. Networked Authoritarianism and the Geopolitics of Information: Understanding Russian Internet Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Maréchal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. election, researchers, policymakers and the general public are grappling with the notion that the 45th president of the United States may very well owe his electoral victory to a sophisticated propaganda effort masterminded by the Kremlin. This article synthesizes existing research on Russia’s domestic information controls, its internet policy at the global level (notably via internet governance processes, and the country’s resurgence as a major geopolitical player to argue that policymakers as well as the general public should consider these themes holistically, particularly as they formulate responses to what many see as the Russian threat to Western liberal democracy. Russia may have lost the Cold War, but it is now waging information warfare against the liberal democracies of Europe and North America in a sophisticated bid to win the next round. Russia does not view internet governance, cybersecurity, and media policy as separate domains. Rather, all the areas covered by those disciplines fall under “information security” for Russian foreign policy. The paper begins by tracing the history of information controls within what is now the Russian Federation before discussing the role of information and internet policy in Russian foreign policy, drawing connections between the Russian government’s control and manipulation of information—including its internet policy—in the domestic and international arenas. Next, it discusses the spread of networked authoritarianism and suggests that a “geopolitics of information” will become increasingly necessary in the coming years. Just as networked authoritarianism establishes strategic infrastructures to control the message domestically and intervene in global media systems, liberal democracies need to rethink media and communication infrastructures to ensure they foster pluralist, rights-respecting societies that are resilient to authoritarianism and

  4. Differentiating Between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton Voters Using Facets of Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social-Dominance Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, Howard Michael; Brandes, Joyce A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, much of the research on right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation has proceeded from the assumption that they are unidimensional. Recently, researchers have begun to seriously consider the possibility that they are multidimensional in nature and should be measured as such. Several studies have examined the unique relationships between right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets and social and political outcome measures of interest. However, there have been no efforts to include the full slate of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets as predictors in the same model. This is problematic when investigating the discriminant validity of these facets, given the potential empirical overlap among the facets both within and across scales. We included facets of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation as predictors of U.S. voters' intentions to vote for Hillary Clinton versus Donald Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election. Data were collected in September 2016. We found evidence for the discriminant validity of several of the right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets.

  5. Women's legal knowledge: a case study of Mexican urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Izabal, L M

    1995-06-01

    In Mexico, the nongovernmental organization Sevisio, Desarrollo y Paz, A.C. (SEDEPAC) is helping poor women acquire legal knowledge in an economic climate characterized by the increased feminization of poverty brought about by the Structural Adjustment Program. The Mexican legal system is grounded in a patriarchal tradition, and the codified laws continue to favor men. Women were not granted full citizenship until 1953, and discrimination against women was not addressed in Mexican law until 1974 as the country prepared to host the First UN International Women's Conference. However, legal advances are not being applied in the family or in larger society where men remain in power. Mexico also distinguishes between private law and public law. Because domestic violence falls in the realm of private law, authorities are loathe to follow-up on women's complaints in this area. Since its founding in 1983, SEDEPAC has applied a gender perspective to its activities and programs. SEDEPAC held its first women's legal workshop in 1987 and realized that most poor women have no knowledge of existing laws or their rights, that alternative legal services for women are scarce, that existing laws must be changed, and that the authoritarian and conservative legal system helps maintain cultural stereotypes. Since then, SEDEPAC has held annual workshops, follow-up meetings, and training sessions and has provided counseling. The main topics addressed are women's social conditions; violence and the penal code; civil rights, power, and dependency; women's bodies and reproductive rights; and women's organization and leadership. The workshops use techniques of popular education such as group participation and use of gossip as a communication tool. The workshops have changed participants' lives and led to the formation of an independent Popular Defenders' Coordination.

  6. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  7. Counselors and the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Jerry D.

    1996-01-01

    With the shift in Americans' beliefs regarding legalizing physician-assisted suicide for the terminally ill, counselors must be prepared to counsel clients who have decided to end their lives. For counselors to avoid violating the ethical guidelines established by the American Counseling Association (ACA) regarding these clients, a reevaluation of…

  8. Aiding authoritarians:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nik Emmanuel explores theories of donor self-interest and failure of political conditionality in the context of France, in its relationship with Cameroon under Biya.......In this article, Nik Emmanuel explores theories of donor self-interest and failure of political conditionality in the context of France, in its relationship with Cameroon under Biya....

  9. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  10. The mothering of conduct problem and normal children in Spain and the USA: authoritarian and permissive asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Robert G; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2005-11-01

    Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother's indiscriminate use of aversive reactions to her child, whereas the permissive form entailed indiscriminate positive reactions. Results showed the American mothers to generate more permissive asynchrony, whereas the Spanish mothers were inclined in the authoritarian direction. Only authoritarian asynchrony differentiated the clinical versus nonclinical dyads in each country. Discussion was centered on the greater salience of aversive as opposed to positive maternal attention, and cultural differences between countries that might have accounted for the different parenting styles.

  11. Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/ Involvement and Strictness/Imposition. The adolescents were then contrasted along two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz Self-transcendence and Conservation values, and (2) level of Self-esteem (appraised in 5 domains: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical). Results showed that Authoritative and Indulgent parenting is associated with the highest internalization of Self-Transcendence and Conservation values of teenagers, whereas Authoritarian parenting is associated with the lowest. On the other hand, adolescents with Indulgent parents have equal or higher levels of Self-esteem than adolescents with Authoritative parents, while adolescents raised in Authoritarian and Neglectful homes have the lowest scores in Self-Esteem.

  12. To decentralize or to continue on the centralization track: The cases of authoritarian regimes in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Busygina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Decisions on decentralization versus centralization come as a result of strategic choices made by politicians after weighing their costs and benefits. In authoritarian regimes, the highest-priority political task is that of restraining political competition and securing power in the hands of the incumbent. This task incentivizes politicians to restrict political decentralization (or at least block reforms promoting such decentralization. At the same time, external economic pressures (e.g. globalization place the task of national competitiveness in the global markets on the agenda, and increase incentives for fiscal and administrative decentralization. Thus, political and economic pressures create contradicting incentives, and in weighing costs and benefits, politicians in different authoritarian regimes make different choices that lead to variation in the form, degree and success of decentralization/centralization policies. In this article we compare authoritarian decentralization in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  13. Societal threat, authoritarianism, conservatism, and U.S. state death penalty sentencing (1977-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2008-05-01

    On the basis of K. Stenner's (2005) authoritarian dynamic theory, it was hypothesized that the number of death sentences and executions would be higher in more threatened conservative states than in less threatened conservative states, and would be lower in more threatened liberal states than in less threatened liberal states. Threat was based on state homicide rate, violent crime rate, and non-White percentage of population. Conservatism was based on state voter ideological identification, Democratic and Republican Party elite liberalism-conservatism, policy liberalism-conservatism, religious fundamentalism, degree of economic freedom, and 2004 presidential election results. For 1977-2004, with controls for state population and years with a death penalty provision, the interactive hypothesis received consistent support using the state conservatism composite and voter ideological identification alone. As well, state conservatism was related to death penalties and executions, but state threat was not. The temporal stability of the findings was demonstrated with a split-half internal replication using the periods 1977-1990 and 1991-2004. The interactive hypothesis and the results also are discussed in the context of other threat-authoritarianism theories and terror management theory. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Authoritarian parenting predicts reduced electrocortical response to observed adolescent offspring rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C.; Nelson, Brady; Bress, Jennifer N.; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Parenting styles are robust predictors of offspring outcomes, yet little is known about their neural underpinnings. In this study, 44 parent-adolescent dyads (Mage of adolescent = 12.9) completed a laboratory guessing task while EEG was continuously recorded. In the task, each pair member received feedback about their own monetary wins and losses and also observed the monetary wins and losses of the other member of the pair. We examined the association between self-reported parenting style and parents’ electrophysiological responses to watching their adolescent winning and losing money, dubbed the observational Reward Positivity (RewP) and observational feedback negativity (FN), respectively. Self-reported authoritarian parenting predicted reductions in parents’ observational RewP but not FN. This predictive relationship remained after adjusting for sex of both participants, parents’ responsiveness to their own wins, and parental psychopathology. ‘Exploratory analyses found that permissive parenting was associated with a blunting of the adolescents’ response to their parents’ losses’. These findings suggest that parents’ rapid neural responses to their child’s successes may relate to the harsh parenting behaviors associated with authoritarian parenting. PMID:27613780

  15. Authoritarian parenting predicts reduced electrocortical response to observed adolescent offspring rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Amanda R; Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady; Bress, Jennifer N; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-03-01

    Parenting styles are robust predictors of offspring outcomes, yet little is known about their neural underpinnings. In this study, 44 parent-adolescent dyads (Mage of adolescent = 12.9) completed a laboratory guessing task while EEG was continuously recorded. In the task, each pair member received feedback about their own monetary wins and losses and also observed the monetary wins and losses of the other member of the pair. We examined the association between self-reported parenting style and parents' electrophysiological responses to watching their adolescent winning and losing money, dubbed the observational Reward Positivity (RewP) and observational feedback negativity (FN), respectively. Self-reported authoritarian parenting predicted reductions in parents' observational RewP but not FN. This predictive relationship remained after adjusting for sex of both participants, parents' responsiveness to their own wins, and parental psychopathology. 'Exploratory analyses found that permissive parenting was associated with a blunting of the adolescents' response to their parents' losses'. These findings suggest that parents' rapid neural responses to their child's successes may relate to the harsh parenting behaviors associated with authoritarian parenting. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  17. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  18. Belief, motivational, and ideological correlates of human rights attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, H Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K

    2008-06-01

    Many people believe that an informed and thoughtful citizenry is essential to the maintenance of democratic ideals within the United States and the spread of those ideals abroad. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the evidence that Americans consider issues of human dignity and rights when making judgments about the U.S. government's war on terror has been mixed. In our study, we assessed the relative contributions of ideological, belief, and cognitive-motivational factors to the prediction of human rights and civil liberties attitudes. Individuals scoring high on measures of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the belief that the structure of knowledge is simple were the most likely to support restrictions on human rights and civil liberties as part of the war on terror. In a subsequent regression analysis, individuals scoring higher on personal need for structure or exhibiting lower levels of epistemological belief complexity tended to score higher on RWA. Additionally, men were generally more likely to support restrictions on rights and liberties and to score higher on RWA than were women.

