Johnson, Darrell B.
Southwestern University School of Law's two-year, intensive, year-round program, the Southwestern Conceptual Approach to Legal Education, which emphasizes hypothetical problems as teaching tools rather than the case-book method, is described. (MSE)
Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš
Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D
Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420
Sanders, B.; Rainer, R.
The application of Agency safeguards requires treaty arrangements (''Safeguards Agreements'') between the State or States concerned and the Agency. The authority for the Agency to conclude such agreements and to implement them is provided for in the Agency's Statute (Articles II, III A.5 and XII). On the basis of the statutory provisions safeguards principles and procedures have been elaborated. These have been laid down in: (a) The Agency's Safeguards System 1965, extended in 1966 and 1968 (INFCIRC/66/Rev.2); and (b) The basis for negotiating safeguards agreements with NNWS pursuant to NPT (INFCIRC/153). The verification of the undertaking by the State concerned not to use items subject to safeguards for purposes contrary to the terms of the agreement is verified through the application of various safeguards measures (design review, records, reports and inspection). Containment and surveillance measures are expected to play an increasingly important role. NPT Safeguards Agreements foresee as one of their specific features the establishment of national systems of accounting and control of nuclear material. The majority of the agreements concluded under document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 - i.e. the non-NPT safeguards agreements - implement obligations undertaken under co-operation agreements between States for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These agreements naturally reflect approaches adopted by the parties, in particular as to the circumstances under which safeguards should be applied. Thus, the concepts used in the non-NPT safeguards agreements and the safeguards system of document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 which is incorporated in these agreements by reference are in continuous evolution. Document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 continues to be supplemented in practical application and through explicit decision by the Board. The non-NPT safeguards agreements contain, besides technical safeguards provisions from document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2, and further provision for notification, inventories
This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.
Cybersecurity has become a top priority for policymakers these days, but as the engineering saying goes: "if you don’t know what you want, it’s hard to do it right." This paper finds considerable shortcomings in current conceptual and legal frameworks for communications security policymaking. The
Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…
Full Text Available Electronic and online communications are modern, and perhaps the most common form of communication between individuals and legal entities, and thus have become one of the most used ways of market communication. Viral marketing is evolving into the dominant form of marketing and exchange of information for the purpose of advertising, promoting, or achieving other goals. In this paper we present and analyse the phenomenon of viral marketing-its purpose, effects, and power of influence, and discuss it in terms of ethical and legal standards. Special emphasis is placed on the right to privacy and personal data protection, harassment, acting in good faith and in accordance with good business practices, the presentation of false or fraudulent information. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of marketing activity have been observed.
Vanessa Vieira Pessanha
Full Text Available The present article deals with the notion of decent work, especially in the conceptual, terminological and legal perspectives, analyzing its scope, its relevance for the realization of the dignity of the human person and how the legal set contemplates and stimulates its practical verification. The objective is to develop a more detailed appreciation of the meaning created by the International Labor Organization, understanding peculiarities and delimiting the application in the legal world. The research is qualitative, with method of bibliographical revision, listing directly related documents (national and international norms and consulting other sources (official websites and dictionaries.
For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction
V. I. Blinov
Full Text Available The paper analyzes educational standards as the key concept of modern education; their interrelation with the national qualifications system and professional standards being considered. The authors denote the reasons for changing the conceptual approach to the standard developments, and demonstrate the possible ways of educational quality assurance.Diversification and mobility of the modern qualifications along with the fast technological changes affects the educational content and knowledge acquisition, and requires the variable and flexible educational curricula and management. The global development trends, concerning the educational quality standards, involve their orientation on the learning outcomes, which should be taken into account while developing the Federal State Educational Standards of the fourth generation. The authors reveal the structure of the future standard, outline its implementation stages, and demonstrate the mechanism guaranteeing the regulatory legal provision of professional education.
Full Text Available Various studies on Islamic family law (IFL in Indonesia demonstrate an enduring paradigm of patriarchal culture both in ideas and practical applications. This is a logical consequence of the attempts to enact the traditional Islamic doctrines in modern law. The domination of this culture in the IFL, that has resulted in the discrimination against women in Indonesia, has reached the alarming level calling for revision. The reform attempts also are needed in other other derivative legal products, such as local sharia regulation. All these efforts are needed in order to ensure justice and equal rights of children and women. This paper attempts to conceptualize a construction of patriarchal authority in legalizing the rights, role, and status of gender in Indonesia. The finding reveals that reconstruction of authority in the modern legislation of Islamic Family Law should be started with ensuring the equal rights of women both in the legal and judicial aspects. This requires involving women in an appropriate proportion within the making of public policy, family law legislation. Another needed strategy is advocacy of women's rights in order to avoid legal gender bias due to the political and legislative authorities dominated by male group.
K. M. Burya
It has been underlined that heuristic potential of political and legal approach in political science research is based on the possibility to solve genuine issues that contain the means of the legal provision of political institutions and the impact of these institutions on the normative context.
Garrigós, Irene; Pardillo, Jesús; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Trujillo, Juan
Data warehouses rely on multidimensional models in order to provide decision makers with appropriate structures to intuitively analyze data with OLAP technologies. However, data warehouses may be potentially large and multidimensional structures become increasingly complex to be understood at a glance. Even if a departmental data warehouse (also known as data mart) is used, these structures would be also too complex. As a consequence, acquiring the required information is more costly than expected and decision makers using OLAP tools may get frustrated. In this context, current approaches for data warehouse design are focused on deriving a unique OLAP schema for all analysts from their previously stated information requirements, which is not enough to lighten the complexity of the decision making process. To overcome this drawback, we argue for personalizing multidimensional models for OLAP technologies according to the continuously changing user characteristics, context, requirements and behaviour. In this paper, we present a novel approach to personalizing OLAP systems at the conceptual level based on the underlying multidimensional model of the data warehouse, a user model and a set of personalization rules. The great advantage of our approach is that a personalized OLAP schema is provided for each decision maker contributing to better satisfy their specific analysis needs. Finally, we show the applicability of our approach through a sample scenario based on our CASE tool for data warehouse development.
Rasskazov L. P.
The article discusses various criteria for the classification of legal systems. Special attention is drawn to the civilizational approach, which can be effectively used in the classification of legal systems. In accordance with the civilizational approach in the world there are many civilizations, developing according to its own laws (for example, the Scythian civilization, ancient Egyptian, etc.). In accordance with this approach the history of mankind is a history of the development of civi...
Marina V. Ignatieva
Full Text Available In this article author analyzes emergence of an anthropological approach to the study of legal traditions in Russia. It is shown that the first works belong to the 40-50-th years. XIX century. Characterized work KD Kavelin and MM Kovalevsky. For example, the works of MM Kovalevsky, dedicated to legal traditions and customs of the peoples of the Caucasus and, above all, Ossetians, shows their evolution.
Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.
In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary
Full Text Available The academic debate on legal aspects of corporate governance, be it at national or international level, has strongly intensified especially during the last two decades. Such tendency has also influenced the relevant Albanian legal framework, as it is evidenced by the most recent amendments on the Law “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies” of 2014. This article focuses exactly on an analyses of the legal and quasi-legal norms of corporate governance in Albania (IFC principles, providing a comparison between the latter and the European Union norms or other internationally recognized principles of good corporate governance, such as the OECD principles. Main objective of this article is to provide a critical analyses of legal rules on two main components of corporate governance, namely shareholder rights and stakeholder protection in a corporation, identifying in this way, when relevant, the necessity for reforming commercial norms. Lastly, from a methodological point of view, the article employs the functional interpretative method of legal norms, critical analyses of relevant case law and when it comes to the comparison between the national and supra-national approaches to corporate governance; it uses the functional comparative method.
J. Müller (Julia); T. Upmann (Thorsten); J. Prinz (Joachim)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Teams, in both firms and in sports, jointly produce a product. While a fixed task is assigned to each member of a team, the individual team productivity of a worker or player is difficult to conceptualize. This is particularly true, if this concept is aimed to be
This research paper is a contribution to the field of architectural design theory in the area of tectonics. From the designer’s point of view, it will develop an overarching conceptual framework for tectonic thinking (FTT), which will serve as a tool for the comparative analysis and interpretation...... of a wide range of tectonic motifs and design positions. The understanding of tectonics will be broadened and differentiated. The conceptual framework will be developed in writing and in hand-drawn mappings. This comparative method assumes not one single, supposedly right, meaning of tectonics, but several...... a value judgement beforehand about any of these positions. Also a-tectonic design positions will be regarded as valid positions within this framework....
P. M. Lapo
Full Text Available The peculiarities of informatization in education, conceptual approaches to the creation of electronic libraries, as well as the content and the rating of the electronic library of Belarusian State University are considered.
Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.
Wertsch, James V; Roediger, Henry L
In order to outline the conceptual landscape that frames discussions of collective memory, three oppositions are proposed: collective memory versus collective remembering; history versus collective memory; and individual memory versus collective remembering. From this perspective collective remembering is viewed as an active process that often involves contention and contestation among people rather than a static body of knowledge that they possess. Collective remembering is also viewed as privileging identity formation and contestation over the sort of objective representation of the past that is the aspiration of formal historical analysis. And finally, while collective remembering involves individual minds, it also suggests something more in the form of socially situated individuals, a claim that can usefully be formulated in terms of how members of a groups share a common set of cultural tools (e.g., narrative forms) and similar content.
Jorge Eduardo Vásquez Santamaría
Full Text Available This article aims to communicate one of the products of the research "Ambiente sano y vivienda digna: colisión en la elaboración y ejecución de proyectos urbanos en Medellín". Dwelling house is addressed from in order to describe the legal developments and to establish their social, economic and policy implications since the point of view of for the doctrine, the Constitution and jurisprudence in Colombia. The methodology was mixed: it used a quantitative and a qualitative approach, but the last one was more used, because the study was focused on a contemporary social reality. Among the results it can be found a purposeful projection of right to the worthy dwelling house in relation to the habitat. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.
Full Text Available Technological progress and rapid structural adjustments have characterized a lot of economies in the last century and they still feature pronounced structures. An important observation is that economic activities tend to agglomerate in space as a result of some kind increasing returns, forming eventually economic agglomerations. When various companies gather together, they establish specific forms of interaction. Increasing returns produce when this mutual interplay creates positive externalities for those firms which operate into an agglomeration. In this context, it is crucial to raise a question: what is an economic agglomeration and what do different scientists imply when using the concept? The phenomenon of agglomeration has attracted researchers from various disciplines employing a hybrid set of analytical perspectives. This whole framework is still puzzled with contradictory conceptualizations which are often used in an ambiguous way. Scientists tend to utilize notions such as agglomeration, cluster, territorial network, specialization, concentration somewhat interchangeably and with little concern about how to operationalize them. To shed a light on this issue, the aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analyze of different theoretical framework in which economic agglomerations have been debated and researched.
Full Text Available In the literature there are many approaches regarding the notion of cost and expense. The approaches are varied and complex. Very often both expressions are used as synonyms, or in the definition of expenses and cost appear. It should be clarified what is the connection between the two. Which was born first, cost or expense? The cost is very clearly tied to the production of tangible and intangible assets and the default cost accounting (managerial accounting and expense relates to incomes and hence of financial accounting. In my understanding the cost is preceding expense. It is imperative to clarify these issues both theoretically and practically. I decided to clarify these issues in this article, as it fallows.
Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to
Noble, Bram; Nwanekezie, Kelechi
Increasing emphasis has been placed in recent years on transitioning strategic environmental assessment (SEA) away from its environmental impact assessment (EIA) roots. Scholars have argued the need to conceptualize SEA as a process designed to facilitate strategic thinking, thus enabling transitions toward sustainability. The practice of SEA, however, remains deeply rooted in the EIA tradition and scholars and practitioners often appear divided on the nature and purpose of SEA. This paper revisits the strategic principles of SEA and conceptualizes SEA as a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional assessment process. It is suggested that SEA can be conceptualized as series of approaches operating along a spectrum from less to more strategic – from impact assessment-based to strategy-based – with each approach to SEA differentiated by the specific objectives of SEA application and the extent to which strategic principles are reflected in its design and implementation. Advancing the effectiveness of SEA requires a continued research agenda focused on improving the traditional SEA approach, as a tool to assess the impacts of policies, plans and programs (PPPs). Realizing the full potential of SEA, however, requires a new research agenda — one focused on the development and testing of a deliberative governance approach to SEA that can facilitate strategic innovations in PPP formulation and drive transitions in short-term policy and initiatives based on longer-term thinking. - Highlights: • SEA facilitates strategic thinking, enabling transitions toward sustainability. • SEA is conceptualized as a spectrum of approaches, from IA-based to strategy-based. • Each approach variably emphasizes strategic principles in its design and practice. • There is no one conceptualization of SEA that is best, SEA is fit for PPP purpose. • Research is needed to advance SEA to facilitate strategic PPP transformations.
The purpose of this study is to explore a conceptual approach to assessment for one-shot library instruction. This study develops a new assessment instrument based on Carol Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP) model. The new instrument focuses on measuring and identifying changes in student readiness to do research along three…
Canpolat, Nurtac; Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Bayrakceken, Samih; Geban, Omer
This study investigates the effect of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts (e.g. dynamic nature of equilibrium, definition of equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium, qualitative interpreting of equilibrium constant, changing the reaction conditions). This…
S. van den Braak; R. Choenni; M.S. Bargh
Legal persons (i.e., entities such as corporations, companies, partnerships, firms, associations, and foundations) may commit financial crimes or employ fraudulent activities like money laundering, tax fraud, or bankruptcy fraud. Therefore, in the Netherlands legal persons are automatically screened
The academic debate on legal aspects of corporate governance, be it at national or international level, has strongly intensified especially during the last two decades. Such tendency has also influenced the relevant Albanian legal framework, as it is evidenced by the most recent amendments on the Law “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies” of 2014. This article focuses exactly on an analyses of the legal and quasi-legal norms of corporate governance in Albania (IFC principles), providing ...
Terrorism is a behavioural flu plaguing the entire world at an alarming rate. Legal prescriptions based on legal prognosis have been in the form of application of sanctions directed against terrorists. Additionally, a hostile attitude to terrorists as reflected in the legal instruments rolled out to contain the dreaded affliction is ...
Full Text Available Drawing on a meta-analysis of an evaluation of a European Social Fund project aimed at enhancing employment opportunities for women in Information Technology, Electronic and Computing (ITEC, this paper critically debates how effectual a diversity management approach alone is as an underpinning rationale for change in the complex area of diversity. The paper draws on the experiences of ‘partner organizations’, gathered through interviews conducted during the evaluation stage of the project. The paper discusses some of the tensions experienced by partner organizations, thus providing new insights into why such projects are not as effectual as they might be. The paper concludes by presenting a case for the need to re-conceptualise how change as part of a wider diversity management approach might best be conceptualized. We suggest that a ‘systems approach’ could prove a more fruitful way of conceptualizing change of this nature given the inter-dependences between different organizations and institutions.
Full Text Available Customer satisfaction and perceived service quality seem to be in a permanent struggle to get unspoiled attention from marketers; thus, service companies should be aware of various approaches for conceptualizing their similarities and differences. The relationship between these concepts seems to be unclear and, therefore, marketing specialists should constantly monitor the factors that influence customer satisfaction of services and the importance perceived service quality has among these factors.
The processes of global change currently under way cannot be dealt with in isolation. Factors linked to environmental quality such as demographic growth, economic interdependence and indebtedness, sociopolitical changes, and others must be managed collectively. In looking at the problems of global change, a central question before us is: How comprehensive should a legal regime be in a world of considerable uncertainty in which everything is interrelated with everything else, and what we do may, or may not be, have irreversible consequences for future generations. This article focuses on the problem of global warming to provide a model approach to the larger issues of global change. This reduces the scope of global change to a manageable but representative class of the problems at issue. The author suggests an approach to stabilize global climate by the end of the next century. However, even within this relatively narrow context of stabilizing the climate, a comprehensive approach is needed to address all heat-trapping gases - not just CO 2 - to ensure that all human activities generating these gases are managed properly, without causing other problems
The cells of a multicellular organism are derived from a single zygote and genetically identical. Yet, they are phenotypically very different. This difference is the result of a process commonly called cell differentiation. How the phenotypic diversity emerges during ontogenesis or regeneration is a central and intensely studied but still unresolved issue in biology. Cell biology is facing conceptual challenges that are frequently confused with methodological difficulties. How to define a cell type? What stability or change means in the context of cell differentiation and how to deal with the ubiquitous molecular variations seen in the living cells? What are the driving forces of the change? We propose to reframe the problem of cell differentiation in a systemic way by incorporating different theoretical approaches. The new conceptual framework is able to capture the insights made at different levels of cellular organization and considered previously as contradictory. It also provides a formal strategy for further experimental studies.
Full Text Available The present article discusses the economic and legal effects of single-product loyalty discounts. It is clear that arguments concerning the “pro-competitive” effects of such discounts must be judged with skepticism. This applies in particular to the assumed effects of loyalty discounts resulting from double profit surcharges or falling average costs, as well as in the context of price discrimination. I argue that many of the alleged effects could also be achieved with discount forms where the risk of restrictive effects on competition should be lower. Also, the assumed anti-competitive effects of loyalty discounts must be better justified economically. This article suggests using a form-based approach for the assessment of discount schemes. However, this should not amount to a restrictive assessment of certain discount schemes. For the development of such a form-based approach, it is necessary to review the theories about pro-competitive and anti-competitive effects. Therefore, this article attempts to identify which positive effects are more likely to be achieved by means of which discount forms and under which circumstances.
This description of two courses of college level Legal Anthropology for senior citizens in continuing education shows how students with widely varying backgrounds examined legal dilemmas within their international cultural contexts using mystery stories and other fiction. The need for innovative teaching methods for adult learners is stressed. (AM)
Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption transformative pedagogies in WIL which is offered in legal education can foster personal and social transformation in addition to enhancing lawyering skills. The paper…
Full Text Available Abstract The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed.
El Sayed, Badria B; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; Malik, Elfatih M; El Tayeb, Mohammed A H; Saeed, Nageeb S; Nugud, Abdel Hameed D; Knols, Bart G J
The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed.
Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.
It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these
Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap
In the second chapter a conceptual analysis of Opportunity to Learn (OTL) is given, covering also related terms, such as instructional alignment and test preparation. The OTL issue is highlighted from three educational research traditions: educational effectiveness research, curriculum research and
Carter, Dorothy R; DeChurch, Leslie A; Braun, Michael T; Contractor, Noshir S
Contemporary definitions of leadership advance a view of the phenomenon as relational, situated in specific social contexts, involving patterned emergent processes, and encompassing both formal and informal influence. Paralleling these views is a growing interest in leveraging social network approaches to study leadership. Social network approaches provide a set of theories and methods with which to articulate and investigate, with greater precision and rigor, the wide variety of relational perspectives implied by contemporary leadership theories. Our goal is to advance this domain through an integrative conceptual review. We begin by answering the question of why-Why adopt a network approach to study leadership? Then, we offer a framework for organizing prior research. Our review reveals 3 areas of research, which we term: (a) leadership in networks, (b) leadership as networks, and (c) leadership in and as networks. By clarifying the conceptual underpinnings, key findings, and themes within each area, this review serves as a foundation for future inquiry that capitalizes on, and programmatically builds upon, the insights of prior work. Our final contribution is to advance an agenda for future research that harnesses the confluent ideas at the intersection of leadership in and as networks. Leadership in and as networks represents a paradigm shift in leadership research-from an emphasis on the static traits and behaviors of formal leaders whose actions are contingent upon situational constraints, toward an emphasis on the complex and patterned relational processes that interact with the embedding social context to jointly constitute leadership emergence and effectiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Schek, Gabriele; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Lacharité, Carl; Bueno, Maria Emilia Nunes
To identify the conceptions of professionals regarding interfamily violence against children and adolescents. A qualitative study conducted with 15 professionals who had taken children and adolescents under their care as a result of interfamily violence. Data were collected between November, 2013, and March, 2015, through semi-structured interviews. Data were organized and analyzed using the Textual Discourse Analysis technique. The professional discourse highlighted that some legal aspects regarding the handling of interfamily violence against children and adolescents are neglected; an omission supported by the justification of professionals to preserve the family. We highlight the confrontation between the concept of family as a caregiver and the family that commits violence against children, in addition to the positioning of professionals, which does not include the family or the aggressor in the intervention process in facing situations of interfamily violence attended to by the services. Acting against interfamily violence requires professionals to do away with some pre-established concepts in ordee to put the actual needs of victims and families into evidence. Identificar, com base no discurso dos profissionais, suas concepções a respeito da violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes. Estudo qualitativo, realizado com 15 profissionais, que tiveram sob seus cuidados crianças e adolescentes atendidas em decorrência da violência intrafamiliar. Os dados foram coletados entre novembro de 2013 e março de 2015, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram organizados e analisados utilizando a técnica de Análise Textual Discursiva. O discurso dos profissionais colocou em evidência que alguns aspectos legais em relação ao manejo da violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes são negligenciados, omissão respaldada pela justificativa dos profissionais de preservar a família. Destaca-se o confronto entre a concep
Kitada, Hitoshi; Jeknić-Dugić, Jasmina; Arsenijević, Momir; Dugić, Miroljub
Ever since Schrödinger, Time in quantum theory is postulated Newtonian for every reference frame. With the help of certain known mathematical results, we show that the concept of the so-called Local Time allows avoiding the postulate. In effect, time appears as neither fundamental nor universal on the quantum-mechanical level while being consistently attributable to every, at least approximately, closed quantum system as well as to every of its (conservative or not) subsystems. - Highlights: • The concept of universal time is an implicit assumption in the quantum foundations. • A minimalist approach to quantum foundations does not favor the universal time. • Rather the so-called concept of local time is emphasized as an alternative. • Hence a new mathematically consistent conceptualization of time in quantum physics.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lopes, Rui; Melo, Raquel; Curral, Rosário; Coelho, Rui; Roma-Torres, António
Choking phobia, also known as phagophobia or swallowing phobia is an uncommon clinical entity that has been underappreciated and is included in the new DSM-5 and upcoming ICD-11 diagnostic category of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. Phenomenologically distinct from other eating disorders, it is characterized by the phobic stimulus of swallowing that results in the avoidance of food or drinks, and ultimately to low weight, social withdrawal, anxiety and depression states. Its prevalence and long-term course on the general population still needs to be determined, probably reflecting years of indefiniteness regarding its nosology and by the absence of a clear set of diagnostic criteria. We present a clinical case of choking phobia in a 32-year-old male patient after an episode of choke when eating chicken. An early diagnosis and distinction from other eating disorders is important for proper treatment and fundamental for prognosis. We also make a thorough revision on literature in clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment approaches, suggesting a conceptual approach for choking phobia as a clinical spectrum settled by different degrees of phobic subtypes, which may depend on a varied number of clinical variables.
In recent years, the dealing with natural hazards in Switzerland has shifted away from being hazard-oriented towards a risk-based approach. Decreasing societal acceptance of risk, accompanied by increasing marginal costs of protective measures and decreasing financial resources cause an optimization problem. Therefore, the new focus lies on the mitigation of the hazard's risk in accordance with economical, ecological and social considerations. This modern proceeding requires an approach in which not only technological, engineering or scientific aspects of the definition of the hazard or the computation of the risk are considered, but also the public concerns about the acceptance of these risks. These aspects of a modern risk approach enable a comprehensive assessment of the (risk) situation and, thus, sound risk management decisions. In Switzerland, however, the competent authorities suffer from a lack of decision criteria, as they don't know what risk level the public is willing to accept. Consequently, there exists a need for the authorities to know what the society thinks about risks. A formalized model that allows at least a crude simulation of the public risk evaluation could therefore be a useful tool to support effective and efficient risk mitigation measures. This paper presents a conceptual approach of such an evaluation model using perception affecting factors PAF, evaluation criteria EC and several factors without any immediate relation to the risk itself, but to the evaluating person. Finally, the decision about the acceptance Acc of a certain risk i is made by a comparison of the perceived risk Ri,perc with the acceptable risk Ri,acc.
Abstract. Both electron propagator theory and density-functional theory provide conceptually useful information about chemical reactivity and, most especially, charge transfer. This paper elucidates the qualitative and quantitative links between the two theories, with emphasis on how the reactivity indica- tors of conceptual ...
Both electron propagator theory and density-functional theory provide conceptually useful information about chemical reactivity and, most especially, charge transfer. This paper elucidates thequalitative and quantitative links between the two theories, with emphasis on how the reactivity indicators of conceptual ...
Full Text Available The existing conceptual and technological approaches to the organization and implementation of international cooperation between higher education institutions with the performance of international accreditation based on education quality system have been characterized in complex, considering the key trends of internationalization of higher education. Priority strategies of higher education internationalization and types of international academic cooperation between universities regarding education services were defined. It has been substantiated that the most important manifestation of higher education internationalization is international cooperation between universities regarding rendering education services, while the highest level of internationalization of this service is joint educational programs. A complex analysis of international accreditation requirements to joint education programs was made on the basis of the system of education quality improvement, its advantages were proven and its distinct features that influence the choice and substantiation of international cooperation, marketing and branding of individual programs were characterized. Technology of international accreditation for joint programs was detailed. Special attention was paid to the practical component of launching joint degree programs between Ukrainian and foreign higher education institutions. The experience of joint master’s degree programs of Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman and the University of Redlands Business School (California, USA was analyzed.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is theoretical justification of theoretical approaches while developing the mechanism of the state investment safety. The tasks of the system of the national economy investment safety are the following: developing investment potential, creating favourable investment climate, forming mechanisms of stable investment activity in the key branches of economy. At the same time, it should also be noted that the complex approach that would allow sufficiently justifying and practically solve the problems of defining indicators, factors of the investment policy and directions of its assurance in realization of the mechanism of investment policy is not sufficiently developed nowadays. This fact determines research topicality. The issue of assuring investment safety is of a special importance in Ukraine that has to assure market economy development, to overcome deformations in the economy structure, to renew products and production apparatus in the industry, to master new kinds of activities. Methodology. The survey is based on the generalization and development of views of the scientific-economic schools, uses approaches of the international agencies and recommendation and normative materials of Ukraine concerning realization of the state investment policy as a totality of interrelated levels and subsystems that allows establishing main functions of the investment safety system. Results of the survey shows that the mechanism of investment safety includes some kinds, forms and methods of organizing investment relations and investment activity, ways of their quantitative determination and establishing interdependence. The concept of investment policy is based on the complex approach and includes the blocks which are locally structured in such way that they allow forming adequate system of its indicators and conducting monitoring of their changes under the influence of the determined factors. The peculiarities and elements of
Full Text Available The article deals with the conceptual framework of the process of formation preschooleducational institutions’ future educators’ art nature creative skills. The author theoreticallygrounded nature of the system, person-activity, and cultural competency approaches asscientific and methodological basis of experimental research program.Key words: conceptual approaches and art nature creative skills, professional training,system, creativity, culture, competence.
Full Text Available Why not agreeing upon a contract based on misbalanced services: because the party benefiting from an excessive service unlawfully exploited the precarious situation of the other party as a result of whom came to accept an unfair contract, or because contractual balance must be an essential feature of which and every contract with clearly established services? Which of the two reasons mentioned above is more important in terms of current contractual discipline? These are two questions which, no matter what answers will get, will involve an important matter of choice, in relation to which it will be possible to assess correctly the solutions proposed by the new Romanian Civil Code, as well as by the main bills on Europeancodification of contract law. The present study upholds the idea of misbalanced services only if it constitutes rather a remedy for a contractual problem, if it is oriented towards the legitimate interests of the most vulnerable party of that contract and less interested in sanctioning the guilty conduct of the person who tookadvantage from an excessive service. As a consequence, we support the objective perspective in what misbalanced services are concerned, a reason for which we shall be making a few comments on some of thenew legal provisions, by referring to the main bills on the European codification of contract law, and stating later on a few de lege ferenda proposals, in terms of contracts based on misbalanced services.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the conceptual and methodological approaches to determining the investment attractiveness of enterprises engaged in transportations. It is indicated that the investment attractiveness of transport enterprises should be determined by calculating of the overall financial situation of enterprises, which will allow potential investors to evaluate profitability and cost efficiency of its activity. An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the enterprise engaged in transportation can be accomplished by the evaluation of its innovative capacity. The identification of factors and reserves of the increasing of enterprise innovative development will allow distinguishing of the basic directions for the improvement of organizational and economic mechanism of its activity. With the aim of building the strategy for the strengthening of market position it is also considered important for the potential investor to obtain the information about enterprise place on the national and international markets. Political and legal environment, characterized by political stability of society and the regulatory framework of entrepreneurial and investment activity serve as a certain guarantee of the investment reliability.
Full Text Available The article systematizes approaches to financial support and social adaptation of internally displaced persons (IDPs as well as their social protection, that is based on the analysis of legal framework, situation and sources of financial and social support to the EU member states of the IDPs in Ukraine and their social security. The study of the IDPs situation and the assessment of the required resources are based on a cluster approach, which defines optimal set of problem areas requiring priority social and financial support. This allowed to develop practical recommendations for the development of a comprehensive, transparent and unified policy of social protection through the development of a conceptual framework for the financial and economic provision of social protection IDPs, which will be the basic solution to the problems of social and financial provision forced migrants in Ukraine. Key words: forced migrants, internally displaced persons, cluster, social policy, social protection, social providing, financial providing.
Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…
Full Text Available The article discusses the administrative-legal and phenomenological approaches to understanding the official loyalty. Official loyalty is being considered under the administrative-legal approach as adherence to formal official duty, which is a system of obligations, taken together with official status, the source of which are: normative base of service activity, legal requirements of the head and public interests. Lists of the limitations of administrative-legal approach to understanding the of official loyalty: weak underdeveloped concept, the failure to take into account the wide range of situations, operation with a models rather than actual processes. Discusses the advantages of the phenomenological approach in studying the performance of loyalty: its psychological advantages, the existence of a theoretical framework, the work with the real phenomena. Within the phenomenological approach official loyalty is defined as psychological-behavioral integration of the employee in the group operating in the service sector, on the basis of a common cause of activities. Possibilities of sharing of the considered approaches for the decision of problems of optimization of official activity are designated.
According to the legal framework of our country, economic units are responsible for organizing the management accounting adjusted to the specific activity. Economic and social transformations after 1989 led to significant changes in financial accounting, this being in a continuous process of harmonization with the principles, rules, conventions and accounting standards in countries with developed market economy. Legal framework in our country favored and still favors notable changes in accoun...
Mitchell, Falconer; Nielsen, Lars Bråd; Nørreklit, Hanne
of activities relevant to the attainment of strategic objectives, the validity of the strategy selected and the learning theory of truth which is manifest in a system of constructive feedback on the gap between strategic expectations and strategic realisations. The conceptual analysis is illustrated by material......This paper focuses on identifying the key characteristics of a good strategic performance. It does this from a conceptual base founded in the paradigm of pragmatic constructivism. This involves analysing real world activities such as strategy setting and implementation in terms of the facts...... on which they are based, the values applied by those responsible, the logic applied to possibilities confronting them and the communication amongst them. From this analysis several key concepts underlying sound strategic performance are discovered. These are the internal and external coherence...
1 Introduction In this contribution, Interactive Digital Storytelling is viewed as a hybrid form of game design and cinematic storytelling for the understanding and making of future learning and entertainment applications. The paper shall present formal design models that provide a conceptual bridge between both traditional linear narrative techniques as well as agent-based emergent conversations with virtual characters. In summary, a theoretical classification of thinking models for authors ...
Zheng, Hai-Tao; Borchert, Charles; Jiang, Yong
Biomedical document conceptualization is the process of clustering biomedical documents based on ontology-represented domain knowledge. The result of this process is the representation of the biomedical documents by a set of key concepts and their relationships. Most of clustering methods cluster documents based on invariant domain knowledge. The objective of this work is to develop an effective method to cluster biomedical documents based on various user-specified ontologies, so that users can exploit the concept structures of documents more effectively. We develop a flexible framework to allow users to specify the knowledge bases, in the form of ontologies. Based on the user-specified ontologies, we develop a key concept induction algorithm, which uses latent semantic analysis to identify key concepts and cluster documents. A corpus-related ontology generation algorithm is developed to generate the concept structures of documents. Based on two biomedical datasets, we evaluate the proposed method and five other clustering algorithms. The clustering results of the proposed method outperform the five other algorithms, in terms of key concept identification. With respect to the first biomedical dataset, our method has the F-measure values 0.7294 and 0.5294 based on the MeSH ontology and gene ontology (GO), respectively. With respect to the second biomedical dataset, our method has the F-measure values 0.6751 and 0.6746 based on the MeSH ontology and GO, respectively. Both results outperforms the five other algorithms in terms of F-measure. Based on the MeSH ontology and GO, the generated corpus-related ontologies show informative conceptual structures. The proposed method enables users to specify the domain knowledge to exploit the conceptual structures of biomedical document collections. In addition, the proposed method is able to extract the key concepts and cluster the documents with a relatively high precision. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carlton, K H; Ryan, M E; Siktberg, L L
One current higher education paradigm shift is the movement from traditional classroom settings and interactive television satellite transmission to course and program delivery via the World Wide Web (WWW). The authors describe the experiences of faculty in reconceptualizing and redesigning course and program delivery via the Internet. An electronic "template" has been collaboratively developed by multidisciplinary university partners to facilitate this work. The template incorporates an advanced nursing practice conceptual framework based on American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) core educational essentials for advanced practice combined with a continuum of electronic course tools. Strategies, tools, and applications are discussed.
Legislative Process for National Atomic Energy Laws (NAELs) aim at establishing a legal base for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Various approaches (partial and comprehensive) to draft the NAELs are studied. The paper also studies some national nuclear energy laws through a comparative legal analysis and the important developments that have taken place in the legislative process for NAELs. There are lessons learned from the legislative process for NAELs. First, each state must develop its own legislative framework based on its own situation. Second, although the NAELs have common features, they vary considerably due to national legal traditions, social, economic circumstances and cultural values. Third, the NAELs have also evolved in time. Fourth, the technical standards, rules and guidelines should not be part of legislation issued by the Parliament because they would also facilitate quick adaption to new technical developments. Fifth, interface between legal and technical issues, requiring legal and technical experts to interact with each other. Sixth, continuing assessment that may lead to amendments to the law over time
Jose Javier Aguilar Zambrano
Full Text Available Organizational capabilities are those behavioral routines oriented to develop a specific task (NELSON; WINTER, 1982. These capabilities define what the company knows to do and how must to do it. Nevertheless, the repetitive character of these capabilities could be producing stopped processes (METCALFE, 1995 which both limit the generation of new capabilities and diminishing the dynamism in the production, reproduction and reconfiguration of new capabilities (TEECE; PISANO, 1997. This article compares and analyzes different theoretical-conceptual perspectives for generation and reconfiguration of technological capabilities within an organization. Additionally this article suggests that dynamic capabilities to make feasible innovation processes within an organization. The general concept of dynamic capacities will be used like driver of changes to produce and reconfigurate capabilities in the organization. The glance of the dynamic capabilities allows understanding the complexity of the creation, development and use of capabilities. This understanding could constitute material fundamental to manage learning processes and organizational change oriented to innovation.
Full Text Available Identity has been a blossoming issue in different fields. The intensity of investigating identity has stimulated the diverse methods and approaches to study identity from different angles. This paper discusses the how identity can be investigated from three different linguistic approaches, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, and sociocultural linguistics approach. The practicality of these three approaches is explored to detect the nature of identity which is fluid, multiple, fragmented, socially, culturally, historically, religiously, and politically constructed and emerges within interactions. More space, however, is invested for elaborating the five principles of sociocultural linguistic approach due to its flexibility and multidimension of the approach. Empirical data is provided for proving its practicality for identity investigation. Further areas of investigation is given at the last part of the paper.
Lopes, Rita; Videira, Nuno
A participatory system dynamics modelling approach is advanced to support conceptualization of feedback processes underlying ecosystem services and to foster a shared understanding of leverage intervention points. The process includes systems mapping workshop and follow-up tasks aiming at the collaborative construction of causal loop diagrams. A case study developed in a natural area in Portugal illustrates how a stakeholder group was actively engaged in the development of a conceptual model depicting policies for sustaining the climate regulation ecosystem service.
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a conceptual model termed "IS environmental alignment" that focuses on the support provided by IS strategy to minimize the gap between perceived environmental uncertainty and realized/objective environmental conditions. The model uses the Chan et al  alignment measurement method to measure IS strategic alignment as it provides a quantitative measure. In due course the proposed model would be tested in industry and would examine the affect of IS environmental alignment on business performance. The implication of the model lies in the effective use of deployed IS systems by organizations.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Konsepmodel word voorgelê wat handel oor "IS-omgewingsaanpassing". IS-strategie-ondersteuning by die minimisering van die gaping tussen waargenome omgewingsonsekerheid en gerealiseerde/objektiewe omgewingstoestande. Die model maak gebruik van die Chan et al  aanpassingsmeetmetode om IS-strategie-aanpassing op 'n kwantitatiewe basis te bepaal. Met die verloop van tyd sal die konsepmodel in die praktyk getoets word om te toon hoe IS-strategie-aanpassing sakevertoning affekteer. Die effektiewe ontplooiing van IS-stelsels by ondernemings word voorgehou.
Mariana Zuleta Ferrari
Full Text Available Over the last decades, there is a growing public perception that some of the democratic institutions and frameworks, which were once taken for granted, are now showing their flaws, inefficiencies, increasingly struggling to keep up with society’s demands and expectations. This has led to a generalized feeling of uncertainty and disappointment, resulting in a lack of trust institutions. The implications of these circumstances on legal theory cannot be overlooked; this article aims to address the problem from an innovative perspective. A unique tool is presented in this article, which proposes a methodological agenda for approaching trust in legal institutions, from the perspective of the social capital theory. To this end, different variables and social capital dynamics will be identified and discussed in relation to trust in legal institutions. The aim is to, on one hand, provide an innovative methodological contribution to better understand the trust crisis, and in particular, the public perception towards legal institutions, and on the other, expand the analysis of social capital dimensions. Durante las últimas décadas, ha sido posible observar una creciente percepción general de que instituciones y estructuras democráticas que años atrás eran dadas por sentadas, presentan, hoy en día, fallas e ineficiencias que dificultan su capacidad de acompañar las demandas y expectativas de la sociedad. Ello ha llevado a un estado generalizado de incertidumbre y decepción, que resulta en la falta de confianza en las instituciones. Las implicancias de estas circumstancias para la teoría legal no pueden ser subestimadas. Este artículo aborda el problema desde una pespectiva innovadora. Presenta una herramienta única que propone una agenda metodológica para aproximarse a la temática de la confianza en las instituciones legales, desde la perspectiva de la teoría del capital social. A este fin, distintas variables y dinámicas del capital
Babitsch, Birgit; Geene, Raimund; Hassel, Holger; Kliche, Thomas; Bacchetta, Britta; Baltes, Simon; Nold, Sandra; Rosenfeldt, Daniel
Overweight and obesity are serious health risks for children and adolescents. Hence, various prevention projects have been initiated and implemented. Until now, a systematic overview of interventions in different settings has been lacking. The aim of the "Prevention of child overweight" project (SkAP-project) is to prepare a systematic overview of the conceptual approaches used in universal prevention of overweight among children and adolescents. First of all, a comprehensive criteria catalogue will be developed based on systematic searches. In the next step the criteria catalogue will be applied to identify and characterize conceptual approaches. Criteria to describe conceptual approaches as well as determinants of childhood overweight were determined by systematic searches. The searches included relevant data bases and were further expanded by internet and hand search. Three settings (kindergarten, school and communities) and families are addressed by the systematic searches. Additional non-setting specific searches were conducted. A comprehensive criteria catalogue was developed, which allows a detailed analysis of conceptual approaches. This catalogue covers further quality criteria as well as determinants of childhood overweight. Currently, the criteria catalogue is being employed. Although the detailed analysis of conceptual approaches can be regarded as advantage of the criteria catalogue, there are also some limitations, such as the lack of necessary information provided in publications. Overall, the application will reveal an overview regarding universal prevention in childhood overweight, which is still lacking, and will support development in this field.
Avvannavar, Santosh M.; Mani, Monto
Sanitation is a term primarily used to characterize the safe and sound handling (and disposal) of human excreta - or simply, people's approach to take-care of their (unavoidable) primal urge. According to the recent Human Development Report 2006 Global access to proper sanitation stands at approximately 58% with 37% being a conservative estimate both for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various multi-million dollar sanitation programmes the world over have had little success, often due to inadequate understanding of people's sanitation approach. Sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisficing the primal need to defecate and urinate (and their disposal). This paper presents a structure to understand the nature of psycho-socio-economic influences that determine societal approach to sanitation. Societies across the globe have evolved imbibing diverse influences attributed to the local environment, religion, cultural practices, war, etc. While a civilization's living environment reflects these influences in their built-environment characteristics, the influences are often deep-rooted and can be traced to the way the community members satisfice their need to defecate and urinate (sanitation approach). The objective of this paper is to trace the various approaches that diverse societies/civilizations, over time, across the world have had towards sanitation, and present a structure to articulate and understand determining factors. Sanitation also involves other domestic (solid and liquid) waste disposal but in the context of this paper the scope of sanitation has been restricted to human excreta alone. The structure presented and discussed in this paper would be useful in understanding a community better in terms of providing appropriate sanitation. It is hoped that this structure be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research into each of the factors determining people's sanitation approach
Georgiana - Loredana FRECEA
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a complex concept and its design integrates economic, social and environmental issues, pointing out the operational effects on a voluntary basis. It is considered a strategic point in the actual evolution of the economy, due to the financial market dynamism, being identified a critical correlation between financial crises and corporate social responsibility. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize, through a literature review, the multiple dimensions of CSR, with a special emphasis on the theoretical approach. In order to provide a coherent overview on the banking CSR, it will be proposed a division of the CSR theories according to: (1 the ethical approach, (2 the stakeholders approach, and (3 the corporate governance approach. The major aim of this paper is to fill a gap in the theoretical approach of the CSR for the banking system, due to the necessity to unify the CSR reporting elements in order to find a balance between the bank’s organizational structure and their legitimacy to operate on the financial market.
Full Text Available The paper examines one of the possible approaches to exploring the conceptual space represented by language signs and texts. The notion of the cognitheme as a unit of knowledge in the form of a proposition, functional for modelling the conceptual space, is defined and some principles of the cognitheme analysis are discussed. The cognitheme is considered as a unit of modelling mental entities reflected in the language, for example, such as the concept or the conceptual space connected with a text, and at the same time as a unit of conceptualization significant in its own right, revealing elements of knowledge important for a language community and thus fixed in language signs and texts. A feasible classification of cognithemes is described, examples illustrating this classification are given.
Full Text Available In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s−1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s−1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through
Rodríguez, L.; Vives, L.; Gomez, A.
In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s-1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s-1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through the aquifer boundaries, except at the eastern boundary. On average
Jones, Sandra; Harvey, Marina; Lefoe, Geraldine
Over the last 20 years, the tertiary education sector has adopted new administrative management approaches, with the aim of improving accountable and strategic focus. Over the same period, the question of how to build leadership capacity to improve learning and teaching and research outcomes has led to discussion on what constitutes academic…
V. O. Zadoya
Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.
Full Text Available The article examines the issue of determining the necessary provision of the process of organizing management accounting in construction companies in order to form a conceptual approach to its identification, taking into account changes in the modern information environment. Established that the technological process of accounting procedures should be ensured: organizationally, informational, technically, methodically, socially, ergonomically and resourcefully. According to the results of the research, the classification of resource support for the management accounting process has been developed, which determines the importance of using such resources in order to successfully implement the strategy of enterprise development in the modern information environment. Keywords: managerial accounting, organization, security, conceptual approach, building enterprise.
Raufer, Roger; Li, Shaoyi
China is well aware of the advantages of quantity-based economic instruments (i.e., emissions trading) for domestic pollution control, but pilot studies and experimental programs in Taiyuan, Hong Kong/Guangdong, and other locations have not been successful. This paper proposes a very different type of emissions trading program, designed with Chinese implementation concerns in mind. It has three component parts: (1) a real-time intermittent control system (ICS) strategy designed to address public health concerns in the near term; (2) software-oriented Predictive emissions monitoring systems (PEMS) targeting process parameter (rather than emission) reporting from individual emission sources; and (3) real-time emissions markets responding to the ICS constraint. The technical and political difficulties associated with implementing such a system are recognized as daunting. However, such an approach would 'leapfrog' over existing systems, allowing the country to develop a comprehensive air pollution control strategy as economic growth occurs, continuously improving air quality in a cost efficient manner, utilizing both advanced technology and market-based control approaches in a manner consistent with China's unique environmental needs. It would also lay the groundwork for the eventual pricing of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases within China.
Medical-legal partnerships: the role of mental health providers and legal authorities in the development of a coordinated approach to supporting mental health clients' legal needs in regional and rural settings.
Speldewinde, Christopher A; Parsons, Ian
Medical-legal partnerships (MLP) are a model in which medical and legal practitioners are co-located and work together to support the health and wellbeing of individuals by identifying and resolving legal issues that impact patients' health and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to analyse the benefits of this model, which has proliferated in the USA, and its applicability in the context of rural and remote Australia. This review was undertaken with three research questions in mind: What is an MLP? Is service provision for individuals with mental health concerns being adequately addressed by current service models particularly in the rural context? Are MLPs a service delivery channel that would benefit individuals experiencing mental health issues? The combined searches from all EBSCO Host databases resulted in 462 citations. This search aggregated academic journals, newspapers, book reviews, magazines and trade publications. After several reviews 38 papers were selected for the final review based on their relevance to this review question: How do MLPs support mental health providers and legal service providers in the development of a coordinated approach to supporting mental health clients' legal needs in regional and rural Australia? There is considerable merit in pursuing the development of MLPs in rural and remote Australia particularly as individuals living in rural and remote areas have far fewer opportunities to access support services than those people living in regional and metropolitan locations. MLPS are important channels of service delivery to assist in early invention of legal problems that can exacerbate mental health problems.
E. Norma Contini
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to revise the concept of aggressiveness by defining the overlapping with other concepts, such as aggression, violence, hostility and anger. The subject is focused on adolescence since the relationship to others becomes relevant to defining identity at this stage. Some explanatory models are developed as they are considered important to understand the phenomenon and they provide concepts to approach the growing demand for psychological counselling. Among the theories, we can highlight the one which conceptualises aggressiveness as a dysfunction in social skills, in the interpersonal relationships that affect the adolescent’s overall health. Finally, the scope and limits of the theories are analysed and the possibility of integrating models which allow gaining a multidimensional perspective on aggressiveness as a scourge trending upwards in contemporary society is opened up.
Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…
Taslidere, Erdal; Eryilmaz, Ali
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the combined and partial effects of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach on ninth grade private high school students' achievement in and attitudes toward optics. The Integrated Reading/Study Strategy is a new strategy which was developed by integrating previously…
Kavetski, D.; Fenicia, F.
In this article's companion paper, flexible approaches for conceptual hydrological modeling at the catchment scale were motivated, and the SUPERFLEX framework, based on generic model components, was introduced. In this article, the SUPERFLEX framework and the “fixed structure” GR4H model (an hourly
The aim of this article is to present a conceptualization of cultural groups and cultural difference that provides a middle course between the Scylla of essentialism and the Charybdis of reductionism. The method I employ is the social mechanism approach. I argue that cultural groups and cultural
Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn
Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…
de Vries, Jan
Although many studies have addressed the diagnosing of inventory systems, the field of operations management still seems to lack a systemised and integrated approach towards analysing inventory management systems. In this article, a contribution is made to fill this gap by proposing a conceptual
van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute; Burdorf, Alex; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.; Abma, Femke I.; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Wilt, Gert Jan
Objectives The aim of this paper is to propose anew model of sustainable employability based on the capability approach, encompassing the complexity of contemporary work, and placing particular emphasis on work-related values. Methods Having evaluated existing conceptual models of work, health, and
van der Klink, J.J.L.; Bültmann, U.; Burdorf, A.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Zijlstra, F.R.H.; Abma, F.I.; Brouwer, S.; van der Wilt, G.J.
Objectives The aim of this paper is to propose a new model of sustainable employability based on the capability approach, encompassing the complexity of contemporary work, and placing particular emphasis on work-related values. Methods Having evaluated existing conceptual models of work, health, and
Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien
The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…
Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian
In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the…
Cunha, Amanda L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The objective of this paper is the study of unitization under a comparative approach between the legal system of some of the most important countries in mature production of oil and gas as well of those which represent the new frontier in exploration and production of these natural resources, and also the provisions regarding unitization in the Brazil's legal system. Firstly, concepts and classifications about unitization, the historical context related to it, and the different doctrines regarding unitization will be analyzed. This analysis will be done considering the concepts developed by American jurisprudence, since it was in the United States where the first thesis regarding unitization were developed, such as the rule of capture and the correlative rights doctrines. Afterwards, it will be presented a study of some unitization's provisions found in different countries' statutes, regulations and contracts such as leases, production sharing agreements, concession contracts etc., being pointed the similarities and differences related to Brazil's legal system. Finally, the national legislation in force as well the Model Concession Contract of ANP's Sixth Round will be analyzed. (author)
Duchateau, J.-L.; Hertout, P.; Saoutic, B.; Artaud, J.-F.; Zani, L.; Reux, C.
Highlights: • We give a conceptual approach of a fusion reactor magnet system based on analytical formula. • We give design criteria for the CS and TF cable in conduit conductors and for the magnet system structural description. • We apply this conceptual approach to ITER and we crosscheck with actual characteristics. • We apply this conceptual approach to a possible version of DEMO. - Abstract: In the framework of the reflexion about DEMO, a conceptual integrated approach for the magnet system of a tokamak reactor is presented. This objective is reached using analytical formulas which are presented in this paper, coupled to a Fortran code ESCORT (Electromagnetic Superconducting System for the Computation of Research Tokamaks), to be integrated into SYCOMORE, a code for reactor modelling presently in development at CEA/IRFM in Cadarache, using the tools of the EFDA Integrated Tokamak Modelling task force. The analytical formulas deal with all aspects of the magnet system, starting from the derivation of the TF system general geometry, from the plasma main characteristics. The design criteria for the cable current density and the structural design of the toroidal field and central solenoid systems are presented, enabling to deliver the radial thicknesses of the magnets and enabling also to estimate the plasma duration of the plateau. As a matter of fact, a pulsed version DEMO is presently actively considered in the European programmes. Considerations regarding the cryogenics and the protection are given, affecting the general design. An application of the conceptual approach is presented, allowing a comparison between ESCORT output data and actual ITER parameters and giving the main characteristics of a possible version for DEMO
Dionísio Borsato; Flaveli Apaparecida de Souza Almeida; Eliana Aparecida Silicz Bueno; Nelci Reis Sales de Araújo
Conceptual maps are representations of ideas organized in the form of bidimensional diagrams. In the present work the theme of oil fractional distillation was explored, and the conceptual maps were elaborated both before and after the activities by 43 students from the 1st and 3rd High School grades of a public school in Londrina – PR. The study was conducted theoretically and in practice, with a daily life approach. The use of the motivational theme and the opening text as previous organizer...
DRACHUK YU. Z.; RASSUZHDAY L.M.; TRUSHKINA N.V.
The paper substantiates conceptual approaches to forming a strategy of innovation-based development of the national coal industry, which consist in defining the basis for using a portfolio approach to the management of innovation projects at the enterprise; consideration of uncertainty and risk factors when evaluating innovation projects; government regulation of market mechanisms in the implementation of innovation-based development of the coal industry; prove of coal-mining enterprises’ cap...
Adriana Ferreira Serafim de Oliveira
Full Text Available This article, through the deductive research, discusses the possibility to research in the field of legal sciences through the qualitative methodology used in the researches in Human Sciences. The north for this study was given by the qualitative methodology to the exploration of the content of the bibliography interdisciplinary elected in Law and Education areas, considering the object of the study the connection of the objects of the research in these areas. Education, in Human Sciences, uses this approach to investigate facts through documentary or field research and the same methodology can be applied in the Law area.
Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Yip, Tiffany; Zárate, Michael A
Race, culture, and ethnicity are critical components of the human experience, yet they are often treated as nuisance variables or as post hoc explanations for poorly predicted results. Mandates to pay attention to ethnocultural diversity in research have largely been ignored. Here, we affirm some basic principles of multicultural psychology in conceptually grounded research. We first identify the importance of clear and conceptually guided ethnocultural research, and describe multiple perspectives in the field. The first perspective, a generalizability approach, seeks to find similarities and universalities across diverse groups. The second perspective, a group differences approach, attempts to determine the generalizability and limits to generalizability across different groups that are assumed to represent different cultures. The third perspective, multicultural psychology, involves specifying and measuring the mechanisms of cultural influences on behavior in ethnocultural groups underrepresented in research. In contrast to conventional approaches to culture that apply existing models to other groups, we propose an "inside-out" model that prizes the perspectives of those in ethnocultural communities that are underrepresented in research and places a secondary emphasis on generalizability. We follow with examples and new directions for multicultural psychology research. This approach has the potential to enhance researchers' ability to answer conceptually derived research questions and in combination with the other approaches promises to enhance the advancement of psychological science generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; van der Knoop, Marieke M; Timmerman, Lotte; Weimar, Willem; Dobbels, Fabienne; Massey, Emma K; Busschbach, Jan J J V
Across Europe, transplant centers vary in the content of the psychosocial evaluation for eligible living organ donors. To identify whether a common framework underlies this variation in this evaluation, we studied which psychosocial screening items are most commonly used and considered as most important in current psychosocial screening programs of living organ donors. A multivariate analytic method, concept mapping, was used to generate a visual representation of the "psychosocial" screening items of living kidney and liver donors. A list of 75 potential screening items was derived from a systematic literature review and sorted and rated for their importance and commonness by multidisciplinary affiliated health care professionals from across Europe. Results were discussed and fine-tuned during a consensus meeting. The analyses resulted in a 6-cluster solution. The following clusters on psychosocial screening items were identified, listed from most to least important: (1) personal resources, (2) motivation and decision making, (3) psychopathology, (4) social resources, (5) ethical and legal factors, and (6) information and risk processing. We provided a conceptual framework of the essential elements in psychosocial evaluation of living donors which can serve as a uniform basis for the selection of relevant psychosocial evaluation tools, which can be further tested in prospective studies.
Міннігулова, Д. Б.
In the legal literature, investigating the legal relationship arising on civil service, various concepts of the characteristic of a concept of the state-office relationships of state-civil employee are offered. The main of them are state-legal (constitutional), office (administrative), office-labor and labor theories. The variety of conceptual approaches to the characteristic of the legal relationship arising on civil service reflects features of administrative legal status of state-civil emp...
Croff, A.G.; Forsberg, C.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Miller, D.E.
This paper presents a conceptual approach to defining high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and a preliminary quantitative definition obtained from an example implementation of the conceptual approach. On the basis of the description of HLW in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, we have developed a conceptual model in which HLW has two attributes: HLW is (1) highly radioactive and (2) requires permanent isolation via deep geologic disposal. This conceptual model results in a two-dimensional waste categorization system in which one axis, related to ''requires permanent isolation,'' is associated with long-term risks from waste disposal and the other axis, related to ''highly radioactive,'' is associated with short-term risks from waste management and operations; this system also leads to the specification of categories of wastes that are not HLW. Implementation of the conceptual model for defining HLW was based primarily on health and safety considerations. Wastes requiring permanent isolation via deep geologic disposal were defined by estimating the maximum concentrations of radionuclides that would be acceptable for disposal using the next-best technology, i.e., greater confinement disposal (GCD) via intermediate-depth burial or engineered surface structures. Wastes that are highly radioactive were defined by adopting heat generation rate as the appropriate measure and examining levels of decay heat that necessitate special methods to control risks from operations in a variety of nuclear fuel-cycle situations. We determined that wastes having a power density >200 W/m 3 should be considered highly radioactive. Thus, in the example implementation, the combination of maximum concentrations of long-lived radionuclides that are acceptable for GCD and a power density of 200 W/m 3 provides boundaries for defining wastes that are HLW
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
Ma, Deqiang; Fang, Qinhua; Guan, Song
In 2004, the United Nations launched an Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Since then, the topic of governing marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) has been widely discussed by politicians, policy makers and scholars. As one of management tools to protect marine biodiversity in ABNJ, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely recognized and accepted by the international community, however, the biggest challenge is how to effectively implement the EIA regime in ABNJ. This paper explores the impacts of anthropogenic activities in ABNJ on marine ecosystems, reviews the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ and discusses possible measures to strengthen the implementation of EIA in ABNJ. - Highlights: • We identify human activities in ABNJ and their impacts on marine ecosystems. • We analyze the characters and gaps of the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ. • We analyze the pros and cons of alternative approaches of EIA in ABNJ.
Ma, Deqiang [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Coastal Ecology and Environmental Studies, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Fang, Qinhua, E-mail: email@example.com [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Coastal Ecology and Environmental Studies, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Guan, Song [Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China)
In 2004, the United Nations launched an Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Since then, the topic of governing marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) has been widely discussed by politicians, policy makers and scholars. As one of management tools to protect marine biodiversity in ABNJ, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely recognized and accepted by the international community, however, the biggest challenge is how to effectively implement the EIA regime in ABNJ. This paper explores the impacts of anthropogenic activities in ABNJ on marine ecosystems, reviews the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ and discusses possible measures to strengthen the implementation of EIA in ABNJ. - Highlights: • We identify human activities in ABNJ and their impacts on marine ecosystems. • We analyze the characters and gaps of the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ. • We analyze the pros and cons of alternative approaches of EIA in ABNJ.
Venkata Subbaiah, Kambagowni; Yeshwanth Sai, Koneru; Suresh, Challa
Conceptual design is a subset of concept art wherein a new idea of product is created instead of a visual representation which would directly be used in a final product. The purpose is to understand the needs of conceptual design which are being used in engineering designs and to clarify the current conceptual design practice. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer oriented design approach for developing new or improved products and services to enhance customer satisfaction. House of quality (HOQ) has been traditionally used as planning tool of QFD which translates customer requirements (CRs) into design requirements (DRs). Factor analysis is carried out in order to reduce the CR portions of HOQ. The analytical hierarchical process is employed to obtain the priority ratings of CR's which are used in constructing HOQ. This paper mainly discusses about the conceptual design of an oceanographic research vessel using analytical network process (ANP) technique. Finally the QFD-ANP integrated methodology helps to establish the importance ratings of DRs.
Westerveld, M.; Hubeau, B.; Terlouw, A.