  19. The moderating role of alienation on the relation between social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and person-organization fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Adelheid A M; Rounding, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation have been found to be related with Person-Organization fit. This study examined whether alienation also plays a role in the relation between Person-Organization fit and these two socio-political attitudes. Measures of Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation, alienation, and Person-Organization fit were given to a sample of Officer Cadets (N = 99; M age = 22.8 yr., SD = 5.4). The findings suggest that when individuals felt alienated, Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism were not related to Person-Organization fit. When alienation was low, Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism interacted to predict Person-Organization fit. Therefore, feelings of alienation can influence the perception of fit within an organization and the relation between perception of fit with Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism.

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  1. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  2. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  3. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  4. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational

  5. Internalization of Values and Self-Esteem among Brazilian Teenagers from Authoritative, Indulgent, Authoritarian, and Neglectful Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Isabel; Garcia, Jose Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/Involvement and…

  6. Propping up dictators? Economic cooperation from China and its impact on authoritarian persistence in party and non-party regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how China's economic cooperation affects authoritarian persistence elsewhere. For the period 1998-2008, the article assesses quantitatively whether the effects of economic cooperation from China vary, conditioned by the regime type of the recipient. The analysis finds that

  7. Early Family Environments May Moderate Prediction of Low Educational Attainment in Adulthood: The Cases of Childhood Hyperactivity and Authoritarian Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2007-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, this study explored conditions under which the effects of risk factors for low educational attainment might be moderated. Two different risk factors, hyperactivity and maternal authoritarian parenting attitudes, were studied. The results showed that on the whole these two risk factors…

  8. Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…

  9. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  10. Social distance towards female sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explored the in-group and outer-group social distance towards sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect. The sample consisted of 92 participants from the general population and 45 female sex workers (age 18-50. The instruments used were the Bogardus social distance scale, the Authoritarianism scale UPA-S, the Social dominance orientation scale and the Rosenberg self-respect scale. The results indicate a rather high social distance towards sex workers, including the distance by the general population being higher than the distance of the sex workers towards their own group. The correlation of authoritarianism and social distance was significant, as was the correlation between authoritarian aggressiveness and stoicism and social distance. The relationship between social dominance orientation and self-respect and social distance in our research has been statistically insignificant, however it demonstrates the expected trends. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179002: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji

  11. Military Authoritarian Regimes and Economic Development: The ROK’s Economic Take-Off Under Park Chung Hee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and the Personalization of Power in Malaysia ," Comparative Politics 36, no. 1 (Oct. 2003), 81-101. 2 Talcott Parsons, Theories of Society...BAIR (bureaucratic-authoritarian industrializing regime).21 The annual growth rate of HPAEs eight countries (Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia ...industries, and finally Samsung Electronics, POSCO, Daewoo shipbuilding, Hyundai Heavy were developed.58

  12. Do Mothers' and Fathers' Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Interact? An Exploration on Schooling Aspects with a Singapore Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick N.; Chin, Jeffery E. H.

    2014-01-01

    Our study sought mainly to examine interactions between mothers' and fathers' authoritative and authoritarian parenting. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age 13.5) from 2 Singapore schools contributed self-report data on their parents' parenting and various schooling aspects. Prior to testing for interactions, adolescents with two authoritative…

  13. Alienated and politicized? : Young planners’ confrontation with entrepreneurial and authoritarian state intervention in urban development in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penpecioğlu, M.; Taşan-Kok, T.

    2016-01-01

    Planning in Turkey is dominated by powerful market interests and authoritarian state regulation, resulting in a conflictual socio-political environment. Caught in the crossfire between interventionist urban policies and a planning education system that is oriented towards the public good, planners

  14. Predicting Filipino Mothers' and Fathers' Reported Use of Corporal Punishment from Education, Authoritarian Attitudes, and Endorsement of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocson, Rosanne M.; Alampay, Liane Pena; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The relations of education, authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8…

  15. Legal Loopholes and the Politics of Executive Term Limits: Insights from Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Vandeginste

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nomination of incumbent Pierre Nkurunziza to stand again for president in the 2015 national elections triggered a political and security crisis in Burundi. A crucial element in the controversy around his third term was the legality of his candidacy. This paper analyses how domestic and international actors responded to the legal loopholes that characterised Burundi’s term-limit legislation. Three responses are distinguished. First, quite paradoxically, an argument was put forward by third-term supporters that stressed constitutional legality, a value usually invoked by third-term opponents. Second, a peace agreement was referred to as a source of legitimacy and as a legal norm. Third, a Constitutional Court ruling was invoked to address the legal loophole. Despite the apparent irrelevance of legal norms in an increasingly authoritarian environment, law significantly shaped the dynamics of the third-term debate and of the wider crisis. The Burundi case also illustrates the limitations of constitutional engineering of democratic governance.

  16. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  17. Actitudes autoritarias y violencia en Madrid Authoritarian attitudes and violence in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Moreno Martín

    1999-04-01

    December 1996 from a representative sample of 1219 people, who were interviewed at home with the common questionnaire used for the ACTIVA project, with some additional questions. Overall, the sample respondents scored low on the authoritarianism scale. Persons who most strongly justified the use of violence scored higher on authoritarianism, along with those who customarily displayed a higher level of aggression. Attitudes that were more strongly authoritarian were found in low-income neighborhoods, in people who were not part of the workforce, in people with less education, and in those persons who described themselves as having a right-wing ideology. If people who are more authoritarian justify and practice violence more than others, it becomes necessary to encourage criticism of those who abuse their power and tolerance toward differences, in order to prevent such behaviors without disregarding the influence of the social variables previously mentioned.

  18. Anti-Authoritarian Metrics: Recursivity as a strategy for post-capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Adam Banks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay proposes that those seeking to build counter-power institutions and communities learn to think in terms of what I call “recursivity.” Recursivity is an anti-authoritarian metric that helps bring about a sensitivity to feedback loops at multiple levels of organization. I begin by describing how technological systems and the socio-economic order co-constitute one-another around efficiency metrics. I then go on to define recursivity as social conditions that contain within them all of the parts and practices for their maturation and expansion, and show how organizations that demonstrate recursivity, like the historical English commons, have been marginalized or destroyed all together. Finally, I show how the ownership of property is inherently antithetical to the closed loops of recursivity. All of this is bookended by a study of urban planning’s recursive beginnings.

  19. Censoring the Press: A Barometer of Government Tolerance for Anti-regime Dissent under Authoritarian Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that dissident leaders aiming to build mass opposition movements follow the mainstream press to help them gauge government tolerance for anti-government mass actions in repressive authoritarian regimes. Under conditions of censorship, media–state interactions serve as a barometer of the government’s disposition toward and capacity to impede public displays of dissent. Observing trends in coverage and the government’s reaction to this coverage helps activist leaders assess when it should be safest to plan anti-government mass actions, such as demonstrations, marches, or strikes. Using original data derived from coding content from the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo over the period of 1974–1982, I test whether opposition mass actions followed trends in taboo content and government treatment of the press during the period of political liberalization of Brazil’s military regime.

  20. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals.

  1. The Machinery of Authoritarian Care: Dramatising Breast Cancer Treatment in 1970s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    This article examines the professional and public response to the television play Through the Night , which aired on BBC1 in December 1975. One of the first British mass media portrayals of a woman's experience being treated for breast cancer, this play attracted a large audience and considerable attention from both critics and everyday viewers. My analysis of the play draws on sources documenting expert responses to the play in its production stages, as well as critics' and viewers' responses to what the play said about breast cancer treatment in particular, and about Britons' experiences of medical institutions more broadly. Together, I argue, these sources help us see how Through the Night 's critique of what one expert called 'the machinery of authoritarian care' reverberated with and supported the efforts of professionals anxious to improve patient experience, and how it crystallised the concerns of activists and everyday viewers.

  2. Resilience of the Communist Party of Vietnam’s Authoritarian Regime since Doi Moi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Hong NGUYEN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike communist parties in the former Soviet Union and Eastern and Central Europe, the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV has overcome crises to remain in power for the last 30 years and will most likely continue ruling in the coming decades. Strategies and tactics undertaken by the CPV are found to be identical to those canvassed in the extant literature on the durability of authoritarian regimes around the world. The present paper argues that the CPV’s regime has been resilient thus far because it has successfully restored and maintained public trust, effectively constrained its opposition at home, and cleverly reduced external pressures. To support this argument, the analysis electively focuses on four aspects: (1 economic performance, (2 political flexibility, (3 repression of the opposition, and (4 expansion of international relations.

  3. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central......), Péter Bajomi-Lázár (Professor of Media Communications, and Head of the Institute of Social Science at the Budapest Business School, Hungary), and Václav Štětka (Senior Researcher, Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism, Faculty of Social Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic...

  4. The "Arab Spring": New Mechanisms of Change of Authoritarian Political Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Antyukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the use of mechanisms in bringing down authoritarian political regimes in the Middle East and North Africa with the "Arab spring" in focus. The technique of "non-violent" methods of fight suggested by "godfather" of the "Arab spring" Gene Sharp is analyzed. It is noted that the distinctive features of his system were planned, determined and dynamic actions of protest forces. A special place in the article is devoted to the study of the role of non-governmental organizations in selecting and training protest leaders and activists and in creating a network of supporters of prodemocratic movements. The article examines the role of the Internet and cyber technologies used by the opposition during protest rallies. Non-violence as means of bringing down the existing power turned out to be an alternative to armed resistance. The key role of non-violent actions consisted in changing the point of view of anti-government forces, demonstrating that the public solidarity could make the regime overthrow possible. It is noted that the latest information means gave the process of political changes due activity and focus which was followed by the information actions designed to discredit the government in place and form the corresponding public opinion. Mediatization of politics promoted the creation of a dense information veil retouching a real picture. The overall system of methods used during the "the Arab spring" indicates that the mechanism of overthrowing authoritarian regimes and its technologies came from Western culture and were borrowed by Arab activists.