The Dutch system of subsidised legal aid is under fire. This is not a new phenomenon, and legal aid is not the only target. In the 2012 annual report of the Council of State, the nation’s supreme legal advisory body, its Vice-President, Piet Hein Donner, the so-called "Viceroy of the Netherlands",
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…
Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Torgersen, Mads; Røn, Henrik
This paper describes experiences from a three-day course held as part of a collaborative research project, in which object-oriented programming was taught to a group of engineers who were all proficient C programmers. Our approach to teaching object-oriented programming focuses on conceptual...... modeling, emphasizing that object-orientation is not a bag of solutions and technology; rather, object-orientation is a means to understand, describe (model) and communicate. The paper describes a general approach to teaching object-oriented programming to C-programmers and reports on the experience from...
Kumar, Ajit; Maskara, Reena; Maskara, Sanjeev; Chiang, I-Jen
The aim of this study is to conceptualize a novel approach, which facilitates us to design prototype interfaces for healthcare software. Concepts and techniques from various disciplines were used to conceptualize an interface design approach named MORTARS (Map Original Rhetorical To Adapted Rhetorical Situation). The concepts and techniques included in this approach are (1) rhetorical situation - a concept of philosophy provided by Bitzer (1968); (2) move analysis - an applied linguistic technique provided by Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993); (3) interface design guidelines - a cognitive and computer science concept provided by Johnson (2010); (4) usability evaluation instrument - an interface evaluation questionnaire provided by Lund (2001); (5) user modeling via stereotyping - a cognitive and computer science concept provided by Rich (1979). A prototype interface for outpatient clinic software was designed to introduce the underlying concepts of MORTARS. The prototype interface was evaluated by thirty-two medical informaticians. The medical informaticians found the designed prototype interface to be useful (73.3%), easy to use (71.9%), easy to learn (93.1%), and satisfactory (53.2%). MORTARS approach was found to be effective in designing the prototype user interface for the outpatient clinic software. This approach might be further used to design interfaces for various software pertaining to healthcare and other domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dursun, Derya; Dentel, Steven K
Proper chemical conditioning of wastewater solids is crucial for both operational and economic reasons, but the process has defied satisfactory description to date, in either conceptual or quantitative terms. In this research, a new conceptual model of biosolids structure--likening it to a colloidal gel--was assessed as a means of interpreting conditioning mechanisms. The basis of the gel approach lies in the colligative properties that are altered by lowering of the solvent chemical potential by introducing a solute. Results indicate that inorganic conditioners form precipitates and complexes thus collapsing the gel network and forming particulates, whereas organic polymers lead to heterogeneous collapse with limited diffusion inside the gel. A gel model, based on the osmotic pressure, was found reasonably successful in defining the conditioning efficacy of biosolids. Beyond the model's fundamental value, these results validate a new way of understanding how conditioning and dewatering operate, which should help to improve the selection and optimization of these processes.
Full Text Available Conceptual maps are representations of ideas organized in the form of bidimensional diagrams. In the present work the theme of oil fractional distillation was explored, and the conceptual maps were elaborated both before and after the activities by 43 students from the 1st and 3rd High School grades of a public school in Londrina – PR. The study was conducted theoretically and in practice, with a daily life approach. The use of the motivational theme and the opening text as previous organizers, enabled the establishment of a cognitive link between the students’ previous knowledge and the new concepts. Differences between the maps were verified before and after the activities as well as among the work groups. The students, stimulated by the technique, created better structured maps.
Chimiri, Niklas Alexander; Andersen, Mads Lund; Jensen, Tine
Concerning video game concerns: A collective approach to conceptually inquiring into their empirical complexity Niklas Alexander Chimirri, Mads Lund Andersen, Tine Jensen, Dorte Marie Søndergaard, Anders Wulff Abstract This paper suggests a collectively developed qualitative approach into inquiri...... as risk factors. By engaging ethnographic material and qualitative methodologies, we sketch outlines of an analytical framework that will enable ways of posing new types of questions and thus leveraging more complex knowledge with regard to video game concerns.......Concerning video game concerns: A collective approach to conceptually inquiring into their empirical complexity Niklas Alexander Chimirri, Mads Lund Andersen, Tine Jensen, Dorte Marie Søndergaard, Anders Wulff Abstract This paper suggests a collectively developed qualitative approach into inquiring...... and thereby shedding unexpected light on common concerns as expressed in psychological research on video gaming. For years, “The Video Game War” has been reproducing polarized debates on whether games are harmful or not. The search for universal knowledge and unequivocal answers to individual gaming behavior...
Mackay, Stewart; Scott Dam, A.; Holmes, Robert G.G.
The design of radwaste treatment facilities is often complicated by the variety of waste types being treated. Further uncertainties over their composition and final waste form specifications can make the normal conceptual design phase difficult and unreliable. This paper describes the strategic planning necessary to define the facility functions and the process to prepare a Functional Design Criteria. The paper shows clearly, that for complex waste management problems, it is vital to consider and resolve uncertainties by means of a strategic plan before embarking on conceptual design. The paper shows an approach to preparation of design criteria using functional analysis. The paper provides examples where these methods were and are being used, both in the U.K. and the U.S. Strategic plans and functional criteria can be used as a basis for conceptual design which then provides a more meaningful basis for detailed technology selection during the detailed design process. The paper discusses experiences and lessons learned in the planning process. This process is widely applicable to a number of complex waste treatment facilities being planned and developed to process wastes generated at government facilities. (author)
Full Text Available A potential theory approach to an algorithm of conceptual space partitioning This paper proposes a new classification algorithm for the partitioning of a conceptual space. All the algorithms which have been used until now have mostly been based on the theory of Voronoi diagrams. This paper proposes an approach based on potential theory, with the criteria for measuring similarities between objects in the conceptual space being based on the Newtonian potential function. The notion of a fuzzy prototype, which generalizes the previous definition of a prototype, is introduced. Furthermore, the necessary conditions that a natural concept must meet are discussed. Instead of convexity, as proposed by Gärdenfors, the notion of geodesically convex sets is used. Thus, if a concept corresponds to a set which is geodesically convex, it is a natural concept. This definition applies, for example, if the conceptual space is an Euclidean space. As a by-product of the construction of the algorithm, an extension of the conceptual space to d-dimensional Riemannian manifolds is obtained. Algorytm podziału przestrzeni konceptualnych przy użyciu teorii potencjału W niniejszej pracy zaproponowany został nowy algorytm podziału przestrzeni konceptualnej. Dotąd podział taki zazwyczaj wykorzystywał teorię diagramów Voronoi. Nasze podejście do problemu oparte jest na teorii potencjału Miara podobieństwa pomiędzy elementami przestrzeni konceptualnej bazuje na Newtonowskiej funkcji potencjału. Definiujemy pojęcie rozmytego prototypu, który uogólnia dotychczas stosowane definicje prototypu. Ponadto zajmujemy się warunkiem koniecznym, który musi spełniać naturalny koncept. Zamiast wypukłości zaproponowanej przez Gärdenforsa, rozważamy linie geodezyjne w obszarze odpowiadającym danemu konceptowi naturalnemu, otrzymując warunek mówiący, że koncept jest konceptem naturalnym, jeżeli zbiór odpowiadający temu konceptowi jest geodezyjnie wypuk
A three-step approach is described which includes (1) facility characterization, (2) development and evaluation of hardware-based safeguards systems configurations, and (3) hardware and response force trade-off analysis. The purpose of the report is to establish a vehicle for initial examination and discussion by potential industry and government users of a formal sequence of activities for the conceptual design of physical protection systems and to identify currently available design tools, such as application reports, handbooks, and computer codes which might support these activities. 17 figs
Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the appreciation of music among the Benin, a strategic ethnic group in Nigeria. It investigates how concepts such as folk and popular song, music, noise, speech and sound find their relevant expression and place in the socio-cultural, economic, moral and even psychological setting of the Benin world. Finally, it is discovered that a conceptual approach is crucial, not only to the situation of the Benin oral literary values within a Western ideological context, but also in the facilitation of an objective evaluation of critical aspects of the life of people.
L.T. Visscher (Louis); T. Schepens (Tom)
textabstractIntroduction. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of the economic literature regarding cost shifting, fee arrangements and legal expense insurance. In the economic analysis of law, legal rules are regarded as instruments which can provide actors with behavioural incentives. In
Van Staveren, R.; Thompson, A.W.
Colorado and Washington State have made history by approving measures to make marijuana sale and use legal for people over the age of 21, in direct opposition to federal law. While there is a sizable discussion of the actual repercussions that legal marijuana would entail, no one knows what will
Full Text Available In this paper, a simultaneous analysis and design method is derived and applied for a non-linear constrained aerodynamic optimization problem. The method is based on the approach of defining a Lagrange functional based on the objective function and the aerodynamic model’s equations, using two sets of multipliers. A fully-coupled, non-linear system of equations is derived by requiring that the Gateaux variation of the Lagrange functional vanishes for arbitrary variations of the aerodynamic model’s dependent variables and design parameters. The optimization problem is approached using a one-shot technique, by solving the non-linear system in which all sensitivities and problem constraints are included. The computational efficiency of the method is compared against a gradient-based optimization algorithm using adjoint-provided gradient. A conceptual-stage aerodynamic optimization problem is solved, based on a non-linear numerical lifting-line method with viscous corrections.
Berglas, Nancy F; Constantine, Norman A; Ozer, Emily J
Although a rights-based approach to sexuality education has been increasingly discussed in the past decade, documented consensus regarding the goals, concepts and underlying assumptions of this approach is lacking. Differences in the assumed meaning of a rights-based approach can limit discussions of its implementation and evaluation, and impede opportunities to explore and critique a new model for sexuality education. In-depth interviews were conducted in 2012 with 21 U.S. and international sexuality education experts. Data were thematically coded and analyzed using an iterative approach. Responses were compared according to respondents' professional discipline and geographic focus. A rights-based approach can be defined as the intersection of four elements: an underlying principle that youth have sexual rights; an expansion of programmatic goals beyond reducing unintended pregnancy and STDs; a broadening of curricula content to include such issues as gender norms, sexual orientation, sexual expression and pleasure, violence, and individual rights and responsibilities in relationships; and a participatory teaching strategy that engages youth in critical thinking about their sexuality and sexual choices. These elements were consistently identified by respondents across professional disciplines and geographic foci. In addition, all respondents raised questions about the feasibility of implementing a rights-based approach, particularly in the United States. While questions remain to be answered regarding the implementation and impact of rights-based sexuality education, the proposed conceptual definition suggests multiple avenues for advocates, researchers, program developers and funders to enhance adolescent sexual health. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Burris, Scott; Ashe, Marice; Levin, Donna; Penn, Matthew; Larkin, Michelle
Public health law has roots in both law and science. For more than a century, lawyers have helped develop and implement health laws; over the past 50 years, scientific evaluation of the health effects of laws and legal practices has achieved high levels of rigor and influence. We describe an emerging model of public health law that unites these two traditions. This transdisciplinary model adds scientific practices to the lawyerly functions of normative and doctrinal research, counseling, and representation. These practices include policy surveillance and empirical public health law research on the efficacy of legal interventions and the impact of laws and legal practices on health and health system operation. A transdisciplinary model of public health law, melding its legal and scientific facets, can help break down enduring cultural, disciplinary, and resource barriers that have prevented the full recognition and optimal role of law in public health.
Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Savenije, H.H.G.
This paper introduces a flexible framework for conceptual hydrological modeling, with two related objectives: (1) generalize and systematize the currently fragmented field of conceptual models and (2) provide a robust platform for understanding and modeling hydrological systems. In contrast to
This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…
Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight the important role that mentoring can play for public sector management in general, and for implementing Public Administration Reform in Romania in particular. An extended documentary research of recent international literature and practices that address this topic allowed us to observe a considerable gap relative to the approaches of mentoring in management of other sectors. Moreover, a gap appears also if when comparing the situation of implementing government mentoring programs in European Union countries and in other countries with a more consistent tradition in mentoring such as USA or Canada. Thus, by presenting some conceptual models and programs of reference in the countries last mentioned, our paper tries to contribute in reducing this gap, both at theoretical and practical level.
Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project.
Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith
The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.
Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro
This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...
Full Text Available Recently, research has highlighted the potential of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs for education, as well as their drawbacks, which are well known. Several studies state that the main limitations of the MOOCs are low completion and high dropout rates of participants. However, MOOCs suffer also from the lack of participant engagement, personalization, and despite the fact that several formats and types of MOOCs are reported in the literature, the majority of them contain a considerable amount of content that is mainly presented in a video format. This is in contrast to the results reported in other educational settings, where engagement and active participation are identified as success factors. We present the results of a study that involved educational experts and learning scientists giving new and interesting insights towards the conceptualization of a new design approach, the flipped MOOC, applying the flipped classroom approach to the MOOCs’ design and making use of gamification and learning analytics. We found important indications, applicable to the concept of a flipped MOOC, which entails turning MOOCs from mainly content-oriented delivery machines into personalized, interactive, and engaging learning environments. Our findings support the idea that MOOCs can be enriched by the orchestration of a flipped classroom approach in combination with the support of gamification and learning analytics.
Samuri, Mohd Al-Adib; Wahab, Norazla Abdul; Kusrin, Zuliza Mohd; Muda, Mohd Zamro; Manap, Norhoneydayatie Abdul
One of the issues that often circulates among newly recruited Sharia lawyers is the lack of the required capability or aptitude to be a Sharia counsel, especially when conducting legal counseling with clients. The Department of Sharia law, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), must play an important role in preparing…
Jain, Ashu; Srinivasulu, Sanaga
This paper presents the findings of a study aimed at decomposing a flow hydrograph into different segments based on physical concepts in a catchment, and modelling different segments using different technique viz. conceptual and artificial neural networks (ANNs). An integrated modelling framework is proposed capable of modelling infiltration, base flow, evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and certain segments of the decomposed flow hydrograph using conceptual techniques and the complex, non-linear, and dynamic rainfall-runoff process using ANN technique. Specifically, five different multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and two self-organizing map (SOM) models have been developed. The rainfall and streamflow data derived from the Kentucky River catchment were employed to test the proposed methodology and develop all the models. The performance of all the models was evaluated using seven different standard statistical measures. The results obtained in this study indicate that (a) the rainfall-runoff relationship in a large catchment consists of at least three or four different mappings corresponding to different dynamics of the underlying physical processes, (b) an integrated approach that models the different segments of the decomposed flow hydrograph using different techniques is better than a single ANN in modelling the complex, dynamic, non-linear, and fragmented rainfall runoff process, (c) a simple model based on the concept of flow recession is better than an ANN to model the falling limb of a flow hydrograph, and (d) decomposing a flow hydrograph into the different segments corresponding to the different dynamics based on the physical concepts is better than using the soft decomposition employed using SOM.
Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C
This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Peyre, Marisa; Bonnet, Pascal; Bebay, Charles; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Tripodi, Astrid
The value chain (VC) is a major operational concept for socioeconomic analysis at meso level. Widely mobilized in development practice, it is still undergoing conceptual and practical refining, e.g., to take account of environmental and social sustainability. Briefly, VC refers to a system of value creation through the full set of actors, links, technical and commercial activities and flows involved in the provision of a good or service on a market. In the past decade, this concept has been promoted in the management of animal health. In particular, the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has triggered an interdisciplinary dynamic including VC analysis as a central tool. These efforts promoted participatory investigation methods in the analysis of health systems. Using qualitative and quantitative data, these methods acknowledge the usefulness of actors' involvement and knowledge, hence facilitating the transdisciplinarity needed for effective action. They fit into adaptive and action-oriented strategies, fostering stakeholders' participation. Recent research on HPAI surveillance in South-East Asia merged VC and participatory approaches to develop innovative tools for analyzing constraints to information flow. On-going interventions for HPAI prevention and control as well as the prevention of other emerging zoonotic risks in Africa are presently building on this VC framework to develop strategies for its application at national and regional scales. Based on the latter experiences, this article proposes a field-based perspective on VC applications to animal and public health systems, within a One Health approach responding to the overall challenge of complexity.
van der Klink, Jac J L; Bültmann, Ute; Burdorf, Alex; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Abma, Femke I; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Wilt, Gert Jan
The aim of this paper is to propose a new model of sustainable employability based on the capability approach, encompassing the complexity of contemporary work, and placing particular emphasis on work-related values. Having evaluated existing conceptual models of work, health, and employability, we concluded that prevailing models lack an emphasis on important work-related values. Amartya Sen's capability approach (CA) provides a framework that incorporates a focus on values and reflects the complexity of sustainable employability. We developed a model of sustainable employability based on the CA. This model can be used as starting point for developing an assessment tool to investigate sustainable employability. A fundamental premise of the CA is that work should create value for the organization as well as for the worker. This approach challenges researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners to investigate what people find important and valuable--what they would like to achieve in a given (work) context--and moreover to ascertain whether people are able and enabled to do so. According to this approach, it is not only the individual who is responsible for achieving this; the work context is also important. Rather than merely describing relationships between variables, as existing descriptive models often do, the CA depicts a valuable goal: a set of capabilities that constitute valuable work. Moreover, the CA fits well with recent conceptions of health and modern insights into work, in which the individual works towards his or her own goals that s/he has to achieve within the broader goals of the organization.
While the scientific and medical communities continue to be divided on the therapeutic benefits and risks of cannabis use, anecdotal evidence from medical users themselves suggests that using cannabis is indeed improving their quality of life by alleviating their pain and discomfort. Notwithstanding the benefits anecdotally claimed by these medical users and the existence of some scientific studies confirming their claims, criminal drug laws in all Australian and most United States jurisdictions continue to prohibit the possession, cultivation and supply of cannabis even for medical purposes. However, in contrast to Australia and most parts of the United States, the medical use of cannabis has been legal in Canada for about a decade. This article reviews these differing legal and regulatory approaches to accommodating the medical use of cannabis (namely, marijuana) as well as some of the challenges involved in legalising it for medical purposes.
Drozdova, Alexandra Michailowna; Gulakova, Violetta Yurevna; Ivanchenko, Elena Anatolevna; Lesnichenko, Inna Pavlovna; Tereshchenko, Elena Anatolevna
The article is devoted to the analytical understanding of the problems in the field of realisation and protection of the rights of children in Russia to identify and highlight existing problems in order to try to remove shortcomings and embark on further development and improvement of the legal and social mechanisms for the protection of…
Vazquez, C.; Gutierrez, J.
This work constitutes an approach to defining methodologies to deal with environmental recovery after an accident. This is a complex issue which has neither been conceptually nor functionally solved. This report summarizes the developments of the operating research projects of the Radiological Protection Programme for Intervention at CIEMAT
Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Bukova Güzel, Esra
The aim of the present study is to conceptualize the approaches displayed for validation of model and thought processes provided in mathematical modeling process performed in technology-aided learning environment. The participants of this grounded theory study were nineteen secondary school mathematics student teachers. The data gathered from the…
The purpose of the research was to compare the effects of two different techniques of the cooperative learning approach, namely Team-Game Tournament and Jigsaw, on undergraduates' conceptual understanding in a Hormone Biochemistry course. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to Group 1 (N = 23) and Group 2 (N = 29). Instructions were accomplished…
Full Text Available The article presents the conceptual approaches to the upbringing in the education of life-meaningful values of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. The definition of life-meaningful values has been given up. The major problems and contradictions in the upbringing of the Ukrainian children were paid attention to. The dependence of the result of upbringing, from the desire and the participation of all actors: children, parents, teachers is pointed out. Conceptual approaches to education of life values meaning are analyzed on the methodological, theoretical and practical levels. The aspects of the previous researches have been underlined. In this context, a systematic approach determines the integrity of the educational process in primary and high school. Synergetic approach combines the organization and self-organization of the growing personality. Humanistic approach recognizes each child's highest value at school, family, and society. Personal-centered approach provides individual attention to him, to free choice of that or other life-meaningful values. Activity approach provides practice and deed activity of children and shows how the value of the meaning of life affects the behavior of the individual. The theoretical level of substantiation of the concept of education of children of teenagers and early youth gives ability to define key points and concepts. Practical level implies the corresponding experimental activity, the determination of propriate pedagogical conditions, the selection of content, forms and methods of education of teenagers and early adolescence. Conceptual approaches offer the opportunity to develop a modern system of education of the values of the meaning of life of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. Implementation of conceptual approaches aimed at qualitative changes in the education of life-meaningful values among of teenagers and early adolescence.
This article proposes a further conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity (ERI) as a fundamental topic in developmental research. Adding to important recent efforts to conceptually integrate and synthesize this field, it is argued that ERI research will be enhanced by more fully considering
Full Text Available This article discusses access to basic education as a constitutionally entrenched legal norm. It presents an exposition of inherent interdependence between rights-based approaches to child development and theoretical underpinnings founded in the Capabilities Approach (CA. The article is considerate of the fact that every progressive developmental state needs literate and educated citizenry to achieve sustainable economic and human development, and thus secure social stability and human well-being. It relies on the Constitution, 1996’s foundational values and theoretical connotations founded in Sen and Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approaches. Nussbaum is the focal point because her account of the CA is linked with fundamental ideals of constitutional law and rightsbased approaches to development. It proposes a pattern of combining and using frameworks of rights and capabilities to move beyond promises made through legal instruments. It is asserted that access to equitable and quality basic education is yet to be achieved in South Africa. It remains a distant dream owing to narrow interpretations and dual system of private-public education, under which quality education is commodified and only accessible to the wealthy few. Thus, to improve access to quality basic education, we ought to understand that laws are normative standards that need to be complimented by strong moral and ethical commitments in order to be responsive to children’s and society’s social developmental needs.
Pinilla-Roa, Análida E
A literature review was made to construct a proposal regarding the concept of competences-based learning in higher education. The pertinent literature published in Spanish and English in databases such as Medline, Redalyc, SciELO and Academic Google, as well as material in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, reference centers and books was searched using keywords. The data was classified and organized according to theme, subtheme and chronology. A constructivist approach was adopted to the conceptual development of competences-based learning in higher education since the mid-twentieth century, borrowing from different disciplines. European, Latin-American and Colombian authors' concepts were compiled to form a concept of higher education competences (what they are, what they are used for, where they are developed and used and how they are expressed) and graduate/professional competences. A student develops different competences having different levels of complexity and depth when being educated. Academic competences match professional competence (generic and specific) during a student's undergraduate and graduate studies and continue to develop throughout his/her professional life. A graduate become competent when he/she can act and perform autonomously in resolving real problems of varying complexity and can interact effectively with others to improve his/her quality of life and that of others.
Draebing, D.; Krautblatter, M.; Dikau, R.
Degradation of permafrost rock wall decreases stability and can initiate rock slope instability of all magnitudes. Rock instability is controlled by the balance of shear forces and shear resistances. The sensitivity of slope stability to warming results from a complex interplay of shear forces and resistances. Conductive, convective and advective heat transport processes act to warm, degrade and thaw permafrost in rock walls. On a seasonal scale, snow cover changes are a poorly understood key control of the timing and extent of thawing and permafrost degradation. We identified two potential critical time windows where shear forces might exceed shear resistances of the rock. In early summer combined hydrostatic and cryostatic pressure can cause a peak in shear force exceeding high frozen shear resistance and in autumn fast increasing shear forces can exceed slower increasing shear resistance. On a multiannual system scale, shear resistances change from predominantly rock-mechanically to ice-mechanically controlled. Progressive rock bridge failure results in an increase of sensitivity to warming. Climate change alters snow cover and duration and, hereby, thermal and mechanical processes in the rock wall. Amplified thawing of permafrost will result in higher rock slope instability and rock fall activity. We present a holistic conceptual approach connecting thermal and mechanical processes, validate parts of the model with geophysical and kinematic data and develop future scenarios to enhance understanding on system scale.
Full Text Available In Europe, back pain is a common disease, this is according to European statistics. In accordance with the new case, the pain each year occurs in 5% of the population. The aim of this work is to develop a conceptual approaches to the physical rehabilitation process at the surgical treatment of patients with back pain. Materials and methods . There was researched an experience of the domestic and foreign researches in physical rehabilitation area. Methods of the research were the analysis of the references and theoretical research methods (as an analysis, interpretation and synthesis of scientific and educational literature on the study problem. Abstraction (or idealization and schematization is the allocation of the essential foundations. Also we used experimenting with schemes (as a development of their content, sophistication and usability testing at development of concepts, practical models and physical rehabilitation programs. Results. The physical rehabilitation concept at the surgical treatment of patients with back pain was developed, given by the modern science in the diagnostics field, performing difficult complex spinal surgery with the using of new tools and the knowledge from the physical rehabilitation improvement. Conclusion. The using of a systematic methodology for physical rehabilitation in the surgical treatment of patients with vertebral pathology, helps to optimize research, diagnostic, therapeutic, rehabilitative and preventive measures, providing them with the required comprehensiveness, consistency, orderliness.
Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena
In recent years there has been a trend to view the Citizens' Observatory as an increasingly essential tool that provides an approach for better observing, understanding, protecting and enhancing our environment. However, there is no consensus on how to develop such a system, nor is there any agreement on what a Citizens' Observatory is and what results it could produce. The increase in the prevalence of Citizens' Observatories globally has been mirrored by an increase in the number of variables that are monitored, the number of monitoring locations and the types of participating citizens. This calls for a more integrated approach to handle the emerging complexities involved in this field, but before this can be achieved, it is essential to establish a common foundation for Citizens' Observatories and their usage. There are many aspects to a Citizens' Observatory. One view is that its essence is a process that involves environmental monitoring, information gathering, data management and analysis, assessment and reporting systems. Hence, it requires the development of novel monitoring technologies and of advanced data management strategies to capture, analyse and survey the data, thus facilitating their exploitation for policy and society. Practically, there are many challenges in implementing the Citizens' Observatory approach, such as ensuring effective citizens' participation, dealing with data privacy, accounting for ethical and security requirements, and taking into account data standards, quality and reliability. These concerns all need to be addressed in a concerted way to provide a stable, reliable and scalable Citizens' Observatory programme. On the other hand, the Citizens' Observatory approach carries the promise of increasing the public's awareness to risks in their environment, which has a corollary economic value, and enhancing data acquisition at low or no cost. In this paper, we first propose a conceptual framework for a Citizens' Observatory
Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel
Green roofs are commonly considered as efficient tools to mitigate urban runoff as they can store precipitation, and consequently provide retention and detention performances. Designed as a compromise between water holding capacity, weight and hydraulic conductivity, their substrate is usually an artificial media differentiating significantly from a traditional soil. In order to assess green roofs hydrological performances, many models have been developed. Classified into two categories (conceptual and physically based), they are usually applied to reproduce the discharge of a particular monitored green roof considered as homogeneous. Although the resulted simulations could be satisfactory, the question of robustness and consistency of the calibrated parameters is often not addressed. Here, a modeling framework has been developed to assess the efficiency and the robustness of both modelling approaches (conceptual and physically based) in reproducing green roof hydrological behaviour. SWMM and VS2DT models have been used for this purpose. This work also benefits from an experimental setup where several green roofs differentiated by their substrate thickness and vegetation cover are monitored. Based on the data collected for several rainfall events, it has been studied how the calibrated parameters are effectively linked to their physical properties and how they can vary from one green roof configuration to another. Although both models reproduce correctly the observed discharges in most of the cases, their calibrated parameters exhibit a high inconsistency. For a same green roof configuration, these parameters can vary significantly from one rainfall event to another, even if they are supposed to be linked to the green roof characteristics (roughness, residual moisture content for instance). They can also be different from one green roof configuration to another although the implemented substrate is the same. Finally, it appears very difficult to find any
Full Text Available The value chain (VC is a major operational concept for socioeconomic analysis at meso level. Widely mobilized in development practice, it is still undergoing conceptual and practical refining, e.g., to take account of environmental and social sustainability. Briefly, VC refers to a system of value creation through the full set of actors, links, technical and commercial activities and flows involved in the provision of a good or service on a market. In the past decade, this concept has been promoted in the management of animal health. In particular, the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI has triggered an interdisciplinary dynamic including VC analysis as a central tool. These efforts promoted participatory investigation methods in the analysis of health systems. Using qualitative and quantitative data, these methods acknowledge the usefulness of actors’ involvement and knowledge, hence facilitating the transdisciplinarity needed for effective action. They fit into adaptive and action-oriented strategies, fostering stakeholders’ participation. Recent research on HPAI surveillance in South-East Asia merged VC and participatory approaches to develop innovative tools for analyzing constraints to information flow. On-going interventions for HPAI prevention and control as well as the prevention of other emerging zoonotic risks in Africa are presently building on this VC framework to develop strategies for its application at national and regional scales. Based on the latter experiences, this article proposes a field-based perspective on VC applications to animal and public health systems, within a One Health approach responding to the overall challenge of complexity.
Keller, Carmen; Bostrom, Ann; Kuttschreuter, M.; Savadori, Lucia; Spence, Alexia; White, Mathew
An intensive program of 40 years of research has produced various conceptual cognitive and affective approaches to environmental risk perception. In this short review of the most relevant conceptual approaches, appraisal theory is presented as a useful means of integrating cognitive and affective
Since Bolinger's (1975) analysis, many linguists have been analyzing passives in terms of our (the speaker's) conceptual content.1 In such studies, the passive is assumed to be one of the grammatical codings ...
This paper addresses the many conceptual similarities that exist among structural materials subject to environmentally assisted cracking in high temperature water. While cracking has been viewed as a highly mechanistically and phenomenologically unique process for every material, temperature, environment, loading, etc., there is an increasingly strong basis for treating environmental crack advance processes of ductile alloys in hot water from a common mechanistic and predictive perspective. This paper addresses the roles of various materials (ranging from low alloy and carbon steels, to stainless steels, to high nickel alloys), water chemistries (e.g., including various BWR and PWR conditions), temperature (from 360 C), irradiation, etc. on the crack advance process. Viewed from the perspective of the crack tip system, differences once perceived as large (e.g., in corrosion potential for BWRs vs. PWRs) are now recognized as relatively small (e.g., crack advance always occurs at low potential associated with deaerated water because of oxygen depletion in the crack). Additionally, since these materials rely on good passivity, and since creep increases with temperature, the importance to crack advance of film rupture and metal dissolution/repassivation is common to all of these cracking systems. While unique aspects must be acknowledged and modeled for specific materials (e.g., MnS dissolution in low alloy steels, thermal sensitization, irradiation effects) and specific water chemistries (e.g., effects of high sulfide levels, occluded chemistries, nickel metal stability at high H 2 fugacity), the recognition of the broad similarities and the existence of a common underlying framework leads to a more complete understanding of and predictive approaches for environmentally assisted cracking in high temperature water
Full Text Available Interactions of the national and the global in economic transformations occurring in open economic systems are substantiated. Conceptual approaches to the development of economic systems in the globalization and regionalization context are summed up. It is shown that globalization is a logical consequence of mutual influences and interactions of multiple local transformations in socio-economic systems of various levels, which planetary self-organization generates the new quality of the global economic development. It is concluded that globalization has controversial impact on the transformation capacities of national economic systems that have to operate in the unfavorable condition of the growing instability of the global economic system and rapid integration in the structures with already established economic relations. The heuristic and experimental nature of economic and institutional transformations in these countries is added by splits of national economic systems and disruptions of established production links; the outstripping liberalization of foreign economic relations, creating rather external than internal pressures on national manufacturers and making them less capable to adapt to the competitive environment; the accelerated liberalization of monetary and financial systems, opening up ways to reallocation of capital from the sluggish real sector to the more flexible sector of transactions with currencies and securities; the shrinking regulatory authorities of national governments with respect of trade, competition, tax policies or social welfare; the growing domination of TNC and outflow of productive resources from national economies, important for their self-development, thus making their economic systems structurally primitive; the sharp property differentiation within societies and the increasing shares of population with low incomes.
Mahendra, Rengga; Slamet, Isnandar; Budiyono
One of the difficulties of students in learning mathematics is on the subject of geometry that requires students to understand abstract things. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of learning model Problem Posing and Problem Solving with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning in learning mathematics. This research uses a kind of quasi experimental research. The population of this research is all seventh grade students of Junior High School 1 Jaten, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The test of the research hypothesis was analyzed by using t-test. The results of this study indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' conceptual understanding significantly in mathematics learning. In addition tu, the results also showed that the model of Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' adaptive reasoning significantly in learning mathematics. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing and Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on the subject of geometry so as to improve conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.
Schmaltz, Elmar; Glade, Thomas
paraboloids represent a cordate-root-system with radius r, height h and a constant, species-independent curvature. This procedure simplifies the classification of tree species into the three defined geometric solids. In this study we introduce a conceptual approach to estimate the 2- and 3-dimensional distribution of different tree root systems, and to implement it in a raster environment, as it is used in infinite slope models. Hereto we used the PCRaster extension in a python framework. The results show that root distribution and root growth are spatially reproducible in a simple raster framework. The outputs exhibit significant effects for a synthetically generated slope on local scale for equal time-steps. The preliminary results depict an initial step to develop a vegetation module that can be coupled with hydro-mechanical slope stability models. This approach is expected to yield a valuable contribution to the implementation of vegetation-related properties, in particular effects of root-reinforcement, into physically-based approaches using infinite slope models.
Knapp, Sibylle; Mamot, Philipp; Krautblatter, Michael
seismic investigation of the Eibsee lake floor, assuming an impact of the Eibsee rock avalanche with a former paleo-lake, thereby entraining fine grained lake sediments. Furthermore, we apply these insights to the 12 km³ large Flims rock avalanche which is also partly fluidized and partly highly disintegrated in limestone with similar geomechanical properties. Here we demonstrate a conceptual approach for deciphering the disintegration impact on different magnitudes of rock avalanches. We want to show how they can be applied to constrain realistic flow models, and finally, how the latter can be used to better understand the mobilization and anticipation of highly mobile rock avalanches.
Simoni, S.; Vignoli, G.; Mazzorana, B.
Sediment fluxes from mountain rivers contribute to shape the geomorphologic features of lowland rivers and to establish the physical basis for an optimal set of ecosystem functions and related services to people. Through significant public funding, the hydro-morphological regimes of mountain rivers in the European Alps have been progressively altered over the last century, with the aim to provide a safe dwelling space, to boost transport, mobility and to support economic growth. We claim that the underlying planning weaknesses contribute to determine these inefficient resource allocations, since flood risk is still high and the ecosystem services are far from being optimal. Hence, with the overall aim to enhance sediment flux control and hazard risk mitigation in such heavily modified alpine streams, we propose a structured design workflow which guides the planner through system analysis and synthesis. As a first step the proposed workflow sets the relevant planning goals and assesses the protection structure functionality. Then a methodology is proposed to achieve the goals. This methodology consists in characterising the hydrologic basin of interest and the sediment availability and determining the sediment connectivity to channels. The focus is set on the detailed analysis of existing river cross sections where the sediment continuity is interrupted (e.g. slit and check dams). By retaining relevant sediment volumes these structures prevent the reactivation of hydro-morphological and associated ecological functionalities. Since their actual performance can be unsatisfying with respect to flood risk mitigation (e.g. mainly old structures), we introduce specific efficiency indicators as a support for the conceptual design stage to quantify effects related to sediment flux control and risk management. The proposed planning approach is then applied to the Gadria system (stream, slit dam, retention basin and culvert), located in South Tyrol, Italy. This case study
Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R
Leaf mechanical properties, which are important to protect leaves against physical stresses, are thought to change with light and nutrient availabilities. This study aims to understand phenotypic changes of leaf mechanical properties with respect to dry mass allocation and anatomy. Leaf lamina strength (maximum force per unit area to fracture), toughness (work to fracture) and stiffness (resistance against deformation) were measured by punch-and-die tests, and anatomical and physiological traits were determined in Plantago major plants grown at different light and nutrient availabilities. A conceptual approach was developed by which punch strength and related carbon costs can be quantitatively related to the underlying anatomical and morphological traits: leaf thickness, dry-mass allocation to cell walls and cell-wall-specific strength. Leaf lamina strength, toughness and stiffness (all expressed on a punch area basis) increased with light availability. By contrast, nutrient availability did not change strength or toughness, but stiffness was higher in low-nutrient plants. Punch strength (maximum force per unit punch area, F(max)/area) was analysed as the product of leaf mass per area (LMA) and F(max)/leaf mass (= punch strength/LMA, indicating mass-use efficiency for strength). The greater strength of sun leaves was mainly explained by their higher LMA. Shade leaves, by contrast, had a higher F(max)/leaf mass. This greater efficiency in shade leaves was caused by a greater fraction of leaf mass in cell walls and by a greater specific strength of cell walls. These differences are probably because epidermis cells constitute a relatively large fraction of the leaf cross-section in shaded leaves. Although a larger percentage of intercellular spaces were found in shade leaves, this in itself did not reduce 'material' strength (punch strength/thickness); it might, however, be important for increasing distance between upper and lower epidermis per unit mass and thus
Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit
The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from China, India and South Afr...
S.J. Bartlett (Steven James)
textabstractThe principal objective of the work is to construct an analytically precise methodology which can serve to identify, eliminate, and avoid a certain widespread conceptual fault or misconstruction, called a "projective misconstruction" or "projection" by the author. It is argued that this
Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…
Göransson, Kerstin; Hellblom-Thibblin, Tina; Axdorph, Eva
Swedish compulsory school for students with intellectual disability (ID) has been criticized for focusing on care and not presenting the students with enough knowledge-related challenges. The purpose of this study is to investigate how a conceptually-based mathematics curriculum can be interpreted and constructed for students with ID. A total of…
Kontovas, Christos A.
to 'green' routing and scheduling and outlines some possible ways to incorporate the air emissions dimension into maritime transportation OR. The main contribution of this note vis-a-vis the state of the art is that it conceptualizes the formulation of the 'Green Ship Routing and Scheduling Problem' (GSRSP...
James Christopher Ryan
Full Text Available The current commentary offers a reflection on the conceptualizations of Lee and Raschke's (2016 proposal for a set-theoretic approach to employee motivation and organizational performance. The commentary is informed by the current author's operationalization of set-theoretic research on employee motivation which occurred contemporaneously to the work of Lee and Raschke. Observations on the state of current research on employee motivation, development of motivation theory and future directions of set-theoretic approaches to employee motivation and performance are offered.
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.
To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,
Osmun, W E; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert
To review the medical, ethical, and legal obligations in caring for adults with developmental disabilities (DDs) living in the community. Google and MEDLINE searches were conducted using the terms disabled, disability, vulnerable, and community. The pertinent legislation was reviewed. The treatment of a patient with DDs varies with factors such as the pathogenesis of the patient's current problem, comorbid conditions, the severity of his or her disabilities, and his or her current social supports. While the shift from institutional to community care for patients with DDs is widely accepted as being beneficial, providing high-quality community care has proven to be challenging. However, there is little research on how to effectively provide community support to adults with DDs. As primary care providers, family physicians are often the first point of contact for patients, and are responsible for both the coordination and the continuity of care. With the movement toward preventive care and early disease detection, the patient's active participation is also vital. The patient's values and goals are an essential consideration, even when they are contrary to the patient's good health or the clinician's own values. The legislation for vulnerable persons varies among the provinces. Thus, the obligation to report suspected abuse might depend on whether the vulnerable person is living in a care facility or the community; whether the person with the suspicion is a service provider or health care professional; and whether the specific circumstances fall within the legislative definition of abuse or neglect. Primary care providers must give adults with DDs compassionate care that respects the patients' wishes. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Hermitte, M-A; Le Coz, P
This paper considers the conflict of interest in philosophical and legal perspective. The philosophical approach comes from two perspectives: political philosophy focuses on the role of the link of interest in the city considered in the light of a broader reflection on the conditions of living together. Antiquity philosophers have enhanced the interest link as privileged vector of humanization and socialization of individuals. In the eighteenth century, Adam Smith considers the pursuit of individual interests a stronger social base that love of neighbor advocated by Christians. Moral philosophy focuses specifically on the passage of interest linked to the conflict of interest. It wondered if we should be impartial in all circumstances or whether it's right to give priority to our friends and loved ones. Thus, it poses the question of whether introspection is sufficient to detect conflicts of interest or if the look of an external third party is still required. The legal process differs from the philosophical approach at two levels; on the one hand, its scope is more limited: the law doesn't envisage the benefits of links of interest on social life even though it may protect some of them (in the context of the family, for example) and is intended to prevent bias that may taint the decision public. On the other hand, the lawyer doesn't enter the interiority of individuals but stands by what appears on the outside: it tracks the suspicion of bias can have serious impacts, such as health and the environment. Somehow, it is more radical. It's noteworthy that despite its many developments, the law can't to stop conflicts of interest in research. Several reasons account for this impasse: scientists receive mission to partner with industry to develop products but they must remain independent in order to assess the risks; there is a tendency to always choose the same experts; there are conflicts of interest intellectuals which are not easy to detect.
Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task
Santovito, D; Iorio, M; Mastro, F; Conforti, M; Rispoli, P
An increasing body of health care regulations and the growing concern of physicians and patients about health care services have sharpened the debate surrounding the concept of quality in medicine. Once unknown terms such as audit, peer review, accreditation, ISO 9000, quality assurance (QA), continuous quality improvement (CQI) and risk management have become more familiar but also less clear. Following recent reports, medical error has been cited as a result of a health care system that has not yet fully embraced the tenets of quality management. A clearer explanation of definitions, knowledge and procedures is therefore needed. In Italy, the general debate on surgical risk led to a proposal to implement control systems that would monitor the work of each team member in the operating room, from the patient's arrival to transfer to the floor. But to understand the dynamics of doubtful cases, we need to start from new concepts that release the surgeon from the role of ''high priest in the surgery temple.'' Such concepts would underpin a process analysis of how much is effectively done and by whom. This means, on one hand, developing a greater awareness of one's role and competences, and on the other, delineating the stages within which each health care professional is expected to operate. Entering into the debate are the guidelines scientific societies have drawn up to rationalise and improve health care delivery through recommendations directed at optimizing the efficacy and efficiency of surgical intervention as the result of scientific evaluation and clinical observation. However, the critics in question do not always allow the surgeon to work under a medico-legal ''guarantee'' that covers his medical conduct. Further-more, they can be a double-edged sword in court if not adequately considered and critically evaluated with regard to a specific case, the object of censure and charge. In fact, they can be ''exploited'' as an instrument of accusation or defence in
Jansen, Peter A.; Watter, Scott
Connectionist language modelling typically has difficulty with syntactic systematicity, or the ability to generalise language learning to untrained sentences. This work develops an unsupervised connectionist model of infant grammar learning. Following the semantic boostrapping hypothesis, the network distils word category using a developmentally plausible infant-scale database of grounded sensorimotor conceptual representations, as well as a biologically plausible semantic co-occurrence activation function. The network then uses this knowledge to acquire an early benchmark clausal grammar using correlational learning, and further acquires separate conceptual and grammatical category representations. The network displays strongly systematic behaviour indicative of the general acquisition of the combinatorial systematicity present in the grounded infant-scale language stream, outperforms previous contemporary models that contain primarily noun and verb word categories, and successfully generalises broadly to novel untrained sensorimotor grounded sentences composed of unfamiliar nouns and verbs. Limitations as well as implications to later grammar learning are discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction. Parliaments of both Ukraine and the EU have ratified Association Agreement (hereinafter – Agreement, a comprehensive document which envisages bringing all areas of the law of our country in line with European Union norms. Therefore, chapter 22 of the Agreement "Public Health" gave attention as one of the most important areas of implementation. That is, the need for introduction in Ukraine of the approach, called "Health in all policy areas” provides consider of the interests of public healthcare in approving of political solutions in any area of the state activities. The organizational, medical and pharmaceutical approaches to optimization of the medicines’ circulation is the improvement of the legal system of regulation of prescription and OTC medicines (drugs, determination of the circulation of drugs of different classification and legal groups, assigning drugs to one of nomenclature and legal groups (prescription or non-prescription. Materials and methods. Forensic and pharmaceutical researches conducted in countryside areas at the regional level on example of the Kharkiv region based on 54 communal health institutions (CHI. Materials of the research: legal framework for the organization of pharmacy of the CHI; forensic and pharmaceutical practice for the period of 2012-2015 concerning the provision with the medicines of all legal, nomenclature and classification groups for the pharmacotherapy of hypertension in the village. In conducting the research, we used the following methods: legal, documentary, comparative analysis, forensic and pharmaceutical monitoring. Results and discussion. According to the Statement of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine from 17.08.1998 N1303 was sorted the procedure of the concessional dispensing of the drugs (for free or at 50% discount. The procedure applies to certain categories of the population and some diseases for which benefits established by applicable law. Despite the potential of
Adalja, Amesh A; Watson, Matthew; Waldhorn, Richard E; Toner, Eric S
The events of the 2009 influenza pandemic sparked discussion regarding the need to optimize delivery of care to those most severely ill. We propose in this conceptual study that a tiered regionalization care system be instituted for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Such system would be a component of national pandemic plans and could also be used in day-to-day operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.
This article addresses the issue of the level of complexity of practical work in science curricula and is focused on the discipline of Biology and Geology at high school. The level of complexity is seen in terms of the emphasis on and types of practical work and, most importantly, in terms of its level of conceptual demand as given by the complexity of scientific knowledge, the degree of inter-relation between knowledges, and the complexity of cognitive skills. The study also analyzes recontextualizing processes that may occur within the official recontextualizing field. The study is psychologically and sociologically grounded, particularly on Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse. It uses a mixed methodology. The results show that practical work is poorly represented in the curriculum, particularly in the case of laboratory work. The level of conceptual demand of practical work varies according to the text under analysis, between the two subjects Biology and Geology, and, within each of them, between general and specific guidelines. Aspects studied are not clearly explicated to curriculum receivers (teachers and textbooks authors). The meaning of these findings is discussed in the article. In methodological terms, the study explores assumptions used in the analysis of the level of conceptual demand and presents innovative instruments constructed for developing this analysis.
ZHENG, Jie Jane
To explore the significance of historic preservation in metropolitan cities and disparities in the legal system to preservation, this paper conducts a comparative study of Hong Kong and New York. To begin with, it provides an overview of the historic preservation legal system in New York and Hong Kong and outlines the major preservation laws respectively in two cities. It pinpoints the key difference of the two legal systems: historic preservation in New York is shaped by four tiers of laws o...
Full Text Available Progress in transforming current food consumption and production practice in a sustainable direction is slow. Communicative, sustainable consumer policy instruments such as eco-labeling schemes have limited impact outside the green segment and within the mainstream market. This article asks how sustainably produced food can be described in order to promote such food. Based on six cases, it aims to conceptualize the common denominators of sustainable food production by drawing on recent literature on sustainable marketing and on food and sustainable development. Contradictions and implications in terms of labeling schemes, global sourcing and consumer food practice are discussed.
Full Text Available A key curiosity in the operation of the American regulatory state lies with its hybrid structure, defined by centralized, bureaucratic approaches but also more decentralized actions such as lawsuits brought by private citizens in the courts. While current research on these two pathways focuses at the elite level—exploring how and why political actors and institutions opt for legal or administrative strategies for implementing different public policies—there is little research that examines public attitudes toward how policy is enforced in the U.S. Given that the public is a key partner in this process, this paper integrates public attitudes into the discussion, tapping into conceptions of “big government,” privatization, and the tort reform movement. Using original data from a series of vignette-based experiments included in the 2014 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey, we examine public preferences about how policy is regulated—by private citizens in the courts or by government officials in agencies—across a broad number of policy areas. We offer one of the first studies that adjudicates the boundaries of public attitudes on litigation and bureaucratic regulation in the U.S., offering implications for how elites might approach the design of policy implementation for different issue areas.
Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon
In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity
Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity.
Hildering, Antoinette; Keessen, Andrea M.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van
The successful protection of marine and freshwater areas and ecosystems, including specially protected areas, is highly dependent on the effectiveness of an integrated approach to prevent and combat land-based pollution. Several legal regimes have been developed to regulate and solve this kind of
Full Text Available Abstract Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009 and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies. The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a advancing knowledge, b capacity building, c informing decision-making, d health benefits, e broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social are often valued differently in different models.
Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009)) and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies). The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a) advancing knowledge, b) capacity building, c) informing decision-making, d) health benefits, e) broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social) are often valued differently in different models. PMID:21702930
Martin A. Simon
Full Text Available This paper describes an emerging approach to the design of task sequences and the theory that undergirds it. The approach aims at promoting particular mathematical concepts, understood as the result of reflective abstraction. Central to this approach is the identification of available student activities from which students can abstract the intended ideas. The approach differs from approaches in which learning to solve the problem posed is the intended learning. The paper illustrates the approach through data from a teaching experiment on division of fractions.
Full Text Available Female circumcision is a tradition that is widespread and not restricted to predominantly Muslim countries. It is prevalent among all religious groups in many parts of Africa and Western Asia, whether they are Coptic Christians, Ethiopian Jews, or Arab Muslims. Female genital cutting or—more to the point—female genital mutilation (FGM, generally referred to as circumcision, occurs in at least five different forms. Circumcision is essentially a powerful bodily sign of the human—male and female—covenant with God. In the Quran it is reaffirmed in sura al-Nahl and quoted as example in the fatwas endorsing circumcision. It seems to be true that men are hardly involved in the actual decision in favour of female genital cutting. A man should not interfere in the decision of women to be circumcised. It is practiced and transmitted among women and midwives. Only sometimes is a (male or female physician involved. On the basis of Islamic normativity, mirrored in fatwas, this paper aims to examine a very ambivalent approach concerning female genital mutilation.
Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha
We discuss a study of student reasoning difficulties and approaches while solving problems about the brightness of non-identical light bulbs connected in series and parallel. The questions about the light bulbs can be solved quantitatively even though they were posed as conceptual problems. We compare the performance of introductory physics students with that of a set of physics PhD students and find that these problems related to non-identical light bulbs are difficult even for PhD students. We also conducted individual interviews with six introductory students to obtain an in-depth understanding of their approaches and rationale for solving the problems in a particular way. We discuss the conceptual difficulties displayed in the interviews and in the written responses in which introductory physics students were asked to explain their reasoning. In addition to confirming some misconceptions which have previously been observed in the context of equal wattage light bulbs, use of unequal wattage light bulbs in this research reveals misconceptions not documented previously.
The literature on sustainability in supply chains is growing rapidly, leading to the manifestation of conceptualizations like Sustainable Supply Chain Management. More recently the concept of Sustainable Value Chain Management has emerged, extending the view to included suppliers in multiple tiers...... and corporate engagement with other primary and secondary stakeholders. Conducting research on Supply Chain Management is challenging and adding the ambiguously defined concept of sustainability and a value chain perspective increases the complexity almost exponentially. As a result, researchers tend to focus...... variations of stakeholder engagement and adopt a value chain narrative in their sustainability reporting. Multi-stakeholder reporting standards like the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the UN Global Compact (UNGC) are adopted by corporations across industries, but only target sustainability issues...
Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai; Guerrero-Solé, Frederic; Estévez, Ana; Griffiths, Mark
The legalisation of online gambling in multiple territories has caused a growth in the exposure of consumers to online sports betting (OSB) advertising. While some efforts have been made to understand the visible structure of betting promotional messages, little is known about the latent components of OSB advertisements. The present study sought to address this issue by examining the metaphorical conceptualisation of OSB advertising. A sample of Spanish and British television OSB advertisements from 2014 to 2016 was analysed (N = 133). Following Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphor theory, four main structural metaphors that shaped how OSB advertising can be understood were identified: betting as (1) an act of love, (2) a market, (3) a sport, and (4) a natural environment. In general, these metaphors, which were found widely across 29 different betting brands, facilitated the perception of bettors as active players, with an executive role in the sport events bet upon, and greater control over bet outcomes.
Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.
The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.
Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad Imran Bin; Almoor, Karim
and environmentally acceptable plant for producing mono-methylamines, di-methylamines and tri-methylamines from methanol and ammonia. The systematic method divides the process design work into 12 sequential tasks that covers all stages of conceptual design, starting from the consideration of qualitative aspects...... of the process flow sheet and preliminary calculations to the detailed process simulations, equipment sizing, costing, an economic evaluation, and sustainability of the designed process. At the end of task-9, the base case design is obtained, which is then further refined and improved with respect to heat...... and LCA measures such as sustainability metrics for environment, economic and social; carbon footprint; safety index and many more. In addition, PRO/II is used for process simulation (for verification of design), ICAS for property prediction and analysis of design options; ECON for cost and economic...
Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing
Full Text Available The successful protection of marine and freshwater areas and ecosystems, including specially protected areas, is highly dependent on the effectiveness of an integrated approach to prevent and combat land-based pollution. Several legal regimes have been developed to regulate and solve this kind of pollution on the international level as well as on the European level. Therefore, this integrated approach requires coherence between European and international legal regimes and between the regulation of freshwater and the seas. An effective legal regime should provide clear goals and clear responsibilities and take into account the relevant impacts and pressures and the transboundary elements of the action against pollution of the sea from land-based source areas, and therefore respond to the need for cooperation between states and the need for an integrated approach to regulate all impacts and pressures that could influence the goals and targets for the specific protected areas. Integrated programmes of measures are necessary and so are arrangements for cooperation and dispute settlement. The protection of the Mediterranean Sea is taken as an example of the integrated ecosystem approach to protect marine regions. The article focuses on pollution caused by land-based sources. The combined rights and obligations under EU law and international law – in particular the Barcelona Convention – are discussed, as well as the required integrated approach towards the marine environment. Existing legal protection regimes for marine regions and river basin catchment areas in both international and European law are analyzed in order to identify the promises and challenges for a coherent legal regime.
Deng, Nina; Guyer, Rick; Ware, John E
Vitality is an important domain reflecting both the physical and emotional components of health-related quality of life. Because of its complexity, it has been defined and measured both broadly and narrowly. We explored the dimensionality of a very comprehensive item bank hypothesized to measure vitality and its related concepts. Secondary analyses were conducted using the responses of 1,343 adults representative of the US general population to Internet-based surveys including 42 items compiled from multiple scales (e.g., SF-36 Vitality, PROMIS-Fatigue), covering a broad range of vitality-related content areas (energy, fatigue, and their interference with physical, mental, social activities, and quality of life). Exploratory and confirmatory factor models were evaluated independently using split-half samples. Bifactor model was used to assess the essential unidimensionality of the items, in comparison with traditional unidimensional, multidimensional, and hierarchical models. Method effects of a common scale or phrase were modeled via correlating errors. The exploratory factor analysis identified one dominant factor. The confirmatory factor analysis identified a best-fitting (CFI = 0.964, RMSEA = 0.084) bifactor model with one general (vitality) and two group (energy and fatigue) factors, explaining 69, 3, and 4 % of total variance. Correlating errors accounting for the method effects were important in identifying the substantive dimensionality of the items. The bifactor model proved to be useful for evaluating the dimensionality of a complex construct. Results supported conceptualizing and measuring vitality as a unidimensional energy-fatigue construct. We encourage future studies comparing practical implications of measures based on the broader and narrower conceptualizations of vitality.
Cheng, Peter C.-H.; Shipstone, David M.
A new approach to the teaching of electricity is described that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit which portray current, voltage, resistance and power. The diagrams have been developed as aids to learning, understanding and problem solving. They also have the potential to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of commonly held misconceptions. The diagrams have been incorporated into A-level teaching materials on d.c. circuit theory and the rationale for this approach is contrasted with a number of strategies that have previously been reported. Part 2 of this paper (Cheng and Shipstone, International Journal of Science Education, in press) will present the results of preliminary school-based trials.
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Mikael Hygum Thyssen
Full Text Available If client values are not fully understood in a construction project it is likely to result in either low fulfilment of client expectations or multiple design alterations during the project process which lead to additional costs and frustration among the project participants. However, it is not a straightforward management task to operationalize client value in construction. Within this context, the client group comprises multiple stakeholders, which often have conflicting goals and values that may not be fully realized by the stakeholders themselves. The management challenge is further complicated by the fact that the delivery team, which is responsible for understanding and delivering client value, is made up of even more different parties. The article reports the initial outcome of a joint research project between academics and practitioners, which aims to develop a practical workshop model that incorporates client values into the conceptual design of construction projects. The workshop model draws on value management and lean thinking as underlying principles in an attempt to address the ambiguous concept of `value'. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0095
Lope-Alzina, Diana Gabriela
Disciplines and approaches concerned with people environment relations have contributed to legitimate traditional ecological knowledge, nowadays endorsed in the international scientificpolicy agenda as an important driver for management and conservation of biological resources. However, there is
Miller, R.; Wilpert, B.; Fahlbruch, B.
This paper discusses a method for analysing safety-relevant events in NPP which is known as 'SOL', safety based on organisational learning. After discussion of the specific organisational and psychological problems examined in the event analysis, the analytic process using the SOL approach is explained as well as the required general setting. The SOL approach has been tested both with scientific experiments and from the practical perspective, by operators of NPPs and experts from other branches of industry. (orig./CB) [de
Gilbert, J W; Wolpin, B; Clancy, T; Wang, J; Mamon, H; Shinagare, A B; Jagannathan, J; Rosenthal, M
Diagnostic imaging plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Over the past decade, the concept of 'borderline resectable' pancreatic cancer has emerged to describe a distinct subset of patients existing along the spectrum from resectable to locally advanced disease for whom a microscopically margin-positive (R1) resection is considered relatively more likely, primarily due to the relationship of the primary tumor with surrounding vasculature. This review traces the conceptual evolution of borderline resectability from a radiological perspective, including the debates over the key imaging criteria that define the thresholds between resectable, borderline resectable, and locally advanced or metastatic disease. This review also addresses the data supporting neoadjuvant therapy in this population and discusses current imaging practices before and during treatment. A growing body of evidence suggests that the borderline resectable group of patients may particularly benefit from neoadjuvant therapy to increase the likelihood of an ultimately margin-negative (R0) resection. Unfortunately, anatomic and imaging criteria to define borderline resectability are not yet universally agreed upon, with several classification systems proposed in the literature and considerable variance in institution-by-institution practice. As a result of this lack of consensus, as well as overall small patient numbers and lack of established clinical trials dedicated to borderline resectable patients, accurate evidence-based diagnostic categorization and treatment selection for this subset of patients remains a significant challenge. Clinicians and radiologists alike should be cognizant of evolving imaging criteria for borderline resectability given their profound implications for treatment strategy, follow-up recommendations, and prognosis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for
Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing is one of the genuine hopes for the forth industrial revolution since digital data is controlling the whole layered production process. At the same time the geometric freedom and tool-free production assures a high degree of individualisation. But to be the driving force behind a new industrial revolution, a qualification of additive manufacturing processes is necessary so that the resulting products meet the required quality and safety standards in the different fields of application such as in handling technology or medical technology. This paper will discuss a conceptual approach for the development of an in-line quality control system in Additive Manufacturing Powder Bed Fusion processes using the example of the Selective Laser Sintering process.