  5. Rule of Law and Human Rights Challenges in South East Asia: A Case Study of Legal Pluralism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldi Isra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been over 72 years since Indonesia proclaimed her independence on 17 August 1945. However, the 350 years of the Dutch colonization is still impacting the lives of the Indonesian people. The difficulties faced by the Indonesian legal system as the government tries to accommodate adat (custom and religion principles within the national law and the extent to which this legal mechanism affects the everyday life of the Indonesian people. In a nation where customs and religion are so preeminent, setting up an all-inclusive document meant to be the foundation of the state’s legal system at the dawn of independence was no easy task. This paper discusses the practice of legal pluralism in Indonesia and its struggle to implement rule of law and human rights principles after a half-century of authoritarian regimes. The study involves socio-legal research drawing on empirical data. Survey research was conducted between September 2014 and February 2015 at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, as well as in 5 cities in Indonesia (Aceh, Bali, Batam, Medan, and Padang to collect data. The research reveals that legal pluralism is not helping to strengthen the Indonesian legal system, and that the foreignness of the Western law along with the neglect of the Indonesian customary and Islamic laws, totalitarianism and military involvement in politics, corruption within the state apparatus and unsynchronized laws weaken the legal system in Indonesia and hinder its effort to implement rule of law and human rights principles.

  6. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  7. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  8. Scandinavian belief in fate

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    Åke Ström

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  9. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  10. ‘Vive la grande famille des médias tunisiens’ Media reform, authoritarian resilience and societal responses in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The concept of authoritarian upgrading introduced by Heydemann significantly contributes to explain how Arab authoritarian rulers have been able to maintain their grip on power while introducing a number of liberal reforms. The media reform in Tunisia has been widely interpreted indeed...... the notion that the reform is exclusively about authoritarian upgrading. Perhaps unwittingly, the reform has permitted the arrival on the media scene of new social voices and actors that never had the opportunity to discuss taboo topics and this transforms public debate. While political discussions were...... excluded and political pluralism absent, the new private media managed to challenge previously prevailing notions of national unity and homogeneity....

  11. Peer Status in Boys With and Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Predictions from Overt and Covert Antisocial Behavior, Social Isolation, and Authoritative Parenting Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Stephen P; Zupan, Brian A; Simmel, Cassandra; Nigg, Joel T; Melnick, Sharon

    1997-10-01

    Because of the centrality of peer relationship difficulties for children with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated behavioral (overt and covert antisocial activity), internalizing (self-reports and observed social isolation), and familial (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting beliefs) predictors of peer sociometric nominations among previously unfamiliar, ethnically diverse ADHD (N=73) and comparison (N=60) boys, aged 6-12 years. Authoritative maternal parenting beliefs and negatively weighted social isolation explained significant variance in positive peer regard; aggression, covert behavior, and authoritative parenting beliefs were the independent predictors of both negative peer status and peer social preference. We extended such predictions with statistical control of (1) child cognitive variables, (2) maternal psychopathology, and (3) ADHD boys, but authoritative parenting beliefs were stronger predictors in ADHD than in comparison youth. We discuss family-peer linkages regarding peer competence.

  12. On Self‐Love and Outgroup Hate: Opposite Effects of Narcissism on Prejudice via Social Dominance Orientation and Right‐Wing Authoritarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Kristof; Makwana, Arti P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has obtained mixed findings as to whether feelings of self‐worth are positively or negatively related to right‐wing ideological beliefs and prejudice. We propose to clarify the link between self‐worth and ideology by distinguishing between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations as well as between different dimensions of ideological attitudes. Four studies, conducted in three different socio‐political contexts: the UK (Study 1, N = 422), the US (Studies 2 and 3, Ns = 471 and 289, respectively), and Poland (Study 4, N = 775), investigated the associations between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations, social dominance orientation (SDO), right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA), and ethnic prejudice. Confirming our hypotheses, the results consistently showed that after controlling for self‐esteem, narcissistic self‐evaluation was positively associated with SDO (accounting for RWA), yet negatively associated with RWA (accounting for SDO). These associations were similar after controlling for psychopathy and Machiavellianism (Study 3) as well as collective narcissism and Big Five personality characteristics (Study 4). Studies 2–4 additionally demonstrated that narcissistic self‐evaluation was indirectly positively associated with prejudice through higher SDO (free of RWA) but indirectly negatively associated with prejudice through lower RWA (free of SDO). Implications for understanding the role of self‐evaluation in right‐wing ideological attitudes and prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology PMID:28983151

  13. Legal nature of affatomia

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    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  14. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  15. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

  16. To love or hate thy neighbor : The role of authoritarianism and traditionalism in explaining the link between fundamentalism and racial prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Reyna, C.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentalism is consistently related to racial prejudice (Hall, Matz, & Wood, 2010), yet the mechanisms for this relationship are unclear. We identify two core values of fundamentalism, authoritarianism and traditionalism, that independently contribute to the fundamentalism‐racial prejudice

  17. The Relationships between Individualism, Nationalism, Ethnocentrism, and Authoritarianism in Flanders: A Continuous Time-Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angraini, Yenni; Toharudin, Toni; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H L

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationships among nationalism (N), individualism (I), ethnocentrism (E), and authoritarianism (A) in continuous time (CT), estimated as a structural equation model. The analysis is based on the General Election Study for Flanders, Belgium, for 1991, 1995, and 1999. We find reciprocal effects between A and E and between E and I as well as a unidirectional effect from A on I. We furthermore find relatively small, but significant, effects from both I and E on N but no effect from A on N or from N on any of the other variables. Because of its central role in the N-I-E-A complex, mitigation of authoritarianism has the largest potential to reduce the spread of nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in Flanders.

  18. Predicting Filipino Mothers' and Fathers' Reported Use of Corporal Punishment From Education, Authoritarian Attitudes, and Endorsement of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocson, Rosanne M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2012-03-09

    The relations of education, authoritarian childrearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8 years old, and when their children were 9 years old. Path analyses showed that, among mothers, higher education predicted lower authoritarian attitudes, which in turn predicted lower reports of corporal punishment use. Among fathers, higher education predicted lower endorsement of corporal punishment, which in turn predicted lower reports of its use. Results suggest that education has an indirect relation to use of corporal punishment through parenting cognitions, and highlight distinctions in Filipino mothers' and fathers' parenting roles.

  19. Prejudice against international students: the role of threat perceptions and authoritarian dispositions in U.S. students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Toussaint, Gifflene C; Crowson, H Michael

    2010-01-01

    International students provide a variety of benefits to higher education institutions within the United States (J. J. Lee, 2007; J. J. Lee & C. Rice, 2007). Despite these benefits, many international students experience prejudice and discrimination by American students. The purpose of the present study was to examine several potential predictors of prejudice against international students: perceptions of international students as symbolic and realistic threats, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. A simultaneous regression analysis that the authors based on 188 students at a Southwestern university revealed that perceptions of symbolic and realistic threats and social dominance orientation were each positive and significant predictors of prejudice. Mediation analyses suggested that the effects of right-wing authoritarianism on prejudice is fully mediated through perceived symbolic threat and partially mediated by realistic threat.

  20. The Relevance of Franz L. Neumann’s Critical Theory in 2017: "Anxiety and Politics" in the New Age of Authoritarian Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This articles discusses and contextualises tripleC’s republication of Franz L. Neumann’s essay Anxiety and Politics. It provides some background information on Neumann’s life and works. The essay ascertains that in the age of new nationalisms, rising right-wing authoritarianism and authoritarian capitalism, Franz L Neumann’s works can help us to critically understand contemporary society.

  1. The Mothering of Conduct Problem and Normal Children in Spain and the USA: Authoritarian and Permissive Asynchrony

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Jiménez, María Ángeles; Wahler, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother’s indiscriminat...

  2. Young Children’s Risk-Taking: Mothers’ Authoritarian Parenting Predicts Risk-Taking by Daughters but Not Sons

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Erin E.; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style). In our st...

  3. Self-concept clarity buffers the impact of societal threat to safety on right-wing authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Manzi, Claudia; Roccato, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to societal threat can elicit an increase in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In this study, using a quasi-experimental vignette design (Italian community sample, N = 86), we tested the moderating role of self-concept clarity (SCC). A moderated regression showed that manipulated societal threat to safety fostered RWA only among low SCC scorers. It is concluded that SCC is an important resource for individuals facing threat conditions.

  4. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  5. Young Children’s Risk-Taking: Mothers’ Authoritarian Parenting Predicts Risk-Taking by Daughters but Not Sons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style. In our study, mothers reported their own gender roles and parenting styles as well as their children’s risk-taking and activities related to gender roles. The results were only partially consistent with the two theories, as the amount of risk-taking by sons and daughters did not differ significantly and risk-taking by daughters, but not sons, was positively related to mothers’ use of the authoritarian parenting style and the girls’ engagement in masculine activities. Risk-taking by sons was not predicted by any combination of mother-related variables. Overall, mothers who were higher in femininity used more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles. Theoretical implications as well as implications for predicting and reducing children’s risk-taking are discussed.

  6. From authoritarian enclave to deliberative space: governance logics in post-disaster reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curato, Nicole

    2018-02-27

    One would be hard-pressed nowadays to find any practitioners and scholars in the field of post-disaster reconstruction who would argue against the virtues of community participation. In practice, however, the legacy of community participation has been mixed. This paper pursues this line of inquiry by examining the manifestations of participation in three communities affected by Typhoon Haiyan that struck the Philippines on 8 November 2013. The findings suggest that different governance logics emerge in each of the three case studies: authoritarian; communitarian; and deliberative. These logics promote particular understandings of who should participate in the reconstruction process and the appropriate scope of action for citizens to express discontent, provide feedback, and perform democratic agency. The paper contends that design interventions in participatory procedures, as well as contingencies in wider social contexts, shape the character and legacies of community participation. It concludes by comparing the legacies of these three 'governance enclaves' and imagining possibilities for participatory politics in post-disaster settings. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  7. Authoritarian Populism and Hegemony: Constructing ‘the People’ in Macedonia’s illiberal discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupcho Petkovski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretically driven case study of the authoritarian populist reign of VMRO-DPMNE and its leader Nikola Gruevski in Macedonia since 2006. At the beginning, I assess the strengths and identify the pitfalls of the dominant approach to studying populism that sees populist politics as democratic illiberalism. Then I argue that this approach should be complemented with a discourse theoretical methodology that renders us more sensitive to the diachronic dimensions of the rise of Gruevski’s populism and its origins. The crucial concept I use to account for the durability of Gruvski’s reign is hegemony, which helps us to understand two important aspects of his populism. The specificity of his populism is in managing to change the political imagination of the majority of ethnic Macedonians, to create ‘the people’ and allow it to reclaim its place in history by providing channels for material, symbolic and emotional incorporation into the system of social classes that were traditionally excluded from society. This ‘democratic’ move came at a price: the nascent liberal and institutional channels for political participation in Macedonia’s young democracy were dismissed and new subalternity created. In demonstrating my findings, the paper includes a historical perspective of how the conditions allowing the rise of populism in Macedonia were created, as well as a discourse analysis of five paradigmatic speeches given by Gruevski.

  8. Between fragmented authoritarianism and policy coordination: Creating a Chinese market for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lema, Adrian; Ruby, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese grid-connected wind energy sector has undergone a number of fundamental changes during its 20 years of existence. The scope of this article is to track the reforms of the energy bureaucracy and its policy approach on the one hand and changes in wind energy installations on the other. By comparing three historically distinct phases of wind energy in China it is shown how policy reforms have changed largely from a state of 'fragmented authoritarianism' towards policy coordination. In the initial phase (1986-1993), wind energy was expanding very slowly with disjointed policy making and in the incremental phase (1994-1999), the energy authorities were in dispute over the strategy and launched conflicting policy initiatives with poor results in wind energy output. The latest coordinated phase (2000-2006), however, developed a coherent renewable energy agenda and policy regime for the wind power sector. It is found that this phase with coordinated market regulations and incentives has helped give birth to a take-off in Chinese wind energy installations and substantial cost reductions, although the latter is threatening the profitability of wind farms. The article contributes to the academic debate over the role of policy making in renewable energy development and argues that China should continue, and improve, the coordination of regulations and incentives

  9. State Violence and Oppositional Protest in High-Capacity Authoritarian Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Johnston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.

  10. Authoritarian physicians and patients' fear of being labeled 'difficult' among key obstacles to shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; May, Suepattra G; Rendle, Katharine A S; Tietbohl, Caroline; Elwyn, Glyn

    2012-05-01

    Relatively little is known about why some patients are reluctant to engage in a collaborative discussion with physicians about their choices in health care. To explore this issue further, we conducted six focus-group sessions with forty-eight people in the San Francisco Bay Area. In the focus groups, we found that participants voiced a strong desire to engage in shared decision making about treatment options with their physicians. However, several obstacles inhibit those discussions. These include the fact that even relatively affluent and well-educated patients feel compelled to conform to socially sanctioned roles and defer to physicians during clinical consultations; that physicians can be authoritarian; and that the fear of being categorized as "difficult" prevents patients from participating more fully in their own health care. We argue that physicians may not be aware of a need to create a safe environment for open communication to facilitate shared decision making. Rigorous measures of patient engagement, and of the degree to which health care decisions truly reflect patient preferences, are needed to advance shared decision making in clinical practice.

  11. Age differences in right-wing authoritarianism and their relation to emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Wilson, Marc; Henry, Julie D; Dawson, Abigail; Chen, Yan; Kladnitski, Natalie; Myftari, Ella; Murray, Janice; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hunter, John A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the correlates of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) in older adults. Participants were given tasks measuring emotion recognition, executive functions and fluid IQ and questionnaires measuring RWA, perceived threat and social dominance orientation. Study 1 established higher age-related RWA across the age span in more than 2,600 New Zealanders. Studies 2 to 4 found that threat, education, social dominance and age all predicted unique variance in older adults' RWA, but the most consistent predictor was emotion recognition, predicting unique variance in older adults' RWA independent of all other variables. We argue that older adults' worse emotion recognition is associated with a more general change in social judgment. Expression of extreme attitudes (right- or left-wing) has the potential to antagonize others, but worse emotion recognition means that subtle signals will not be perceived, making the expression of extreme attitudes more likely. Our findings are consistent with other studies showing that worsening emotion recognition underlies age-related declines in verbosity, understanding of social gaffes, and ability to detect lies. Such results indicate that emotion recognition is a core social insight linked to many aspects of social cognition. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  13. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  14. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  16. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  17. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  18. Belief, hope and faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luis Claudio

    2004-12-01

    A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.

  19. Religion and Prejudice: The Role of Religious Fundamentalism, Quest, and Right-Wing Authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Investigates whether religion may actually contribute to intolerance, discrimination, suffering, and bloodshed in the world. The author offers study findings that suggest relationships among religious fundamentalism, quest, right-wing authorization, and prejudice. It is suggested that it is how people hold their religious beliefs, rather than the…

  20. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  1. The Animal Sacrifice in Religious Rituals or Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Rodrigues Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bibliographical research, this article has the scope of the analysis of the sacrifice of nonhuman animals in religious rituals or beliefs practiced in Brazilian territory. By bringing moral, ethical and legal support, this national reality will be discussed in order to arrive at an answer of which good should be protected and guaranteed: religious freedom or the life of nonhuman animals?

  2. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  3. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  4. Right-wing authoritarianism predicts prejudice equally toward "gay men and lesbians" and "homosexuals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R

    2016-08-01

    Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  6. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  7. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  8. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  9. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  10. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  11. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  12. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  13. Underestimating belief in climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T.

    2018-03-01

    People are influenced by second-order beliefsbeliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.

  14. Constraints on the Soft Power Efforts of Authoritarian States: The Case of the 2015 Military Parade in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna

    2017-01-01

    Is it possible for authoritarian states such as China, Russia, and Iran to combine the soft power narratives directed primarily towards an international audience with the narratives directed primarily towards a domestic audience that are aimed at maintaining regime security? To investigate...... this question, this article analyses the 2015 military parade in Beijing, using this case to highlight and discuss the constraints on Chinese leaders’ efforts to project soft power. The key finding is that soft power will continue to be the weak link in China’s pursuit of a great power position and status...

  15. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  16. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.

    1997-01-01

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de

  17. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, 𔃺 le. ~~rt n the

  18. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  19. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  20. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  1. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile offenders who describe their parents as authoritative are more psychosocially mature, more academically competent, less prone to internalized distress, and less prone to externalizing problems than their peers,whereas those who describe their parents as neglectful are less mature, less competent, and more troubled. Juvenile offenders who characterize their parents as either authoritarian or indulgent typically score somewhere between the two extremes, although those from authoritarian homes are consistently better functioning than those from indulgent homes. These patterns did not vary as a function of adolescents' ethnicity or gender.

  2. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  3. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  4. Beliefs in moral luck: When and why blame hinges on luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lench, Heather C; Domsky, Darren; Smallman, Rachel; Darbor, Kathleen E

    2015-05-01

    Belief in moral luck is represented in judgements that offenders should be held accountable for intent to cause harm as well as whether or not harm occurred. Scores on a measure of moral luck beliefs predicted judgements of offenders who varied in intent and the outcomes of their actions, although judgements overall were not consistent with abstract beliefs in moral luck. Prompting participants to consider alternative outcomes, particularly worse outcomes, reduced moral luck beliefs. Findings suggest that some people believe that offenders should be punished based on the outcome of their actions. Furthermore, prompting counterfactuals decreased judgements consistent with moral luck beliefs. The results have implications for theories of moral judgement as well as legal decision making. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  6. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  7. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  8. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  9. Unskilled blue collar workers: Bourgeois and/or authoritarian? Results from a small scale survey in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans De Witte

    2007-04-01

    adopted the attitudes (and life style of white collar workers, from whom they can no longer be distinguished. Lipset’s hypothesis of the ‘authoritarianism of the working class’, on the other hand, states that blue collar workers more strongly endorse a conservative attitude on socio-cultural matters and a progressive stand concerning socio-economic issues. Both hypotheses are tested using data from a small scale survey (N = 135 among unskilled blue collar workers and lower- and mid-level white collar workers from different large companies in the region of Leuven, Belgium. The results indicate that the interviewed unskilled blue collar workers still hold a set of attitudes that distinguishes them from the interviewed white collar workers. So, the ‘embourgeoisement’ thesis was refuted. Instead, the unskilled blue collar workers were more conservative on a socio-cultural level, and more progressive concerning socio-economic issues. These results are in line with Lipset’s ‘authoritarianism of the working class’ hypothesis.

  10. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  11. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...

  12. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  13. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  15. Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…

  16. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  17. Experiencing historical time: Apocalypse and authoritarianism in inter-war Bulgarian existential philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dimitrova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing historical time: Apocalypse and authoritarianism in inter-war Bulgarian existential philosophy This article deals with the sense of the pace of time as reflected in the works of Bulgarian philosophers from the “philosophy of life” school, and of other thinkers active in the humanities. It is shown that the feeling of “condensed” time among the authors of the inter-war period is inevitably associated with Biblical imagery – the “reduction” of time foresees the end of time. Several authors left a lasting mark on Bulgarian intellectual history due to their sensitivity to the sharp turns of the age, and their awareness of the intense “flow” of time. The most prominent among tchem were Spiridon Kazandjiev and Yanko Yanev, authors with right-wing political leanings. This article reveals how the end of time provoked in them not only distress and anxiety but also exhilaration at what lay ahead, as if it were the realisation of a longcherished dream.   Doświadczanie czasu historycznego. Apokalipsa i autorytaryzm w bułgarskiej filozofii egzystencjalnej okresu międzywojennego Niniejszy artykuł poświęcony jest doświadczeniu tempa czasu, odzwierciedlonemu w twórczości bułgarskich filozofów sytuujących się w nurcie „filozofii życia” w najszerszym ze znaczeń, jak również innych myślicieli. Zostaje w nim pokazane, jak poczucie czasu „skon­densowanego” u autorów okresu międzywojennego nieodzownie kojarzone jest z obrazami biblijnymi – czas „zredukowany” zapowiada zbliżający się koniec. Myśliciele, którzy pozostawiają trwałe ślady w bułgarskiej historii intelektualistów właśnie w powodu swej wrażliwości na gwałtowne zwroty w czasie, na intensywność jego upływu, to m.in. Spirydon Kazandżijew [Спиридон Казанджиев], Janko Janew [Янко Янев], Najden Szejtanow [Найден Шейтанов] – autorzy o orientacji prawicowej. Artykuł ukazuje, jak

  18. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  19. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  20. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  1. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  2. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  3. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  4. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  5. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  6. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  7. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  8. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  9. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile…

  10. A "Necessary" Dictatorship: The "Age of Rosas" in Argentine History Textbooks Published between 1956 and 1983 and the Defence of Authoritarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Amezola, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that two traditionally opposed approaches--the official view and a revisionist approach--conflate in defence of authoritarianism in the teaching of History. The main focus is on school textbooks published between 1956, the year when an educational reform was introduced following President Peron's overthrow, and 1983,…