Full Text Available In a traditional way, the school knowledge of the sciences, especially in high school, is consolidated from a set of conceptual contents that reflects a given historical construction of the referred science, whether Biology, Physics or Chemistry. In this format, textbooks generally present a more deterministic and reductionist view. There are several consequences, in this scheme that impact the formation of students, among them a mechanized learning and little contextual meaning. In an opposing movement to these limitations, the thematic approaches have been proposed and discussed in research of science teaching field, which propose a treatment of a given topic that is considered relevant for the formation of the youth. However, the organization by themes makes it difficult to integrate into the school curricular culture. Facing this question, this article intends to investigate potential ways of dealing with the two mentioned approaches (traditional and thematic methods, identifying possibilities for the building of knowledge with the potential to promote a more critical and reflexive formation. Methodologically, in this perspective, the research proposes a theoretical reflection from the complexity view about the works with themes, but considering the national school reality. From these considerations emerge the proposal of articulation between two forms of organization, conceptual and thematic, which create space for diversified choices by teachers, based on issues of their school daily life and their training goals. These choices are represented by what we call open thematic pathways. From the results, it may be concluded that the proposed strategies can promote an alternative view of science, the complexity idea, to address questions of an open and dynamic nature and, in this way; it may allow reflections about perceptions, attitudes and values. At same time, it aims to ways of acting of teachers with greater autonomy and protagonism
Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman
Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...
prevention and the implementation of cleaner technology by putting a stress on the industry. Further an approach for the balance between environmental and technological considerations is introduced. The need for easily understandable environmental priorities is stressed and a concept for this is presented......The paper describes some of the basic principles behind the DEPA Guidelines for discharge of industrial wastewater to public sewers set in operation in 1995 and evaluates some of the experiences with the implementation. It is described how such guidelines support the approach of pollution...
Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel
Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their
Sellmann, Daniela; Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.
When entering the classroom, adolescents already hold various conceptions on science topics. Concept maps may function as useful tools to reveal such conceptions although labor-intensive analysis often prevents application in typical classroom situations. The authors aimed to provide teachers with an appropriate approach to analyze students'…
Krueger, Robert F; Tackett, Jennifer L; MacDonald, Angus
Traditionally, psychopathology has been conceptualized in terms of polythetic categories derived from committee deliberations and enshrined in authoritative psychiatric nosologies-most notably the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). As the limitations of this form of classification have become evident, empirical data have been increasingly relied upon to investigate the structure of psychopathology. These efforts have borne fruit in terms of an increasingly consistent set of psychopathological constructs closely connected with similar personality constructs. However, the work of validating these constructs using convergent sources of data is an ongoing enterprise. This special section collects several new efforts to use structural approaches to study the validity of this empirically based organizational scheme for psychopathology. Inasmuch as a structural approach reflects the natural organization of psychopathology, it has great potential to facilitate comprehensive organization of information on the correlates of psychopathology, providing evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of an empirical approach to classification. Here, we highlight several themes that emerge from this burgeoning literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kolios, Athanasios J.; Read, G.
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the la...
Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Binning, Philip John; McKnight, Ursula S.
to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models...... that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert...... on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information becomes available....
O. O. Chernaya
Full Text Available The article considers the issue concerning the international legal problem of using armed forces to counter the threats posed by the misuse of civil aircraft, in particular, the use of civil aircraft as a weapon to kill people and destroy objects on the territory of States (the events of 11th September 2001 in the USA. It proves the need for universal international legal norms regulating the actions of States to prevent and suppress acts of the misuse of civil aircraft.
Pandey, M.D.; Nathwani, J.S.
The design, refurbishment and future decommissioning of nuclear reactors are crucially concerned with reducing the risk of radiation exposure that can result in adverse health effects and potential loss of life. To address this concern, large financial investments have been made to ensure safety of operating nuclear power plants worldwide. The efficacy of the expenditures incurred to provide safety must be judged against the safety benefit to be gained from such investments. We have developed an approach that provides a defendable basis for making that judgement. If the costs of risk reduction are disproportionate to the safety benefits derived, then the expenditures are not optimal; in essence the societal resources are being diverted away from other critical areas such as health care, education and social services that also enhance the quality of life. Thus, the allocation of society's resources devoted to nuclear safety must be continually appraised in light of competing needs, because there is a limit on the resources that any society can devote to extend life. The purpose of the paper is to present a simple and methodical approach to assessing the benefits of nuclear safety programs and regulations. The paper presents the Life-Quality Index (LQI) as a tool for the assessment of risk reduction initiatives that would support the public interest and enhance both safety and the quality of life. The LQI is formulated as a utility function consistent with the principles of rational decision analysis. The LQI is applied to quantify the societal willingness-to-pay (SWTP) for safety measures enacted to reduce of the risk of potential exposures to ionising radiation. The proposed approach provides essential support to help improve the cost-benefit analysis of engineering safety programs and safety regulations.
Buyadgie, Dmytro; Sechenyh, Vitaliy; Buyadgie, Olexiy; Nichenko, Sergii; Vasil' ev, Igor
The study attempts a comprehensive overview of the effects of human activities and proposes technical solutions for compensation of human anthropogenic intervention. Attention is focused on energy consumption optimization and reduction of harmful emissions at current stage of civilization development. Natural sources of energy and their associated greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are considered in the paper along with the existed approaches to energy utilization, its merits and demerits. The role of heat-utilizing thermotransformers in reduction of thermal release and GHG emissions is specified. The examples of energy efficient technologies, based on application of jet devices, are presented in the study.
Albert Sangrà; Dimitrios Vlachopoulos; Nati Cabrera
E-learning is part of the new dynamic that characterises educational systems at the start of the 21st century. Like society, the concept of e-learning is subject to constant change. In addition, it is difficult to come up with a single definition of e-learning that would be accepted by the majority of the scientific community. The different understandings of e-learning are conditioned by particular professional approaches and interests.An international project, based on the participation of e...
Full Text Available As the need for a more circular model is being increasingly pronounced, a fundamental change in the end-of-life (EoL management of electrical and electronic products (e-products is required in order to prevent the resource losses and to promote the reuse of products and components with remaining functionality. However, the diversity of product types, design features, and material compositions pose serious challenges for the EoL managers and legislators alike. In order to address these challenges, we propose a framework that is based on the ‘product family’ philosophy, which has been used in the manufacturing sector for a long time. For this, the product families can be built based on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of e-products as well as of the EoL management system. Such an approach has the potential to improve the current EoL practices and to support designers in making EoL thinking operational during the product design stage. If supported by a better EoL collection, presorting and testing platform, and a family-centric approach for material recovery, such a framework carries the potential to avoid the losses occurring in today’s e-waste management system. This, in turn, could facilitate a smooth transition towards a circular model for the electrical and electronic industry.
Full Text Available Considering the current issues the urban centers are dealing with, the amplified city competitiveness and the increased demand of qualitative public services, it appears the need to apply new urban management approaches, more oriented toward the market and the current needs of the city. The competitive environment pressure creates the need to pass from an entirely administrative approach to a more managerial one, in all aspects regarding the current problems of the cities. Thus, the urban stakeholders borrow more and more often working methods and techniques specific until now only for the private sector, in order to increase the public service’s performance and to sustainable develop their community. Urban marketing came as a natural response to the cities needs to bring added value to their urban management strategies. The final objective is to increase the cities attractiveness for different target groups: starting with the current and future inhabitants, continuing with tourists and finishing with potential investors, which by relocating their business, could become a part of the faster and more sustainable urban development.
Full Text Available The article describes essential problems of the region business innovation and investment development under current conditions, issues of crisis restrictions negotiation and innovation-driven economy formation. The relevance of the research is defined by the need of effective tools creation for business innovation and investment development and support, which can be applied, first, to increase efficiency of the region industrial activity, then improve production competitiveness on the innovative basis, overcome existing problems and provide sustainable innovation development in the region. The results of conducted research are represented in the article including region innovation and investment development concept model made up by the authors on the basis of system theoretical approach. The tools of the region innovation development defined in the concept model are briefly reviewed in the article. The most important of them include engineering marketing (marketing of scientific and technical innovations, strategic planning, benchmarking, place marketing and business process modeling.
Wells, Douglas P.
The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.
Recent decades have witnessed on the one hand a much greater and tighter integration of goods or services supply systems and growing interconnectedness as well as changing organizational and operational factors, and on the other hand an increased social vulnerability in the face of accidental or intentional disruption. The work of the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) in the field of critical infrastructures has focused on both the risks associated with five individual infrastructures and the issues associated with the increasing interdependence between them. This paper presents a selection of system weaknesses and a number of policy options that have been identified and highlights issues for further investigation and dialogue with stakeholders. Furthermore, the need to extend current modeling and simulation techniques in order to cope with the increasing system complexity is elaborated. An object-oriented, hybrid modeling approach promising to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional methods is presented
Full Text Available Complex and integrated nature of issues such as globalization, migration, interculturalism, environmental protection, information explosion, claims a transdisciplinary approach to education and music education. To cope with changes characteristic of the contemporary world, students need as generic skills: the ability to learn how to learn, ability and problem-solving assessment. Transdisciplinarity - involves such issues often highly complex, using tools and rules specific to certain science investigations using concepts of these sciences, but in other contexts. Students are interested in concrete problems faced in everyday life and looking for more of these explanations and practical solutions. To identify issues related to cross-disciplinary dimension of music education concepts will investigate disciplinary, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary are four arrows of a single bow: knowledge.
Legal reasoning is a type of problem solving, and is situated within thinking skills, one of the six threshold learning outcomes established under the auspices of the Australian Learning and Teaching Council's Bachelor of Laws Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement. The threshold learning outcomes define what law graduates are…
Schmalzbauer, Bettina; Visbeck, Martin
comprehensive approach is needed that combines basic science and solution-oriented science, and integrates knowledge from natural science, social sciences, engineering and humanities (but also from other knowledge domains) to meet the overall objective of the 2030 Agenda. Foresight, integrated assessment and integrated modelling can be possible successful approaches for knowledge exchange, learning, and identifying possible coherent development pathways towards global sustainability.To ensure rapid and effective uptake of new research results the concepts of co-design of research projects and co-production of knowledge show promise.
Martha L. Carvour
Full Text Available “Cascade” or “continuum” models have been developed for a number of diseases and conditions. These models define the desired, successive steps in care for that disease or condition and depict the proportion of the population that has completed each step. These models may be used to compare care across subgroups or populations and to identify and evaluate interventions intended to improve outcomes on the population level. Previous cascade or continuum models have been limited by several factors. These models are best suited to processes with stepwise outcomes—such as screening, diagnosis, and treatment—with a single defined outcome (e.g., treatment or cure for each member of the population. However, continuum modeling is not well developed for complex processes with non-sequential or recurring steps or those without singular outcomes. As shown here using the example of diabetic foot care, the concept of continuum modeling may be re-envisioned with a cyclical approach. Cyclical continuum modeling may permit incorporation of non-sequential and recurring steps into a single continuum, while recognizing the presence of multiple desirable outcomes within the population. Cyclical models may simultaneously represent the distribution of clinical severity and clinical resource use across a population, thereby extending the benefits of traditional continuum models to complex processes for which population-based monitoring is desired. The models may also support communication with other stakeholders in the process of care, including health care providers and patients.
Petrenko Natalia О.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at improving the theoretical and methodical provisions of the cluster approach to development of the spatially localized systems of the agricultural sector of Ukrainian economy at the regional level. Based on generalizing the relevant theoretical provisions, the identified characteristics of formation and development of the spatially localized systems, it has been found that, originating in the form of economic growth zones, they have been transformed into clustered and subclustered forms. It has been indicated that a prospective form of further development of the spatially localized systems is formation of subclustered structures that take account of the established specialization of localities, appropriate infrastructure, resource availability. The possibility of creating a project of developing a cluster formation was discussed on the example of the Central Economic Area. A complex of basic requirements for the intended localization of the cluster has been formulated. Proceeding from the results of the study, practical proposals for strategic management of region have been developed on the basis of development of cluster formations, using the spatially localized agrarian economic systems.
Voice feminization has been developed with various surgical techniques to increase voice pitch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 12 years of experience using a new endoscopical surgical technique, vocal fold shortening and retrodisplacement of the anterior commissure (VFSRAC) and retraining the voice pattern performed in female patients with androphonia or male-to-female transsexuals. Retrospective study. A retrospective study was performed on 362 patients who underwent VFSRAC (34 with androphonia, eight with androgenital syndrome, four with aplastic anemia treated with androgens, three with pseudohermaphroditism, and 313 male-to-female [MTF] transsexuals) and phonatory pattern rehabilitation between 2003 and 2014. Subjective and perceptual assessments, aerodynamic and acoustic assessments, and a videostroboscopic assessment were evaluated pre- and postoperatively in the female androphonia group and the MTF transsexual group. Mean preoperative fundamental frequency (F 0 ) was 144.1 Hz, and mean postoperative F 0 was 207.4 Hz, 6 months postoperatively. The mean increase of F 0 in the female androphonia group was 53.0 Hz but was 73.6 Hz in the MTF transsexual group after the postoperative phonatory pattern retraining program. Voice femininity increased on the postoperative subjective assessment. Acoustic and aerodynamic assessments were within the normal range. Regularity of the vocal fold mucosal wave were maintained in the normal range. These findings suggest that patients could achieve a natural phonation pattern after surgery. Our new approach for voice feminization, VFSRAC, and retraining of the phonatory pattern was effective for patients who wanted a natural feminine voice. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1102-1108, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
D. S. Bataeva
Full Text Available The modern approach to quality assurance of food products based on the ISO 9000 standards indicates the need for the implementation of quality management systems in processing plants. According to the analysis of scientific publication databases (Science Direct and Web of Science, it is established that only 0.5–1.7% of publications are related to studying meat of slaughter animals (except for birds concerning the presence of Campylobacter. The priority method of investigation is PCR. Ready-to-use PCR test system was developed for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on the basis of selected gene-specific primers to bacteria of Campylobacter genus. Specificity of the test system is established for Gram-negative bacteria of Salmonella, Escherichia, and Proteus genera, and for oxidase-positive Aeromonas. Gene-specific primers for Campylobacter were selected and ready-to-use PCR test system was developed on their basis. It was found that the selected primers have 100% convergence to the genome of Campylobacter genus bacteria, the PCR efficiency is not less than 95%, and the detection limit is not more than 1× 104 CFU/g. When estimating the specificity of the primers, it was taken into account that the bacteria of Campylobacter genus may be incorporated in a consortium with intestine microbiome, mainly with Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. However, Bolton’s enrichment medium is selective and, during the cultivation process, suppresses the growth of Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria. It was found that the selected primers were 100% specific and did not give false positive reactions with this group of microorganisms. The developed test system was successfully validated in a cycle of qualitative tests in the FEPAS system and implemented into laboratory practice. It was proved that the developed test system may be used both in screening at the stages of Campylobacter enrichment and in identification of pure culture of the
Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
This paper aims to discuss recent approaches in using more and more frequently computer tools as supports for the conceptual design phase of the architectural project. The present state-of-the-art about software as conceptual design tool could be summarized in two parallel tendencies. On the one...... with the problem of software as conceptual design tool by means of 'scripting', in other words by self-developing codes able to solve specific and well defined design problems. Starting with a brief historical recall and the discussion of relevant researches and practical experiences, this paper investigates...... for conceptual design in architecture....
The two European flagship space projects, Galileo and GMES, clearly show that the current existing legal rules of the two organisations involved (European Union and European Space Agency) are not compatible. Moreover, it is quite impossible to implement a common project if every single organisation insists on the application of its own rules strictu sensu. Nevertheless, due to the political desire to advance these projects rapidly and to make them a success, legal obstacles were to be overcome. Consequently, recently concluded agreements between ESA and the EU-Commission concerning the financial and governmental matters of the Galileo and GMES implementation feature a new approach to cooperation between these two organisations. However, the question remains if they can be taken as precedence for a future institutionalised cooperation? It follows that the agreements have to be analysed in order to understand how a mutually acceptable agreement was reached despite the disparity in the rules of both organisations. In this regard, especially the financial decision agreement concerning Galileo in December 2007 shows a very interesting and unique way in applying EU-competition law. In the same way, the GMES-Delegation Agreement of spring 2008 is a good example of how two different legal systems can be applied to make a project success. Additionally, the reasons and arguments of both organisations have to be considered, especially once the Treaty of Lisbon will be in force. As these two main projects of the European Space Policy are characterized by the desire for a successful European cooperation, they can be regarded as an important step forward for a new legal approach. A new system emerges which could be taken into consideration for further common projects undertaken by ESA and the EU.
The purpose of the research was to compare the effects of two different techniques of the cooperative learning approach, namely Team-Game Tournament and Jigsaw, on undergraduates' conceptual understanding in a Hormone Biochemistry course. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to Group 1 (N = 23) and Group 2 (N = 29). Instructions were accomplished using Team-Game Tournament in Group 1 and Jigsaw in Group 2. Before the instructions, all groups were informed about cooperative learning and techniques, their responsibilities in the learning process and accessing of resources. Instructions were conducted under the guidance of the researcher for nine weeks and the Hormone Concept Test developed by the researcher was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to the results, while both techniques improved students' understanding, Jigsaw was more effective than Team-Game Tournament. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(2):114-120, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Kasperson, R.E.; Ratick, S.; Renn, O.
This paper addresses one quite specific part of this broad range of issues -- the distribution of impacts to the state of Nevada and to the nation likely to be associated with the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. As such, it is one of four analyses of the overall equity problems and needs to be read in conjunction with our proposed overall framework for the equity studies and the several other specific analyses. The objective of this report is to consider how an analysis might be made of the distribution of projected outcomes between the state and nation. At the same time, it needs to be clear that no attempt will be made actually to implement the analysis that is proposed. What follows is a conceptual statement that identifies the analytical issues and problems and proposes an approach for overcoming them. Significantly, it must be remembered that this report will not address procedural equity issues between the state and nation for this is the subject of a separate analysis. 10 refs., 2 figs
Dalen, Jeanne; Brody, Janet L; Staples, Julie K; Sedillo, Donna
Currently, over 30% of US youth are overweight and 1 in 6 have metabolic syndrome, making youth obesity one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century. Few enduring treatment strategies have been identified in youth populations, and the majority of standard weight loss programs fail to adequately address the impact of psychological factors on eating behavior and the beneficial contribution of parental involvement in youth behavior change. A critical need exists to expand treatment development efforts beyond traditional education and cognitive-behavioral programs and explore alternative treatment models for youth obesity. Meditation-based mindful eating programs represent a unique and novel scientific approach to the current youth obesity epidemic given that they address key psychological variables affecting weight. The recent expansion of mindfulness programs to include family relationships shows the immense potential for broadening the customarily individual focus of this intervention to include contextual factors thought to influence youth health outcomes. This article provides an overview of how both mindful eating and family systems theory fits within a conceptual framework in order to guide development of a comprehensive family-based mindful eating program for overweight youth.
Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund
This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....
The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....
The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...
Légaré, France; Stacey, Dawn; Gagnon, Susie; Dunn, Sandy; Pluye, Pierre; Frosch, Dominick; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Elwyn, Glyn; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Graham, Ian D
Following increased interest in having inter-professional (IP) health care teams engage patients in decision making, we developed a conceptual model for an IP approach to shared decision making (SDM) in primary care. We assessed the validity of the model with stakeholders in Canada. In 15 individual interviews and 7 group interviews with 79 stakeholders, we asked them to: (1) propose changes to the IP-SDM model; (2) identify barriers and facilitators to the model's implementation in clinical practice; and (3) assess the model using a theory appraisal questionnaire. We performed a thematic analysis of the transcripts and a descriptive analysis of the questionnaires. Stakeholders suggested placing the patient at its centre; extending the concept of family to include significant others; clarifying outcomes; highlighting the concept of time; merging the micro, meso and macro levels in one figure; and recognizing the influence of the environment and emotions. The most common barriers identified were time constraints, insufficient resources and an imbalance of power among health professionals. The most common facilitators were education and training in inter-professionalism and SDM, motivation to achieve an IP approach to SDM, and mutual knowledge and understanding of disciplinary roles. Most stakeholders considered that the concepts and relationships between the concepts were clear and rated the model as logical, testable, having clear schematic representation, and being relevant to inter-professional collaboration, SDM and primary care. Stakeholders validated the new IP-SDM model for primary care settings and proposed few modifications. Future research should assess if the model helps implement SDM in IP clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field is going to be the strengthening of the bond between international investments and environmental protection. It is insisted on the attitude that our law needs to approach adequately to the matter of legal valorization of the environmental protection issue. This requires the creating of a complex, coherent approach that should be based on adequate legal superstructure and amendments to the existing Law on Foreign Investments. The main direction of changes implies that the current obligation of foreign investors in this field should be raised onto a higher level and foreign investments should be placed in the function of accomplishing of the concept of sustainable development. However, such an approach has to be accompanied by appropriate mechanism of control and supervision in the given field, if its full effectiveness is to be achieved.
Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Li, Jia [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Liu, Songlin, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)
Highlights: • The Hybrid 3D-1D-3D approach is used for radial building design of WCCB. • Nuclear heat obtained by this method agrees well with 3D neutronics results. • The final results of temperature and TBR satisfy with the requirements. • All the results show that this approach is high efficiency and high reliability. - Abstract: A hybrid 3D-1D-3D approach is proposed for the conceptual design of a blanket. Firstly, the neutron wall loading (NWL) of each blanket module is obtained through a neutronics calculation employing a 3D model, which contains the geometry outline of in-vacuum vessel components and the exact neutron source distribution. Secondly, a 1D cylindrical model with the blanket module containing a detailed radial building is adopted for the neutronics analysis, with the aim of calculating the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and nuclear heating. Being normalized to the NWL, the nuclear heating is transferred to a 2D model for thermal-hydraulics analysis using the FLUENT code. Through a series analysis of nuclear-thermal iterations that considers the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and thermal performance as optimization objectives, the optimized radial building of each module surrounding plasma can be obtained. Thirdly, the 3D structural design of each module is established by adding side walls, cover plates, stiffening plates, and other components based on the radial building. The 3D neutronics and thermal-hydraulics using the detailed blanket modules are re-analyzed. This approach has been successfully applied to the design of a water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). The radial building of each blanket module surrounding plasma is optimized. The global tritium breeding ratio (TBR) calculated by the 3D neutronics analysis is 1.21, and the temperature of all materials in the 3D blanket structure is below the upper limits. As indicated by the comparison of the 1D and 3D neutronics and thermal
Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline
Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving
de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Santos, Luzia Michelle; Ferreira, Alysson Vinicius Porto; de Almeida Lima, Tomás Lucio Marques; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; d'Avila, Sérgio
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that frequently results in oral-maxillofacial traumas, generating high social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of women victims of IPV and determine the pattern of oral-maxillofacial traumas, according to a medical-legal and forensic perspective. An exploratory study of 1361 suspected cases of women victims of IPV was carried out based on database of an Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry of Northeastern Brazil during a period of 4 years. Medico-legal and social records of victims were searched for information related to sociodemographic data, circumstances of aggressions and trauma patterns. Descriptive and multivariate statistics and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were performed. Almost half of victims exhibited some oral-maxillofacial trauma resulting from IPV (45.8%). Lesions affecting more than one third of the face (41.3%), especially in soft tissues (96.1%) were the most common. Based on the MCA results, two distinct victimization profiles (P1 and P2) have been identified. P1 was mainly characterized by women aged less than 28 years, living in the urban area, with higher education and working. They were assaulted using physical force in community settings perpetrated by former partner or ex-boyfriend during the night and weekends, resulting in oral-maxillofacial traumas. P2 was mainly composed of women aged over 28 years, living in the suburban or rural areas, with low schooling and who did not work. They were assaulted by firearm or weapon in their own home, perpetrated by their partner or boyfriend during the day and weekdays, resulting in trauma to other body parts. Oral and maxillofacial traumas are very common among women victims of IPV who searched for medical-legal service. In this context, forensic dentists can play a key role during the diagnostic process and should always work together with medical, biochemical and
Z. Gonul BALKIR
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Full Text Available After the incursion of the digitalisation and the Internet, new forms of cultural production, reception and consumption have come via the hands of technological convergence and the way society has adapted to that scenario. In the current context of globalisation traditional cultural conceptualisation has been modified by opening up an economic discourse based on knowledge, creativity and innovation. But how are cultural policies bringing this paradigm into their protection framework? As part of the cultural activity, cinema plays a core role contributing to the national economic competitiveness and social cohesion. However, small cinemas struggle and films made in minority languages face a lot more difficulties. This paper shows how a legal change has made a certain funding model possible for cinema in the Basque-language, suggesting that a legally binding space where a specific cultural subject is primarily recognised has become crucial for films in Basque. Tras la llegada de la digitalización e Internet, han surgido nuevas formas de producción, recepción y consumo de cultura, de la mano de la convergencia tecnológica y la forma en la que la sociedad se ha adaptado a ese escenario. En el contexto actual de la globalización, la conceptualización cultural tradicional se ha modificado por un nuevo discurso económico basado en el conocimiento, la creatividad y la innovación. Pero ¿cómo están integrando las políticas culturales este paradigma en su marco de protección? Como parte de la actividad cultural, el cine juega un papel fundamental, contribuyendo a la competitividad económica nacional y a la cohesión social. Sin embargo, las salas de cine pequeñas experimentan dificultades y las películas rodadas en lenguas minoritarias se enfrentan a numerosas dificultades. Este artículo muestra cómo un cambio legal ha hecho posible un modelo de financiación para el cine en lengua vasca, y se sugiere que es fundamental para las pel
Lyudmila V. Butko
Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.
Lisett D. Páez Cuba
Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.
Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth; Mur, Lina
The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.
for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...
Klebansky, Anna; Fraser, Sharon P.
This paper details a conceptual framework that situates curriculum design for information literacy and lifelong learning, through a cohesive developmental information literacy based model for learning, at the core of teacher education courses at UTAS. The implementation of the framework facilitates curriculum design that systematically,…
Cross, R. T.; Pitkethly, A.
Research suggests that many children have a concept of speed which is counterproductive to sound road crossing decisions. An attempt at conceptual change through the teaching of a unit on speed to grade one children is described. There is optimism that six- to seven-year-old children can apply classroom experiences to real life situations. (Author)
Artun, Huseyin; Costu, Bayram
The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting…
Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick
subcomponent, such as the river, sewer of floodplain, in an arrangement of interconnected cells, thereby lumping processes in space and time. Depending on the behaviour of the system that needs to be emulated and the desired level of accuracy, variables of interest can be predicted by adopting and calibrating one of the predefined model structures, such as weir equations, transfer functions (Wolfs et al., 2013) and self-learning structures including neural networks, model trees and fuzzy systems (Wolfs and Willems, 2013, 2014). Next, a software tool was developed to facilitate and speed-up model configuration. A close integration is foreseen with the MIKE (DHI) and InfoWorks (Innovyze) software. The created software tool also automatically sets up the calculation scheme in C programming language. The developed modelling approach and software were tested extensively on multiple case studies, including uncertainty flood mapping along a river, real time control of hydraulic structures to prevent flooding, and the quantification of the effect on floods of retention basins in a coupled sewer-river system (De Vleeschauwer et al., 2014). Research is currently being done on the extension of the modelling approach and accompanying software tool with physicochemical water quality modules. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT). The authors would like to thank DHI and Innovyze for the MIKE and InfoWorks licenses. References • De Vleeschauwer, K., Weustenraad, J., Nolf, C., Wolfs, V., De Meulder, B., Shannon, K., Willems, P. (2014). Green - blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods. Water Science and Technology, 70 (11), 1825-1837. • Wolfs, V., Villazon Gomez, M., Willems, P. (2013). Development of a semi-automated model identification and calibration tool for conceptual modelling of sewer systems. Water Science and Technology
Kannangara, Chathurika S.
This is an account of personal narratives shared by several people with dyslexia. Most of these are presented in their original quotation format to provide personal accounts of the lives of people with dyslexia. In this paper the author shares her conversations with her participants. This paper provides an original conceptual model, which is currently been tested empirically. Dyslexia affects the learning process in areas as such reading, and spelling. Conversely abilities or strengths can be...
Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix
This article aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse about the issue of privacy in the mobile advertising domain. The article discusses the fundamental principles and information practices used in digital environments for protecting individuals' private data. Major challenges are identified t......, such as legislation, self-regulation and technical approaches. It is intended to promote an effective approach to improve consumer privacy in the mobile advertising domain.......This article aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse about the issue of privacy in the mobile advertising domain. The article discusses the fundamental principles and information practices used in digital environments for protecting individuals' private data. Major challenges are identified...
Delivering social work services in collaboration with the legal representation for individual clients: An effective, ethical and economical approach to supporting families in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings.
This article discusses the need to improve the quality of helping relationships between families and social workers in the child protection system and the growing body of evidence that teams of social workers and lawyers are effective at improving outcomes in child protection legal proceedings. The author presents an alternative structure of delivering social work services within the child protection systems once a court gets involved with a family, proposing that social workers should focus on individual clients in collaboration with their legal representation, rather than the traditional model of a governmental agency social worker serving the family as a unit as it also determines placement of the children. Pairing the social worker to an individual client in tandem with their legal representative would help resolve the widely observed relationship problems between service users and governmental agency social workers that include the power imbalance created by the agency's authority to determine placement of children, the conflicts of interest that agency workers face when required to manage differing family members' needs, and the lack of protection of the due process right of confidentiality for parties involved in legal proceedings. This alternative structure also impacts the need to use resources more efficiently and has been demonstrated to result in substantial returns on investment. This article concludes that when a family becomes involved in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings, the child welfare agency should shift the delivery of social work services to the individual parties, away from the governmental agency and in conjunction with their legal representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ
The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.