  11. Neo-Patrimonialism and Subnational Authoritarianism in Mexico. The Case of Oaxaca Neopatrimonialismo y autoritarismo subnacional en México. El caso de Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How do subnational authoritarian enclaves emerge (or survive ina democratic transition at the federal level? How can they endure large-scalesocial protests, like the one that shook Oaxaca in 2006? While federal tolerancefor subnational authoritarian practices is a necessary condition, it isinsufficient in itself to explain why subnational political systems sustain andeventually reproduce authoritarian practices in the first place. In this article,therefore, I focus on the internal dimension of subnational authoritarianism.I argue that, because of its reliance on two distinct sources of legitimacy,Oaxaca’s neo-patrimonial domination system was able to respond to theformal democratizing pressures emanating from the federal transition withoutlosing its authoritarian nature. This process of hybridization transformedOaxacan institutions, but left social structures and the political dynamics thatemerge from them – the sources of subnational authoritarianism – almostintact. By exploring the evolution of neo-patrimonialism and hybridizationin Oaxaca from a theoretical perspective, I address the issues of change andcontinuity in the emergence of subnational authoritarian enclaves, in Mexicoand elsewhere. ¿Cómo es que algunos enclaves autoritarios subnacionales emergen (o susbsisten tras las transiciones a la democracia de sus federaciones? ¿Cómo sobreviven a movilizaciones masivas como las que conoció Oaxaca en 2006? La tolerancia federal es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo de las prácticas autoritarias subnacionales, pero es insuficiente para explicar cómo dichas prácticas aparecen y se reproducen en algunos sistemas políticos subnacionales. Por ello, en este artículo estudio la dimensión interna del autoritarismo subnacional. Arguyo que, al basarse en dos fuentes distintas de legitimidad, el sistema oaxaqueño de dominación neopatrimonial fue capaz de responder a las presiones democráticas provenientes de la federaci

  12. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  13. Negative Impact of Troublesome Peer Interactions and Authoritarian Parenting Style on Academic Performance of a 15 year Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samruddhi Karnik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by his peers. In addition his father had an authoritarian parenting style which was adding to his troubles resulting in low academic scores. The boy’s scores on “The Study Habits Inventory” were lower, indicating poor study habits which includes study concentration. The counsellors used an eclectic approach for the boy and his parents, to develop a healthy family environment, which improved his self-esteem and study habits.

  14. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  15. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  16. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  17. Intergroup Reconciliation between Flemings and Walloons: The Predictive Value of Cognitive Style, Authoritarian Ideology, and Intergroup Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Van Assche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium. By incorporating both important predictors of negative outgroup attitudes (i.e., individual differences in rigid cognitive styles and authoritarian ideologies, and important predictors of reconciliation (i.e., intergroup emotions, we aimed to contribute to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of intergroup relations. We recruited one Flemish ('N' = 310 and one Walloon ('N' = 365 undergraduate students sample to test the proposed model. Structural equation analyses with maximum likelihood estimation were conducted using the Lavaan package. In both samples, similar patterns were found. More in particular, the need for cognitive closure appeared to be the basic predictor of right-wing attitudes (i.e., right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation and essentialist thinking, which were then associated with less outgroup empathy and trust, and more outgroup anger. Furthermore, outgroup trust and empathy were positively related to reconciliation. Interestingly, some differences between the Flemish and Walloon sample were found, such as the direct effects of need for closure and social dominance orientation in the first sample, and the non-significant effects of essentialism in the latter sample. Considering the ongoing public and political debate about the linguistic conflict in Belgium, these findings shed a new light on how individual differences relate to specific outgroup emotions, and how these are associated with important intergroup outcomes in the face of intergroup conflict.

  18. An Exploration of the Differential Effects of Parents' Authoritarianism Dimensions on Pre-school Children's Epistemic, Existential, and Relational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children (N = 106; 4–6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents

  19. An Exploration of the Differential Effects of Parents' Authoritarianism Dimensions on Pre-school Children's Epistemic, Existential, and Relational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children ( N = 106; 4-6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents

  20. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  1. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  2. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  3. Playing with knowledge and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiutek, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  4. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  5. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  6. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  7. Equilibria in social belief removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  8. Politics of climate change belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  9. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  11. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  12. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  13. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  14. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  15. Against Motivational Efficacy of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbae Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Bromwich (2010 argues that a belief is motivationally efficacious in that, other things being equal, it disposes an agent to answer a question in accordance with that belief. I reply that what we are disposed to do is largely determined by our genes, whereas what we believe is largely determined by stimuli from the environment. We have a standing and default disposition to answer questions honestly, ceteris paribus, even before we are exposed to environmental stimuli. Since this standing and default disposition is innate, and our beliefs have their source in environmental stimuli, our beliefs cannot be the source of the disposition. Moreover, a recent finding in neuroscience suggests that motivation is extrinsic to belief.

  16. End-of-life decisions in Malaysia: Adequacies of ethical codes and developing legal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn; Alias, Fadhlina

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life decision-making is an area of medical practice in which ethical dilemmas and legal interventions have become increasingly prevalent. Decisions are no longer confined to clinical assessments; rather, they involve wider considerations such as a patient's religious and cultural beliefs, financial constraints, and the wishes and needs of family members. These decisions affect everyone concerned, including members of the community as a whole. Therefore it is imperative that clear ethical codes and legal standards are developed to help guide the medical profession on the best possible course of action for patients. This article considers the relevant ethical, codes and legal provisions in Malaysia governing certain aspects of end-of-life decision-making. It highlights the lack of judicial decisions in this area as well as the limitations with the Malaysian regulatory system. The article recommends the development of comprehensive ethical codes and legal standards to guide end-of-life decision-making in Malaysia.

  17. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  18. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    it indicate that a more fundamental *conceptual change* has taken place? In this paper we extend Braüner's hybrid-logical analysis of first-order false-belief tasks to the second-order case, and argue that our analysis supports a version of the conceptual change position.......The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does...

  20. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  1. Legal Marketing and Lawyer's Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casolaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident.   Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione

  2. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  3. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  4. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  5. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  6. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  7. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  8. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  9. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  10. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  11. Subcontracting in nuclear industry - legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the legal framework of subcontracting in France. Subcontracting is considered as a normal mode of functioning for an enterprise: an enterprise contracts another enterprise to do what it can not do itself or does not want to do. According to the 1975 law, cascade subcontracting is allowed but subcontractors have to be accepted by the payer. In some cases the payer can share responsibility when the subcontracting enterprises do not comply to obligations like the payment of some taxes. The main subcontractor who is the one who contracted with the payer is the only one responsible for the right execution of the whole contract. In nuclear industry there are 2 exceptions to the freedom of subcontracting. The first one concerns radiation protection: in a nuclear facility the person in charge of radioprotection must be chosen among the staff. The second concerns the operations and activities that are considered important for radiation protection, it is forbidden to subcontract them. In some cases like maintenance in nuclear sector the law imposes some qualification certification for subcontracting enterprises. The end of the article challenges the common belief about subcontracting in nuclear industry. (A.C.)

  12. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become "Normalized".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-12

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  13. Opinions of legal professionals: Comparing child and adult witnesses' memory report capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Knutsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The opinions of legal professionals about child and adult witnesses might influence the likelihood that a case is allowed to proceed through the different stages of the legal process. With the aim of knowing the opinions of legal practitioners about child and adult witnesses, 84 legal professionals (Swedish police, prosecutors, and attorneys were surveyed about their beliefs about child and adult eyewitness memory (and metamemory abilities. The respondents answered 27 questions relating to nine forensically relevant belief areas in which they compared the memory ability of children (ages 7 to 11 years and adults. The results showed no differences in assessment among members of different professions and a general trend suggesting that, across the professions, children were believed to be poorer witnesses than adults regarding their memory abilities. Moreover, the professionals' within-group consensus was very low. These results are discussed in the context of eyewitness research findings and with respect to the implications for both legal and research practice.

  14. Medical Marijuana Legalization and Co-use in Adult Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-03-01

    We examined effects of long-term medical marijuana legalization on cigarette co-use in a sample of adults. We conducted secondary analysis using data from the 2014 US Tobacco Attitudes and Beliefs Survey, which consisted of cigarette smokers, aged ≥ 45 years (N = 506). Participants were categorized by their state residence, where medical marijuana was (1) illegal, (2) legalized legalized ≥ 10 years. The Web-based survey assessed participants' marijuana use, beliefs and attitudes on marijuana, and nicotine dependence using Fagerstrom Tolerance for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) scores. In cigarette smokers aged ≥ 45 years, long-term legalization of medical marijuana was associated with stable positive increases in marijuana use prevalence (ever in a lifetime) (p = .005) and frequency (number of days in past 30 days) (unadjusted p = .005; adjusted p = .08). Those who reported marijuana co-use had greater FTND and HONC scores after adjusting for covariates (p = .05). These preliminary findings warrant further examination of the potential impact of long-term legalization of medical marijuana on greater cigarette and marijuana co-use in adults and higher nicotine dependence among co-users at the population level.

  15. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  16. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  17. Legal Ethics, Rules of Conduct and the Moral Compass – Considerations from a Law Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel Hendrik van Zyl IV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When young law graduates enter the legal profession they will undoubtedly be exposed to difficult situations that will demand of them to make difficult decisions, often having to balance conflicting systems of belief and ideas on what ethical behaviour entails. Legal ethics training in law faculties the world over often neglects teaching aspects of morality to focus on reviews of rules of professional legal conduct. This article argues that if legal education is to adequately prepare law graduates for legal practice, it must offer more than reviews of these codes of conduct. To properly assist law students in avoiding pitfalls which may lead to disciplinary action, they must be taught to appropriately use their moral compasses. This narrative aims to show that the metaphorical moral compass, with the cardinal virtues as possible main points, may serve as the crucial and underlying guide in the avoidance of the pitfalls which may result in a person being struck from the roll, but more than that, that it may aid in the pursuit of personal dreams or goals. The article contributes to the literature on legal ethics by foregrounding the virtues that pertain to sound conduct in a lawyer, as opposed to the rules and codes, in the hope that this may help legal practitioners to decide on what is right and what is wrong.