Munthe, John; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Rahmberg, Magnus; Posthuma, Leo; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Bunke, Dirk; Engelen, Guy; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Gils, Jos; Herráez, David López; Rydberg, Tomas; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; van Wezel, Annemarie
This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with stakeholders representing relevant authorities and organisations responsible for managing environmental quality of water bodies. Stakeholder needs were compiled via a survey and dialogue. The content of the conceptual framework was thereafter developed with inputs from relevant scientific disciplines. The conceptual framework consists of four access points: Chemicals, Environment, Abatement and Society, representing different aspects and approaches to engaging in the issue of chemical contamination of surface waters. It widens the scope for assessment and management of chemicals in comparison to a traditional (mostly) perchemical risk assessment approaches by including abatement- and societal approaches as optional solutions. The solution-focused approach implies an identification of abatement- and policy options upfront in the risk assessment process. The conceptual framework was designed for use in current and future chemical pollution assessments for the aquatic environment, including the specific challenges encountered in prioritising individual chemicals and mixtures, and is applicable for the development of approaches for safe chemical management in a broader sense. The four access points of the conceptual framework are interlinked by four key topics representing the main scientific challenges that need to be addressed, i.e.: identifying and prioritising hazardous chemicals at different scales; selecting relevant and efficient abatement options; providing regulatory support for chemicals management; predicting and prioritising future chemical risks. The conceptual framework aligns current challenges in the safe production and use of chemicals. The current state of knowledge and implementation
Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix
This article aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse about the issue of privacy in the mobile advertising domain. The article discusses the fundamental principles and information practices used in digital environments for protecting individuals' private data. Major challenges are identified......, such as legislation, self-regulation and technical approaches. It is intended to promote an effective approach to improve consumer privacy in the mobile advertising domain....... that should be addressed, so that fair information principles can be applied in the context of m-advertising. It also points out the limitations of these principles. Furthermore, the article discusses a range of models that is available for regulating the collection, use and disclosure of personal data...
Last, George V.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Schelling, F J.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Delamare, Michael A.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Hildebrand, R D.; Morse, John G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Riley, Robert G.; Soler, Luis; Thorne, Paul D.
The U. S. Department of Energy?s Richland Operations Office has initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) methodology (used in scenario development for nuclear waste disposal programs) to the environmental management and remediation problems facing the Hanford Site. These efforts have shown that modification of the FEPs methodology to incorporate the use of Process Relationship Diagrams (PRD) is effective in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of potentially relevant factors to be incorporated into a specific performance assessment. In developing this methodology for Hanford, a master PRD was created to provide an organization structure for identifying the potentially relevant factors (i.e. FEPs) and for illustrating the relationships between these factors. This organizational framework was developed to match the organization of current Hanford site-wide performance assessment activities and to facilitate screening of the FEPs relevant to the problems (and conceptual models) that need to be addressed at the site. However, the link between Hanford specific FEPs and the international list of FEPs was maintained to demonstrate completeness and perhaps to expand the usefulness of the international list for other environmental programs
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Benda-Beckmann, von F.
Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a
Full Text Available In a Flash Mob (FM a group of people get together in the physical world perform an unpredicted act and disperse quickly. Cyber Flash Mob (CFM is the cyber manifestation of flash mob coordinated primarily using social media. Deviant Cyber Flash Mob (or, DCFM is a special case of CFM, which is categorized as the new face of transnational crime organizations (TCOs. The DCFM phenomenon can be considered as a form of a cyber-collective action that is defined as an action aiming to improve group's conditions (such as, status or power. In this paper, we conduct a conceptual analysis of the DCFMs and model the factors that lead to success or failure with groundings in collective action and collective identity formation theories. Mathematical constructs of hypergraph are leveraged to represent the complex relations observed in the DCFM social networks. The model's efficacy is demonstrated through a test scenario.
Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first
Full Text Available the article describes different approaches in definition of transnational corporation’s legal personality. The reviewed approaches have become available for the last fifty years and they contain completely opposite views on the legal personality of TNC. The methods of analyze, synthesis, ranging have been used during preparation of this article.
Full Text Available This study aims at presenting a conceptual model for landscape management in the Himalayan region of India, using quantitative/mathematical approach. Keeping in view the requirement, (based on fifteen years empirical field work in the Himalayan region and as well as literature survey the MODAM (Multiple Objectives Decision Support Tools for Landscape Management model along with linear programming approach was adopted with a view to presenting additional methodological perspectives on interdisciplinary landscape research. The work has stemmed out from the original research contribution, which tries to integrate interdisciplinary research planning with landscape management related research in the Himalayan region. This biodiversity hotspot has relatively high complexity in terms of sustainable socioeconomic development vis a vis conservation and management of the resources. The concepts and insights presented in this article will provide the basis for a discussion, on decisionmaking issues among multidisciplinary experts with regard to sustainable socioecological development within complex environments.
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won
Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.
The Use of Legally-Imposed and Locally-Negotiated Incentive Approaches in the Siting of Nuclear Waste Management Facilities: Comparing Stakeholders' Views in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia - 13534
Kojo, Matti [School of Management, 33014 University of Tampere (Finland); Richardson, Phil [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham, Rutland (United Kingdom)
The purpose here is to contribute to the discussion surrounding the use of community benefits (also known as added value) in radioactive waste facility siting programmes. These are becoming more widely used following a series of programme failures around the world, due in the main to a lack of local involvement. A number of different models for the use of community benefits and why they may or may not assist a siting process exist in the literature, based on either a voluntary market approach or one involving coercion by a state authority or developer. Review of real-life examples suggests that two main approaches to the use of benefits exist, a 'legally-mandated' approach where details are laid down in legislation, and a 'locally-negotiated' approach where the details are agreed by the parties through discussions. As part of the European Commission supported IPPA project (Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Waste Disposal), stakeholder groups in three participant countries, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia, all of which currently utilise the 'legally-mandated' approach to the provision of community benefits, were invited to respond to a series of questions designed to explore their attitudes and thoughts about the two approaches and related issues such as trust in the institutions and the legal framework. Some initial results and conclusions are presented, although this work is continuing and will be reported at the end of the IPPA project in 2013. (authors)
The Use of Legally-Imposed and Locally-Negotiated Incentive Approaches in the Siting of Nuclear Waste Management Facilities: Comparing Stakeholders' Views in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia - 13534
Kojo, Matti; Richardson, Phil
The purpose here is to contribute to the discussion surrounding the use of community benefits (also known as added value) in radioactive waste facility siting programmes. These are becoming more widely used following a series of programme failures around the world, due in the main to a lack of local involvement. A number of different models for the use of community benefits and why they may or may not assist a siting process exist in the literature, based on either a voluntary market approach or one involving coercion by a state authority or developer. Review of real-life examples suggests that two main approaches to the use of benefits exist, a 'legally-mandated' approach where details are laid down in legislation, and a 'locally-negotiated' approach where the details are agreed by the parties through discussions. As part of the European Commission supported IPPA project (Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Waste Disposal), stakeholder groups in three participant countries, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia, all of which currently utilise the 'legally-mandated' approach to the provision of community benefits, were invited to respond to a series of questions designed to explore their attitudes and thoughts about the two approaches and related issues such as trust in the institutions and the legal framework. Some initial results and conclusions are presented, although this work is continuing and will be reported at the end of the IPPA project in 2013. (authors)
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
Vieira, G. L. S.
Full Text Available Considering a direct correlation between projects requirements details levels and their performance, this paper aims to evaluate whether the adoption of more extensive and detailed cost, time and scope estimation processes based on both practices, traditional and agile, and executed concurrently with the supplier selection stage, could guarantee greater accuracy in these estimates, thus increasing project success rates. Based on a case study for the information system project implementation into the legal area of a large Brazilian company, five suppliers had their proposals analyzed and compared in terms of the costs and deadlines involved, as well as the project management processes used in theirs estimates. From the obtained results, it was possible to observe that not all companies follow, at least during the prospecting phase, their service proposals described management processes, according to the theory. Another important finding was that the proposals involving, at least partially, agile approach concepts, were more likely to justify their estimates. These proposals still presented lower values, whenever compared to those less adherents to the theoretical concepts, as those based on traditional concepts.
An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)
Chathurika Sewwandi Kannangara
Full Text Available This is an account of personal narratives shared by several people with dyslexia. Most of these are presented in their original quotation format to provide personal accounts of the lives of people with dyslexia. In this paper the author shares her conversations with her participants. This paper provides an original conceptual model, which is currently been tested empirically. Dyslexia affects the learning process in areas as such reading, and spelling. Conversely abilities or strengths can be seen in other areas, such as developing coping strategies to manage and overcome challenges. This research aims to adapt positive psychology techniques to support individuals with dyslexia. To develop positive psychology interventions, individuals will be helped to discover their five signature strengths. The VIA (Values in Action Strengths Survey has been hosted in a website which has been developed in the form of a dyslexia user friendly format, such as providing the ability for respondents to change fonts and font sizes, colours and a text to speech option. This paper introduces the theoretical model of ' How to move from Languishing Dyslexia to Thriving Dyslexia'.
GÃ¼rkaynak, GÃ¶nenÃ§; YÄ±lmaz, Ä°lay; YeÅŸilaltay, Burak
This contribution discusses the legal framework of online advertising and common legal issues pertaining thereto. This paper also addresses the implementation of general legal provisions to online advertising issues in different jurisdictions and the diversity of approaches. It provides the legal boundaries that are specifically applicable to online advertising. The paper then provides a legal analysis on online advertising with a focus on Turkish laws and practice. In the conclusion, there a...
І. M. Alieksieieva
Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik
is motivated by an obvious need for users to survey huge volumes of objects in query answers. An ontology formalism and a special notion of-instantiated ontology" are introduced. The latter is a structure reflecting the content in the document collection in that; it is a restriction of a general world......We present here ail approach to conceptual querying where the aim is, given a collection of textual database objects or documents, to target an abstraction of the entire database content in terms of the concepts appearing in documents, rather than the documents in the collection. The approach...... knowledge ontology to the concepts instantiated in the collection. The notion of ontology-based similarity is briefly described, language constructs for direct navigation and retrieval of concepts in the ontology are discussed and approaches to conceptual summarization are presented....
Sanders, Justin J; Curtis, J Randall; Tulsky, James A
High-quality care for seriously ill patients aligns treatment with their goals and values. Failure to achieve "goal-concordant" care is a medical error that can harm patients and families. Because communication between clinicians and patients enables goal concordance and also affects the illness experience in its own right, healthcare systems should endeavor to measure communication and its outcomes as a quality assessment. Yet, little consensus exists on what should be measured and by which methods. To propose measurement priorities for serious illness communication and its anticipated outcomes, including goal-concordant care. We completed a narrative review of the literature to identify links between serious illness communication, goal-concordant care, and other outcomes. We used this review to identify gaps and opportunities for quality measurement in serious illness communication. Our conceptual model describes the relationship between communication, goal-concordant care, and other relevant outcomes. Implementation-ready measures to assess the quality of serious illness communication and care include (1) the timing and setting of serious illness communication, (2) patient experience of communication and care, and (3) caregiver bereavement surveys that include assessment of perceived goal concordance of care. Future measurement priorities include direct assessment of communication quality, prospective patient or family assessment of care concordance with goals, and assessment of the bereaved caregiver experience. Improving serious illness care necessitates ensuring that high-quality communication has occurred and measuring its impact. Measuring patient experience and receipt of goal-concordant care should be our highest priority. We have the tools to measure both.
Boer, A.; Sileno, G.
To address agility in public administration, the Agile project developed a reference knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on a dynamic and design-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. The main objective of the project was to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge
Wyner, A.Z.; Hoekstra, R.J.
The paper provides an OWL ontology for legal cases with an instantiation of the legal case Popov v. Hayashi. The ontology makes explicit the conceptual knowledge of the legal case domain, supports reasoning about the domain, and can be used to annotate the text of cases, which in turn can be used to
Wyner, A.; Hoekstra, R.
The paper provides an OWL ontology for legal cases with an instantiation of the legal case Popov v. Hayashi. The ontology makes explicit the conceptual knowledge of the legal case domain, supports reasoning about the domain, and can be used to annotate the text of cases, which in turn can be used to
Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M
This paper provides an important and timely overview of a conceptual framework designed to assist with the development of message content, as well as the evaluation, of persuasive health messages. While an earlier version of this framework was presented in a prior publication by the authors in 2009, important refinements to the framework have seen it evolve in recent years, warranting the need for an updated review. This paper outlines the Step approach to Message Design and Testing (or SatMDT) in accordance with the theoretical evidence which underpins, as well as empirical evidence which demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of, each of the framework's steps. The development and testing of the framework have thus far been based exclusively within the road safety advertising context; however, the view expressed herein is that the framework may have broader appeal and application to the health persuasion context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Portwood, Sharon G; Heany, Julia Finkel
Violence against women represents a serious problem in America. Not only does intimate partner violence represent a significant threat to women, but it also counts among its victims, children living in the violent household. By its very nature, intimate partner or domestic violence may be approached as either a legal or a social problem. However, there is a shortage of legal approaches that have been informed by sound social science research. One promising framework for developing such integrated responses to intimate partner violence is therapeutic jurisprudence, which encourages legal professionals to work closely with social scientists to develop system responses based on empirical data. Such an approach contrasts sharply with the current practice of developing law based on assumptions, which frequently reflect traditional paternalistic and sexist attitudes toward women. This paper begins by examining the current theories and scientific knowledge on domestic violence with particular emphasis on the supporting data. A theoretical framework for conceptualizing domestic violence characterized as patriarchal terrorism as distinct from common couple violence is examined and offered as a means of explaining inconsistencies in research findings. Following a review of current legal responses to domestic violence, the paper concludes by outlining alternative strategies and recommendations for future efforts that are supported by current theory and research.
Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly
This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…
World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft
Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften
This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)
Pina, Armando A; Holly, Lindsay E; Zerr, Argero A; Rivera, Daniel E
In the child and adolescent anxiety area, some progress has been made to develop evidence-based prevention protocols, but less is known about how to best target these problems in children and families of color. In general, data show differential program effects with some minority children benefiting significantly less. Our preliminary data, however, show promise and suggest cultural parameters to consider in the tailoring process beyond language and cultural symbols. It appears that a more focused approach to culture might help activate intervention components and its intended effects by focusing, for example, on the various facets of familismo when working with some Mexican parents. However, testing the effects and nuances of cultural adaption vis-à-vis a focused personalized approach is methodologically challenging. For this reason, we identify control systems engineering design methods and provide example scenarios relevant to our data and recent intervention work.
Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.
Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:25120200
Édgar Alonso Madrigal Ramírez; Jorge Mario Roldán Retana
Se ha considerado al Interrogatorio Médico Forense en casos de Delitos Sexuales en Niños como revictimizante. La Historia Médico Legal en Delitos Sexuales recoge la información necesaria para orientar el Examen Físico y para la recolección de evidencias en la víctima y en su contexto. Existen técnicas médico forenses para interrogar al niño con el afán de evitar la revictimización, entendida esta como el sufrimiento que experimentan las víctimas al promoverse una actualización del evento trau...
Konstantin Anatol’evich Gulin
Full Text Available Currently, the majority of scientific and expert community and politicians recognize the key role of “new industry” in economic growth of countries and their competitiveness in world markets. The new industrial policy – characterized as “industrial Renaissance” – of some leading countries (after the 2008 global financial crisis combines focus on the development of breakthrough technology and a new approach to cooperation in the framework of formation and implementation of industrial policy. The existing Russian practice of formation and implementation of industrial policy is poorly linked to national priorities and the objectives of ensuring sustainable economic growth and increase in welfare. This hampers the effective use of the country’s own resources in order to ensure competitiveness and progressive development. The author considers “national industrial policy” to be a set of measures that aim to develop the industrial sector and increase its competitiveness through the system interaction between the government, business and society; this set of measures also aims to provide sustainable economic growth and increase national welfare. Russia needs a convergent approach that combines, in definite proportions, the advantages of vertical and horizontal measures, because the break-up of vertical (inter-sectoral and horizontal (cross-sectoral relationships and the antagonism between the interests of the main actors became Russia’s specific features resulting from the chaos of post-Soviet reforms. Industrial policy should be carried out with the use of system-wide target-setting associated with the solution of economic tasks, and also establish specific effective mechanisms of its implementation in the framework of the “network” approach
For women, any one type of abuse rarely occurs in isolation of other types, and a single abusive experience is often the exception rather than the norm. The importance of this concept of the cumulative nature of abuse and its negative impact on health has been well recognized within the empirical literature, however there has been little consensus on what to call this phenomenon or how to study it. For the most part researchers have operated on the premise that it is the sheer number of different types of cumulating abuse experiences that is primarily responsible for worse health outcomes among women. And although this simplistic 'more is worse' approach to conceptualizing and operationalizing cumulative abuse has proven to be a powerful predictor of poorer health, it contradicts growing empirical evidence that suggests not all victimizations are created equal and that some victimizations may have a more deleterious effect on health than others. Embedded in abuse histories are individual and abuse characteristics as well as other life adversities that need to be considered in order to fully understand the spectrum and magnitude of cumulative abuse and its impact on women's health. Furthermore, given the long-term and persistent effects of abuse on health it becomes imperative to not only evaluate recent abusive experiences, but rather all abuse experiences occurring across the lifespan. This review highlights and evaluates the conceptual, operational, and methodological challenges posed by our current methods of studying and understanding the phenomenon of cumulative abuse and suggests that this phenomenon and its relationship to health is much more complex than research is currently portraying. This paper calls for the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaboration in order to more effectively and innovatively study the phenomenon of cumulative abuse.
The manner in which customers shop is evolving and there has been an increase in customers shopping online and in physical shops using a multi-channel approach (Hsiao, Yen & Li, 2012). Customers now shop using mobile phones, tablets and have access to shopping sources 24 hours a day. Multi-channel shopping is where customers use multiple channels such as online, in-store, catalogues or mobile devices to purchase products or services (Zhang et al., 2010). Research has shown that multi-channel ...
Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches
Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni
A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.
Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...
Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral
Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor of law schools; The educational legislation Questions of legal education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences about the teaching of law, the methodological approach and the didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.
A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)
Nyland, John; Kanouse, Zachary; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David; Jakob, Rolie
Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most common disabling medical conditions. With longer life expectancy the number of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures being performed worldwide is projected to increase dramatically. Patient education, physical activity, bodyweight levels, expectations and goals regarding the ability to continue athletic activity participation are also increasing. For the subset of motivated patients with knee osteoarthritis who have athletic activity approach type goals, early TKA may not be the best knee osteoarthritis treatment option to improve satisfaction, quality of life and outcomes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a conceptual decision-making model designed to improve the knee osteoarthritis treatment intervention outcome for motivated patients with athletic activity approach type goals. The model focuses on improving knee surgeon, patient and rehabilitation clinician dialogue by rank ordering routine activities of daily living and quality of life evoking athletic activities based on knee symptom exacerbation or re-injury risk. This process should help establish realistic patient expectations and goals for a given knee osteoarthritis treatment intervention that will more likely improve self-efficacy, functional independence, satisfaction and outcomes while decreasing the failure risk associated with early TKA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor housing conditions in remote Indigenous communities in Australia are a major underlying factor in poor child health, including high rates of skin infections. The aim of this study is to test approaches to data collection, analysis and feedback for a follow-up study of the impact of housing conditions on child health. Methods Participation was negotiated in three communities with community councils and individual participants. Data were collected by survey of dwelling condition, interviews, and audit health centre records of children aged under seven years. Community feedback comprised immediate report of items requiring urgent repair followed by a summary descriptive report. Multivariate models were developed to calculate adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR for skin infections and their association with aspects of household infrastructure. Results There was a high level of participation in all communities. Health centre records were inadequate for audit in one community. The records of 138 children were available for development of multivariate analytic models. Rates of skin infection in dwellings that lacked functioning facilities for removing faeces or which had concrete floors may be up to twice as high as for other dwellings, and the latter association appears to be exacerbated by crowding. Younger children living in older dwellings may also be at approximately two-fold higher risk. A number of socioeconomic and socio-demographic variables also appear to be directly associated with high rates of skin infections. Conclusion The methods used in the pilot study were generally feasible, and the analytic approach provides meaningful results. The study provides some evidence that new and modern housing is contributing to a reduction in skin infections in Aboriginal children in remote communities, particularly when this housing leads to a reduction in crowding and the effective removal of human waste.
Minevere Morina – Rashiti
The highlighted topic, "Building social cohesion of the legal-social state and the phenomenon of integration" with its essential target is a conceptual presentation of building social –legal cohesion in relation with the phenomenon of integration and interoperability. Building of the welfare state, social and legal rights presented as a paradigm of security, development all along with economic interaction play a crucial role. This paper clarifies the relationship between the social and legal ...
This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC
This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC.
R. T. Baran
Full Text Available The authors’ own scientific and practical approaches to the issuing of the clauses of new Air Code of Ukraine are proposed. There are presented the conceptual basics of organization and legal regulation of the legislative instructions, which especially concern to the chapters regarding regulation of the conditions and order of use of the air space of Ukraine, organizational and economic aspects of activities of airports etc. The models of structuring the organizational subsystems for the commercial and state sectors of the air space and the forms of the organizationalandmanagerial structures, managerial methods and economical airport systems are also proposed.
Narasimhan, T.N. Wang, J.S.Y.
The authors of this report have been participating in the Sandia National Laboratory's hydrologic performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, since 1983. The scope of this work is restricted to the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and to technical questions about hydrology and chemical transport. The issues defined here are not to be confused with the elaborate hierarchy of issues that forms the framework of the US Department of Energy plans for characterizing the site (DOE, 1989). The overall task of hydrologic performance assessment involves issues related to hydrology, geochemistry, and energy transport in a highly heterogeneous natural geologic system which will be perturbed in a major way by the disposal activity. Therefore, a rational evaluation of the performance assessment issues must be based on an integrated appreciation of the aforesaid interacting processes. Accordingly, a hierarchical approach is taken in this report, proceeding from the statement of the broad features of the site that make it the site for intensive studies and the rationale for disposal strategy, through the statement of the fundamental questions that need to be answered, to the identification of the issues that need resolution. Having identified the questions and issues, the report then outlines the tasks to be undertaken to resolve the issues. The report consists essentially of two parts. The first part deals with the definition of issues summarized above. The second part summarizes the findings of the authors between 1983 and 1989 under the activities of the former Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) and the current YMP
Salvador-Carulla, L; Lukersmith, S; Sullivan, W
Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development. In addition to these advances, a new framework based on the philosophy of science is required. Guidelines should be defined as implementation decision support tools for improving the decision-making process in real-world practice and not only as a procedure to optimise the knowledge base of scientific discovery and corroboration. A shift from the model of the EBM pyramid of corroboration of evidence to the use of broader multi-domain perspective graphically depicted as 'Greek temple' could be considered. This model takes into account the different stages of scientific knowledge (discovery, corroboration and implementation), the sources of knowledge relevant to guideline development (experimental, observational, contextual, expert-based and experiential); their underlying inference mechanisms (deduction, induction, abduction, means-end inferences) and a more precise definition of evidence and related terms. The applicability of this broader approach is presented for the development of the Canadian Consensus Guidelines for the Primary Care of People with Developmental Disabilities.
de Gaay Fortman, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068346581; Marcatelli, M.
This article argues that the internationally declared “human right to safe water and sanitation,” although characterized by soft legality, may yet support universal access to such basic entitlements by virtue of its strong legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, human rights do indeed provide
Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.
This is the second of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. This article begins our quantitative investigation of the data. We describe how we scored students' responses to four conceptual cosmology surveys, and we present evidence for the inter-rater…
Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.
This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.
Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E
This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field i...
Bondov S. N.
The article is devoted to the analysis of various approaches to the main definitions of a family law, such as marriage, family, and marriage legal relationship. In the article we profoundly considered the legal aspects of a procedure of marriage as the act of registration of marriage is the basis of emergence of marriage legal relationship. The conditions and the bases of marriage are characterized. We made a conclusion that marriage is a legal fact establishing, changing or stopping the corr...
Isabel Cristina Jaramillo Sierra
Full Text Available The concept of “family” plays an important role in the way national legal regimes distribute both power and resources. However, the idea of what a family is or should be is not univocal for all branches of law. In this paper we wish to contribute to feminist thinking about the law and to legal theory in general, by showing the contradictions and gaps in law’s incorporation of the legal concept of the family and their distributive impact. We use the notion of conceptual fragmentation to refer to the irregular manner in which family as a legal concept lands into the realms of diverse fields of law at different moments in time and with different emphasis. We argue that conceptual fragmentation makes connections through time and subject matter invisible, and therefore makes it harder to have a critique of the role of the family, treated as a legal concept, in the oppression of women. We establish that conceptual fragmentation is not irrational or incoherent but rather patterned in ways that correspond to the losses of women in contemporary societies. We use the case of colombian law to illustrate the stakes involved in defining the family and the operations that we call fragmentation. In particular, we explain how family law exceptionalism was produced, the importance of the legal concept of the family within family law and its ambivalence as to the proper definition, and the evolution of the concept of family within social policy. We argue that even if the stakes of the family seem to be all for same sex couples, in so far as “family” is still about reproduction and distribution, we should be vigilant about how women fare in the conceptual turns that seek to bring us closer to the natural family.
Blume, Peter Erik
This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...
Salazar, Noel B.
It is hard to imagine tourism without the creative use of both seductive and restrictive imaginaries about peoples and places. This article presents a theoretical framework for the study of tourism imaginaries and their circulation. Where do tourism imaginaries come from, how and why are they circulated across the globe, and what kind of impact do they have on people’s lives? I discuss the multiple links between tourism and the imaginary, illustrating the overlapping but conflicting ways in w...
Priya Chandra Ojha
Objective: The requirement of consumers of goods and services are wide and variable. The firms involved in producing goods and providing services always try to fulfill the needs of various consumers and launch new products and apply innovative techniques because their main aim is to satisfy the consumer needs. The main task of marketing management is to fulfill the aspiration of the consumers. It is a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process. It is thus i...
O. V. Krasnokutskyi
Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.
Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V
In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: One of the main challenges facing medical education is effective and efficient clinical training that can institutionalize logical thinking, and enhance the ability to make decisions in sensitive positions in students. So the current study was performed with the aim of application of basic science knowledge in medical clinical stage by Akam law approach at Golestan University of medical sciences. Materials and Methods: The study was descriptive – analytic and performed using census by 86 trainees and interns in infectious ward of Sayyad hospital in one year by a valid and reliable self-made questionnaire on a 5 degrees Likert scale with 85 Cronbach's alpha using Akam law. Data were collected after questionnaire completion and then were described using spss software version 16 and were analyzed with chi-square test. Results: Research findings showed that 79 percent of participants reasoning power. 60.5 percent team collaboration, 79.1 percent upgrade capabilities were completely agreed. 7 percent of the participants regard to field time the speed of diagnosis make a comment disagree and completely disagree. in this study genus had a significant effect on time speed of diagnosis at 5 % and had no significant effects on other issues . Grade had a significant effect on reasoning power and upgrade capabilities at 5 % and had no significant effect on the time speed of diagnosis and team collaboration at this level. Conclusion: it's too important for educators that developing thinking skills and judgment in students in Educational complex environment. Applying Akam law on conceptual map can be fill the gap between theory and practice and give basic concepts at the clinical stage.
Florencia Rovetto Gonem
Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una selección de estudios sobre las transformaciones contemporáneas que implican a las mujeres, el trabajo y los medios de comunicación que hemos considerado de interés por su relevancia, vinculación e impacto científico para los estudios denominados genéricamente, Estudios de Mujeres (EM. Aquí, realizaremos una aproximación al concepto de trabajo como concepto polisémico y ambiguo, objeto en sí mismo de una larga y compleja discusión en distintas disciplinas. Asimismo, abordamos las principales aportaciones de los EM en el campo de la comunicación social y la problemática específica de la representación del trabajo de las mujeres en los medios de comunicación. Ambas conceptualizaciones dan visibilidad a los temas y problemáticas actuales en torno a las mujeres y permiten enfocar los principales roles protagonizados por éstas en las sociedades contemporáneas.In this article we present a selection of studies about contemporary transformations that involve women, work and the media that we considered of interest for its relevance, links and scientific impact for the studies generically refered as Women's Studies (WS. Here, we made an approach to the concept of work as polysemous and ambiguous concept, object in itself of a long and complex discussion in various disciplines. We also discuss the main contributions of WS in the field of social communication and the specific problems of women's work representation in the media. Both conceptualizations give visibility to the issues and current problematic related to women and they allow focusing on the main roles starring by women in contemporary societies.