  18. The Relationship among Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning, Pedagogical Beliefs, and Beliefs about ICT Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Dian; Emaliana, Ive

    2017-01-01

    This paper elucidates the relationship among pre-service teachers' beliefs about language learning, pedagogical beliefs, and beliefs about ICT Integration through survey methodology. This study employed a quantitative approach, particularly a correlational relationship to investigate the relationships among beliefs about language learning,…

  19. Indonesian Muslim killings: revisiting the forgotten Talang Sari tragedy (1989 and its impact in post authoritarian regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Akmaliah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the Talang Sari tragedy as a part of the representation of Indonesian Muslim oppression during the authoritarian regime, it is relatively lesser known for Indonesian public. The avoidance of the most Indonesian Muslim who did not support it is one of those facts. Indeed, they did a less attention to talk and to articulate the case to the public. This paper intends to revisit the case of the Talang Sari as one of the unsolved human rights violation during the authoritarian regime. It is not only exploring the case and also examining the context of violence, but also tracing dynamic of the case during and post of authoritarian regime by the emergence of Islah agreement as cultural impu- nity to forget the past for many victims. The questions deals with in this paper are following: what kind of conditions that made the Talang Sari was happen- ing in East Lampung in 1989, South Sumatra during the Suharto presidency? How did the Suharto regime control the discourse of the tragedy in Indone- sian public that eventually encourage most Indonesian Muslim did not actively respond the killings? Although the reformasi era gives an opportunity break silences by asking justice to the current Indonesian government on hu- man rights violation, why those cases, especially the Talang Sari, are unsolved? This paper divided into three parts to answering the questions. Firstly, it is to understand the case of Talang Sari by discussing the context of the New Order’s policy on Indonesian Muslim and its political ideology. Secondly, it is to read deeply mass media in making discourse on the case as one of the triggers for most Indonesian Muslim did not respond it. Thirdly, it is to analyze the Islah agreement (reconciliation in Islamic term as the primary factor that contrib- uted why cultural impunity has seemingly embedded to bring justice to the victims of violence generally in the post of Suharto regime. Meskipun Peristiwa Talang Sari sebagai bagian dari

  20. Beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    2012-01-01

    To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were transcribed and common themes were identified using the constant comparative method and NVivo software. Mothers often described their parents' feeding style as authoritarian or neglectful, and their own current style as comparatively indulgent and better. Mothers described parents of overweight children as inept or neglectful, but they never described their own parenting as such. Encouraging mothers to reflect on how they were fed as children, how it may influence their current parenting, and how the relationship between mothering and child obesity is complex are important nutrition education opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intolerancia a la Ambigüedad, Conservadurismo Político y Justificación de la Inequidad Económica, Legal, Educativa y Étnica en la Ciudad de Lima – Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN MARC ROTTENBACHER DE ROJAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relationship between political conservatism and the justification of economic, legal, educational, and ethnic inequality in a sample of students and university graduates from the city of Lima. The following aspects were evaluated: intolerance toward ambiguity, rightwing authoritarianism (RWA, social dominance orientation (SDO, and rightist political orientation. A Path-analysis shows that intolerance toward ambiguity directly influences RWA and SDO, and that these variables, in turn, influence the four types of justification of inequality. SDO exerts a greater influence than RWA.

  2. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  3. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  4. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  5. An ‘Authoritarian Nexus’? China’s Alleged Special Relationship with Autocratic States in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Brand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s rise is often interpreted as a harbinger of a new era in world politics and raises the question if such a power transition may impact upon patterns of democratic rule across the globe. There is growing interest in whether China acts as an outside stabilizer for other authoritarian regimes. This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the international dimension of autocratic rule by focusing on Chinese Latin American policy. Using the method of structured focused comparisons, we want to assess whether China’s relations towards the Latin American autocracies Cuba and Venezuela differ from those with structurally similar, but democratic cooperation partners in the region, namely Costa Rica and Chile. The guiding question is whether we can detect such a pattern of specific bilateral relationships between China and other autocracies, leading to an ‘authoritarian nexus’ in Chinese foreign policy. Resumen: ¿Un ‘nexo autoritario’? Supuesta relación especial de China con Estados autocráticos de América Latina El ascenso de China se suele interpretar como un presagio de una nueva era en la política mundial y plantea la cuestión de si dicha transición de poder podría repercutir en los patrones de la democracia en el mundo entero. La cuestión de si China actúa como estabilizador externo para otros regímenes autoritarios suscita cada vez más interés. Este artículo es una contribución a la bibliografía emergente sobre la dimensión internacional de los sistemas autocráticos enfocándose en la política chino-latinoamericana. Mediante el método de las comparaciones estructuradas y focalizadas, queremos evaluar si las relaciones de China con las autocracias latinoamericanas de Cuba y Venezuela difieren de las relaciones con otros aliados estructuralmente similares, pero democráticos en la región, como Costa Rica y Chile. La pregunta clave es si podemos detectar este patrón de relaciones bilaterales espec

  6. Children's beliefs about parental divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitienė, Miglė

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...

  7. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  8. Individual differences in personality as a function of degree of handedness: consistent-handers are less sensation seeking, more authoritarian, and more sensitive to disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicates that consistent-handedness is associated with decreased access to right hemisphere processing and consequent decreased cognitive flexibility. Handedness differences on three dimensions of personality related to cognitive flexibility were investigated. Experiment 1 found that consistent-handedness was associated with decreased sensation seeking. Experiment 2 found that consistent-handedness was associated with increased Right Wing Authoritarianism. Experiment 3 found that consistent-handedness was associated with increased sensitivity to disgust. Prior research has shown associations between decreased sensation seeking, increased authoritarianism, and increased disgust sensitivity, and consistent-handedness appears to underlie all of these associations. Personality researchers are encouraged to include handedness as a factor in analyses, as failure to do so can lead to systematic mis-estimation of sex differences due to the over-representation of females among consistent-handers.

  9. Modern racism attitudes among white students: the role of dominance and authoritarianism and the mediating effects of racial color-blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2012-01-01

    Among 342 white college students, we examined the effects of social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and racial color-blindness on modern racism attitudes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism attitudes through color-blind racial attitudes. We found strong indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism through racial color-blindness. We did not find support for an alternative model, in which we tested racial color-blindness as a moderator of the effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism. Findings suggest that highly dominant and authoritarian white students endorse color-blind racial attitudes, although likely for different reasons. In turn, this predicts their modern racism attitudes. These findings indicate racial color-blindness is important to address as part of anti-racism education.

  10. The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates the insti......The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates...... the institutional prerequisites if competitive electoral politics are to lead to better governance outcomes and greater social stability. Examining why these preconditions are largely lacking in the Arab world, this contribution investigates what could be done to redress these shortcomings....

  11. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  12. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  13. The relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement: the roles of Taiwanese students' academic beliefs and filial piety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2012-01-01

    The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.

  14. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  15. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  16. China's one-child policy, a policy without a future. Pitfalls of the “common good” argument and the authoritarian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Communist Party government has been forcefully promoting its jihua shengyu (planned fertility) program, known as the "one-child policy," for more than three decades. A distinctive authoritarian model of population governance has been developed. A pertinent question to be asked is whether China's one-child policy and the authoritarian model of population governance have a future. The answer must be no; they do not. Although there are many demographic, economic, and social rationales for terminating the one-child policy, the most fundamental reason for opposing its continuation is drawn from ethics. The key ethical rationale offered for the policy is that it promotes the common social good, not only for China and the Chinese people but for the whole human family. The major irony associated with this apparently convincing justification is that, although designed to improve living standards and help relieve poverty and underdevelopment, the one-child policy and the application of the authoritarian model have instead caused massive suffering to Chinese people, especially women, and made them victims of state violence. A lesson from China--one learned at the cost of individual and social suffering on an enormous scale--is that an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of the common good is the creation of adequate constraints on state power.

  17. Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Willingness to Help Addicted Individuals: The Role of Responsibility Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torleif Halkjelsvik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how Social Dominance Orientation (SDO and Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA were related to motivation to personally help addicted individuals and approval of public spending on addiction treatment. The study employs an attributional analysis based on Weiner’s theory of social motivation. SDO was associated with less approval of public spending on treatment and lower motivation to personally help. RWA was associated with less approval of public spending but exerted a direct positive effect on motivation to personally help. However, the latter effect was cancelled out by an indirect negative effect from an attributional process where addicted individuals were perceived as more responsible for their condition. An association between RWA and judgments of responsibility was further indicated in an investigation of positive vs. negative outcomes of addictions. RWA correlated with ratings of personal responsibility across the valence of outcomes, whereas SDO did not. In conclusion, the relation between RWA and (lack of motivation to help is partly explained by a greater emphasis on personal responsibility, and the relation between SDO and (lack of motivation to help is independent of responsibility judgments.

  18. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through aut...

  19. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  20. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  1. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  2. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  3. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  4. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  5. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  6. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...

  7. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  8. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  9. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  10. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  11. PLEDGES OF A LEGAL ACADEMIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Tsegaye Regassa is currently a PhD Candidate at Melbourne University. Law School and can be reached at ... worthy commentator of our laws for our times, a defender of the civilization embodied in the laws of the ... As a legal academic, I note that I am part of the corps of intellectuals who, as society's paid thinkers, seek to ...

  12. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  13. Citizen Access to Legal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Kay L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes activities by the American Bar Association and other groups aimed at educating the public about their legal rights and responsibilities, including informational pamphlets and brochures issued by state bar associations. These public service information pamphlets are listed by state and the address of each state's bar association is…

  14. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  15. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory demonstrated with justification provided by legal evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn P. Curley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In forecasting and decision making, people can and often do represent a degree of belief in some proposition. At least two separate constructs capture such degrees of belief: likelihoods capturing evidential balance and support capturing evidential weight. This paper explores the weight or justification that evidence affords propositions, with subjects communicating using a belief function in hypothetical legal situations, where justification is a relevant goal. Subjects evaluated the impact of sets of 1--3 pieces of evidence, varying in complexity, within a hypothetical legal situation. The study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this evidential weight measure as an alternative or complement to the more-studied probability measure. Subjects' responses indicated that weight and likelihood were distinguished; that subjects' evidential weight tended toward single elements in a targeted fashion; and, that there were identifiable individual differences in reactions to conflicting evidence. Specifically, most subjects reacted to conflicting evidence that supported disjoint sets of suspects with continued support in the implicated sets, although an identifiable minority reacted by pulling back their support, expressing indecisiveness. Such individuals would likely require a greater amount of evidence than the others to counteract this tendency in support. Thus, the study identifies the value of understanding evidential weight as distinct from likelihood, informs our understanding of the psychology of individuals' judgments of evidential weight, and furthers the application and meaningfulness of belief functions as a communication language.