Bello-Urrego, Alejandra Del Rocío
Based upon the public health sector perspective, this article explores conceptual approaches to address the issue of gender violence against women. To consider the election of an analysis framework regarding the phenomenon of violence against women in the health sector, in the light of the political implications of becoming a woman in the midst of a specific social order. Expert review of scientific literature published on free-access data bases so as to identify the most commonly used interpretation frameworks with regard to the phenomenon of violence against women in order to explain its political implications according to a specific social order. Becoming woman implies participation in social aspects from an inequity stemming from structural power. This is the reason why violence against women can never be considered away from its roots. i.e., a society that assigns to women social roles that imply diminished possibilities of access to the use of power through a sex/gender system which is binary, hierarchic and exclusive. In public health areas, the selection of interpretation frameworks that do not take into account the structural origin of violence against women contribute to their invisibilization and even to perpetuate it, independently from the conscience of the researcher on the basis of the political burden arising from the use of such frameworks to the detriment of others, or the intention of objectivity regarding frameworks with a heavy political burden that contribute to the maintenance of a sex/gender binary, hierarchic and excluding structure. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
This report represents a step towards meeting the goal of the Aarhus Convention Access to Justice Task Force to develop a set of good practices and analyses on three priority issues: · The loser pays principle Article 9(4) of the Aarhus Convention requires that procedures for obtaining access to justice must not be prohibitively expensive. In some legal systems, the loser of an administrative or judicial action must pay all, or a portion of, the winner's litigation costs. These costs may incl...
presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...
Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne
and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...... types of knowledge necessary to equip young people to participate in meaningful ways are outlined before some dilemmas, challenges and participatory issues are considered. Regardless of the level or scope of participation, it is imperative that participation of young people in decision...
Christopher John Smith
Full Text Available Conceptual models summarize, visualize and explain actual or predicted situations and how they might be tackled. In recent years, Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R frameworks have been central to conceptualizing marine ecosystem issues and then translating those to stakeholders, environmental managers and researchers. Society is concerned about the risks to the natural and human system posed by those Pressures (thus needing risk assessment and then needs to act to minimize or compensate those risks (as risk management. This research relates this to the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State(change-Impact-Response hierarchical framework using standardized terminology/definitions and lists of impacting Activities and Pressures affecting ecosystem components, incorporating the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD legal decision components. This uses the example of fishing activity and the pressure of trawling from abrasion on the seabed and its effects on particular components. The mechanisms of Pressure acting on State changes are highlighted here as an additional refinement to DPSIR. The approach moves from conceptual models to actual assessments including: assessment methodologies (interactive matrices, ecosystem modeling, Bayesian Belief Networks, Bow-tie approach, some assessment tools data availability, confidence, scaling, cumulative effects and multiple simultaneous Pressures, which more often occur in multi-use and multi-user areas. In defining and describing the DPSIR Conceptual Framework we consider its use in re-world ecosystems affected by multiple pressures or multiple mechanisms of single pressures, and show how it facilitates management and assessment issues with particular relevance to the MSFD.
Weber, Rolf H
Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D
the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...
Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.
Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that
This paper wants to contribute to the debate on the complex relationships between law and agroecosystems from a legal pluralistic perspective. For this purpose, it first explains what is legal pluralism, and then this notion is used to conceptualize law, the relationship between law and social
Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre
This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…
Teachers of science-based education in Malaysian secondary schools, especially those in the field of physics, often find their students facing huge difficulties in dealing with conceptual ideas in physics, resulting thus in a lack of interest towards the subject. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching…
Jenicke, Lawrence O.; Holmes, Monica C.; Pisani, Michael J.
Student retention in higher education is a major issue as academic institutions compete for fewer students and face declining enrollments. A conceptual model of applying the quality improvement methodology of Six Sigma to the problem of undergraduate student retention in a college of business is presented. Improvement techniques such as cause and…
House, Chloe; Meades, Glen; Linenberger, Kimberly J.
Presented is a guided inquiry activity designed to be conducted with prenursing students using an analogous system to help develop a conceptual understanding of factors impacting enzyme kinetics and the various types of enzyme inhibition. Pre- and postconceptual understanding evaluations and effectiveness of implementation surveys were given to…
Holveck, Susan E.
This mixed methods study was designed to compare the effect of using an inquiry teaching methodology and a more traditional teaching methodology on the learning gains of students who were taught a five-week conceptual change unit on density. Seventh graders (N = 479) were assigned to five teachers who taught the same unit on density using either a…
This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.
Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard
This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....
Hermann, Ronald S.
In order to effectively teach evolution to all students, even those resistant to learning evolution, science teachers may question the extent to which religion can legally be discussed in the public high school science classroom. Evolution is taught from a variety of approaches, each of which has legal implications. Four approaches to teaching…
Marishet, Mohammed Hamza
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carlos Mario Zapata
ícil compreensão para o cliente, o que impede que se tenha uma validação em períodos prévios do desenvolvimento.Automated code generation is fostered by several software development methods. This generation is often supplied by well-known CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering tools. However, automation is still so far and some CASE tools are complemented by non-standard modeling projects. In this paper, we conceptualize projects related to automated code generation, starting from discourse representations in either controlled or natural language, or in conceptual schemas. In this way, we present a graphical summary of crucial concepts related to this issue, by means of a state-of-the-art review. We conclude that automated code generation usually begins from solution-based representations of the problem instead of domain-based representations. Also, we summarize that these starting points are misunderstood by the client and this situation leads to poor validation in early stages of software development lifecycle.
Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to
Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we
S. A. Gilmanov
Full Text Available Introduction. Most studies of psychologists and teachers in the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and ways of its formation are considered to be rather controversial and questionable. However, the research results were limited to the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and are therefore not representative for its implementation during the process of vocational training at the higher school. There is still considerable uncertainty with regard to the approaches to the problem of conceptual thinking in the humanities, including pedagogics and psychology. Furthermore, previous studies have not dealt with the objectives of conceptual thinking formation.The aims of the article are: to justify the use of the term “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT in theory and practice; to describe the prospects of the development of PCT in the training process.Methodology and research methods. The methodological base of the research involves the Russian psychological and pedagogical science approaches to the consideration of conceptual thinking as a higher mental function, a systematized and summarized form of cognitive reflection of notions and relations of reality. The experimental work was carried out using the method of observation, interviews, and tests. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was conducted. The process of formation of PCT is described through the theory of stage-by-stage systematic development of mental acts.Results and scientific novelty. The concept “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT, a new one for psychological-pedagogical science, is suggested. The PCT levels are identified: ordinary, formal, substantial, system, and holistic. The objectives proposed for the development of the PCT levels in the process of professional education consist in the organization of consecutive transition from conscious mastering of a terminological framework to its use in the performance of educational tasks; from
de Diesbach, Pablo Brice
The purpose – We propose to capitalize on recent research on tourism marketing, destination choice, but also and mainly on conceptual reflexions and research on emotional and symbolical brand relationship . We try to understand how destinations could communicate, using destination ambassadors; in order to better attract travellers. Methodology – this is a theoretical article presenting key concepts and their relevance to tourism marketing. We present the key concepts and analyse cases or real...
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Carolina Maria Nasser Cury
Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of the proper legal treatment of animals. To this end, we debunked the importance of the criterion of species for justifying the distinction between humans and animals. Then, we also sought to analyse the main ethical theories that overcome speciesism and its legal repercussions. We then discussed three theories, which are animal abolitionism, Kantian approach to animal rights and the utilitarian view. We addressed the differences between abolitionists, Kantian, and utilitarian bias regarding legal consideration of animals. Finally, we presented an alternative criterion to the current proposals regarding animal rights, which aims to overcome the dichotomy between things and persons on Law.
Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Alpine Space wind map - Modeling approach
Schaffner, B.; Remund, J. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)
This report presents describes the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report discusses two modelling approaches investigated for use in the definition of a wind map for the alpine area. The method chosen and its application are discussed. The various sources of information for input to the model are listed and discussed.
Khairil Azmin Mokhtar; Ikmal Hisham Md Tah
Persons with disabilities, either acquired or developed at some stages of his life due to factors such as injury and disease, are still a person with the same legal status and rights as individuals who do not have any disability. This paper, through conceptual and doctrinal analysis, explores the similarities and differences between human rights based’s approach and Shariah’s approach towards people with disability. People with disability have equal right to live and to have a noble livelihoo...
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.
Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.
A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…
van Rooij, B.
In the last decade bottom-up approaches to legal development cooperation have become increasingly popular. Examples are reform ideas and programmes using concepts such as ‘access to justice’ and ‘legal empowerment.’ These approaches share a common concern that legal interventions should benefit the
Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Taylor, Kelley R.
The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Thystrup, Amalie Giødesen
This summer saw some of the key emerging economies change their position on services negotiations at the WTO and may prove instrumental in bringing services back to the WTO, via TiSA. While TiSA parties have discussed critical mass based multilateralization for a while, another approach may prove...
Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).
Advantages and disadvantages, in terms of reliability and cost, are assessed for different physical and legal methods of protection of computer software, e.g., encryption and key management. The paper notes, however, that no protection system is 100% safe; the best approach is to implement a sufficient amount of protection such as to make piracy uneconomical relative to the risks involved.
García Delgado, Beatriz; Di Fabio, José Luis; Vidal Casanovas, Jaume; Fitzgerald, James; Silva, Ana Paula
The objective of this study is to analyze the legal framework for health and intellectual property in Cuba and its impact on people's access to health resources and on the roles of different social actors. The methods used were those developed by the Pan American Health Organization to implement the project of the Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Information retrieved specifically on the legal framework for the National Health System, the Intellectual Property System and the strengthening of the country's biopharmaceutical industry-and on the framework's development over time-was processed and analyzed to generate Cuba's Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Analysis of Cuba's adaptation of its legal framework and assessment of the interaction between the social actors involved show how the political will that has prevailed over several decades has had a positive impact on people's access to health resources.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Approaches for weight prediction, in the conceptual design phase, typically consist of parametric relations or empirical databases. Historical databases work...
Mixail V. Fedorov
Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author conceptualized and revealed basic historical patterns of formation and development of Latin American countries during the War of Independence (1810-1826 period. Author conducted comprehensive analysis of the draft constitution which was developed by Simon Bolivar for the newly independent states of Latin America and reveals theoretical and practical problem of choosing Simon Bolivar republican form of government, such as a peculiar institution in the form of principle of the separation of powers, containing the fourth power. Author focuses on the questions of Simon Bolivar’s relationship to the constitutional institute of human rights, idea of relationship between state and church. Article also researches many other political, legal and constitutional ideas of Simon Bolivar, present views of historians, lawyers, political scientists, statesmen and public activists.
Kammerhofer, J.; d' Aspremont, J.
International Legal Positivism in a Post-Modern World provides fresh perspectives on one of the most important and most controversial families of theoretical approaches to the study and practice of international law. The contributors include leading experts on international legal theory who analyse
Exploring fundamental research questions, Conceptual Structures in Practice takes you through the basic yet nontrivial task of establishing conceptual relations as the foundation for research in knowledge representation and knowledge mining. It includes contributions from leading researchers in both the conceptual graph and formal concept analysis (FCA) communities.This accessible, self-contained book begins by providing the formal background in FCA and conceptual graphs. It then describes various software tools for analysis and computation, including the ToscanaJ suite. Written by the origina
Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard
This work contrasts Giovanni Sartor’s view of inferential semantics of legal concepts (Sartor in Artif Intell Law 17:217–251, 2009) with a probabilistic model of theory formation (Kemp et al. in Cognition 114:165–196, 2010). The work further explores possibilities of implementing Kemp’s probabili......This work contrasts Giovanni Sartor’s view of inferential semantics of legal concepts (Sartor in Artif Intell Law 17:217–251, 2009) with a probabilistic model of theory formation (Kemp et al. in Cognition 114:165–196, 2010). The work further explores possibilities of implementing Kemp......’s probabilistic model of theory formation in the context of mapping legal concepts between two individual legal systems. For implementing the legal concept mapping, we propose a cross-categorization approach that combines three mathematical models: the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG; Tenenbaum......-IRM (n-IRM) proposed by Herlau et al. (IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, 2012). We apply our cross-categorization approach to datasets where legal concepts related to educational systems are respectively defined by the Japanese- and the Danish authorities according...
Badke, Lara K.
A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.
Juan Fernando Sellés
Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el método, el tema y la educación de la virtud superior humana: la amistad. Primero, se repasan las tesis fundamentales de los principales pensadores de la historia de la filosofía. Segundo, se indica que el método cognoscitivo adecuado para su estudio no es racional, sino el propio de un hábito innato (la sindéresis o el yo. A continuación se exponen algunas implicaciones noéticas de este enfoque. Se atiende después a los requisitos de la amistad, a sus dos ámbitos primordiales (familia y educación, y se ofrece una tesis sobre la educación de esta virtud.Neste artigo estuda-se o método, o tema e a educação da major das virtudes humanas: a amizade. Primeiro, repassam-se as teses dos pensadores mais importantes na história da filosofia. Segundo, sinala-se que o método cognoscitivo apropriado para estudá-la no é racional, mas o de um hábito inato (a sindérese do eu. A seguir, expõem-se algumas implicações noéticas desta abordagem, as características da amizade e seus dois campos principais (família e educação e se propõe uma tese acerca da educação dessa virtude.This study looks at method, topic and education with respect to the supreme human virtue: friendship. It begins with a review of the fundamental theories put forth by the prominent thinkers in the history of philosophy. Secondly, it indicates the appropriate cognitive method for the study of friendship is not rational, but akin to that of an innate habit (synderesis or the ego. Some of the non-ethical implications of this approach are outlined. The requirements for friendship in its two most important environments (family and education are discussed, and the author offers a thesis on how to educate students in this virtue.
Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.
Coker, Richard; Balen, Julie; Mounier-Jack, Sandra
Attempts to comparatively analyse large-scale communicable disease control programmes have, for the most part, neglected the wider health system contexts within which the programmes lie. In addition, many evaluations of the integration of vertical disease control programmes into health systems have...... systems analysis are rare and difficult to formulate. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework and an analytical methodology which might be used to comparatively analyse a series of case studies that explore health systems, communicable diseases programmes and concepts of integration in order...... to make systematic comparisons to offer novel insights, to test new theories and to offer new hypotheses. We illustrate through a preliminary analysis how this framework can be applied to compare the impact of health systems integration and HIV and TB programmes in four countries in South-East Asia...
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H
In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Lassen, Tine
This paper describes an approach to indexing texts by their conceptual content using ontologies along with lexico-syntactic information and semantic role assignment provided by lexical resources. The conceptual content of meaningful chunks of text is transformed into conceptual feature structures...... and mapped into concepts in a generative ontology. Synonymous but linguistically quite distinct expressions are mapped to the same concept in the ontology. This allows us to perform a content-based search which will retrieve relevant documents independently of the linguistic form of the query as well...
Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.
The successful economy in a country can be measured by the number of commercializing intellectual property rights (IPR). To pursue IPR growth, triple helix component becomes a backbone to weave academia, business and government to collaborate with each other. Generally, collaborations move from their common interest, but within triple helix the collaboration can be run structurally and sustain. Depart from the arguments; the question arises: How is the condition of Indonesia Innovation System? Through legal approach, this paper will explain current legal condition and legal structure of the Indonesian innovation system. The reason to review the law is to relate with the government’s target to create 1000 digital start-ups alike as in Silicon Valley level size. Therefore, legal framework review becomes useful to explain the condition of the law as a supporting system. In this sense, the legal prescription can be generated to confirm Indonesian laws, whether supported the national innovation system or conversely. Within law perspective, Indonesian government categorizes the innovative industry as a creative industry. However, there is still no resolute concept to follow. Therefore, some of law adjustment is needed to support the government’s plan to pursue commercialized innovation.
Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.
In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...
Ahmed, H.; Salleh, H.
Purpose To develop a conceptual framework of inclusive Islamic Financial Planning (IFP) by combining the traditional Islamic institutions of zakat and awqaf with contemporary notions of financial planning, financial inclusion and financial literacy that caters to the short-term and long-term financial goals of the poor. Design/methodology/approach Being a conceptual article, an inclusive Islamic Financial Planning framework is described, analyzed and developed by integrating modern ...
Kaschek, Roland H.
Since the 1980s the need increased for overcoming idiosyncrasies of approaches to modeling in the various sub-disciplines of computing. The theoretical model of evolution is used in this paper for analyzing how computing and conceptual modeling have changed. It is concluded that computing has changed into a social phenomenon with a technical core and that therefore relying on (formal) model semantics as the sole tool for the discussion of conceptual modeling is no more adequate. A number of l...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...
Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda
Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PGreece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary
Jonassen, David; Strobel, Johannes; Gottdenker, Joshua
Conceptual change is a popular, contemporary conception of meaningful learning. Conceptual change describes changes in conceptual frameworks (mental models or personal theories) that learners construct to comprehend phenomena. Different theories of conceptual change describe the reorganization of conceptual frameworks that results from different…
Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?
David T. Karamanukyan
Full Text Available In this article the author focuses on the American system of administrative agencies, which are the fundamental pillar for the functioning of administrative justice of the country. A study of the conceptual and taxonomic unit of the current system of administrative agencies of the United States, with the help of comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of legal and doctrinal definitions of the concept of “administrative agency” the author develops an authentic interpretation of the term
David T. Karamanukyan
In this article the author focuses on the American system of administrative agencies, which are the fundamental pillar for the functioning of administrative justice of the country. A study of the conceptual and taxonomic unit of the current system of administrative agencies of the United States, with the help of comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of legal and doctrinal definitions of the concept of “administrative agency” the author develops an authentic interpretatio...
Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.
The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog
Full Text Available A conceptually simple formulation is proposed for a new empirical sea state bias (SSB model using information retrieved entirely from altimetric data. Nonparametric regression techniques are used, based on penalized smoothing splines adjusted to each predictor and then combined by a Generalized Additive Model. In addition to the significant wave height (SWH and wind speed (U10, a mediator parameter designed by the mean wave period derived from radar altimetry, has proven to improve the model performance in explaining some of the SSB variability, especially in swell ocean regions with medium-high SWH and low U10. A collinear analysis of scaled sea level anomalies (SLA variance differences shows conformity between the proposed model and the established SSB models. The new formulation aims to be a fast, reliable and flexible SSB model, in line with the well-settled SSB corrections, depending exclusively on altimetric information. The suggested method is computationally efficient and capable of generating a stable model with a small training dataset, a useful feature for forthcoming missions.
J.H. de Villiers
Full Text Available This article offers a law and literary perspective on Kazuo Ishiguro‟s novel „never let me go‟. The article engages with the existentialist themes of the novel and examines various medicolegal issues pertaining to cloning and organ transplants. By examining the contemporary social and legal framework, the article exposes the inadequacies of the current (legal approach to organ donations, and advances an alternative approach that balances personal autonomy, free choice and the right to self determination.
product of the constructivist interactions. The most significant matter in meaning construction is producing the own meaningful comprehension, realisation and understanding. Here the learner gets to know how to develop her/his thinking. In this research, I will focus on relating (i) meaning construction...... will analyse the logical dependencies between learner and men- tor and will check their reflectional symmetrical relationship in a conceptual mirror. The conceptual mirror is a phenomenon that represents the meeting point of the mentor’s and the learner’s conceptual knowledge....
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the conceptualization and discussion of professional competencies needed for supporting the development of the whole-school approach in school health promotion (SHP). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a conceptual synthesis of literature, guided by a theoretical perspective on…
Bartzke, Gerhard; Huhn, Katrin
In mixed sediment beds, erosion resistance can change relative to that of beds composed of a uniform sediment because of varying textural and/or other grain-size parameters, with effects on pore water flow that are difficult to quantify by means of analogue techniques. To overcome this difficulty, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed using a finite difference method (FDM) flow model coupled with a distinct element method (DEM) particle model. The main aim was to investigate, at a high spatial resolution, the physical processes occurring during the initiation of motion of single grains at the sediment-water interface and in the shallow subsurface of simplified sediment beds under different flow velocities. Increasing proportions of very fine sand (D50=0.08 mm) were mixed into a coarse sand matrix (D50=0.6 mm) to simulate mixed sediment beds, starting with a pure coarse sand bed in experiment 1 (0 wt% fines), and proceeding through experiment 2 (6.5 wt% fines), experiment 3 (10.5 wt% fines), and experiment 4 (28.7 wt% fines). All mixed beds were tested for their erosion behavior at predefined flow velocities varying in the range of U 1-5=10-30 cm/s. The experiments show that, with increasing fine content, the smaller particles increasingly fill the spaces between the larger particles. As a consequence, pore water inflow into the sediment is increasingly blocked, i.e., there is a decrease in pore water flow velocity and, hence, in the flow momentum available to entrain particles. These findings are portrayed in a new conceptual model of enhanced sediment bed stabilization.
Dobrokhotova E. N.
Full Text Available The article focuses on gradual innovation of mediation into the practice of social conflict resolution in the light of legal and psychological means of mediation. While mediation is perceived as a conflictological concept and is more widely used in dispute settlement and resolution, a new interdisciplinary field of theoretical knowledge with its own conceptual framework as well as a new professional and practical field are beginning to form both in Russia and in other countries. As theoretical and practical aspects of innovation in mediation require consolidation not only for its national development but also for the guaranteed international cooperation, the article touches upon some of the particular theoretical issues of the topic in question: terminological consistency, consolidation of the system of mediation principles, the phenomenon of juridisation of mediation and its limits.
Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.
Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.
In the following paper a conceptual framework of the owner’s responsibility is created in order to study the transgenerational legal-economic ownership in the family business. Responsible ownership involves a sense of accountability and entrepreneurship to some extent. However, legal and social responsibilities naturally supplement each other in the family firm. Owners by means of personal relationships and financial guarantees are responsible for carrying out daily business operations and ma...
Sarmiento-Verbel, Adriana Romelia; Ardila-Barrera, Jaime Raúl; Báez-Pimiento, Adriana
Introduction: in order to offr a broader view of privacy, some non-legal conceptualizations are looked into, starting from the defiition established by the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española as such “intimate and reserved spiritual area of a person or group.” Methodology: the construction of the concept is consolidated throughout the article with the input of meanings from other disciplines such as psychology, philosophy and art. Results: a conceptualization that exceeds the legal frame...
Maria Cláudia Carvalho
Full Text Available O artigo examina a construção de conceitos na área da saúde e sua utilização como um instrumento metodológico na dissolução de dicotomias limitantes como a de corpo/mente. O trabalho parte de uma perspectiva da filosofia em busca de uma aproximação com a realidade complexa da saúde coletiva, aplicada à problemática da obesidade. Discute a superação de oposições como a do "comer porque quero e não comer porque engorda" numa compreensão ética dos conflitos alimentares e agravos nutricionais, de modo a articular teoria e prática na contemporaneidade. Foram elaboradas, como exercício de conceituação, duas definições de obesidade. Uma levando em conta a capacidade singular de as pessoas estarem ativas e potentes na vida, e outra considerando os padrões atuais de normalidade para os corpos. Concluímos descrevendo algumas possibilidades de utilização desse recurso na área de alimentação e saúde de forma que o ser humano não seja reduzido a uma metade, seja ela corpo ou alma, mas que seja compreendido em sua integralidade.This article looks into the construction of concepts in the health area and their use as a methodological instrument in the dissolution of limiting dichotomies such as the one between body and mind. This work starts from a philosophical perspective, in the attempt to look closer into the complex reality of collective health, applied to the problems related to obesity. We discuss how to overcome opposing issues such as "to eat because I want and not to eat because it makes me fat", understanding the eating conflicts and the nutritional aggravations from an ethical point-of-view, so as to bring together theory and practice within contemporaneity. To exercise this conceptualization, we have formulated two definitions of obesity: first, taking into account the singular capacity of each individual to be active and powerful in life; second, considering the current standards of normality for the human
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
Memis, Esra Kabatas
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the university-level application of an Argument-Based Inquiry Approach, as compared to the traditional laboratory teaching method, on the ability of students to learn about optics and to demonstrate critical thinking. In this quasi-experimental study, pretest-posttest scores and CCDTI were…
Supasorn, Saksri; Promarak, Vinich
The main purpose of this study was to enhance student understanding of the scientific concepts of chemical reaction rate. Forty-four grade 11 students were the target group. The treatment tools were seven learning plans of 5E inquiry incorporated with an analogy learning approach during 15 hours of class time. In each learning plan, the students…
Exploring the Effects of the Computational Experiment Approach to the Epistemic Beliefs, the Motivation, the Use of Modeling Indicators and Conceptual Understanding in Three Different Computational Learning Environments
Contemporary teaching and learning approaches expect students--at any level of education--to be active producers of knowledge. This leads to the need for creation of instructional strategies, learning environments and tasks that can offer students opportunities for active learning. Research argues that one of the most meaningful and engaging forms…
Full Text Available Video game accessibility may not seem of significance to some, and it may sound trivial to anyone who does not play video games. This assumption is false. With the digitalization of our culture, video games are an ever increasing part of our life. They contribute to peer to peer interactions, education, music and the arts. A video game can be created by hundreds of musicians and artists, and they can have production budgets that exceed modern blockbuster films. Inaccessible video games are analogous to movie theaters without closed captioning or accessible facilities. The movement to have accessible video games is small, unorganized and misdirected. Just like the other battles to make society accessible were accomplished through legislation and law, the battle for video game accessibility must be focused toward the law and not the market.
Wright, D.; de Hert, Paul
This book received its final edit at a crucial moment in the EU process of data protection reform with the finalisation of the trilogue negotiations between the European Parliament, Council and Commission, and the final stage of the arduous process of bringing the General Data Protection Regulation
Full Text Available This article reports on the fndings of a qualitative study in which the construction of integrity of some business leaders was explored. Data were gathered through ten in-depth interviews with six South African business leaders commended to be champions of integrity. A grounded-theory approach to the data analysis elicited fve themes. These themes and their interrelatedness are discussed in this article and a conceptual framework of integrity is proposed. Integrity is conceptualised as a multifaceted and dynamic construct based on a moral foundation and inner drive that is managed by cognitive and affective processes manifesting various integrity-related behaviours.
data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...
Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leal, Ingrid; Luttges, Carolina; Troncoso, Paulina; Leyton, Carolina; Molina, Temistocles; Eguiguren, Pamela
There are legal regulations about sexual and reproductive rights of adolescents. However, this legal framework (LF) may have contradictory elements: there are laws assuring confidentiality and access to contraception at any age but there are other laws that consider any sexual contact with an adolescent younger than 14 a sexual assault, whose report to the legal authorities in mandatory. To explore the knowledge and clinical practice of primary health care (PHC) providers regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy. Qualitative study collecting data using semi-structured interviews made to midwives and directors of PHC centers. Analysis of the data was based on Grounded Theory. There is a differentiated clinical care for pregnancy prevention among adolescents if they are over 14 years old. This is due to the LF, specifically to the sexual crimes law (19,927) and the law about regulation of the fertility (20,418). The differences affect health care, access and counseling about contraception and confidentiality. Healthcare of teenagers under the age of 14 is perceived as problematic for providers, due to the possible legal implications. The LF causes insecurity on health care providers and derives in a differentiated clinical approach according to the patient´s age. This is a barrier to provide timely and confidential access to counseling and contraception.
Full Text Available Critiques of legal remedies’ capacity adequately to address the intersectional nature of gender violence lie at the heart of both theoretical and practical discourse. Concern about remedies complements the important literature detailing the narrative experiences of those who experience violence grounded in multiple intersections of identity. This is an introduction to a set of papers that represent highlights from the conference entitled “International Congress on Gender Violence: Intersectionalities”. The papers address approaches to legal remedies that take into account the intersectional nature of gender violence. Las críticas a la capacidad de los remedies legales para abordar la naturaleza interseccional de la violencia de género están en el centro del discurso teórico y práctico. La preocupación sobre los remedios complementa la importante literatura que detalla las experiencias narrativas de las personas que experimentan violencia alojada en múltiples intersecciones de identidad. Esta es una introducción a artículos representativos del Congreso Internacional sobre Violencia de Género: Intersecciones. Los artículos abordan un acercamiento a los remedios legales que tienen en cuenta la naturaleza interseccional de la violencia de género. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2710535
António M. Fonseca
Full Text Available Some theoretical approaches that look into human development as a coherent movement of systematic and organized changes in individual functioning and behavior are presented. These changes will demand a constant individual adaptation coping with transformations occurring in internal and external levels. Inspired by a contextualist paradigm of human development, the main aspects of four theories that try to explain the way how development occurs throughout human life are compared: ecological approach, developmental contextualism, theory of action and control, life-span developmental perspective. Some implications of common features of these theories are applied in what concerns the study of the process of aging, focusing the growing importance of the study of inter-individual differences in such process from the analysis of individual developmental pathways.
Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.
This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered
Ovidiu – Horia Maican
Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.
Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України
In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...
right of way, established by the administrative acts during the period of the land reform, to evaluate whether the solutions offered in the Conceptual Report are practically applicable and will give the desired result, as well as to offer the author’s vision for solution of the existing problems. The author has used the scientific research approaches – descriptive, analytical, inductive and deductive, logical-constructive, formal-dogmatic, graphical and interpretation of legal norms – grammatical, systemic, and teleological.
Iershova Natalia Yu.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to elaborate a conceptual framework for strategic management accounting. By analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the structural and characteristic approaches of many scientists, the content of the concept “strategic management accounting” is defined; the identification of system-forming elements of the conceptual framework of strategic management accounting is presented. Based on the results of the research, the conceptual framework of strategic management accounting revealing the economic mechanism of its functioning is elaborated; scientific approaches that ensure its development as a holistic system and empirical science are defined; the methodology determining the organizational and methodological possibilities of its practical building at enterprises is improved. Prospects for further research in this area are the elaboration of a modern concept of strategic management accounting aimed at information-anticipating reflection of the events sequence and support of feedbacks based on proactive information support for strategic management.
Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.
Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.
This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...
... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...
... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...
Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)
The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Full Text Available Public needs cannot be adequately funded without a clear and legally based affirmative legal status of taxpayers. The promotion and protection of their rights and regular fulfilment of tax obligations by taxpayers is the basis of fiscal and financial stability of the country and other public collectivities. It is essential for Montenegro to overcome the traditional gap between taxpayers and tax administration through their partnership. At the same time, we must not jeopardize the basic purpose of taxation - legal and timely payment of taxes. Simple and stable tax regulations and a non-discriminating and subtle approach to building tax discipline and development of tax morale should serve that purpose.
Karina Kh. Rekosh
Full Text Available Analysis of any phenomenon, which is far from the researcher for thousands years, in the light of this or that department of knowledge, highlights one and obscures another, prefers one over another. It happened to the rhetoric which was snatched by philology and neglected by lawyers. Although nowadays it is natural that the same phenomena are studied by different Sciences, the ancient rhetoric is looked at by most researchers as the art of philology. But the approach by Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, was legal rather than linguistic. Among the Aristotle's 4 requirements concerning good style (correctness, clarity, relevance and eloquence eloquence is only % and the % are closer to the law. Rhetoric has incorporated all the features of linguistic mechanisms and gave them to the law. The law perceived moral and ethical ideas: the good justice, virtue, ritual, law and techniques of philology and persuasion, among which the main one is syllogism already used in the dialectic, the main logic principle of legal reasoning. Towards the past, rhetoric is parallel to dialectic, but dialectic is focused on one person or on the speaker, and rhetoric aims at the audience, the first one tries to convince himself and the second tries to convince the audience and in this role rhetoric is linked with the law. As far as the evolution of law is concerned, instead of legal technique there was rhetoric (especially in its methodological form, defined by Aristotle, which can be considered as a step towards creating the law as a design in ancient Greece. It is proved by a comparison of the ancient institution of judicial process and judicial speeches with modern legal technicalities, which shows that the legal machinery embraced the principles of "rhetorical" technique. The methodological nature of the rhetoric by Aristotle is usually overlooked by linguists and lawyers.
José Antonio Castorina
Full Text Available El presente artículo expone la teoría explicativa propuesta por Carey para el cambio conceptual. Primeramente, se plantea la cuestión de la reorganización conceptual en la psicología cognitiva y la posición de Carey. En segundo lugar, se ponen de relieve las condiciones epistémica que deben cumplir las "teorías" infantiles para que la reestructuración conceptual sea posible, así como los modos que adopta esta última. En tercer lugar, se muestran los resultados de investigaciones que verifican el cambio conceptual entre teorías infantiles de biología intuitiva. En cuarto lugar, se plantean las dificultades de otras teorías del cambio conceptual, para luego formular los rasgos del mecanismo alternativo de bootstrapping y su pertinencia para interpretrar los datos de las indagaciones mencionadas. Finalmente, se evalúan la originalidad de la teoría del bootstrpping en el escenario de los debates contemporáneos. Muy especialmente, se esboza una posible aproximación con las tesis dialécticas de Piaget.This paper examines the Carey's theory of conceptual change. First, it describes the conceptual reorganization in cognitive psychology and the author position. Second, the epistemic conditions that children "theories" should fulfil to make conceptual restructuring possible, as well as the ways adopted by the latter, are analyzed. In third place, findings of researches testing the conceptual change among biology intuitive children theories are explained. Subsequently, it discusses the difficulties other theories of conceptual change present, in order to state features of bootstrapping as an alternative mechanism and its relevance for the interpretation of abovementioned researches results. Finally, it evaluates the originality of "bootstrapping" theory in the scene of contemporary debates. It particularly outlines a possible approach to Piaget's dialectic theses.
Abat Ninet, Antoni
The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...
A. A. Kochergin
Full Text Available The article examines the prospects for further development of the conceptualization of the notion “heredity” in a wide range of biological and socio-humanitarian aspects. Further development of genetics closely relates to the disclosure of interaction of genetic, interdisciplinary, general scientific, ethical, legal and philosophical categories, its complex dialectics. The doctrine of heredity in the post-nonclassical stage of its development is increasingly taking on the traits of humanities, of a science of human.
Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel
In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....
António M. Fonseca
Full Text Available Apresenta-se um conjunto de perspectivas teóricas que encaram o desenvolvimento psicológico como uma sucessão coerente de mudanças sistemáticas e organizadas ao nível do funcionamento e do comportamento individuais, implicando uma adaptação constante dos indivíduos face a transformações ocorridas a nível interno e externo. Inspiradas por uma compreensão contextualista do desenvolvimento, comparam-se os principais aspectos de quatro teorias que procuram explicar o modo como o desenvolvimento se faz no decurso da vida humana: abordagem ecológica, contextualismo desenvolvimental, teoria da acção e do controle, perspectiva desenvolvimental do ciclo de vida. Algumas implicações dos aspectos comuns a estas teorias são finalmente concretizadas em termos do estudo do processo de envelhecimento, salientando a importância cada vez maior de que se reveste o estudo das diferenças inter-individuais em tal processo a partir da análise de percursos individuais de desenvolvimento.Some theoretical approaches that look into human development as a coherent movement of systematic and organized changes in individual functioning and behavior are presented. These changes will demand a constant individual adaptation coping with transformations occurring in internal and external levels. Inspired by a contextualist paradigm of human development, the main aspects of four theories that try to explain the way how development occurs throughout human life are compared: ecological approach, developmental contextualism, theory of action and control, life-span developmental perspective. Some implications of common features of these theories are applied in what concerns the study of the process of aging, focusing the growing importance of the study of inter-individual differences in such process from the analysis of individual developmental pathways.
Menec, Verena H; Means, Robin; Keating, Norah; Parkhurst, Graham; Eales, Jacquie
On the political and policy front, interest has increased in making communities more "age-friendly", an ongoing trend since the World Health Organization launched its global Age-Friendly Cities project. We conceptualize age-friendly communities by building on the WHO framework and applying an ecological perspective. We thereby aim to make explicit key assumptions of the interplay between the person and the environment to advance research or policy decisions in this area. Ecological premises (e.g., there must be a fit between the older adult and environmental conditions) suggest the need for a holistic and interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach is needed because age-friendly domains (the physical environment, housing, the social environment, opportunities for participation, informal and formal community supports and health services, transportation, communication, and information) cannot be treated in isolation from intrapersonal factors, such as age, gender, income, and functional status, and other levels of influence, including the policy environment.
Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle
The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice
This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)
This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Munthe, John; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Rahmberg, Magnus; Posthuma, Leo; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Bunke, Dirk; Engelen, Guy; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Gils, Jos; Herráez, David López; Rydberg, Tomas; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; van Wezel, Annemarie
Background: This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. Methods: The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with
LaNier, M. W.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Research Program has begun a new effort to partner with U.S. industry to develop wind technology that will allow wind systems to compete in regions of low wind speed. The Class 4 and 5 sites targeted by this effort have annual average wind speeds of 5.8 m/s (13 mph), measured at 10 m (33 ft) height. Such sites are abundant in the United States and would increase the land area available for wind energy production twenty-fold. The new program is targeting a levelized cost of energy of 3 cents/kWh at these sites by 2010. A three-element approach has been initiated. These efforts are concept design, component development, and system development. This work builds on previous activities under the WindPACT program and the Next Generation Turbine program. If successful, DOE estimates that his new technology could result in 35 to 45 gigawatts of additional wind capacity being installed by 2020.
Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.
A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment
Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.
A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment
Burcu Umut Zan
Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.
Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.
n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal
Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise
In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal
Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise
In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal
Doxing is the intentional public release onto the Internet of personal information about an individual by a third party, often with the intent to humiliate, threaten, intimidate, or punish the identified individual. In this paper I present a conceptual analysis of the practice of doxing and how it
Tomabechi, K.; Gilleland, J.R.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Toschi, R.
The Conceptual Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were carried out jointly by the European Community, Japan, the Soviet Union and the United States of America, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The European Community provided the site for joint work sessions at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The Conceptual Design Activities began in the spring of 1988 and ended in December 1990. The objectives of the activities were to develop the design of ITER, to perform a safety and environmental analysis, to define the site requirements as well as the future research and development needs, to estimate the cost and manpower, and to prepare a schedule for detailed engineering design, construction and operation. On the basis of the investigation and analysis performed, a concept of ITER was developed which incorporated maximum flexibility of the performance of the device and allowed a variety of operating scenarios to be adopted. The heart of the machine is a tokamak having a plasma major radius of 6 m, a plasma minor radius of 2.15 m, a nominal plasma current of 22 MA and a nominal fusion power of 1 GW. The conceptual design can meet the technical objectives of the ITER programme. Because of the success of the Conceptual Design Activities, the Parties are now considering the implementation of the next phase, called the Engineering Design Activities. (author). Refs, figs and tabs
A conceptual artwork is not necessarily constituted by exceptional practical skill, sublime execution or whatever might otherwise regularly characterize “fine art”. Instead, the effort is seated in the preparatory process of thought – or as Sol Lewitt once put it: “The idea becomes a machine that...
Work on a one interaction-region, push-pull conceptual design for the SLC is described. The concept which has received the most attention is described. It is a below-ground hall - a 15 m deep rectangular pit covered by a surface building which houses counting rooms, power supplies, cryogenics and other auxiliary equipment
Gernsbacher, Morton A.
Examines three particular types of pronoun anaphora exhibiting the rule that English pronouns must agree in number with their antecedents. Comprehension data resulting from experimentation underscores the role that pragmatic information plays in on-line interpretation of conceptual anaphors. (26 references) (JL)
This article introduces a framework for conceptualizing four forms of cognitive neuroplasticity. The concepts include: (1) homologous area adaptivity; (2) cross-modal reassignment; (3) map expansion; and (4) compensatory masquerade. The limitations of each form of plasticity are presented. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
In Minds, Brains, and Law, Michael Pardo and Dennis Patterson argue that current attempts to use neuroscience to inform the theory and practice of law founder because they are built on confused conceptual foundations. Proponents of neurolaw attribute to the brain or to its parts psychological properties that belong only to people; this mistake vitiates many of the claims they make. Once neurolaw is placed on a sounder conceptual footing, Pardo and Patterson claim, we will see that its more dramatic claims are false or meaningless, though it might be able to provide inductive evidence for particular less dramatic claims (that a defendant may be lying, or lacks control over their behavior, for instance). In response, I argue that the central conceptual confusions identified by Pardo and Patterson are not confusions at all. Though some of the claims made by its proponents are hasty and sometimes they are confused, there are no conceptual barriers to attributing psychological properties to brain states. Neuroscience can play a role in producing evidence that is more reliable than subjective report or behavior; it therefore holds out the possibility of dramatically altering our self-conception as agents and thereby the law.
Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
with the problem of software as conceptual design tool by means of 'scripting', in other words by self-developing codes able to solve specific and well defined design problems. Starting with a brief historical recall and the discussion of relevant researches and practical experiences, this paper investigates...
Ferreira, J.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.
This paper presents the first observational study of an ongoing research project. The research focuses on ‘teaching conceptual design’ and on the investigation of new teaching methods and strategies. Presently, in the commonly established educational setting, students practice the role of designing
Results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) are reported. This report covers the Terms of Reference for the project: defining the technical specifications, defining future research needs, define site requirements, and carrying out a coordinated research effort coincident with the CDA. Refs, figs and tabs
Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise
In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal
Narasimhan, T.N.; Wang, J.S.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
The authors of this report have been participating in the Sandia National Laboratory`s hydrologic performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, since 1983. The scope of this work is restricted to the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and to technical questions about hydrology and chemical transport. The issues defined here are not to be confused with the elaborate hierarchy of issues that forms the framework of the US Department of Energy plans for characterizing the site (DOE, 1989). The overall task of hydrologic performance assessment involves issues related to hydrology, geochemistry, and energy transport in a highly heterogeneous natural geologic system which will be perturbed in a major way by the disposal activity. Therefore, a rational evaluation of the performance assessment issues must be based on an integrated appreciation of the aforesaid interacting processes. Accordingly, a hierarchical approach is taken in this report, proceeding from the statement of the broad features of the site that make it the site for intensive studies and the rationale for disposal strategy, through the statement of the fundamental questions that need to be answered, to the identification of the issues that need resolution. Having identified the questions and issues, the report then outlines the tasks to be undertaken to resolve the issues. The report consists essentially of two parts. The first part deals with the definition of issues summarized above. The second part summarizes the findings of the authors between 1983 and 1989 under the activities of the former Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) and the current YMP.
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.
Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen
This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.
A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...
Pincus, Aaron L; Krueger, Robert F
We review Theodore Millon's contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders in contemporary clinical science and practice. Millon worked tirelessly across professional domains and theoretical orientations, developing a rich integrative theory of personality and its pathology, directly and indirectly impacting the evolving iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5), and advocating for the personality disorders through his contributions to cofounding the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders and the Journal of Personality Disorders. We conclude with a closer look at Millon's final major contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders as well as the strengths and limitations of his approach.
Using hydrological modelling for a preliminary assessment of under-catch of precipitation in some Alpine Catchments of Sierra Nevada (Spain). Sensitivity to different conceptual approaches and spatio-temporal scale
Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Pegalajar-Cuellar, Manuel; Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio
Precipitation (P) measurements show important biases due to under-catch, especially in windy conditions. Gauges modify the wind fields, producing important under-catch in solid P. In this work we intent to perform a global assessment of the under-catch phenomenon in some alpine catchments of Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (Spain) by using different conceptual hydrological models. They are based on the available information about daily natural streamflow and daily fields of P and temperature (T) in each catchment. We want to analyse long time periods (more than 20 years at daily scale) in order to obtain conclusions taking into account the stochastic behaviour of the natural streamflow and P and T variables. The natural streamflowin each basin has been obtained from the streamflow measurements in the gauges by making some simple mathematical operations to eliminate the anthropic influences. The daily climatic fieldswere estimated with spatial resolution of 1kmx1km by applying geostatistic techniques using data coming from 119climatic gauges existing in the area.We have considered to model options: Monthly and yearly variogram to characterize the spatial data correlation. The Elevation has been considered as secondary variable for the estimation. The analysis of the experimental data showed a linear relationhip between mean T and elevation. Therefore, we decided to apply a kriging with linear external drift to estimate the P and T fields. The mean daily P data show a quadratic relationship with the elevation. Different hypothesis have been considered to approach these P fields by applying kriging with linear drift, with quadratic drift, and regression kriging. A cross-validation analysis showed that the best approximation to the data is obtained with the kriging with linear drift. The P and T fields obtained with this technique were employed to feed different hydrological models in which different conceptual approaches of the hydrological processes related with the
Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.; Inguva, Ramarao; Schamschula, Marius; Caulfield, John
' soil moisture under such conditions and even more difficult to apply such a value. Because of the non-linear relationships between near-surface soil moisture and other variables of interest, such as surface energy fluxes and runoff, mean soil moisture has little applicability at such large scales. It is for these reasons that the use of remote sensing in conjunction with a hydrologic model appears to be of benefit in capturing the complete spatial and temporal structure of soil moisture. This paper is Part I of a four-part series describing a method for intermittently assimilating remotely-sensed soil moisture information to improve performance of a distributed land surface hydrology model. The method, summarized in section II, involves the following components, each of which is detailed in the indicated section of the paper or subsequent papers in this series: Forward radiative transfer model methods (section II and Part IV); Use of a Kalman filter to assimilate remotely-sensed soil moisture estimates with the model profile (section II and Part IV); Application of a soil hydrology model to capture the continuous evolution of the soil moisture profile within and below the root zone (section III); Statistical aggregation techniques (section IV and Part II); Disaggregation techniques using a neural network approach (section IV and Part III); and Maximum likelihood and Bayesian algorithms for inversely solving for the soil moisture profile in the upper few cm (Part IV).
Möring, Sebastian Martin
In this paper I wish to apply implications of the Conceptual Blending Theory to computer games. I will analyze chosen examples and discuss them as a result of video game innovation made possible through "conceptual blending." Conceptual blending links at least...... integration network consisting of at least two input spaces, a generic space and a blended space as well as its governing principles consisting of composition, completion, and elaboration. With the help of these instruments I analyze computer games like Tuper Tario Tros......., Hell. The purpose of my approach is not so much to validate the ideas of conceptual blending theory through another field of examples (computer games) but to name and analyze characteristics of the mentioned games with the help of a given method....
Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...
Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.
. The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...
Rowthorn, Virginia; Plum, Alexander J; Zervos, John
Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers. The objective of this paper is to understand and elucidate the legal barriers faced by innovators bringing health interventions to the United States. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 key informants who have directly participated in the introduction of global health care approaches to the United States health system. A purposive sampling scheme was employed to identify participants. Phone interviews were conducted over one week in July 2016 with each participant and lasted an average of 35 minutes each. Purely legal barriers included questions surrounding tort liability, standard of care, and concerns around patient-administered self-care. Regulatory burdens included issues of international medical licensure, reimbursement, and task shifting and scope of work challenges among nonprofessionals (e.g. community health workers). Finally, perceived (i.e. not realized or experienced) legal and regulatory barriers to innovative modalities served as disincentives to bringing products or services developed outside of the United States to the United States market. Conflicting interests within the health care system, safety concerns, and little value placed on low-cost interventions inhibit innovation. Legal and regulatory barriers rank among, and contribute to, an anti-innovation atmosphere in healthcare for domestic and reverse innovators alike. Reverse innovation should be fostered through the thoughtful development of
João Maurício Adeodato
Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.
Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl
This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.
Saad, Toni C
This article describes and evaluates the Belgian euthanasia experience by considering its practice and policy, both before and after the formal decriminalisation of euthanasia in 2002. The pre-legal practice of euthanasia, the evolution of euthanasia legislation, criticism of this legislation, the influence of politics, and later changes to the 2002 Act on Euthanasia are discussed, as well as the subject of euthanasia of minors and the matter of organ procurement. It is argued that the Belgian euthanasia experience is characterised by political expedition, and that the 2002 Act and its later amendments suffer from practical and conceptual flaws. Illegal euthanasia practices remain a live concern in Belgium, something which nations who are seeking to decriminalise euthanasia should consider. Copyright © 2017 by the National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent and Disabled, Inc.
Lindo, Jason M; Swensen, Isaac D; Waddell, Glen R
We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. Our preferred approach identifies the effect through changes in one's performance after gaining legal access to alcohol, controlling flexibly for the expected evolution of grades as one makes progress towards their degree. We also report RD-based estimates but argue that an RD design is not well suited to the research question in our setting. We find that students' grades fall below their expected levels upon being able to drink legally, but by less than previously documented. We also show that there are effects on women and that the effects are persistent. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we show that students drink more often after legal access but do not consume more drinks on days on which they drink. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hershey, Tina Batra; Van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Sood, Rishi K; Potter, Margaret
During disaster response and recovery, legal issues often arise related to the provision of health care services to affected residents. Superstorm Sandy led to the evacuation of many hospitals and other health care facilities and compromised the ability of health care practitioners to provide necessary primary care. This article highlights the challenges and legal concerns faced by health care practitioners in the aftermath of Sandy, which included limitations in scope of practice, difficulties with credentialing, lack of portability of practitioner licenses, and concerns regarding volunteer immunity and liability. Governmental and nongovernmental entities employed various strategies to address these concerns; however, legal barriers remained that posed challenges throughout the Superstorm Sandy response and recovery period. We suggest future approaches to address these legal considerations, including policies and legislation, additional waivers of law, and planning and coordination among multiple levels of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:518-524).
Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing objectively various techniques and methods of money laundering, both in classical and modern ways, by presenting case studies from the legal practice in Romania, in an attempt to clarify a number of issues related to the complexity of this crime, current and future tendencies of financial criminals for laundering proceeds of crime. Also, according to the analysis of comparative law performed in the last chapter, we highlighted a number of similarities and differences between the Romanian legislation and the legislative laws of other states, surprising the forms and effects of money laundering on the studied national systems as well as highlighting the measures for preventing and fighting against these crimes adopted by the analyzed legal systems. The comparative approach of the criminal and legal framework of preventing and combating money laundering is essential for the Romanian legal system efficiency in this matter.
Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods......; taking place in five dimensions of change - technical-rational, cultural, political, project management, and facilitation; and typically unfolding as a sequential and parallel, ordered and disordered, planned and emergent as well as top-down and bottom-up process. The proposed OS conceptualization...... outcomes for an OS process in practice, change agents may need to moderate their outcome ambitions, manage process dimensions and agendas in a situational manner, balance inherent process paradoxes, strive at bridging both language and reality, as well as mobilizing key stakeholders, especially middle...
Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver; Matzner, Martin
Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service......” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart...... service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers’ and service providers’ resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual...
Jan M. Broekman
Full Text Available The work of the great American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 becomes more and more appreciated beyond the boundaries of his pragmatism, a philosophical mainstream he founded in the early 20th century. This essay is inspired by five points of interest, all of which focus on law and legal discourse. Firstly, one should acknowledge that his proposal pertaining to a general theory of signs, which he called ‘semeiotics’ around 1860, leads to an untraditional and in-depth understanding of legal discourse: in essence, of law as a system of specific meanings and signs. Semiotics in general became a substantial part of his ‘evolutionary cosmology,’ an all-embracing approach to tackle classical and modern philosophical issues. Secondly, his anthropological intuition based on semiotics, (concentrated in the formula ‘man is a sign’ became important for our understanding of a human subject’s position in law, as author of a legal discourse as well as an individual subjected to law. Thirdly, the tensions between chance and continuity in legal discourse are of focal interest for the creation of legal meaning in law’s practices. Novelty, Peirce suggested in this context, occurs by the grace of chance rather than of continuity and fixed traditions. Fourthly, Roberta Kevelson (1931-1998 explored and expanded the field of legal semiotics on the basis of the works of Peirce. In doing so, she established an American tradition of legal semiotics distinct from a European tradition, which related more to linguists, psychologists and philosophers embracing structuralism. Fifthly, Tyche, the Ancient Goddess of fate and fortune, is because of Peirce’s references more at home in the US legal semiotic tradition. Her fame and influence reaches beyond law and became supported by recent archaeological discoveries, publications and exhibitions, which not only provide information about her background, but also underline her possible influence on
Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda
Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.
Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter
The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.
International audience; Overview Police as an institution cannot be said to have inspired in-depth conceptualization effortsfrom criminology and criminal justice so far. Scholars in this area show a clear preference for empirically exploring what individual police officers do or think, and the policing concept they most readily converge towards tends to hinge on the use of force, a notion developed by ethnomethodologist, Egon Bittner. This concept holds that what constitutes policing as such ...
Schleyer, G. K.; Langdon, G. S.; James, S.
A peer tutoring scheme has been introduced into the Department of Engineering at the University of Liverpool to help 2nd year undergraduate students tackle conceptual design problems. Conceptual design is an iterative process consisting of a series of generative and evaluative stages, which gradually converge on a preferred conceptual solution.…
Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer’s activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assu...
DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul
Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.
Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin
A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.
From a design perspective, the increasing awareness of experiential aspects of interactive systems prompts the question of how conceptualizations of experience can inform and potentially be integrated into the interaction design process. This paper presents one approach to integrating theoretical...
Rodica Diana APAN
Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
Full Text Available A press conference is an important tool of public relations. The primary role of public relations is to manage a company’s reputation and help build public consent for its enterprises. The goal of PR is to develop and maintain goodwill with most, if not all, of its publics. Failure to do so may mean loss of customers and revenues, time lost dealing with complaints or lawsuits, and loss of esteem. A company’s publics change constantly. Well-executed public relations is an ongoing process that molds good long-term relationships and plays an important role in relationship marketing and integrated communications. Companies often call press conference when they have significant news to announce, such as the introduction of a new product or advertising campaign. Although used less often by organizations and corporations, this form of delivery can be very effective. The topic must be of major interest to a specific group before it is likely to gain coverage.
600 tants. The knowledge of biochemical mechanism of cancer induction by aromatic hydrocarbons especially arylamines and amides forms the basis of under- standing tumour formation.14–16 Some of the studies indicate that benzidine-based dyes can be metaboli- zed to benzidine and human exposure to such dyes is.
Hamilton, H. R
.... The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) is a commonly used technique for assessing human impacts on the vigor of wildlife species, and serves as the model for the Recreation Habitat Analysis Method (RHAM...
The author defines the notion "green business". Theoretical and methodological principles of functioning of this type of economic activity are reflected. Basic aspects and main development stages of green business are described. The classification of green business enterprise is revealed.
Nappi, Andrew T.
The study of ethics has much to offer secondary school students. As students search to define their moral values and responsibilities, business educators can help them to develop their ability to reason carefully about complicated issues and problems. (Includes learning activities.) (Author)
(NA) bases/selected base pairs is determined using Parr's charge transfer formula. The experimental bio- ... the direct relationship between the rates of reaction and the electrophilic power of ..... 0⋅079. 0⋅095. Table 4. Regression models, coefficient of determinations and standard deviations for different groups of polyaro-.
Akkerman, Sanne F.; Meijer, Paulien C.
In recent attempts to address the notion of teacher identity, scholars have stressed how identity is dynamically evolving, intrinsically related to others, and consists of multiple identities. Though these postmodern characterizations represent radically new perceptions of identity, they are not extensively discussed in relation to previous…
... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are taken as dependent variables and the HF energy (), along with DFT-based global and local descriptors, viz., electrophilicity index () and local electrophilic power (+) respectively are taken as independent variables. Fairly good correlation is obtained showing the significance of the ...
Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to demonstrate bonds between the literature which deals with business ethics and the one that deals with social capital, beginning with Sánchez Vázquez’s focus on moral and ethics, in order to contribute with the perception of political, institutional, corporate and community processes, turned to the broadening of the sense of citizenship. In addition, it intends to point out the borderline of such bonds, concluding that the social capital, generated in the processes of constitution of a corporate moral of partnership and social responsibility, tends to have a low intensity in relation to certain stakeholders, while it accentuates and/or maintains a high intensity in relation to others. Such division tends to be more accentuated in countries and regions whose history has forged civic institutions and cultures in which freedom and moral responsibility maintain weak bonds. Nevertheless, in counterpart, the constitution of norms of social responsibility in the companies, such as SA 8000, under the control of governments and citizens, has been impelling the generation of social capital in increasingly extended scopes, reinforcing, thus, those bonds
Chavez Cassanello, Griselda; Mels Siningen, Celeste; Reina, Mariana; Vega, Hernan
The present work intends to develop the legislative and regulatory framework in the matter of radioactive waste. The legal frame of the radioactive waste conformed by the National Constitution, the treaties and conventions, laws and decrees and regulatory norm in Argentine . The subject is approached from the international point of view considering the slogan of 36 The Annual Meeting of the Association Argentine de Nuclear Technology: 'The Nuclear Energy in the Present World'. This work also contains a special paragraph dedicated to the analysis of practical cases related to the subject and the activity of the National Commission of Atomic Energy. (author)
Thula Rafaela de Oliveira Pires
Full Text Available The article's intention is to make an analyse of the emerging criminal policy movements in Brazil, especially after the 1980 decade, and their influence on legal education. Based on empirical research in Law Course UNIFESO (Teresópolis- Rio de Janeiro, it is sought to identify the political and criminal discourses prevalent in positions of hegemonic power among the Law scholars. Beyond the necessity of interdisciplinary approach, it is defended a more radical critique of the knowledge production process, with the affiliation of decolonial perspective, fundamental for the deconstruction of punitive normalization standards adopted by the modern States, of colonial slave matrix.
This case study examines how systematic planning, an evolving conceptual site model (CSM), dynamic work strategies, and real time measurement technologies can be used to unravel complex contaminant distribution patterns...
N. O. Tkachenko
of the conceptual-categorical apparatus of social standards and guarantees; contradiction between normative legal acts; unfavorable conditions for small business, created by the Tax Code of Ukraine; the neglect of legal norms, the determination of a priority exclusively by receiving a profit, ignoring the PhO and pharmacists moral and ethical principles; inadequate level of political and legal culture in the society; the rejection of the law rule by the political elite and the interpretation of legal norms in their favor; passive behavior of public organizations in the pharmaceutical sector; weak control of the public authorities compliance with standards of current legislature. All specified problems stipulate difficulties in the effective SR implementation.
Berlingher Remus Daniel
Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.
Chow, Winnie S; Priebe, Stefan
Since Goffman's seminal work on psychiatric institutions, deinstitutionalization has become a leading term in the psychiatric debate. It described the process of closure or downsizing of large psychiatric hospitals and the establishment of alternative services in the community. Yet, there is a lack of clarity on what exactly the concept of institutionalization means in present-day psychiatry. This review aims to identify the meaning of psychiatric institutionalization since the early 1960s to present-day. A conceptual review of institutionalization in psychiatry was conducted. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Four main themes were identified in conceptualizing institutionalization: bricks and mortar of care institutions; policy and legal frameworks regulating care; clinical responsibility and paternalism in clinician-patient relationships; and patients' adaptive behavior to institutionalized care. The concept of institutionalization in psychiatry reflects four distinct themes. All themes have some relevance for the contemporary debate on how psychiatric care should develop and on the role of institutional care in psychiatry.
Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Ramirez, Tina M.
Purpose: The purpose is to demonstrate that conceptual change theory and strategies can be applied to areas of the social science, such as human rights education on FORB. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical scope of this paper is conceptual change theory and is intended to introduce the theory and practice of conceptual change in teaching…