  16. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  17. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  18. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: The Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBruder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766 supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476, we report (re-analyses of 3 datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy, other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism, and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control. Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  19. INTERACTION OF EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyrtyshny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of certain ideologemes of Western (European and Russian legal consciousness – prominent works of Ivan Ilyin and Duncan Kennedy are taken as examples. The article analyzes the tabula rasa principle and its place in legal consciousness. We use legal scholarship, judicial practice and opinion polls to examine the relationship between legal consciousness and the lack of trust in Russian courts, as well as their inefficiency from the point of view of public opinion. There are a number of shocking cases of torture of innocent people by the Russian police. Why is this so? The answer lies in the legal consciousness of police officers and of judges. This is something that has been inherited from the Soviet period. It is completely different from the Western legal consciousness, one of the key features of which is denial of authority. The critical legal studies branch of American legal realism almost denies the very existence of law, and, perhaps for this reason, American culture is less open to abuses like torture. At the same time, there is no possibility to shift legal consciousness immediately, the tabula rasa principle does not work. The final objective of the article is to provide a perspective on the reform of higher legal education and its relation to legal consciousness and legal anthropology. We propose that a greater part of the university curriculum is devoted to legal anthropology.

  20. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld) has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP') or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. ...

  1. Legal Duties and Legal Liabilities of Coaches toward Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.

  2. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  3. Impunity in Post-authoritarian Brazil: The Supreme Court’s Recent Verdict on the Amnesty Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Schneider

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While numerous countries in post-authoritarian South America have annulled Amnesty Laws issued under authoritarian rule and punished officials involved in repressive organs, Brazil continues to favour impunity. This attitude has recently been confirmed by the Brazilian Supreme Court’s decision to maintain the 1979 Amnesty Law granting de-facto impunity to violators of human rights during the military regime. The article considers this verdict within its historical context, and raises two questions which have previously attracted little attention: First, why has postauthoritarian Brazil processed the experience of the military regime so differently from its neighbouring countries, and what role did the Amnesty Law play in that difference? Second, what does this disinterest in punishment mean? This article concludes that one promising theory highlighted by political scientists – the low degree of participation in civil society in Brazil – cannot fully explain why the vast majority of Brazilians are not interested in punishment, as numerous citizens mobilized during the amnesty movement. It seems to imply that the heterogeneous antiauthoritarian alliance vanished once the Amnesty Law had been achieved. Another key finding is that the disinterest in punishment cannot be interpreted as moral support for the military regime or a sanctioning of its human rights violations, as the amnesty debate in Brazil is more complex. Resumen: Impunidad en el Brasil post-autoritario: fallo de la Corte Suprema sobre la ley de amnistíaMientras numerosos países sudamericanos han derogado las leyes de amnistía, aprobadas por pasados regímenes militares, y castigado a los oficiales de los órganos represivos, Brasil continúa favoreciendo la impunidad. Esta actitud ha sido recientemente ratificada por la Corte Suprema de Brasil, que ha mantenido la ley de amnistía de 1979, garantizando impunidad a los violadores de los derechos humanos durante el r

  4. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...

  5. Terrorism, Radicalisation, Extremism, Authoritarianism and Fundamentalism: A Systematic Review of the Quality and Psychometric Properties of Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Akimi; Page, Ruairi; Furtado, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics. Information extracted was consolidated into two different tables and a 26-item checklist, reporting respectively background information, the psychometric properties of each tool, and the methodological quality markers of these tools. 37 articles met our criteria, which included a total of 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, 17 tools developed as research measures, and 9 inventories that have not been generated from a study. Just over half of the methodological quality markers required for a transparent methodological description of the instruments were reported. The amount of reported psychological properties was even fewer, with only a third of them available across the different studies. The category presenting the least satisfactory results was that containing the 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, which can be explained by the fact that half of them refrained from publishing the major part of their findings and relevant guidelines. A great number of flaws have been identified through this systematic review. The authors encourage future researchers to be more thorough, comprehensive and transparent in their methodology. They also recommend the creation of a multi-disciplinary joint working group in order to

  6. A computerized legal information management system | Ohiagu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.

  7. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advises on a range of current legal and business issues impacting IDRC by ... legal and risk management practices, and recommending courses of action to ... in conducting its overseas operations;; advising on new legislation, such as the ...

  8. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.

  9. Legal technique: approaches to section on types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Д. Шутак

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal technique is a branch of knowledge about the rules of doing legal work and creating in the process a variety of legal documents, which had previously been part of the theory of law. In modern conditions of the legal technique are isolated in a separate branch of legal science, focused on solving practical problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of legal techniques, in particular, on the basis of theoretical propositions about legal technique to allocate substantial characteristics and types of legal technique. O. Malko and M. Matuzov consider legal technique as a set of rules, techniques, methods of preparation, creation, registration of legal documents, their classification and accounting for their excellence, efficient use. A similar meaning is investing in this concept Alekseev, determining that the legal technique is a set of tools and techniques used in accordance with accepted rules in the formulation and systematization of legal acts to ensure their perfection. So, legal technique – theoretical and applied legal science, which studies the regularities of rational legal practice in the creation, interpretation and implementation of law. In relation to the type of legal techniques in the literature proposed different classifications. For example, G. Muromtsev technique, which is used only in the field of law, divide on the technique of law-making (legislative technique, technique of law enforcement, interpretation, technique of judicial speech, interrogation, notarial activities. V. Kartashov shared legal technique on law making and enforcement (prorealtime, interpretive yourself and prevacidrebatezw, judicial or investigative, prosecutorial, and the like. Some authors clearly indicate that the criterion by which to distinguish types of legal techniques. So, S. Alekseev notes that legal technique is classified from the point of view of the legal nature of the act made on: a techniques of legal acts; b the

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  11. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  12. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  13. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  14. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  15. The interface of legal and esthetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Smardon

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an overview of development of legal/policy factors affecting visual resource management. Review of major legal issues, court cases, laws and administrative decisionmaking reveals that the "action" regarding legal and aesthetic issues is currently in the public arena as managed by administrative agencies. Analysis of key court cases reveals that...

  16. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Develops systems and procedures for administering and tracking legal undertakings, coordinates and consolidates the legal information in order to meet deadlines. • Collaborates with the Secretary and General Counsel to ensure that all legal issues are handled efficiently, while respecting the highly confidential nature of ...

  17. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  18. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  19. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.

  20. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  1. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  2. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  3. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  4. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  5. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  6. Against a Systemic Legal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the resort to systems theory as the foundation of an evolutionary legal history. In particular, the theoretical legacy of Niklas Luhmann upon which Marie Theres Fögen proposes to draw seems to have limited application outside a context in which advanced system differentiation is present. Although (like Marx, Durkheim and Weber before him Luhmann drew in a broad evolutionary trajectory, he was concerned principally with “functionally differentiated society”. Earlier phases – covering precisely those formations that historians will presumably focus upon – are very hazily sketched in and relatively poorly theorised. In general, we should not too readily acknowledge “the exhaustion of the paradigm of modernity” (Santos, 1995 or rush to proclaim the obsolescence of multi-dimensional approaches such as those of Bourdieu (1977 and Giddens (1984. Any legal history that marginalises both human actors and the conditional environment has a considerable task in making up the ensuing deficit.

  7. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  8. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  9. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  10. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  11. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  12. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  13. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  14. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  15. Machiavellian Beliefs and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Dan; Cody, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Replicates previous findings of separate Machiavellian belief constructs (Deceit, Flatter, Immorality, and Cynicism). Indicates that different constructs predict selection of compliance-gaining strategies; for example, actors who scored high on Immorality used more referent influence on superiors. Discusses implications of this study concerning a…

  16. Chernobyl and no legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzel, D.

    1987-01-01

    The author is doubtful about the judgement of the Superior Administrative Court Lueneburg of October 28, 1986 relating to the nuclear power plant of Brokdorf. Fundamental rights of citizens who live in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant are not guaranteed. The protection of life according to article 2 of the German Constitution should have priority over legal protection of atomic power plants pursuant to art. 14 of the Constitution. (CW) [de

  17. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  18. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  19. Legal Parameters of Space Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe

    2004-01-01

    The commercial concept of space tourism raises important legal issues not specifically addressed by first generation rules of international spacelaw. The principles established in the nineteen sixties and seventies were inspired by the philosophy that exploration of space was undertaken by and for the benefit of mankind. Technical developments since then haveincreased the potential for new space applications, with a corresponding increase in commercial interest in space. If space tourism is t...

  20. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  1. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  2. Fundamentals of legal argumentation : A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new

  3. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  4. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  5. Order effects in research on paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Measures of paranormal belief and emotional intelligence were given a group of 72 college students using Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim's Emotional Intelligence Scale. Order effects indicated that participants who took the Paranormal Belief Scale first had lower emotional intelligence scores than those who took the Emotional Intelligence Scale first. The study demonstrates the importance of taking order effects into account when conducting research on paranormal belief.

  6. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram V...

  7. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  8. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  9. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers' Association (PMA) and most of its members took government to court. ... Since 2 May 2004, it has been unlawful to supply medicines. 'according ... This article focuses on some of the key issues that are of ... chain for some time.

  10. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  11. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  12. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  13. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2013-01-01

    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy conce...

  14. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  15. Forward induction reasoning and correct beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perea y Monsuwé, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    All equilibrium concepts implicitly make a correct beliefs assumption, stating that a player believes that his opponents are correct about his first-order beliefs. In this paper we show that in many dynamic games of interest, this correct beliefs assumption may be incompatible with a very basic form

  16. Islamic Cultures: Health Care Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…

  17. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  18. The constraints on the soft power efforts of authoritarian states. The case of the 2015 military parade in Beijing – strengthening patriotic pride, soft power and strategic deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is it possible for authoritarian states such as China, Russia and Iran to combine the soft power narratives directed primarily towards an international audience with the narratives directed primarily towards a domestic audience and aimed at maintaining regime security? To investigate this question...... further, this article analyses the 2015 military parade in Beijing and uses this case to highlight and discuss the constraints on the Chinese leaders’ efforts to project soft power. The key finding is that soft power will continue to be the weak link in China’s pursuit for a great power position...

  19. Homophobia in physical education and sport: the role of physical/sporting identity and attributes, authoritarian aggression, and social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D

    2013-01-01

    We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p anti-lesbian prejudice, than females. Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical identity and

  20. Validity of the construct of Right-Wing Authoritarianism and its measure in post-socialistic region: A case of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chylíková, Johana; Buchtík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016) ISSN 2067-2640 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10320S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015060 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : authoritarianism * RWA Scale * Construct Validity Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography https://docs. google .com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxqcnNwb25lfGd4OjU3YmQ1YmM1MmVjM2RlNTc

  1. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  2. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  3. Beliefs about work and beliefs about groupwork: Exploring the relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Smrt & Karau’s (2011) finding that the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) influences individual behaviour towards groups, emphasized that individuals who have a stronger PWE are less likely to socially loaf. This note aims to contribute to this research by exploring the influence which a key component of the PWE, the vocation, has on individual beliefs about groupwork. An online questionnaire based on Wrzesniewski et al.’s (1997) research on personal relationships to work and Karau & Elsaid’s (200...

  4. Introducing the modified paranormal belief scale: distinguishing between classic paranormal beliefs, religious paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity among undergraduates in Northern Ireland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J.; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2009-01-01

    Previous empirical studies concerned with the association between paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity have produced conflicting evidence. Drawing on Rice's (2003) distinction between classic paranormal beliefs and religious paranormal beliefs, the present study proposed a modified form of the Tobacyk Revised Paranormal Belief Scale to produce separate scores for these two forms of paranormal belief, styled 'religious paranormal beliefs' and 'classic paranormal beliefs'. Data provi...

  5. Not bound by the law: legal disobedience in Israeli society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, A; Yagil, D; Pedahzur, A

    2001-01-01

    The issue of whether there is a 'prima facie obligation to obey the law' has intrigued human society since the days of Socrates. However, most of the writings in this field have dealt with theoretical aspects of the issue, such as the boundaries of legal obedience and frameworks defining the circumstances under which a citizen is not obliged to obey the law. Very few studies have investigated the phenomenon of legal disobedience empirically. The current study is based on a survey of Israeli citizens belonging to three sectors of the population (Jews in the general population, Israeli Arabs, and orthodox Jewish students enrolled in religious yeshiva seminaries). Respondents' attitudes towards the judicial system, the rule of law, and the duty to obey state laws were examined by means of a questionnaire especially designed for the study. The findings point to gaps between the three groups: Compared to the Arab population and the yeshiva students, support for state laws and the rule of law was stronger among Jews in the general population and, conversely, belief in the supremacy of other laws (i.e. religious laws) over state laws and readiness to take the law into one's own hands were stronger among the Arabs and the yeshiva students, compared to the general Jewish population. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best...

  7. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  8. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  9. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  10. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  11. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  12. Narcissism and belief in the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Chris A; Morgan, Claire L

    2002-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the relationship between narcissistic personality and paranormal belief identified by Tobacyk and Mitchell earlier could be replicated with a general population and to see whether the effect could be found with a narrower definition of paranormal beliefs that focuses only on belief in psychic phenomena. 75 participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and two measures of paranormal belief, the Paranormal Belief Scale and the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale. There was no correlation between narcissism and Paranormal Belief Scale scores, but narcissism and Australian Sheep-Goat Scale scores were significantly positively correlated. Of the three subscales to the Australian Sheep-Goat measure, scores for narcissism correlated with belief in ESP and PK but not in Life after death. These relationships were interpreted in terms of need for control.

  13. Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-08-01

    Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

  14. The impact of witnessing other people's trauma: The resilience and coping strategies of members of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda A H; Massey, Kristina

    2018-04-01

    The coping strategies, resilience and psychological distress of members of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) were measured in an attempt to establish how they are affected by, and accommodate potentially traumatic encounters with patients. Belief in a just world was also measured as it was deemed to be a mediating factor in the psychological distress exhibited in the medical practitioners who participated in this study. 120 members of the FFLM (65 females, 54 males and 1 undisclosed) volunteered to complete an online survey. Data was collected using Survey Monkey. Participants filled out the Personal Belief in a Just World Scale and General Belief in a Just World Scale, as well as the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25, the COPE and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A multiple regression with stepwise entry was carried out. Personal belief in a just world, coping strategies and resilience were all identified as having a significant relationship with psychological distress. Although this is only a preliminary study into this phenomenon, findings suggest the personal belief in a just world, coping strategies and resilience are useful predictors of psychological distress amongst forensic medical practitioners. However they did not predict the majority of the variance and as such, more detailed investigations are needed to identify which other factors are important in order to design interventions and support for members of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine and other forensic medical practitioners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  16. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  17. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  18. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  19. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  20. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  1. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  2. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  3. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  5. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  6. Visions of the Future of (Legal) Education

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.

  7. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  8. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  9. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  10. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  11. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  12. LEGAL DRAFTING IN CROATIA - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Đerđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of legal drafting and its essential elements, which has not drawn a lot of attention in the Republic of Croatia so far. The paper emphasises the importance of proportionality in the simplicity and legal distinctness of a legal text in the process of drafting for the purpose of its clarity. The paper also presents objective requirements necessary for quality legal drafting, as well as subjective qualities of the drafters. With the purpose of drawing attention to imperfections in the legal drafting in Croatia, some defi ciencies are presented in the process of drafting and amending of the Utility Services Act. The process of drafting and amending of this Act is a good example of the way how legal drafting should not be done. It contains a lot of defi ciencies and failures that are the result of legal drafting mistakes. At the end, authors expect that the adoption of the Uniform methodology and nomotechnical rules for the drafting of acts enacted by Parliament should contribute to the higher quality of legal texts and to their full adjustment to the general requirements of legal certainty and rule of law.

  13. LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia-Raluca ONIŞOR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the legal effects of mergers and acquisitions from the Romanian Company Law perspective, underlining certain general principles, the procedure of annulment of such a legal transformation of companies and the protection of the employees of companies participating in the merger according to the Law no. 67/2006. These consequences of mergers and acquisions are to be seen in the broader light of the most important purpose of this legal instrument, maximizing financial and organizational efficiencies, thus legal certainty is a desirable goal to be assumed by any merger regulation.

  14. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  15. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  16. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  17. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  18. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  19. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  20. Race Research and the Ethics of Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    On most accounts, beliefs are supposed to fit the world rather than change it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to the moral status of believing apart from its epistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them. 1 After developing this view, I consider what it might imply about controversial research the goal of which is to yield true beliefs but the outcome of which might include negative social consequences. In particular, I focus on the implications of research into biological differences between racial groups.

  1. Journalism as Justified True Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Sílvia; Benetti, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    If it is important to think of journalism as a form of knowledge, then how does it become knowledge? How does this process work? In order to answer this question, this article proposes a new understanding of journalism as a subject; presenting it as a justified true belief. We think of journalism being based on pillars of truth and justification, conditions necessary in order for Epistemology to grant it the status of knowledge. We address the concept of truth and show how journalistic report...

  2. Graduates beliefs about career management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Lepa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Career management is increasingly becoming an individuals' matter, despite the various activities organized by the different institutions to support career development and planning. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine what kind of beliefs graduates have about career management. Results indicate that graduates are aware of the importance of university knowledge for getting a job, the importance of knowledge and investment in education for positioning in the labor market, so they give priority to development opportunities that business brings opposed to the material rewards.

  3. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  4. Equilibria in social belief removal [Journal article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available removal function >i, which tells it how to remove any given sentence from its belief set. In this paper we view >i as a unary function on the set L of non- tautologous sentences, i.e., agents are never required to remove >. The result of removing 2 L... from i?s belief set is denoted by >i( ). We assume i?s initial belief set can always be recaptured from >i alone by just removing the (b) (1) (A) contradiction, i.e., i?s initial belief set is >i(?). We call any n-tuple (>i)i2A of removal functions a...

  5. Exploring the beliefs underlying attitudes to active voluntary euthanasia in a sample of Australian medical practitioners and nurses: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Wise, Susi E; Young, Ross McD; Hyde, Melissa K

    A qualitative study explored beliefs about active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) in a sample (N = 18) of medical practitioners and nurses from Australia, where AVE is not currently legal. Four behaviors relating to AVE emerged during the interviews: requesting euthanasia for oneself, legalizing AVE, administering AVE to patients if it were legalized, and discussing AVE with patients if they request it. Using thematic analysis, interviews were analyzed for beliefs related to advantages and disadvantages of performing these AVE behaviors. Medical practitioners and nurses identified a number of similar benefits for performing the AVE-related behaviors, both for themselves personally and as health professionals. Benefits also included a consideration of the positive impact for patients, their families, and the health care system. Disadvantages across behaviors focused on the potential conflict between those parties involved in the decision making process, as well as conflict between one's own personal and professional values.

  6. When fast logic meets slow belief: Evidence for a parallel-processing model of belief bias

    OpenAIRE

    Trippas, Dries; Thompson, Valerie A.; Handley, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was ...

  7. Legal Information Sources: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Ronald C.

    This 25-page annotated bibliography describes the legal reference materials in the special collection of a medium-sized public library. Sources are listed in 12 categories: cases, dictionaries, directories, encyclopedias, forms, references for the lay person, general, indexes, laws and legislation, legal research aids, periodicals, and specialized…

  8. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment ...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements.......Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment...... provisions’ which empower the municipalities to later ruling. This way of making plans postpones the actual regulation of an area (i.e. the planning permission) making it an individual ruling for instance at the application of building permits. Case studies show examples of this way of regulating an area...

  9. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  10. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any...

  11. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims...

  12. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  13. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  14. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  15. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or regulations, and, as provided in § 1.73 of the Commission's rules, they do not have the force or effect of...

  16. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...

  17. The Reach and Limits of Legal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Murray L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies of the state of legal education and the practice of law are criticized, and legal education is found to be healthy. Practical and professional responsibility training is recommended for post-law school training rather than in the classical curriculum. (MSE)

  18. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  19. Advice for the New Legal Studies Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into academia from law school or legal practice is a significant and exciting shift in one's legal career. This transition, however, can also be one that presents numerous challenges. Preparing a syllabus and drafting lecture material can seem like a daunting task. Writing an academic article for the first time involves learning a…

  20. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions