WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal amount recognition

  1. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  2. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would impact (different-sex) family formation. In this paper, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980–2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution......) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including...

  3. Legal Marriage, Unequal Recognition, and Mental Health among Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Bowen, Kayla

    2018-04-01

    The authors examined whether the perception of unequal relationship recognition, a novel, couple-level minority stressor, has negative consequences for mental health among same-sex couples. Data came from a dyadic study of 100 ( N = 200) same-sex couples in the U.S. Being in a legal marriage was associated with lower perceived unequal recognition and better mental health; being in a registered domestic partnership or civil union - not also legally married - was associated with greater perceived unequal recognition and worse mental health. Actor Partner Interdependence Models tested associations between legal relationship status, unequal relationship recognition, and mental health (nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptomatology, and problematic drinking), net controls (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income). Unequal recognition was consistently associated with worse mental health, independent of legal relationship status. Legal changes affecting relationship recognition should not be seen as simple remedies for addressing the mental health effects of institutionalized discrimination.

  4. The right of public access to legal information : A proposal for its universal recognition as a human right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitee, Leesi Ebenezer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This Article examines the desirability of the universal recognition of the right of public access to legal information as a human right and therefore as part of a legal framework for improving national and global access to legal information. It discusses the right of public access to legal

  5. Bridging the Legitimacy Gap: A Proposal for the International Legal Recognition of INGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrandardottir, Erla; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there is a gap between the de facto and de jure legitimacy of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) that requires more consideration from scholars who study their role in the international system. The gradual acceptance of INGOs as de facto legitimate...... actors can be seen in the long-term expansion of their role in international norm deliberation. Despite this development, most INGOs still lack international legal recognition, and thus de jure legitimacy. We argue that this gap between de facto and de jure legitimacy creates problems for both INGOs...... and members of international society. In seeking to address this disjunction, we highlight the limits of the current literature in understanding legitimacy as primarily sociological phenomena through an examination of the accountability agenda. We then propose a template for INGO legal recognition based...

  6. The death of marriage? The effects of new forms of legal recognition on marriage rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples.

  7. Punitive damages in Europe and a plea for the recognition of legal pluralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyuksagis, Erdem; Ibert, Ina; Fairgrieve, Duncan; Meurkens, R.C.; Quarta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This multi-author article aims to demonstrate that, despite the traditional understanding that tort law should serve the sole purpose of remedying the harm caused as precisely as possible, there are growing indications in several continental European legal systems that damages awards are not

  8. INTERPRETATION PUBLIC POLICY IN RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN ARBITRAL AWARD IN INDONESIA TURN ASIDE THE LEGAL CERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnaningsih Amriani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Does not violate “public policy (public order/openbaare orde” is the one of the main reasons for the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral award in Indonesia. It follow the rules of Article V of the New York Convention 1958 in which Indonesia ratified through Presidential Decree No. 34 of 1981. This article aims to provide a form of judge interpretation of the meaning of public order before and after the enactment of Law No. 30 of 1999 on Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution, so there is no legal certainty. Therefore the meaning of "public policy" does not limit the scope described in the decree and the Arbitration Act, therefore the interpretation obtained by the decision of the Supreme Court who refused and received recognition of foreign arbitral award in Indonesia. Through the interpretation of this article, the parties involved in the arbitration agreement can predict whether their arbitration award may be given the recognition and implementation in Indonesia.

  9. CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL RECOGNITION OVER TRADITIONAL ADAT COMMUNITY WITHIN THE MULTICULTURAL COUNTRY OF INDONESIA: IS IT A GENUINE OR PSEUDO RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Nurjaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is well known as a multicultural country in Southeast Asia in term of its ethnic, religion, racial and social stratification. It is Unity in Diversity, which is reflected in the official motto of the State to describe the social and cultural diversity of Indonesia. The diversity refers to a cultural configuration which reflects the National identity of Indonesia, containing cultural capital and cultural power. However, cultural diversity yields conflict that could potentially generate social disintegration due to inter-ethnic and inter-religious disputes that may result in the disintegration of Indonesia as a Nation State. In the eyes of legal anthropologists, sources of conflicts are based on discriminatory policies expressed within State’s law and legislations in line to the recognition and protection the existence of local communities, namely traditional adat communities spread out in the region. Thus, State laws enacted and enforced by the Government tend to dominate and marginalize as well as ignore the rights of the local communities particularly over access and control natural resources they depend on based on customary adat law in the region. The paper attempts to offer an answer to the fundamental question whether the 1945 Constitution recognises and protects the traditional communities and their customary adat law by employing a legal anthropological approach with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding regarding the development of State law in a multicultural Nation toward a more just and equitable State law of Indonesia.

  10. TOWARDS THE LEGAL RECOGNITION AND GOVERNANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Norfolk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Mozambique, this paper examines the state of forest ecosystem services, the dependency of the population on these systems for their well-being, if an adaptive governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating.

  11. Right to health in Russian Federation: identification of its current stage of constitutional and legal recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARASENKO, Elena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation has made a strong legal commitment to the human right to health through the ratification of several key international human rights laws. Current public health care policies also demonstrate that Russian Federation has committed itself to provide the human right to health protection of people residing with its jurisdiction. All residents of Russia are eligible for medical care free of charge. Medical services are provided directly to patients by government health care providers. This includes general and specialist medical care, hospitalization, diagnostic laboratory services, dental care, maternity care and transportation, free drugs for disabled, medical rehabilitation, etc. The legal basis for the human right to health at the federal level is provided by a variety of legislative acts (codes, federal laws, presidential decrees, decisions and proposals of the government of the Russian Federation, and orders of the government and of the Ministry of Health and other ministries. The legal bas is at the regional level is provided by legislative instruments enacted by the governments of the Subjects of Russian Federation.

  12. Between Legal Recognition and Moral Policing: Mapping the Queer Subject in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    With the decriminalization of homosexuality in India in 2009, Indian queer subjects have become visible in various ways. Where Indian queer identities have asserted their public presence through Pride marches and protests, incidents of moral policing and surveillance, especially after decriminalization, have highlighted the broader social and religious attitudes that continue to pathologize homosexuality with grave outcomes. This article argues that debates around access to health care of Indian queer subjects must be framed against the social and religious pathologization of homosexuality in various contexts, which remains a primary bioethical dilemma, particularly in relation to legal change.

  13. LGBT Family Lawyers and Same-Sex Marriage Recognition: How Legal Change Shapes Professional Identity and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2018-01-10

    Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world. Findings reveal that the professional identities and practice of LGBT family lawyers are shaped by uncertainty, characteristics of activist lawyering, community membership, and community service. Individual motivations and institutional forces work to generate a professional identity that is resilient and dynamic, characterized by skepticism and distrust coupled with flexibility and creativity. These features are likely to play a role in the evolution of the LGBT family lawyer professional identity post-marriage equality.

  14. Morally sensitive issues and cross-border movement in the EU. The cases of reproductive matters and legal recognition of same-sex relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, Nelleke Renate

    2015-01-01

    Within the European Union there is considerable diversity in morally sensitive issues like legal recognition of same-sex relationships and reproductive matters such as abortion, assisted human reproduction and surrogacy. Cross-border movement within the EU exposes and affects this diversity, as it

  15. [Legal recognition of transsexuality in Chile through the judicial procedure for name change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz León, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Do transsexual people in Chile have a right to have their gender identity or their sex reassignment legally recognized? The absence of any legislation on gender identity or transsexualism could lead us to believe that it is not the case. However, a quantitative review of decisions issued by Chilean courts during the last years on name-and sex-change requests filed by transsexual people reveals that most of these courts have accepted these requests. From the perspective of the well-being of transsexual people, this is a positive result. However, the fact that a few rejections exist reminds us of the need to enact an explicit legislation in this issue. Lastly, a qualitative analysis of those decisions suggests that the traditional reluctance of courts to interpret the law in a creative way has been overcome in these cases by the use of knowledge and discourses belonging to healthcare sciences. This is an example of an epistemological complementariness between medicine and law.

  16. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  17. DATABASES FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN ARABIC CHEQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alohali, Y.; Cheriet, M.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an effort toward building Arabic cheque databases for research in recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques. Databases of Arabic legal amounts, Arabic sub­ words, courtesy amounts, Indian digits, and Arabic cheques are provided. This paper highlights the characteristics of the

  18. Problematic issues of accounting reflection and accounting recognition of contributions while carrying out joint activities without forming a legal entity

    OpenAIRE

    Куришко, Лілія Анатоліївна

    2015-01-01

    The methodic of accounting reflection of the business transactions related to contributions into the joint activities without forming a legal entity has been studied; the types of contributions defined legally and the possibility of their reflection in accounting have been elucidated; the author’s understanding of the essence of contributions’ types has been formed as well as the approach towards their identification in accounting has been offered

  19. The "general recognition and acceptance" standard of objectivity for good faith in prescribing: legal and medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brushwood, David B

    2007-01-01

    The United States Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit has ruled that a jury considering charges of drug trafficking against a pain management physician should be instructed that the defendant's good faith is a defense to the charges. The court rejected a subjective standard of good faith, and instead ruled that the good faith of the defendant must be evaluated from an objective perspective. This objective standard requires that the jury determine whether the defendant was practicing in accordance with the standard generally recognized and accepted in the United States. General recognition and acceptance are determined on a case-by-case basis, within the context of a defendant's practice. Simply because a physician's practice is out of the norm for many physicians does not mean it can't be generally recognized and accepted within the standard of medical practice. Expert witness testimony of pain management physicians will assist juries in the application of this standard for good faith in prescribing.

  20. Cation Recognition: Novel Potentiometric PVC-Membrane Sensor based on Meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole for the Determination of Trace Amounts of Titanium (III) Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeid Ahmadzadeh; Anuar Kassim Majid Rezayi

    2011-01-01

    The present work deals with developing a novel high selective membrane electrode based on meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole for accurate determination of trace amount of titanium (III) ions in real sample solutions. The amounts of ionophore (4 mg), PVC (33 mg), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer (62.8 mg) and sodium tetrakis [3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl) phenyl] borate (NaTFPB) as an ionic additive (0.2 mg) were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The electrode exhibited a linear response with a near Nernstian slope of 29.49±0.16 (mV per decade of activity) over the pH range from 1 to 3 with a satisfactory concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -6 to 1.0 x x10 -2 M. The developed sensor exhibited good reproducibility over a period of about 3 months with a fast response time of 15 seconds. (author)

  1. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  2. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  3. The European Arrest Warrant in the Italian legal system. Between mutual recognition and mutual fear within the European area of Freedom, Security and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Impalà

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy was the last Member State to transpose the Framework Decision on the European Arrest Warrant. The Italian law entered into full force on 14 May 2005, a full sixteen months later than the appointed date. Conversely, whilst the Framework Decision aimed to speed up extradition between Member States, the Italian implementation law seems to complicate things, providing for dozens of new legal obstacles to surrender. In fact, the execution of an EAW in Italy threatens to become something highly unpredictable. The responsibility for this outcome is shared by the national and the European legislator. Perhaps the latter underestimated the seriousness of the conflict between Third Pillar law and domestic constitutional systems which aim to protect their acquis in the field of fundamental rights. Considering that many Member States seem to be struggling with similar problems, the first part of this article is devoted to describing the current scenario and analysing possible solutions at the supranational level, such as the establishment of a coherent system regulating the allocation of penal competences among Member States. In the next part, the problem of the Framework Decision’s incompatibility with the Italian Constitution will be discussed, and in the final part the Italian implementation law is analysed in more detail.

  4. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  5. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  6. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  7. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

  8. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L. de

    1986-01-01

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  9. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  10. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  11. 'Legal Family Formats for (Same-Sex) Couples', chapter 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Thevenon, O. & Neyer G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes in a comprehensive but compact manner the legal recognition that same-sex couples have been gaining in Europe. In 40 years a growing number of European countries has started to make marriage and/or other ‘legal family formats' available to same-sex couples. Simultaneously the

  12. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  13. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment ...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements.......Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment...... provisions’ which empower the municipalities to later ruling. This way of making plans postpones the actual regulation of an area (i.e. the planning permission) making it an individual ruling for instance at the application of building permits. Case studies show examples of this way of regulating an area...

  14. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  15. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  16. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  17. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  18. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  19. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  20. La abierta competencia entre el reconocimiento jurídico y la valoración social: el caso de la violencia de pareja = The open competition between legal recognition and social assessment: the case of partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoff, María Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using evidence from Mexico, this article analyzes the problem of women’s subjective appropriation of rights within the framework of new laws about gender equality and legislation against gender-based violence. Although we found evidence that supports an incipient social transformation, from a culture of traditional feminine virtues to a culture of rights, there are still many obstacles that prevent women’s full embracement of a culture of rights. At the individual level, women experience a contradiction between claiming their individual rights (having a life free of violence or keeping their social value and recognition (based on prescribed gender roles

  1. The Legal Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied

  2. Adapting to the New Legal Services Market: Can Law Firms Avoid Becoming a Comet?

    OpenAIRE

    KING, Ian; EDWARDS, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In The Future of Law (1996), Richard Susskind predicted that new technologies would change beyond recognition the way in which the legal marketplace would operate and how legal services would be delivered. In The End of Lawyers? Rethinking the Nature of Legal Services (2008), Susskind expanded on and developed his theme by arguing that the position of traditional lawyers would be eroded if not displaced by the twin pressures of a demand for greater legal commoditisation and the ever increasin...

  3. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  4. Legal capacity of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia: The need to reform existing legal frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishet, Mohammed Hamza

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RÉGIMEN ESPECIAL DE RECONOCIMIENTO DE LA PERSONALIDAD JURÍDICA DE DERECHO PÚBLICO EN LA LEY N19.638: MARCO LEGAL APLICABLE A LAS IGLESIAS CATÓLICA Y ORTODOXA The 19,638 act special regime for the recognition of public law personality: Legal regulation applicable to chatolic and orthodox chruches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Picó Rubic

    2012-01-01

    general regime for churches and religious groups lacking this personality by the time the law went into effect and, on the other hand, a special regime for churches that already had this personality that consisted of recognizing this preexisting legal personality, namely, the Roman, Catholic Apostolic Church and the Orthodox Church linked to the Antioch Patriarchy. This article deals with this special regime by shedding light on the legal framework, the direct sources and material context that presided over the regime creation process, and the effects of this regime. it also anticipates a coherent solution for the emerging interpretative issues. Particularly, it analyzes the legal regulation of the Catholic Church from the perspective of the Ecclesiastic Law of the Chilean State, as well as it proposes an interpretation regarding the legal situation of this church that takes aim at solving one of the most debated issues during the legislative process, whose effects lasts up to this day.

  6. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  7. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  8. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  9. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  10. Sexualidade e política na cultura contemporânea: o reconhecimento social e jurídico do casal homossexual Sexuality and politics in contemporary culture: social and legal recognition for gay couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arán

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os principais dispositivos de discurso que estabelecem fronteiras e hierarquias entre práticas sexuais. Pretende-se analisar em que medida a utilização de alguns conceitos da Psicanálise, da Antropologia e do Direito são evocados para definir fronteiras entre sexualidades normais e desviantes. Para isto, serão destacadas: a construção, por aqueles discursos, do dispositivo "diferença sexual" (de hierarquia entre os sexos e de exclusão da homossexualidade e a noção de "ordem procriativa" (atualizadora de um modelo biológico de filiação. A partir dessas premissas, nota-se que a tríade heterossexualidade-casamento-filiação permanece como a única referência possível para pensar a cultura ou a sociedade, sendo que a visibilidade ou o reconhecimento civil do laço afetivo e sexual homossexual se transforma numa ameaça de apagamento de fronteiras ou de transgressões de limites.This study aims to analyze the main discursive devices that establish borders and hierarchies among sexual practices. The objective is to analyze to what extent the utilization of certain concepts from psychoanalysis, anthropology, and law are invoked to define borders between normal and deviant sexualities. The following points are highlighted: the construction, by these discourses, of the "sexual difference" device (hierarchy between the sexes and exclusion of homosexuality and the notion of "procreative order" (updating a biological model of filiation. Based on these premises, one notes that the heterosexuality-marriage-filiation triad remains as the only possible reference to conceive of culture or society, while the visibility or civil recognition of homosexual affective and sexual ties threatens to erase borders or transgress limits.

  11. Software piracy: Physical and legal protection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlandi, E

    1991-02-01

    Advantages and disadvantages, in terms of reliability and cost, are assessed for different physical and legal methods of protection of computer software, e.g., encryption and key management. The paper notes, however, that no protection system is 100% safe; the best approach is to implement a sufficient amount of protection such as to make piracy uneconomical relative to the risks involved.

  12. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  13. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  14. Student Mobility, Qualifications and Academic Recognition in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne; Barham, Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between student mobility, qualifications and academic recognition within Europe. It provides an outline of supranational legal instruments and policies in relation to academic recognition and student mobility. It then examines some of the difficulties associated with the different concepts underpinning the…

  15. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  16. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not

  17. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  18. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  19. The Effects of Formal Legal Pluralism on Indigenous Authorities in the Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon Thomas, Marc

    This article analyzes the different ways that formal legal pluralism is perceived and utilized in Ecuador, where a legal void has resulted from a combination of the constitutional recognition of customary law in 1998 and the subsequent failure to develop coordinating rules that would define the

  20. 42 CFR 424.54 - Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or... Ordinarily Made § 424.54 Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. Medicare may pay amounts due a beneficiary to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. ...

  1. The Army word recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, David R.; Haratz, David

    1977-01-01

    The application of speech recognition technology in the Army command and control area is presented. The problems associated with this program are described as well as as its relevance in terms of the man/machine interactions, voice inflexions, and the amount of training needed to interact with and utilize the automated system.

  2. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  3. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  4. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  5. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  6. Legal guarantees for the protection of the rights to life and to health care of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ponkin

    2015-05-01

    SUMMARY: 1. Problem description - 2. State of Russian Legislation regulating of the legal status of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion - 3. Legal basis for the recognition of human dignity and the right to life of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion - 4. Legal guarantees of recognition of the right to life and human dignity of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion and emergency medical care in foreign legislation - 5. Conclusions.

  7. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  8. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  10. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  11. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  12. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  13. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  14. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  15. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  16. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  17. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  18. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  19. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  20. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter - though they may not identify - victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case...

  1. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing. PMID:28638361

  2. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  3. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.

    1997-01-01

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de

  4. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, 𔃺 le. ~~rt n the

  5. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  6. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  7. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  8. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  9. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  10. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  11. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  12. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  13. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...

  14. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  15. Finding legal information a guide to print and electronic sources

    CERN Document Server

    Pester, David

    2003-01-01

    Given the vast amount of legal information available, it is sometimes very difficult - and certainly very time consuming - to know where to start looking for the specific information you require. This book, covering the most up-to-date information sources (printed and electronic), helps guide the reader towards the information they need. It is an accessible and easy-to-use directory of legal information sources for librarians, lawyers, students and anyone needing legal information. The book covers mainly British and European Union law and includes general material and the main subject areas, including online and internet sources. It also lists reference material, such as legal dictionaries and directories. The book is essentially a directory of information sources, with publishing details (including ISBN), and short comments where useful. Electronic sources are mentioned where relevant, with details of scope and any limitations of coverage. Comprehensive and up-to-date (covering electronic sources and importa...

  16. Overview of the recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kravtsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. This informational article is devoted to the peculiarities of recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards according to different countries’ legislation and international legal regulation.The purpose of the article is to identify legal patterns of recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards in different countries.Methodology. The study is based on comparative law and formal law methods, analysis and synthesis.Results, scope of application. Enforcement of arbitral awards in foreign countries is ensured and guaranteed by multilateral conventions, bilateral treaties and national legislation. The New York Convention 1958 in a certain way limits the scope of legal protection of arbitral awards and leaves the procedure for recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards for consideration of the state court. The author analyses of differentiation of the recognition and enforcement regime of so-called "domestic" and "foreign" solutions of international commercial arbitration in terms of doctrinal approaches and practice of foreign countries. Special attention is given to the analysis of foreign arbitral awards of recognition and enforcement procedures is given to a denial of recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards and their reasons. In spite of the explicit grounds for refusal of recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in New York Convention 1958, some countries try to establish certain exceptions to the rule in the national legislation. Results may be applicable in improvement of international legal regulation.Conclusions. The courts of the countries – participants of the New York Convention 1958 cannot cancel the foreign arbitral award or revise it substantially. The refutation of this award is possible only in the court of the state in whose territory the relevant arbitral award was made, and such court is not formally bound by the rules of the

  17. The International Legal Framework for Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The term 'nuclear security' is generally accepted to mean 'the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities.' While the ultimate responsibility for nuclear security within a State rests entirely with that State, the need for regional and international cooperation has become increasingly evident with the growing recognition that the ability to prevent, detect and respond to the threats to nuclear security within one State is affected by the adequacy and effectiveness of nuclear security measures taken by other States, particularly when nuclear material is transported across national frontiers. Since the early 1970s, the IAEA has been called upon to play an ever increasing role in assisting States, upon request, to strengthen their national legal infrastructures and physical protection systems, as well as to facilitate regional and international efforts to enhance nuclear security, including measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. This publication brings together the legally binding primary international instruments and the internationally accepted non-binding instruments that constitute the international legal framework for nuclear security. It does not discuss the safety and safeguards related instruments, which also form a part of the broader legal framework for nuclear security. By setting out the legislative bases for the mandate of the IAEA in the area of nuclear security, it is hoped that this publication will increase awareness of the IAEA's role in facilitating national, regional and international efforts to enhance nuclear security , including measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. It is also intended to serve as a guide in carrying out the IAEA's nuclear security mandate and functions assigned to it under these instruments, including in the elaboration of nuclear security

  18. Os Limites ao Reconhecimento de Adolescentes e seus Contextos Jurìdicos Culturais – uma Ilustração com o Caso Brasileiro (The Limitations on the Recognition of Adolescents and their Legal Cultural Contexts - an Ilustration of the Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Motta Costa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing contextualized subject is giving visibility to the status of person, the possibility of manifestation of identity. It materializes through indifference to the social differences that prevent the equal level identification. Nowadays, the struggle for justice and recognition is not an individual problem, it is important to the society as a whole. For adolescents, the limits of recognition can be seen in different dimensions, wherein the step of life with its own cultural features; the particularly difficult economic conditions; cultural legal perspective from the impossibility of intercultural dialogue; and yet, the boundaries of the state, absent in the effectiveness of rights. This reality is revealed in when observing the mortality rates of this public in recent years in Brazil. Young people between 15 and 19 years are the main victims of homicides in the country: 87.6 % of cases (data NEV -USP. These deaths occur mainly where there is an overlap gap and violation of rights. Violence is a complex process, but it is imperative to dialogue and respect the difference, which must be a starting point in relation to where you want to reach: that is to respect the others as equal, without prejudiced ideas. Reconhecer os sujeitos contextualizados é dar visibilidade à condição de pessoa, com possibilidade de manifestação da identidade. Materializa-se por meio da indiferença às diferenças sociais que impedem a identificação em patamar de igualdade. Na contemporaneidade, a luta por justiça e por reconhecimento não é um problema individual, é coletiva e importa ao conjunto da sociedade. No caso dos adolescentes, os limites de reconhecimento podem ser observados em distintas dimensões. Destaca-se: a etapa de vida com características socioculturais próprias; as condições econômicas especialmente difíceis; a perspectiva jurídico cultural, a partir da impossibilidade de diálogo intercultural; e, ainda, os limites do Estado

  19. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  20. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  1. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  2. Formation of ideal of legal personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віта Олександрівна Сліпенчук

    2016-01-01

    we believe, an opportunity to analyze the formation of the ideal of legal personality. Paper objective. Thus, the purpose of this article is analysis and systematization of philosophical views on the issue of forming the ideal of legal personality in Russian philosophy of law, limited by the late 19th - early 20th century During this period, leading philosophers and jurists come to the conclusion that the existence and development of the law governed state should be based on a legal personality. Taking into account the diversity of interpretations of liberal concepts, we begin with a brief description of the charms of liberal ideas, find out the core values that inspire these concepts and focus on the source of political programs and core values - individual autonomy. Paper main body. As it is known, liberalism is a dynamic system that responds to changes in social life and is transformed according to the new reality. Liberal concepts of the thinkers of that time give us the opportunity to realize what freedom, equality and human rights are inviolable condition for the individual existence of human being, laying the values and guidance in the legal consciousness of a person and promoting an individual’s recognition of law as the main regulator of social relations, aimed at protecting and strengthening the autonomy (which directly is an ideal basis for development of a legal personality. Conclusions of the research. Thus, the abovementioned allows us to understand the significance of liberal ideas for building a modern ideal model of legal personality, formed on a combination of the spiritual and legal ideals and values. The importance of the concepts of representatives of Russian liberalism is determined by existence of: 1 the idea of equality, which in turn becomes a conceptual basis in shaping of legal personality (after all, the basic values help to reveal the inner depth (essence of the personality, thereby reducing it to the level of subject, on whose

  3. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  4. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  5. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  6. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  7. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  8. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  9. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  10. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  11. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  12. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  13. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  14. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  15. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  16. Research on Face Recognition Based on Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because a number of image feature data to store, complex calculation to execute during the face recognition, therefore the face recognition process was realized only by PCs with high performance. In this paper, the OpenCV facial Haar-like features were used to identify face region; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed in quick extraction of face features and the Euclidean Distance was also adopted in face recognition; as thus, data amount and computational complexity would be reduced effectively in face recognition, and the face recognition could be carried out on embedded platform. Finally, based on Tiny6410 embedded platform, a set of embedded face recognition systems was constructed. The test results showed that the system has stable operation and high recognition rate can be used in portable and mobile identification and authentication.

  17. Molecular Recognition: Detection of Colorless Compounds Based on Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafi, Lida; Kashani, Samira; Karimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students measure the amount of cetirizine in allergy-treatment tablets based on molecular recognition. The basis of recognition is competition of cetirizine with phenolphthalein to form an inclusion complex with ß-cyclodextrin. Phenolphthalein is pinkish under basic condition, whereas it's complex form…

  18. Aging and Confidence Judgments in Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuilen, Chelsea; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging on performance in an item-recognition experiment with confidence judgments. A model for confidence judgments and response time (RTs; Ratcliff & Starns, 2013) was used to fit a large amount of data from a new sample of older adults and a previously reported sample of younger adults. This model of confidence…

  19. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  20. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  2. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  3. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  4. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  5. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  6. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  7. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  8. Legal Marketing and Lawyer's Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casolaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident.   Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione

  9. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  10. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  11. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  12. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  13. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  14. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  15. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  16. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  17. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  19. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  20. THE FEATURES OF THE RUSSIAN LEGAL AWARENESS AND POLITICAL MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuryukin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an article on the broad theoretical material, the author attempts, on the one hand, to understand the modern domestic legal awareness as a phenomenon, identify its characteristics and features, view the contents, and, on the other hand, to draw a conclusion concerning the nature and forms of infl uence of national legal awareness to the political modernization. As a result of an analysis, it is concluded that the national legal awareness is in a state of transition, where inconsistent and sometimes paradoxical mix of traditional national elements, the elements left over from psychology and philosophy "Soviet Man", as well as actively being introduced from the beginning of the 90s XX century elements of the "market mentality", leading to a fair amount of heterogeneity proper sense of justice and situational diff erentiation behavior of citizens, that impossibly difficult to develop a single project of modernization.

  1. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  2. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  3. Legal liability for failure to prevent pregnancy (wrongful pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodewicus Charl Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Can the conception of a child ever constitute damage recoverable in law? This article considers the liability of healthcare practitioners for failing to prevent a pregnancy. Developments leading to the recognition of wrongful pregnancy as a cause of (legal action in South Africa (SA, are briefly outlined. The salient points of the relevant judgments by SA courts are set out to expose the rationale underlying the judgments and to highlight that recognition of liability for wrongful pregnancy resulted from an application of fair and equitable principles of general application. Conduct that could expose practitioners to liability is identified from reported cases and inferred from general principles laid down in case law.

  4. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during...

  5. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 400.202 Section 400.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed...

  6. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of loan...

  7. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) of this section, or (ii) An amount equal to 25% of the debtor's disposable pay less the amount(s... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10 days after receipt of the order, the employer may begin deductions on the second pay day. (k) An employer may...

  8. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation on...

  9. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  10. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  11. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  12. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  13. The meaning of a legal category of “sanction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al’bina Sergeyevna Panova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the legal category of sanction. Methods dialectical systematic and logical methods of analysis synthesis. Results the study of the legal category of quotsanctionquot has shown that a sanction can be applied on a regulatory or contractual basis if stipulated by a civil agreement and as the measures of liability and protection. One of the promising directions of its use is the motivating one ndash sanctions can provide the legal consequences favorable for those who observe the behavior stipulated by the law. The following is offered as the direction of development of domestic legislation on sanctions verification of compliance of the sanctions amount and terms with the offences gravity introduction of previously nonexistent sanctions for example speculation on food and currency markets the use of discretionary sanctions as a means of positive legal stimulation of the economy. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the nature of the sanctions it is proved that the sanction is a legal means the use of which enables the victim to protect their violated challenged rights provided for by the legislation and or the agreement and implies adverse consequences of property and or organizational nature for the offender. The sanctions application has its own peculiarities. Their use is aimed at curbing the illegal actions of the offender debtor to stimulate them to the proper performance of statutory or contractual duties often sanctions are aimed at compensating for damage caused to the creditor. A peculiar feature of the sanctions is that they are a necessary component of the legal system. Practical value the results obtained can be used to conduct economic and legal research relating to the economics and entrepreneurship in treaty practice in teaching the disciplines of Civil Law Business Law Commercial Law etc. nbsp

  14. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  15. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  16. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  17. Physician-assisted suicide: the legal slippery slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R M

    2001-01-01

    In Oregon, physicians can prescribe lethal amounts of medication only if requested by competent, terminally ill patients. However, the possibility of extending the practice to patients who lack decisional capacity exists. This paper examines why the legal extension of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) to incapacitated patients is possible, and perhaps likely. The author reviews several pivotal court cases that have served to define the distinctions and legalities among "right-to-die" cases and the various forms of euthanasia and PAS. Significant public support exists for legalizing PAS and voluntary euthanasia in the United States. The only defenses against sliding from PAS to voluntary euthanasia are adhering to traditional physician morality that stands against it and keeping the issue of voluntary euthanasia legally framed as homicide. However, if voluntary euthanasia evolves euphemistically as a medical choice issue, then the possibility of its legalization exists. If courts allow PAS to be framed as a basic personal right akin to the right to refuse treatment, and if they rely on right-to-die case precedents, then they will likely extend PAS to voluntary euthanasia and nonvoluntary euthanasia. This would be done by extending the right to PAS to incapacitated patients, who may or may not have expressed a choice for PAS prior to incapacity.

  18. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  19. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  20. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  1. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  2. Retrospection. Uranium mining Wismut und the legal casualty insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Although the Wismut uranium mining company in the former DDR had 600.000 employees, the company was not mentioned in the contract on the German reunification. The expenses for the health consequences imposed manifold challenges to the legal casualty insurance. The question of responsibility, the conservation, digitalization and evaluation of data concerning the personnel and health information, partially handwritten is a tremendous amount of work.

  3. Correlation of Oxygenated Hemoglobin Concentration and Psychophysical Amount on Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    The subjective understanding on oral language understanding task is quantitatively evaluated by the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration measured by the near-infrared spectroscopy. The English listening comprehension test wihch consists of two difficulty level was executed by 4 subjects during the measurement. A significant correlation was found between the subjective understanding and the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration.

  4. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  5. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  6. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  7. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  8. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  9. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...

  10. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  11. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  12. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  13. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  14. PLEDGES OF A LEGAL ACADEMIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Tsegaye Regassa is currently a PhD Candidate at Melbourne University. Law School and can be reached at ... worthy commentator of our laws for our times, a defender of the civilization embodied in the laws of the ... As a legal academic, I note that I am part of the corps of intellectuals who, as society's paid thinkers, seek to ...

  15. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  16. Citizen Access to Legal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Kay L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes activities by the American Bar Association and other groups aimed at educating the public about their legal rights and responsibilities, including informational pamphlets and brochures issued by state bar associations. These public service information pamphlets are listed by state and the address of each state's bar association is…

  17. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  18. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  19. Compact Acoustic Models for Embedded Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lévy Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech recognition applications are known to require a significant amount of resources. However, embedded speech recognition only authorizes few KB of memory, few MIPS, and small amount of training data. In order to fit the resource constraints of embedded applications, an approach based on a semicontinuous HMM system using state-independent acoustic modelling is proposed. A transformation is computed and applied to the global model in order to obtain each HMM state-dependent probability density functions, authorizing to store only the transformation parameters. This approach is evaluated on two tasks: digit and voice-command recognition. A fast adaptation technique of acoustic models is also proposed. In order to significantly reduce computational costs, the adaptation is performed only on the global model (using related speaker recognition adaptation techniques with no need for state-dependent data. The whole approach results in a relative gain of more than 20% compared to a basic HMM-based system fitting the constraints.

  20. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    , we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...

  1. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  2. CASE Recognition Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  3. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  4. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  5. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  6. INTERACTION OF EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyrtyshny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of certain ideologemes of Western (European and Russian legal consciousness – prominent works of Ivan Ilyin and Duncan Kennedy are taken as examples. The article analyzes the tabula rasa principle and its place in legal consciousness. We use legal scholarship, judicial practice and opinion polls to examine the relationship between legal consciousness and the lack of trust in Russian courts, as well as their inefficiency from the point of view of public opinion. There are a number of shocking cases of torture of innocent people by the Russian police. Why is this so? The answer lies in the legal consciousness of police officers and of judges. This is something that has been inherited from the Soviet period. It is completely different from the Western legal consciousness, one of the key features of which is denial of authority. The critical legal studies branch of American legal realism almost denies the very existence of law, and, perhaps for this reason, American culture is less open to abuses like torture. At the same time, there is no possibility to shift legal consciousness immediately, the tabula rasa principle does not work. The final objective of the article is to provide a perspective on the reform of higher legal education and its relation to legal consciousness and legal anthropology. We propose that a greater part of the university curriculum is devoted to legal anthropology.

  7. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld) has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP') or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. ...

  8. New methods in iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  9. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.10 Loan amounts. (a) Property...

  10. Legal Duties and Legal Liabilities of Coaches toward Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.

  11. A computerized legal information management system | Ohiagu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.

  12. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advises on a range of current legal and business issues impacting IDRC by ... legal and risk management practices, and recommending courses of action to ... in conducting its overseas operations;; advising on new legislation, such as the ...

  13. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.

  14. Legal technique: approaches to section on types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Д. Шутак

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal technique is a branch of knowledge about the rules of doing legal work and creating in the process a variety of legal documents, which had previously been part of the theory of law. In modern conditions of the legal technique are isolated in a separate branch of legal science, focused on solving practical problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of legal techniques, in particular, on the basis of theoretical propositions about legal technique to allocate substantial characteristics and types of legal technique. O. Malko and M. Matuzov consider legal technique as a set of rules, techniques, methods of preparation, creation, registration of legal documents, their classification and accounting for their excellence, efficient use. A similar meaning is investing in this concept Alekseev, determining that the legal technique is a set of tools and techniques used in accordance with accepted rules in the formulation and systematization of legal acts to ensure their perfection. So, legal technique – theoretical and applied legal science, which studies the regularities of rational legal practice in the creation, interpretation and implementation of law. In relation to the type of legal techniques in the literature proposed different classifications. For example, G. Muromtsev technique, which is used only in the field of law, divide on the technique of law-making (legislative technique, technique of law enforcement, interpretation, technique of judicial speech, interrogation, notarial activities. V. Kartashov shared legal technique on law making and enforcement (prorealtime, interpretive yourself and prevacidrebatezw, judicial or investigative, prosecutorial, and the like. Some authors clearly indicate that the criterion by which to distinguish types of legal techniques. So, S. Alekseev notes that legal technique is classified from the point of view of the legal nature of the act made on: a techniques of legal acts; b the

  15. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  16. Assessing changes in HIV-related legal and policy environments: Lessons learned from a multi-country evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Nicholson, Alexandra; Henry, Ian; Saha, Amitrajit; Sellers, Tilly; Gruskin, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent. We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data on activities designed to improve legal environments through a systematic document review and 53 qualitative interviews. The project made substantial strides towards legal change in many places, and examples provide broader lessons for work in this area. Two core pillars appear fundamental: a government-led participatory assessment of the legal environment, and building the capacity of those impacted by and engaged in this work. Systematic attention to human rights is vital: it can help open new spaces for dialogue among diverse stakeholders, foster new collaborations, and ensure local ownership, nuanced understanding of the political landscape, attention to marginalized populations, and accountability for (in)action. Entry points for effecting legal change go beyond "HIV laws" to also include other laws, national policies and strategies. Conducting legal environment assessments, multi-stakeholder dialogues, action planning and related activities, alongside capacity building, can contribute to changes in knowledge and attitudes directly relevant to reforming laws that are found to be harmful. Shorter-term goals along the causal pathway to legal change (e.g. changes in policy) can constitute interim markers of success, and recognition of these can maintain momentum. Increasing understanding of progress towards changes in the legal environment

  17. Assessing changes in HIV-related legal and policy environments: Lessons learned from a multi-country evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent.We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data on activities designed to improve legal environments through a systematic document review and 53 qualitative interviews.The project made substantial strides towards legal change in many places, and examples provide broader lessons for work in this area. Two core pillars appear fundamental: a government-led participatory assessment of the legal environment, and building the capacity of those impacted by and engaged in this work. Systematic attention to human rights is vital: it can help open new spaces for dialogue among diverse stakeholders, foster new collaborations, and ensure local ownership, nuanced understanding of the political landscape, attention to marginalized populations, and accountability for (inaction. Entry points for effecting legal change go beyond "HIV laws" to also include other laws, national policies and strategies.Conducting legal environment assessments, multi-stakeholder dialogues, action planning and related activities, alongside capacity building, can contribute to changes in knowledge and attitudes directly relevant to reforming laws that are found to be harmful. Shorter-term goals along the causal pathway to legal change (e.g. changes in policy can constitute interim markers of success, and recognition of these can maintain momentum. Increasing understanding of progress towards changes in the legal

  18. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  19. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  20. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  1. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  2. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  3. The interface of legal and esthetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Smardon

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an overview of development of legal/policy factors affecting visual resource management. Review of major legal issues, court cases, laws and administrative decisionmaking reveals that the "action" regarding legal and aesthetic issues is currently in the public arena as managed by administrative agencies. Analysis of key court cases reveals that...

  4. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Develops systems and procedures for administering and tracking legal undertakings, coordinates and consolidates the legal information in order to meet deadlines. • Collaborates with the Secretary and General Counsel to ensure that all legal issues are handled efficiently, while respecting the highly confidential nature of ...

  5. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  6. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  7. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.

  8. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  9. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  10. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  11. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  12. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  13. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  14. Against a Systemic Legal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the resort to systems theory as the foundation of an evolutionary legal history. In particular, the theoretical legacy of Niklas Luhmann upon which Marie Theres Fögen proposes to draw seems to have limited application outside a context in which advanced system differentiation is present. Although (like Marx, Durkheim and Weber before him Luhmann drew in a broad evolutionary trajectory, he was concerned principally with “functionally differentiated society”. Earlier phases – covering precisely those formations that historians will presumably focus upon – are very hazily sketched in and relatively poorly theorised. In general, we should not too readily acknowledge “the exhaustion of the paradigm of modernity” (Santos, 1995 or rush to proclaim the obsolescence of multi-dimensional approaches such as those of Bourdieu (1977 and Giddens (1984. Any legal history that marginalises both human actors and the conditional environment has a considerable task in making up the ensuing deficit.

  15. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  16. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  17. Chernobyl and no legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzel, D.

    1987-01-01

    The author is doubtful about the judgement of the Superior Administrative Court Lueneburg of October 28, 1986 relating to the nuclear power plant of Brokdorf. Fundamental rights of citizens who live in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant are not guaranteed. The protection of life according to article 2 of the German Constitution should have priority over legal protection of atomic power plants pursuant to art. 14 of the Constitution. (CW) [de

  18. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  19. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  20. Legal Parameters of Space Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe

    2004-01-01

    The commercial concept of space tourism raises important legal issues not specifically addressed by first generation rules of international spacelaw. The principles established in the nineteen sixties and seventies were inspired by the philosophy that exploration of space was undertaken by and for the benefit of mankind. Technical developments since then haveincreased the potential for new space applications, with a corresponding increase in commercial interest in space. If space tourism is t...

  1. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  2. Legal issues with wind farm stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcheson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Legal issues concerning wind power development and landowners were reviewed. Agreements with landowners present opportunities and risks for developers and land agents. Generally, a landowner agreement provides for a period of testing and an option to lease land for the purposes of installing and operating wind turbines. Provisions are used to set out the terms of the option and the lease; restrictions on use of the land by both parties; and the amount and method of payment. In order to establish a valid option to lease, it is necessary to have good and valuable consideration, certainty of terms and conditions, and compliance with statutes. If the term is too long or alienation of land appears too permanent, a transfer tax may be payable to the landowner. In Ontario, no land transfer tax is payable on a land lease if the term cannot exceed 50 years. Developers should expect basic terms to become public knowledge, and recognize that residents living near planned wind installations can use the local planning process to slow down or break a project, especially if they are concerned about negative environmental impacts such as noise. The arguments against wind farms on the basis of low frequency noise (LFN) are particularly damaging because they apply to all sites near human settlements, and the effects of LFN at inaudible levels have not been sufficiently studied to rule out the possibility of negative health effects. More comprehensive studies on the health effects of LFN are needed. Legal complications may also arise from wind theft, where one party with rights in a parcel of land erects a structure limiting the wind resource on an adjacent parcel of land without compensation. Further complications may arise from wind envy, where landowners may become envious of neighbours hosting turbine sites, while they must live with the sight and sound of the turbines without receiving compensation. Potential wind theft solutions include setback regulations; land pooling

  3. Legal issues with wind farm stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcheson, A. [Stikeman Elliott LLP, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Legal issues concerning wind power development and landowners were reviewed. Agreements with landowners present opportunities and risks for developers and land agents. Generally, a landowner agreement provides for a period of testing and an option to lease land for the purposes of installing and operating wind turbines. Provisions are used to set out the terms of the option and the lease; restrictions on use of the land by both parties; and the amount and method of payment. In order to establish a valid option to lease, it is necessary to have good and valuable consideration, certainty of terms and conditions, and compliance with statutes. If the term is too long or alienation of land appears too permanent, a transfer tax may be payable to the landowner. In Ontario, no land transfer tax is payable on a land lease if the term cannot exceed 50 years. Developers should expect basic terms to become public knowledge, and recognize that residents living near planned wind installations can use the local planning process to slow down or break a project, especially if they are concerned about negative environmental impacts such as noise. The arguments against wind farms on the basis of low frequency noise (LFN) are particularly damaging because they apply to all sites near human settlements, and the effects of LFN at inaudible levels have not been sufficiently studied to rule out the possibility of negative health effects. More comprehensive studies on the health effects of LFN are needed. Legal complications may also arise from wind theft, where one party with rights in a parcel of land erects a structure limiting the wind resource on an adjacent parcel of land without compensation. Further complications may arise from wind envy, where landowners may become envious of neighbours hosting turbine sites, while they must live with the sight and sound of the turbines without receiving compensation. Potential wind theft solutions include setback regulations; land pooling

  4. DEFERRED TAXES GENERATED BY THE CAPITALIZED INTERESTS IN THE AMOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the General Framework for preparing and presenting the financial statements elaborated by IASB, the utility of information is provided by attributes (qualitative features, such as: intelligibility, relevance, credibility and comparability. For being credible, the financial information shall be erroneous, shall not be biased or deforming the patrimony, and one of the elements representing and defining the information credibility is the prudency. Thus, the prudential accounting treatments affect, on the one hand, the accounting information relevance and credibility, and on the other hand, equally, both the producers as well as the users of the financial information, due to the economic consequences which are generated. From this perspective and considering that the implied economic agents are not neutral in terms of their option concerning the neutral accounting practices, prudent or aggressive, we opined that it is useful to conduct a study aiming the relevance of the accounting information related to the deferred taxes generated by the capitalized interests in the amount of the fix assets, recognizing the value of these taxes having as result the compliance with the principle of prudency within the accountancy. In this context, compared to the dominant accounting systems, respectively the continental system and the Anglo- Saxon system, within which the accounting information is characterized as legal, respectively addressed to the external users, especially to the investors, the conducted study aimed the following directions: the main differences between the provisions of the national, European, Anglo-Saxon accounting regulations and those of the international referential related to the prudency; the occurrence and evolution of the deferred taxes generated by the capitalized interests in the amount of the fix assets; informational benefits of the accounting prudency concerning the reflection of the deferred taxes established by the

  5. Fundamentals of legal argumentation : A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new

  6. Trace amount analysis using spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of spark mass spectrometers (ion source, properties of the ion beam, ion optics, and performance) and their use in qualitative and quantitative analysis are described. This technique is very interesting for the semi-quantitative analysis of trace amounts, down to 10 -8 atoms. Examples of applications such as the analysis of high purity materials and non-conducting mineral samples, and determination of carbon and gas trace amounts are presented. (50 references) [fr

  7. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  8. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers' Association (PMA) and most of its members took government to court. ... Since 2 May 2004, it has been unlawful to supply medicines. 'according ... This article focuses on some of the key issues that are of ... chain for some time.

  9. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  10. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  11. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  12. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  13. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  14. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions - or how (not) to install a GPS when law is not precisely a map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    situations to closed situations with a vast, but technically manageable amount of fixed data – driving cars may be a good example – it may be counterproductive to reduce all situations to categorizationable and foreseeable ones. This automation skepticism hinges on various concepts such as ‘tychism’ (Peirce......Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equal to the present value of all initial withdrawal liability payments for which the employer was not liable pursuant to section 4219(c)(1)(B) of ERISA. The present value of such payments shall be... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts. 4219.14...

  16. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  17. The final management of nuclear fuel. Legal and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2009-01-01

    This article gives a brief summary of the characteristics of spent fuel and the lines of action considered for its management. It describes the legal framework that supports the Radioactive Waste Management Plan (PGRR), which contains the lines applicable to Final Spent Fuel Management, as well as the evolution of this legal framework. The article contains the 2008 updated costs of the various items of the PGRR, with a more detailed description of those related to this type of fuel, as well the source and amount of the financial contributions to the fund for meeting these costs, including how they have evolved over time. finally, it provides some personal reflections on this issue. (Author)

  18. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop DanielA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  19. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Robert W.; Bishop, Daniel A.; Du, Yingzi; Belcher, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA) is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  20. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  1. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  2. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  3. Formal and Legal Aspects of Buying and Commissioning Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Sebastian; Nowotarski, Piotr; Milwicz, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Formal and legal aspects of buying flats and their reception is very current topic and touches wide group of buyers. Annually in Poland great amount of flats is being sold and put to use. However, the case of housing purchase requires knowledge of both the construction and the legal aspects each buyer has to encounter. The paper faces the subject of formal and legal aspects, and analyses accompanying procedure of purchase and reception of housing in Poland. The article presents principles associated with the acquisition of a dwelling, process of works reception, removal of detected faults, fault-free reception, transfer of ownership, warranties, guarantees and possibilities of their enforcement. Contracting parties of the developer agreement were revealed. In addition, the entities present in the course of works such as general contractor were mentioned, due to the fact of his direct influence on the results of a contract terms between developer and buyer. Logical connection between three parties (buyer-developer-general contractor) were shown and direct and indirect dependencies were revealed. Existing laws and regulations that govern the relationship between the developer and the buyer of a dwelling were determined showing basic rights and responsibilities of each. The article also presents problems resulting from delaying the completion of works by developer’s fault and indicates possible legal paths to follow in order claim their rights. Due to the fact, that many of discussed formal and legal aspects in this subject have their origin connected to construction works and design issues, author suggests increased quality control and efficient work organization in order to solve problems before appearance.

  4. Medical dispatchers recognise substantial amount of acute stroke during emergency calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2016-01-01

    without an inappropriate amount of false positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: We report an overall high recognition of stroke by medical dispatchers. A final diagnosis of TIA, compared to ICH, was positively associated with recognition of acute stroke. Emergency medical dispatchers serve as the essential first...... stroke are therefore critical in organising emergency stroke care. We aimed to describe the sensitivity and positive predictive value of medical dispatchers' ability to recognise acute stroke during emergency calls, and to identify factors associated with recognition. METHODS: This was an observational...... study of 2653 consecutive unselected patients with a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). All admitted through the Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, during a 2-year study period (2012-2014). Final diagnoses were matched with dispatch codes from the Emergency Medical...

  5. Legal aspects of E-HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan; Cierkens, Kim

    2008-01-01

    legal challenges. Several member states are introducing electronic health records or e-Health platforms. The use of electronic health records that contain data of several health actors poses new risks with some legal consequences. Recently, grids are being used in some ambitious medical and healthcare applications. In order to be truly effective such grid applications must draw together huge amounts of data from disparately located computers - which implies data sharing across jurisdictions and the sharing of responsibilities by a range of different data controllers. E-Health will also enhance the further use of human tissue and genetic data. More and clear guidelines on the reimbursement criteria for telemedicine and on liability would also be very useful. Guidance at the European level can be given as to the criteria that (tele-) health sessions will have to comply with for reimbursement purposes, since it is still unclear when e-Health sessions will be reimbursed. It is clear that the existing European legal framework is not finished yet and that more specific European rules are needed.

  6. Evaluating Effects of Language Recognition on Language Rights and the Vitality of New Zealand Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rachel Locker; Manning, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Status planning through legislation made New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) an official language in 2006. But this strong symbolic action did not create resources or mechanisms to further the aims of the act. In this article we discuss the extent to which legal recognition and ensuing language-planning activities by state and community have affected…

  7. Phonotactics Constraints and the Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…

  8. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best...

  9. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  10. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  11. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  12. 26 CFR 1.41-3 - Base amount for taxable years beginning on or after January 3, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... local law, the tax is legally imposed on the purchaser of the good or service, and the taxpayer merely... after January 3, 2001. 1.41-3 Section 1.41-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-3 Base amount for taxable years...

  13. Against a singular understanding of legal capacity: Criminal responsibility and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigie, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is being used to argue for wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities. This raises a question about the implications of the Convention for attributions of criminal responsibility. The present paper works towards an answer by analysing the relationship between legal capacity in relation to personal decisions and criminal acts. Its central argument is that because moral and political considerations play an essential role in setting the relevant standards, legal capacity in the context of personal decisions and criminal acts should not be thought of as two sides of the same coin. The implications of particular moral or political norms are likely to be different in these two legal contexts, and this may justify asymmetries in the relevant standards for legal capacity. However, the analysis highlights a fundamental question about how much weight moral or political considerations should be given in setting these standards, and this is used to frame a challenge to those calling for significantly wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities on the basis of the Convention. PMID:25997381

  14. Against a singular understanding of legal capacity: Criminal responsibility and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigie, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is being used to argue for wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities. This raises a question about the implications of the Convention for attributions of criminal responsibility. The present paper works towards an answer by analysing the relationship between legal capacity in relation to personal decisions and criminal acts. Its central argument is that because moral and political considerations play an essential role in setting the relevant standards, legal capacity in the context of personal decisions and criminal acts should not be thought of as two sides of the same coin. The implications of particular moral or political norms are likely to be different in these two legal contexts, and this may justify asymmetries in the relevant standards for legal capacity. However, the analysis highlights a fundamental question about how much weight moral or political considerations should be given in setting these standards, and this is used to frame a challenge to those calling for significantly wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities on the basis of the Convention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The final management of nuclear fuel. Legal and economic aspects; La gestion final del combustible nuclear. Aspectos legales y economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villota, C. de

    2009-07-01

    This article gives a brief summary of the characteristics of spent fuel and the lines of action considered for its management. It describes the legal framework that supports the Radioactive Waste Management Plan (PGRR), which contains the lines applicable to Final Spent Fuel Management, as well as the evolution of this legal framework. The article contains the 2008 updated costs of the various items of the PGRR, with a more detailed description of those related to this type of fuel, as well the source and amount of the financial contributions to the fund for meeting these costs, including how they have evolved over time. finally, it provides some personal reflections on this issue. (Author)

  16. 13 CFR 120.930 - Amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent of total Project cost plus 100 percent of eligible administrative costs. For good cause shown, SBA... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount. 120.930 Section 120.930 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan...

  17. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  18. Physician Fee Schedule National Payment Amount File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The significant size of the Physician Fee Schedule Payment Amount File-National requires that database programs (e.g., Access, dBase, FoxPro, etc.) be used to read...

  19. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells ...

  20. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  1. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  2. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  3. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  5. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  6. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  7. A REVIEW: OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  8. Eigen-Gradients for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Esmeralda Gonzalez-Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign detection and recognition systems include a variety of applications like autonomous driving, road sign inventory, and driver support systems. Machine learning algorithms provide useful tools for traffic sign identification tasks. However, classification algorithms depend on the preprocessing stage to obtain high accuracy rates. This paper proposes a road sign characterization method based on oriented gradient maps and the Karhunen-Loeve transform in order to improve classification performance. Dimensionality reduction may be important for portable applications on resource constrained devices like FPGAs; therefore, our approach focuses on achieving a good classification accuracy by using a reduced amount of attributes compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method was tested using German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, reaching a dimensionality reduction of 99.3% and a classification accuracy of 95.9% with a Multi-Layer Perceptron.

  9. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  10. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  11. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  12. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  13. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  14. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  15. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  16. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  18. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  19. Visions of the Future of (Legal) Education

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.

  20. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  1. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  2. A Patchwork of Marriages: The Legal Relevance of Marriage in a Plural Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje Bonthuys

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many former colonies, South Africa has a plural system of family law which has historically recognized the polygynous marriages practiced by the indigenous African inhabitants of the country. However, recognition of these marriages by way of legal pluralism does not afford them equal status with the monogamous Judaeo-Christian marriage imported by European colonisers, nor does it ensure gender equality within families. Instead, the interaction between the colonial and apartheid socio-economic oppression of black people on the one hand, and legal pluralism on the other hand, produces a highly complex family law system, accurately described as ‘a patchwork of patriarchies.’ This paper argues that a far more radical transformation of family law, and one which is more likely to enhance gender equality, would be to move away from conjugality, or a sexual bond, as the basis of marriage and family law. The aim of this shift would be legal rules which recognize those relationships of kinship which have been central to African family practices and which have assisted many families to weather the multiple forms of colonial and white domination. A move away from conjugality as the primary basis of family law would also acknowledge the ever decreasing incidence of marriage and nuclear families, which characterizes contemporary South African society and would place the focus of legal regulation on the protection of socially valuable relationships, rather than the protection of marriage as an institution. Al igual que otras antiguas colonias, Sudáfrica tiene un sistema de derecho de familia plural, que ha reconocido históricamente los matrimonios en poliginia practicados por personas indígenas africanas. Sin embargo, el reconocimiento de estos matrimonios mediante pluralismo jurídico no les garantiza el mismo estatus que el matrimonio monogámico judeocristiano, ni garantiza la igualdad de género dentro de las familias. Al contrario, la

  3. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Law of Iran and England: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law of Iran and England: A Comparative Study. There are a lot of similarities and commonalities between the legal system of Iran and England in the field of recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments including public discipline and conflicting judgments. Public discipline in England Law is more specific than that of Iran. Being a civil case of the judgment, impossibility of recognition, enforcement of tax and criminal judgments are among the similarities of the two systems. On the other hand, reciprocity, precise of the foreign court, and the jurisdiction governing the nature of the claim are among instances which are different in Iran and England legal systems on the recognizing of the enforcement of foreign judgments.

  4. The legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    2008-01-01

    Within the range of the power generation the part of nuclear energy amounts 22 % in Germany in the year 2007. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following aspects are described: (a) The atomic law and the completion of the power generation from nuclear energy; (b) The disposal of nuclear wastes; (c) The Euratom contract; (d) The institutional framework for the execution of the atomic energy law; (e) Legal protection opposite atom legal sovereignty documents; (f) future of the atomic law; (g) European Union-Russian partnership agreement and cooperation agreement. In order to guarantee a sustainable power supply for the production of goods and services in a national economy, also the legal framework for nuclear power stations in Germany must be realized

  5. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  6. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  7. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  8. LEGAL DRAFTING IN CROATIA - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Đerđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of legal drafting and its essential elements, which has not drawn a lot of attention in the Republic of Croatia so far. The paper emphasises the importance of proportionality in the simplicity and legal distinctness of a legal text in the process of drafting for the purpose of its clarity. The paper also presents objective requirements necessary for quality legal drafting, as well as subjective qualities of the drafters. With the purpose of drawing attention to imperfections in the legal drafting in Croatia, some defi ciencies are presented in the process of drafting and amending of the Utility Services Act. The process of drafting and amending of this Act is a good example of the way how legal drafting should not be done. It contains a lot of defi ciencies and failures that are the result of legal drafting mistakes. At the end, authors expect that the adoption of the Uniform methodology and nomotechnical rules for the drafting of acts enacted by Parliament should contribute to the higher quality of legal texts and to their full adjustment to the general requirements of legal certainty and rule of law.

  9. LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia-Raluca ONIŞOR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the legal effects of mergers and acquisitions from the Romanian Company Law perspective, underlining certain general principles, the procedure of annulment of such a legal transformation of companies and the protection of the employees of companies participating in the merger according to the Law no. 67/2006. These consequences of mergers and acquisions are to be seen in the broader light of the most important purpose of this legal instrument, maximizing financial and organizational efficiencies, thus legal certainty is a desirable goal to be assumed by any merger regulation.

  10. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  11. Radiculography with reduced amounts of contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorini, E.; Caputo, N.; Chiurulla, C.; Ciorba, E.; Pelliccioli, G.P.; Cianciulli, E.

    1984-01-01

    Because of the frequency and seriousness of side effects observed after radiculography, due to, among the other things, the amount of contrast medium, the authors describe a method that gives diagnostically satisfactory results using a low dose of contrast and a tangent-beam technique. Among 106 patients undergoing radiculography with a tangent-beam technique and Iopamidol, only 4 developed mild side effects, namely headache in three cases and headache with nausea in one. (Author)

  12. Semantic Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thonnat , Monique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Extracting automatically the semantics from visual data is a real challenge. We describe in this paper how recent work in cognitive vision leads to significative results in activity recognition for visualsurveillance and video monitoring. In particular we present work performed in the domain of video understanding in our PULSAR team at INRIA in Sophia Antipolis. Our main objective is to analyse in real-time video streams captured by static video cameras and to recogniz...

  13. Amount of trace elements in marine cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Suzuki, Hamaji.

    1979-01-01

    For the estimation of internal radiation to human beings, the amounts of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co and Cs in 5 species of marine cephalopods were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis, and then the concentration factors were calculated. The average amount and the concentration factor of the elements in the edible parts (mantle, arms and tentacles) of cephalopods are as follows: 0.14 mg, 2 x 10 2 for Mn, 1.8 mg, 2 x 10 2 for Fe, 2.0 mg, 7 x 10 2 for Cu, 12.2 mg, 1 x 10 3 for Zn, 5.3 μg, 6 x 10 1 for Co and 3.4 μg, 7 for Cs. The amounts of Fe, Co, Cu and Zn in the liver and the branchial heart were much higher than those in the edible parts, although those of Cs and Mn were almost the same. The Co content in the visceral organs of O. Vulgaris showed extremely high value, particularly in the branchial heart. (author)

  14. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  15. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  16. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  17. Subspace methods for pattern recognition in intelligent environment

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    This research book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art subspace learning methods for pattern recognition in intelligent environment. With the fast development of internet and computer technologies, the amount of available data is rapidly increasing in our daily life. How to extract core information or useful features is an important issue. Subspace methods are widely used for dimension reduction and feature extraction in pattern recognition. They transform a high-dimensional data to a lower-dimensional space (subspace), where most information is retained. The book covers a broad spectrum of subspace methods including linear, nonlinear and multilinear subspace learning methods and applications. The applications include face alignment, face recognition, medical image analysis, remote sensing image classification, traffic sign recognition, image clustering, super resolution, edge detection, multi-view facial image synthesis.

  18. Scene recognition based on integrating active learning with dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Yin, Xueyan; Yang, Lin; Gong, Chengrong; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen

    2018-04-01

    Scene recognition is a significant topic in the field of computer vision. Most of the existing scene recognition models require a large amount of labeled training samples to achieve a good performance. However, labeling image manually is a time consuming task and often unrealistic in practice. In order to gain satisfying recognition results when labeled samples are insufficient, this paper proposed a scene recognition algorithm named Integrating Active Learning and Dictionary Leaning (IALDL). IALDL adopts projective dictionary pair learning (DPL) as classifier and introduces active learning mechanism into DPL for improving its performance. When constructing sampling criterion in active learning, IALDL considers both the uncertainty and representativeness as the sampling criteria to effectively select the useful unlabeled samples from a given sample set for expanding the training dataset. Experiment results on three standard databases demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed IALDL.

  19. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heracleous Panikos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur. As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc. for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  20. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Saruwatari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur. As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc. for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a 93.9% word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  1. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Threshold models of recognition and the recognition heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Erdfelder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the recognition heuristic (RH theory, decisions follow the recognition principle: Given a high validity of the recognition cue, people should prefer recognized choice options compared to unrecognized ones. Assuming that the memory strength of choice options is strongly correlated with both the choice criterion and recognition judgments, the RH is a reasonable strategy that approximates optimal decisions with a minimum of cognitive effort (Davis-Stober, Dana, and Budescu, 2010. However, theories of recognition memory are not generally compatible with this assumption. For example, some threshold models of recognition presume that recognition judgments can arise from two types of cognitive states: (1 certainty states in which judgments are almost perfectly correlated with memory strength and (2 uncertainty states in which recognition judgments reflect guessing rather than differences in memory strength. We report an experiment designed to test the prediction that the RH applies to certainty states only. Our results show that memory states rather than recognition judgments affect use of recognition information in binary decisions.

  3. Collecting and evaluating speech recognition corpora for nine Southern Bantu languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, JAC

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors describes the Lwazi corpus for automatic speech recognition (ASR), a new telephone speech corpus which includes data from nine Southern Bantu languages. Because of practical constraints, the amount of speech per language is relatively...

  4. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  5. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  6. FlexiTerm: a flexible term recognition method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spasic, I.; Greenwood, M.; Preece, A.; Francis, N.; Elwyn, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing amount of textual information in biomedicine requires effective term recognition methods to identify textual representations of domain-specific concepts as the first step toward automating its semantic interpretation. The dictionary look-up approaches may not always be

  7. Activity Recognition and Localization on a Truck Parking Lot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Flizikowski, A.; Evans, M.; Gustafsson, D.; Petersson, H.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of activity recognition and localization algorithms that together assemble a large amount of information about activities on a parking lot. The aim is to detect and recognize events that may pose a threat to truck drivers and trucks. The algorithms perform zone-based

  8. 26 CFR 1.737-1 - Recognition of precontribution gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition of precontribution gain. 1.737-1... gain. (a) Determination of gain—(1) In general. A partner that receives a distribution of property (other than money) must recognize gain under section 737 and this section in an amount equal to the...

  9. Object Recognition In HADOOP Using HIPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Agrawal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of images and videos being shared by the user is exponentially increasing but applications that perform video analytics is severely lacking or work on limited set of data. It is also challenging to perform analytics with less time complexity. Object recognition is the primary step in video analytics. We implement a robust method to extract objects from the data which is in unstructured format and cannot be processed directly by relational databases. In this study we present our report with results after performance evaluation and compare them with results of MATLAB.

  10. Regulating the helping hand: improving legal preparedness for cross-border disaster medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David

    2010-01-01

    Medical care is a highly regulated field in nearly every country. Therefore, it is not surprising that legal issues regularly arise in cross-border disaster operations that have with the potential to profoundly impact the effectiveness of international assistance. Little attention has been paid to preparing for and addressing these kinds of issues. This paper will report on research by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) on International Disaster Response Law, and discuss new developments in the international legal framework for addressing these issues. For seven years, the IFRC has studied legal issues in cross-border disaster assistance. Its activities have included several dozen case studies, a global survey of governments and humanitarian stakeholders, and a series of meetings and high-level conferences. The IFRC has found a consistent set of regulatory problems in major disaster relief operations related to the entry and regulation of international relief. These include some issues specific to the health field, such as the regulation of drug donations and the recognition of foreign medical qualifications. To address the gaps in domestic and international regulatory structures, the IFRC spearheaded the development of new international guidelines. The legal risks for international health providers in disaster settings are real and should be better integrated into program planning. Governments must become more proactive in ensuring that legal frameworks are flexible enough to mitigate these problems.

  11. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnam, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  12. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  13. Legal Information Sources: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Ronald C.

    This 25-page annotated bibliography describes the legal reference materials in the special collection of a medium-sized public library. Sources are listed in 12 categories: cases, dictionaries, directories, encyclopedias, forms, references for the lay person, general, indexes, laws and legislation, legal research aids, periodicals, and specialized…

  14. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  15. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any...

  16. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims...

  17. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  18. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  19. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  20. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or regulations, and, as provided in § 1.73 of the Commission's rules, they do not have the force or effect of...

  1. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...

  2. The Reach and Limits of Legal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Murray L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies of the state of legal education and the practice of law are criticized, and legal education is found to be healthy. Practical and professional responsibility training is recommended for post-law school training rather than in the classical curriculum. (MSE)

  3. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  4. Advice for the New Legal Studies Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into academia from law school or legal practice is a significant and exciting shift in one's legal career. This transition, however, can also be one that presents numerous challenges. Preparing a syllabus and drafting lecture material can seem like a daunting task. Writing an academic article for the first time involves learning a…

  5. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions

  6. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  7. Legal Frame of Non-Social Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the

  8. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  9. Reproduction, women, and the workplace: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, J E

    1986-01-01

    Legal conflict has marked the effort to protect workers against reproductive injury, and legal activity in the management of occupational risks reflects a much broader range of important social issues, such as sexual discrimination in the workplace. This article describes the evolving law related to reproductive hazards that concern men, women and children.

  10. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  11. Death with Dignity: A Tripartite Legal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblang, Theodore Raymond

    1978-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive overview of the legal problems that attend medical treatment of the terminally ill patient as well as a careful analysis of the legal vehicles that have been offered in response to these problems--the living will, the antidysthanasia contract, and right to die legislation. (Author)

  12. Constitutionalising the Right Legal Representation at CCMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...

  13. Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

  14. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  15. Rule of law and legal epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Feteris, Eveline; Kloosterhuis, Harm; Plug, José; Smith, Carel

    2016-01-01

    In the positivistic conception of law, sources of law (statute, precedent) are strictly distinguished from other legal materials such as doctrine. Courts as well as academia are, however, beginning to recognise the legal relevance of doctrine and case law of lower courts. This acceptance of such

  16. Southern African Development Community (SADC) trade legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...

  17. Teaching the Legal Aspects of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Jules

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)

  18. Suretyship in Serbian and comparative legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has compared the institute of suretyship in Serbian law and other comparative legal systems, both continental and common-law. With the development of economy, these instruments of creditor's protection in the contractual relationship have gained full promotion. The analysis of the similarities and differences in the treatment of suretyship implies a relationship between the European legal systems.

  19. [Gender correction surgery in transsexualism from a legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Karl Otto

    2006-01-01

    As understood by the German "Transsexuellengesetz" (Gender Recognition Act) transsexualism is to be recognized as a gender identity disorder if a long-term diagnostic-therapeutic process has shown that the transposition of gender roles is irreversible and if, besides psychotherapeutic monitoring, only hormonal and surgical procedures are suitable to relieve the patient's distress related to his gender identity. The German Gender Recognition Act does not contain provisions regarding the diagnosis or medical treatment of transsexualism. Commissioned by the German Sexuality Research Association, the Academy for Sexual Medicine and the Association for Sexology, a committee of experts developed standards for the medical treatment and evaluation of transsexuals. These standards provide a basis and orientational guide for both medical and legal issues. In terms of liability, doctors should carefully consider the recommendations on patient education provided in these guidelines. The costs for hormonal treatment and genital corrective surgery are reimbursed by the Statutory Health Insurances (SHI) if a medical expert confirms that transsexualism is a medical disorder.

  20. Legal and legal-ethical aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, H.

    1991-01-01

    The article examines why human beings accept risks. An assessment of risk is always carried out in connection with the benefits to be had from an action which is a potential risk. Decisions on the acceptability of risks are the consequence of political assessments. An assessment of risk on a legal basis is only possible to a limited degree. What is important are the criteria according to which the acceptability of risks is determined. In this context, the concept of damage proves itself to be of central importance; this concept includes the question as to the degree to which such damage can be tolerated socially and politically, the question of future damage as well as the degree to which such damage is reversible. It would be ideal if those persons who are affected by potential damage were to be the ones to make such decisions, but this is extremely difficult to put into practice. Special care must be taken in regard to decisions which have repercussions for future generations or for the state of nature. In this case, the decision which those persons who are potentially affected would most probably make must be anticipated and taken into account as if they were here to participate in the decision-making process. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. The International Legal Personality of the Individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    This book scrutinizes the relationship between the concept of international legal personality as a theoretical construct and the position of the individual as a matter of positive international law. By testing four main theoretical conceptions of international legal personality against historical...... to transform during the second half of the twentieth century so as to include individuals as its subjects. Rather, the answer to the question of individual rights and obligations under international law is—and always was—solely contingent upon the interpretation of international legal norms. It follows......, of course, that the entities governed by a particular norm tell us nothing about the legal system to which that norm belongs. Instead, the distinction between international and national legal norms turns exclusively on the nature of their respective sources. Against the background of these insights...

  2. Responsive Legal Approach to Law of Human Trafficking in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana

    2018-01-01

    Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…

  3. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  4. Real time biometric surveillance with gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini

    2018-04-01

    Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.

  5. Ethical and legal issues involved in the pro-active collection of personal information with the aim of reducing online disclosure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available aims to highlight some of the major ethical and legal issues when pro-actively collecting personal information, through a South African case study, to assist in reducing the amounts of personal information being disclosed online....

  6. Facing the Homofobia and Rights Recognition: Struggle for Gays Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendo Freitas de Amorim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and historical aspects of prejudice experienced by homosexuals and the process of recognition of equality of rights, freedom and dignity as a form of affirmation of homosexual citizenship. Despite the recent legal recognition of homoafetivas unions, homosexuality is still treated with a way to lower sexual orientation before the heteronormative default, this translates into many legislative gaps on the right to free expression of sexual orientation. A bibliographical documentary research from classical sociology was held, anthropology and law, as well as the jurisprudence of the higher courts. The study indentifies a direct relationship between sexuality and power. Despite the historical record of homosexuality existing in different times of history, it was usually treated with inferiority, either in their understanding as sin, disease and crime. It is argued that to build a substantive citizenship in Brazil, it is necessary, among other measures, criminalize homophobic practices.

  7. Polarographic determination of trace amounts of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaofan Zhao; Xiaohua Cai; Peibiao Li; Handong Yang

    1986-07-01

    A sensitive linear-sweep polarographic method for the determination of thorium is described. It is based on the thorium complex with Xylidyl Blue I (XBI) in a medium containing ethylenediamine, 1, 10-phenanthroline, oxalic acid and ninhydrin, at pH 10.5-11.5. The complex has been proved to be Th(XBI)/sub 2/, with log ..beta..'=9.6. The method can be used to determine trace amounts of thorium over the range 3.5x10/sup -8/-3x10/sup -6/M. The detection limit is 1x10/sup -8/M. A solvent extraction procedure is necessary to eliminate interference from several cations. The method has been applied to determination of traces of thorium in minerals, with good results.

  8. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  9. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  10. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  11. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  12. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  13. Psychopathy: Legal and neuroscientific aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Ortega-Escobar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.

  14. New generation of ''legal'' dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1980s research at the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK proved the feasibility of using solid state electronics in an entirely new dosimetry technology - capable of reaching right down into the low energy photon ranges, and able to detect beta radiation. In 1988 the NRPB undertook a joint venture with Siemens Plessey Controls to develop a marketable personal dosemeter meeting full Health and Safety Executive approval as a ''legal'' instrument. The Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD) was thus conceived, and will reach the pre-production stage early this year. The EPD makes use of state-of-the-art silicon integrated circuit technology, with a custom amplifier and microprocessor system. The liquid crystal display continuously shows the accumulated short-term penetrating dose in terms of the Hp (10) unit, and can also show superficial dose and dose rates. Because the EPD must be continuously powered, the custom lithium battery was commissioned to ensure a minimum service interval of 12 months. The EPD is the size and weight of a small pocket pager. Although dose data can be read directly from the EPD, a comprehensive data management system is needed to effect real-life use in industry. The EPD thus communicates by infra-red link to a reader unit which interfaces an IBM-compatible PC, allowing authorized personnel to read the dose memories and perform dose alarm threshold settings. (author)

  15. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen M.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Coti, Karla K.; Bení tez, Diego S.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmieli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William Andrew III; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, Fraser Fraser Raser

    2009-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within......The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Odor Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anholt, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... We characterized the transduction pathway for the recognition of pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and also characterized subpopulations of olfactory neurons expressing different axonal G proteins...

  19. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  20. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  1. Action recognition using mined hierarchical compound features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Bowden, Richard

    2011-05-01

    The field of Action Recognition has seen a large increase in activity in recent years. Much of the progress has been through incorporating ideas from single-frame object recognition and adapting them for temporal-based action recognition. Inspired by the success of interest points in the 2D spatial domain, their 3D (space-time) counterparts typically form the basic components used to describe actions, and in action recognition the features used are often engineered to fire sparsely. This is to ensure that the problem is tractable; however, this can sacrifice recognition accuracy as it cannot be assumed that the optimum features in terms of class discrimination are obtained from this approach. In contrast, we propose to initially use an overcomplete set of simple 2D corners in both space and time. These are grouped spatially and temporally using a hierarchical process, with an increasing search area. At each stage of the hierarchy, the most distinctive and descriptive features are learned efficiently through data mining. This allows large amounts of data to be searched for frequently reoccurring patterns of features. At each level of the hierarchy, the mined compound features become more complex, discriminative, and sparse. This results in fast, accurate recognition with real-time performance on high-resolution video. As the compound features are constructed and selected based upon their ability to discriminate, their speed and accuracy increase at each level of the hierarchy. The approach is tested on four state-of-the-art data sets, the popular KTH data set to provide a comparison with other state-of-the-art approaches, the Multi-KTH data set to illustrate performance at simultaneous multiaction classification, despite no explicit localization information provided during training. Finally, the recent Hollywood and Hollywood2 data sets provide challenging complex actions taken from commercial movie sequences. For all four data sets, the proposed hierarchical

  2. Mapping face recognition information use across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eMiellet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is not rooted in a universal eye movement information-gathering strategy. Western observers favor a local facial feature sampling strategy, whereas Eastern observers prefer sampling face information from a global, central fixation strategy. Yet, the precise qualitative (the diagnostic and quantitative (the amount information underlying these cultural perceptual biases in face recognition remains undetermined.To this end, we monitored the eye movements of Western and Eastern observers during a face recognition task, with a novel gaze-contingent technique: the Expanding Spotlight. We used 2° Gaussian apertures centered on the observers' fixations expanding dynamically at a rate of 1° every 25ms at each fixation - the longer the fixation duration, the larger the aperture size. Identity-specific face information was only displayed within the Gaussian aperture; outside the aperture, an average face template was displayed to facilitate saccade planning. Thus, the Expanding Spotlight simultaneously maps out the facial information span at each fixation location.Data obtained with the Expanding Spotlight technique confirmed that Westerners extract more information from the eye region, whereas Easterners extract more information from the nose region. Interestingly, this quantitative difference was paired with a qualitative disparity. Retinal filters based on spatial frequency decomposition built from the fixations maps revealed that Westerners used local high-spatial frequency information sampling, covering all the features critical for effective face recognition (the eyes and the mouth. In contrast, Easterners achieved a similar result by using global low-spatial frequency information from those facial features.Our data show that the face system flexibly engages into local or global eye movement strategies across cultures, by relying on distinct facial information span and culturally tuned spatially filtered information. Overall, our

  3. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  4. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  5. Legal briefing: home birth and midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Fisch, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving home birth and midwifery in the United States. Specifically, we focus on new legislative, regulatory, and judicial acts that impact women's' access to direct entry (non-nurse) midwives. We categorize these legal developments into the following 12 categories. 1. Background and History 2. Certified Nurse-Midwives 3. Direct Entry Midwives 4. Prohibition of Direct Entry Midwives 5. Enforcement of Prohibition 6. Challenges to Prohibition 7. Forbearance without License 8. Voluntary Licensure 9. Unclear and Uncertain Status 10. Growth of DEM Licensure 11. Licensure Restrictions 12. Medicaid Coverage

  6. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  7. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    . These parameters focus on the degree to which the use of explicitation and implicitation is considered to influence meaning transfer, authentic English legal language and style, and the informative function of the translation in a defined translational situation. Based on Chesterman’s categorization of norms...... perceived norms influence the use of explicitation and implicitation. The findings are based on experiments involving Danish translators and legal experts who were asked to evaluate three different translations into English of the same Danish legal source text on a set of defined parameters...

  8. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strategic planning of business objectives. So it’s the need and the importance of developing a Legal Business Model that can be used in combination with Canvas.

  9. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  11. Medical legal aspects of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Terry J.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed

  12. Laws of Language and Legal Language: A Study of Legal Language in Some Indonesian Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidarta Shidarta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal language must follow the laws of language (grammar that widely known and commonly used by the public, including groups of the scientist. Legal language on the other hand also recognizes specific terminologies. These terminologies were introduced by jurists or by legislative power holders. Accordingly, legal language became the product of legal doctrines or political decisions. The problems arose when a number of compositions and legal terms turned out to be elusive, convoluted, and ambiguous due to the pattern of writing that was once done and because of certain considerations. This article proposed reviewing the factors that result in problems. The author presented a solution to observe using hermeneutic methods of law and legal reasoning. The author argued that the text of the law was not neutral since it was trapped not only by the laws of language but also by the perspective of the interpreters as they believed such a perspective was based on the guidance of legal science. By using legal hermeneutics can be checked the depth of the meaning of the law; while over the legal reasoning can be seen its rationale according to legal science.

  13. A sense of self-suspicion: global legal pluralism and the claim to legal authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Croce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism has become common currency in many contemporary debates on law and globalization. Its main claim is that a form of global legal pluralism represents both the most accurate description of law in times of globalization and the best normative option. On the descriptive level, global legal pluralism is considered more reliable than state-based accounts. On the normative level, global legal pluralism is understood as a possibility to open up the legal realm to previously unheard voices. This article assesses these claims against the background of classic legal-pluralist scholarship. After reconstructing the emergence of global legal pluralism and then examining its epistemic and normative versions, the last two sections identify the shortcoming of this approach by underlining the absence of what the authors call ‘a sense of self-suspicion’ in drawing the map of legalities in the global sphere. The main argument put forward is that global legal pluralism is oblivious of a few key insights offered by the founding fathers of classic legal pluralism.

  14. Museums, minorities and recognition: memories of North Africa in contemporary France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Stevens

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a case study from the Musée dauphinois in Grenoble, France to explore the way museums are called upon to act as ‘authorities of recognition’ for minority communities. Studies of public recognition have often focused on political and legal measures, such as reparations, rather than considering questions of public representation. In satisfying demands for recognition on the part of minority groups do museums contribute to social cohesion or do they generate competition between groups that may heighten existing tensions? This question is particularly pertinent in the French case where the philosophy of republican universalism traditionally discourages acknowledgement of group identities. Drawing on work on recognition by Feuchtwang and Dufoix this article argues that a more complex model of recognition needs to be elaborated for museums in order to take into account the multiple actors involved in the development and reception of exhibitions.

  15. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  16. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  17. Considering marijuana legalization carefully: insights for other jurisdictions from analysis for Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau

    2016-12-01

    In 2014 the legislature of Vermont, USA passed a law requiring the Secretary of Administration to report on the consequences of legalizing marijuana. The RAND Corporation was commissioned to write that report. This paper summarizes insights from that analysis that are germane to other jurisdictions. Translation of key findings from the RAND Corporation report to the broader policy debate. Marijuana legalization encompasses a wide range of possible regimes, distinguished along at least four dimensions: which organizations are allowed to produce and supply the drug, the regulations under which they operate, the nature of the products that can be distributed and taxes and prices. Vermont's decriminalization had already cut its costs of enforcing marijuana prohibition against adults to about $1 per resident per year. That is probably less than the cost of regulating a legal market. Revenues from taxing residents' purchases after legalization could be many times that amount, so the main fiscal cost of prohibition after decriminalization relative to outright legalization may be foregone tax revenues, not enforcement costs. Approximately 40 times as many users live within 200 miles of Vermont's borders as live within the state; drug tourism and associated tax revenues will be important considerations, as will be the response of other states. Indeed, if another state legalized with lower taxes, that could undermine the ability to collect taxes on even Vermont residents' purchases. Analysis of possible outcomes if Vermont, USA, legalized marijuana reveal that choices about how, and not just whether, to legalize a drug can have profound consequences for the effects on health and social wellbeing, and the choices of one jurisdiction can affect the options and incentives available to other jurisdictions. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara; Rockwood, Alyn; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR's ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  20. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  2. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  3. Heidbreder to head Office of Legal Counsel

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Kay Heidbreder of Blacksburg, has been appointed University Counsel by the Virginia Attorney General and will head the university's legal office. Heidbreder, who holds the position of assistant attorney general, has been associate general counsel at Virginia Tech since 1985.

  4. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system. ...

  5. Radiologic protection: technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiologic units are described with the aim to decodify the technical dosimetric language. The legal aspect of radiologic protection in Brazil is reported. Information about help in case of radiation accident is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    Legal Framework for Implementation of m-Government in Ethiopia: Best. Practices and Lessons ... opportunity to government and businesses to provide enhanced mobile .... provide effective governance, offer increased service delivery and ...

  7. Legal terminology in African languages | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various aspects regarding the present project (such as financing, time-schedule, training and terminological problems encountered) are treated. Keywords: legal terminology, sociolinguistic factors, terminology development, african languages, indigenous languages, multilingualism, subject fields, terminology, translation, ...

  8. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of ... There is a recognized need for intermediary institutions, such as media, ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  9. Legal Aspects of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php

  10. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...... of majoritarian democracy on the number of referrals. The paper concludes that, owing to the uneven legal push for Europe, some member states and their citizens remain at arms' length from the legal integration process - and, in consequence, from the full impact of European integration....

  11. Legal protection in French environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromont, M.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents a comparison of the French and the Federal German legal provisions providing for preliminary legal protection in connection with proceedings where protection of the environment is involved. The author also discusses proceedings in contentious administrative matters in connection with the licensing of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as the protection of the laws in subject matters concerning airborne pollution control and environmental protection in general. One of the most outstanding different features is the fact that in legal proceedings on administrative matters in France, protection of the existing legal system is the main issue rather than the protection of individual rights, as is the case in the Fed. Republic of Germany. (HP) [de

  12. Health Law as a Legal Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Bødker

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to dispose of aborted foetuses is a sensitive ethical and legal issue which relates directly to the legal status of the foetus. An illustrative example of this issue’s practical legal relevance is the Danish Council of Ethics’ recommendation of March 3, 2011, in reply...... to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...... general reflections on the legal status of cadaveric foetuses....

  13. Unequal recognition, misrecognition and injustice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2012-01-01

    by the state of religious minorities. It argues that state–religion relations can be analysed as relations of recognition, which are not only unequal but also multi-dimensional, and that it is difficult to answer the question whether multi-dimensional recognitive inequalities are unjust or wrong if one...

  14. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  15. Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1976-01-01

    Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

  16. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  17. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  18. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  19. Research Notes -- Openness and Evolvability -- Legal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    against obsolescence in place?............................... 6 2.1.13 Is compliance with shared infrastructures legally enforceable? ....... 6 2.1.14 Is...bundling acceptance criteria and milestone delivery schedules . This may hide the possibility of unpublished coupling being incorporated between bundled...2.1.12 Is legal protection against obsolescence in place? If the standards used by support tools are not open, determine whether contract or similar

  20. A legal version of the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.

  1. The Legal Road To Replicating Silicon Valley

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Douglas Cumming

    2004-01-01

    Must policymakers seeking to replicate the success of Silicon Valley’s venture capital market first replicate other US institutions, such as deep and liquid stock markets? Or can legal reforms alone make a significant difference? In this paper, we compare the economic and legal determinants of venture capital investment, fundraising and exits. We introduce a cross-sectional and time series empirical analysis across 15 countries and 13 years of data spanning an entire business cycle. We show t...

  2. Legal Thinking Inside and Outside the Box

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Walker, Neil Walker

    2014-01-01

    This paper commends Lindahl for his expansive and fluid conception of the defining and therefore delimiting terms of legal jurisdiction, as encompassing not only spatial, but al-so temporal, material and subjective criteria. It proceeds to challenge Lindahl to develop his philosophical insight in such a way thst allows for the intensified porosity of the con-temporary postnational or ‘globalising’ legal condition of late modernity to be adequate-ly distinguished from the State-centred Westpha...

  3. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  4. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A. (Ali); Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...

  5. Religious legal systems: challenges of the modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. В. Лук’янов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of world globalization processes on the development of the religious legal systems has been analyzed in the paper. Globalization processes in the XXI century are regarding individuals, nations, and civilizations. Global transformations lead to qualitative changes in the socio-cultural relations and actualize a wide range of issues which are related to the formation of a new world culture. Modern globalization takes diverse range of public relations in its own orbit. The relationship between the legal systems in the twentieth century is some of the most important aspects of this process. However, the interaction of legal systems has significant differences from the interaction of economies of different countries. There are actual economic relations domination of Western financial and economic institutions and standardization of relevant rules. But the attempts to apply this approach to law lead to resistance to Western standards and the spread of major civilizational conflicts in different parts of the world. Globalization should be based on respect for cultural, religious and legal diversity. It has to ensure preservation of forced “Westernisation”. Significant differences in the impact of globalization on the convergence of legal systems of Western law (Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American and their impact on religious legal systems of Muslim, Hindu and Jewish law must be emphasized. The religious legal systems are not exposed to other systems and the related changes. This is due to such features as the divine nature, increased stability, specific sources of law etc. An important issue that requires further study is the reverse influence which religious law exercises to secularized modern legal system.

  6. Development of legal environment for Rosatom Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El'fimova, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    The scope of legal and regulatory work within the Corporation Rosatom is characterized with the large number of legal acts that have been developed and adopted under the initiative of the Corporation Rosatom that aim to address objectives associated with the advancement of the nuclear energy of Russia. The rapidly expanding industry requires their continuous development and improvement. The tasks and problems of legislation pertaining to use of nuclear energy and safety regulation are discussed in the paper [ru

  7. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF SOIL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Along with specialty items used for the development and implementation of sustainable development, protection and conservation of the environment, legal protection component of soil resources play an essential role. Legal and institutional framework provides a much protection of soil resources. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil ...

  8. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  9. Privacy and legal issues in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Rolf H

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.

  10. Using Comics to Communicate Legal Contract Cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Botes

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...

  11. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-01-01

    There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strateg...

  12. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-01-01

    The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant infl...

  13. Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

  14. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  15. THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON CERTAIN TYPES OF LEGAL LIABILITY IN CRYPTOCURRENCY RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksii Drozd; Yaroslav Lazur; Ruslan Serbin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the theoretical, methodological, and legal possibilities of application of certain types of legal responsibility to the relations, which are connected with cryptocurrency (bitcoin). Some types of liability in the field of cryptocurrency relations make the subject of the study. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of legal regulation of the sphere of cryptocurrency in Ukraine and in foreign countries. Advantages and disadvantages of different m...

  16. One World? One Law? One Global Legal System? Modern Law and Socio-Legal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Krawietz

    2014-01-01

    In the present article the author considers the issues connected with globalization and structural changes in the contemporary societies. In author’s opinion, development of legal regulation encompasses not only the practical and theoretical argumentation in the law. It also includes the informative and communicative perspectives of our analytical and conceptual legal thinking and of our legal world-outlook which is formed accordingly to the social world of law. The author stresses that there...

  17. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  18. Legal Aspects In Stroke Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hajmanouchehri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing the cases of complaint from therapeutic staff, referred to Legal Medicine decided to mention a few examples of these actions and by reviewing them, we want to do something even nothing to prevention. Three cases were given and discussed in this article. 1. Patient is a 68-year-old woman complaining of weakness of her left side and speech disturbance that started about 2 hours earlier, was admitted to hospital at 8 am. Patient with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke in progress is placed in antiplatelet therapy (Plavix 4 initial dose and one per day and an 80 mg aspirin per day and anti-Coagulation Heparin (initial dose of 6000 units and 1000 units per hour.Patient conflicts with loss of consciousness at 17:45. By doing CT, they have found a large hemorrhage in the right parietal Frontó with severe shift from midline, IVH, SAH. Currently, patient has movement disorders and several cerebral complications. 2. The patient took under angiography because of chest pain. Patient had an unpleasant feeling in organs at the time of angiography and the symptoms have been intensified in the afternoon of that day and conflicted with headache and blurred vision. The next day, he also afflicted with weakness of organs and at 8 am neurology consultation is requested, and according to a neurologist takes MRI. The patient was suffered from speech impairment and right hemiparesis. MRI indicates stroke. Two days later, intravenous heparin begins. The Patient discharged on 31/4/ … . 3. The patient hospitalized because of headache and weakness of right organs and with a presumptive diagnosis of stroke. Headache had progressive trend. There were not seen certain lesions on the initial CT. 5000 units of heparin with 1000 units of infusion in an hour starts with telephone orders at 8 am. The morning 1/8 /..., he afflicted with loss of consciousness, and transferred to the ICU. In morning experiment, patient’s platelet is reported low (47000.The patient

  19. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on... $1,350 for judicial review. DATES: Effective Date: This notice is effective on January 1, 2012. FOR...

  20. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on... judicial review. DATES: Effective Date: This notice is effective on January 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  1. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on... ALJ hearings and $1,430 for judicial review. DATES: This notice is effective on January 1, 2014. FOR...

  2. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on... $1,400 for judicial review. Effective Date: This notice is effective on January 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

  3. Huelga Schools in Houston: Community-Based Education in the Struggle for Legal Recognition, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of the huelga schools established in Houston, Texas, in 1970. For 2 years, from 1970 to 1972, the Mexican American community opposed the Houston Independent School District's plan to integrate the schools by pairing so-called White Mexican Americans with African American students. While they protested this decision,…

  4. The European Status Quo in legal recognition and patient-care services of occupational skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, C; Salavastru, C; Agner, T

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: This survey highlights the need for mandatory regulations on the prevention, management and potential compensation of work-related UV-induced skin cancer across Europe. Against the background of a joint European domestic market, equal standards of occupational safety across Europe should include......: Ten of 11 participating countries in this survey reported the existence of an established programme available on certain occupational diseases; work-related skin diseases were only specifically recognized in eight countries. Seven of 11 countries recognize cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in outdoor...... workers as 'occupational skin cancer'. Basal cell carcinoma (6 of 11), actinic keratosis (5 of 11), Bowen's disease (5 of 11) and malignant melanoma (5 of 11) are not as regularly approved as potentially 'work-induced'. Only a few of the countries included into this survey established a general...

  5. Specification for projects of radiogeologic recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This instruction is a guidance to achievement of radiogeologic recognition projects. The radiogeologic recognition is a prospecting method that join the classic geologic recognition with measures of rock radioactivity. (C.M.)

  6. In Defence of Culture? Racialised Sexual Violence and Agency in Legal and Judicial Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Dagistanli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of work in critical race and feminist theories that have criticised as Euro/Anglo-centric, and hence exclusionary, the liberal foundations of Western democratic legal systems. The basis of such critiques is that legal personhood is premised on an atomistic individual agent that purports to be neutral but in actuality reflects and maintains the hegemonic gendered and raced status quo privileging the white, middle to upper-class man to the exclusion of women and all racial and cultural Others. Some approaches, such as cultural defences in criminal law, have sought to address this via a recognition and incorporation of the difference of Other groups and their different moral norms, proclivities and circumstances. To illustrate, this discussion will draw on a cultural defence that was advanced in a series of group sexual violence cases that involved four Pakistani, Muslim brothers. While concluding that culture permeates the actions of all individuals, this article seeks to show how cultural recognition approaches in law often overlook the individual agency of those differentiated through their racial, ethnic and religious visibility. Instead of asserting the primacy of individual free will and a rational agent as the main driver of criminal behaviour cultural defences, in particular, appear to attribute criminal action to the morally aberrant traditions and practices of non-Western cultures. At the same time, such approaches to cultural recognition fail to acknowledge that culture, and not just the culture of Others, is necessarily the backdrop for all (group sexual violence. With these points in mind, the paper ends with some suggestions for accommodating alternative narratives that seek to avoid the reductive scripts that currently appear to characterise legal and judicial musings on culture

  7. Autonomy, recognition and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitório Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Honneth’s concept of autonomy from two dimensions of his work, distinct, though inseparable. The first one is suggested through the subject’s positive practical self-relation linked to the patterns of reciprocal recognition of love, right and social esteem; the second is formulated as non-centered autonomy opposed to the present-day criticism of the modern autonomous subject encompassing three levels, namely: the capacity of linguistic articulation, the narrative coherence of life and the complementation of being guided by principles with some criteria of moral sensitivity to the context. We defend the position that, by metaphysically anchoring the concept of autonomy onto the intersubjective assumptions of his/her theory of the subject, and exploring it linked to the subject’s positive practical self-relation and to a non-centered meaning, Honneth has managed to renew it, which allows drawing important consequences of such effort to the field of education.

  8. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  9. 5 CFR 582.202 - Service of legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of legal process. 582.202 Section... GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.202 Service of legal process. (a) A... agency as a garnishee. (b) Service of legal process may be accomplished by certified or registered mail...

  10. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal responsibility is established, including legal custody and/or guardianship, as appropriate, in accordance with...

  11. Legal pluralism and social justice in economic and political development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, von F.

    2001-01-01

    Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a

  12. Building the South African Nation through Legal Deposit: The Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal deposit of and preservation of digital materials depends on the proper legislative framework and implementation of the Legal Deposit Act. This article examines the challenges related to legal instruments affecting the legal deposit of digital materials in South Africa. Two main objectives of the study upon which this ...

  13. LKIF Core: principled ontology development for the legal domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Breuker, J.; Di Bello, M.; Boer, A.; Breuker, J.; Casanovas, P.; Klein, M.C.A.; Francesconi, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a legal core ontology that is part of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: a knowledge representation formalism that enables the translation of legal knowledge bases written in different representation formats and formalisms. A legal (core) ontology can play an important

  14. 42 CFR 57.1511 - Opinion of legal counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indebtedness to the lender, stating that the credit and security instruments executed by the applicant are duly... memorandum or opinion of legal counsel with respect to the legality of any proposed note issue, the legal authority of the applicant to issue the note and secure it by the proposed collateral, and the legality of...

  15. Vision-Based Navigation and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1998-01-01

    .... (4) Invariants: both geometric and other types. (5) Human faces: Analysis of images of human faces, including feature extraction, face recognition, compression, and recognition of facial expressions...

  16. Vision-Based Navigation and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1996-01-01

    .... (4) Invariants -- both geometric and other types. (5) Human faces: Analysis of images of human faces, including feature extraction, face recognition, compression, and recognition of facial expressions...

  17. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  18. Auditory Modeling for Noisy Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... digital filtering for noise cancellation which interfaces to speech recognition software. It uses auditory features in speech recognition training, and provides applications to multilingual spoken language translation...

  19. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  20. Facial recognition in education system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithika, L. B.; Venkatesh, K.; Rathore, S.; Kumar, M. Harish

    2017-11-01

    Human beings exploit emotions comprehensively for conveying messages and their resolution. Emotion detection and face recognition can provide an interface between the individuals and technologies. The most successful applications of recognition analysis are recognition of faces. Many different techniques have been used to recognize the facial expressions and emotion detection handle varying poses. In this paper, we approach an efficient method to recognize the facial expressions to track face points and distances. This can automatically identify observer face movements and face expression in image. This can capture different aspects of emotion and facial expressions.

  1. Iris recognition via plenoptic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J.; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bolme, David S.

    2017-11-07

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by using plenoptic imaging. Using plenoptic technology, it is possible to correct focus after image acquisition. One example technology reconstructs images having different focus depths and stitches them together, resulting in a fully focused image, even in an off-angle gaze scenario. Another example technology determines three-dimensional data for an eye and incorporates it into an eye model used for iris recognition processing. Another example technology detects contact lenses. Application of the technologies can result in improved iris recognition under a wide variety of scenarios.

  2. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  3. Evaluating music emotion recognition:Lessons from music genre recognition?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER syste...

  4. Telemedicine: the invisible legal barriers to the health care of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, H L

    2000-01-01

    Telemedicine has the potential to transform the world of health care just as the Internet transformed the world of commerce. Ms. Daly examines two legal obstacles to expanding the use of telemedicine: licensure and liability. She defines telemedicine and discusses its common applications and significant benefits. Licensure laws and liability rules result in formidable barriers to the expanded use of telemedicine, while also failing to provide sufficient protection for consumers. Ms. Daly argues that for the benefits of telemedicine to reach those most in need, mutual recognition of licensing laws coupled with a universal standard of care is necessary.

  5. Legal and Policy Issues for LGBT Patients with Cancer or at Elevated Risk of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean R

    2018-02-01

    To understand the major legal and policy issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients. LGBT health policy research. Major policy issues include discrimination, lack of cultural competency and clinically appropriate care, insurance coverage, family recognition, and sexual orientation and gender identity data collection. Nurses play a major role in providing affirming and competent care to LGBT cancer patients. Using correct names and pronouns with transgender patients, and collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data can send an affirming message to LGBT patients, as well as inform decision support and preventive screenings, and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CONSIDERATION ON THE LEGAL REGIME APPLICABLE TO INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban-Alexandru STANESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Upon conclusion of an international tourism contract, the contracting parties - one of which (the beneficiary acts as the consumer – are facing legal difficulties, which are addressed by this study from the perspective of the interference between the national law and the European Union law. Thus, one of the primary issues considered herein is that concerning the determination of the applicable law based on which the rights and obligations of the contracting parties are to be established. Secondly, this study examines the applicable procedural rules in the case where a Romanian court is requested to settle a dispute arising from an international tourism contract. Finally, the study deals with the hypothesis where a dispute arising from such a contract is settled by a foreign court, and in particular with the effects of the judgment given by the foreign court on the territory of Romania. The above mentioned issues are the grounds behind this research on the legal status of international tourism contracts, in addition to the fact that, despite the rich contractual practice in the field under consideration, the amount of specialized literature on this subject is rather limited.

  7. The Transmutation of Deference in Medicine: An Ethico-Legal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Sarah; Holm, Søren

    2018-05-01

    This article critically considers the question of whether an increase in legal recognition of patient autonomy culminating in the decision of the Supreme Court in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board in 2015 has led to the death of deference to doctors, not only within the courts and healthcare regulatory arenas in England and Wales but also in the consulting room and the health care system more broadly. We argue that deference has not been eradicated, but that the types of deference paid to doctors and to the medical profession have changed. In addition, whilst traditionally deference was extended towards the medical profession, increasing instances of deference being shown to other parties in the healthcare setting can be identified, allowing wider debate or recognition of the complexity of understandings, interests and aims of all those involved. Finally, we note instances in which deference to the medical profession has become more hidden.

  8. La Medicina Legal en Antioquia: primera parte Legal medicine in Antioquia: first part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escobar Gónima

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe aspectos históricos de la Medicina legal en Antioquia, con énfasis en las personas que fueron importantes para su desarrollo inicial. THIS WORK DESCRIBES HISTORICAL aspects of legal medicine in Antioquia, Colombia. Emphasis is done on people who were important in its initial development.

  9. medico-legal an overview of some of the key legal developments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    equipped to admit a child with HIV as none of its teachers ... Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg ... once they have certified that the test or treatment is in the.

  10. Platform economy in legal profession : An empirical study on online legal service providers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Platform economy breaks into the legal profession by pooling lawyers with different specializations into a simple user-friendly platform, consolidating the lower-tier supply side of the legal market and generating economy of scale. This paper is the very first empirical piece looking into China’s

  11. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  12. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  13. Indonesian legal framework to support innovation sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    The successful economy in a country can be measured by the number of commercializing intellectual property rights (IPR). To pursue IPR growth, triple helix component becomes a backbone to weave academia, business and government to collaborate with each other. Generally, collaborations move from their common interest, but within triple helix the collaboration can be run structurally and sustain. Depart from the arguments; the question arises: How is the condition of Indonesia Innovation System? Through legal approach, this paper will explain current legal condition and legal structure of the Indonesian innovation system. The reason to review the law is to relate with the government’s target to create 1000 digital start-ups alike as in Silicon Valley level size. Therefore, legal framework review becomes useful to explain the condition of the law as a supporting system. In this sense, the legal prescription can be generated to confirm Indonesian laws, whether supported the national innovation system or conversely. Within law perspective, Indonesian government categorizes the innovative industry as a creative industry. However, there is still no resolute concept to follow. Therefore, some of law adjustment is needed to support the government’s plan to pursue commercialized innovation.

  14. Modern Questions Of The Legal Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy A. Torgashev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author considers fundamental problems of law connected with equality, justice and freedom. Author proves that philosophy and law as forms of public consciousness carry out the important closely interconnected among themselves functions of the social life judgment. In the article author noted that among other forms of public consciousness law is one of difficult objects of knowledge, because law is connected with such forms of consciousness as philosophy, morals, religion, policy. The legal philosophy is the philosophical discipline having the subject the general regularities of law functioning, taken in their historical and sociocultural development, definition and the sense of legal judgment and its fundamental concepts. Law represents a set of obligatory rules of conduct (norms established by the authorized or the state. Diverse spiritual life of the society assumes a variety in the nature of law. The typology of philosophical concepts of the law and how the legal philosophy interprets legal reality is researched, various philosophical and legal concepts which are caused by two main types of rights – natural and positive are allocated. Author gives opinions of scientists, and explains own views of the author.

  15. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  16. 24 CFR 891.525 - Amount and terms of financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount and terms of financing. 891... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.525 Amount and terms of financing. (a) The amount of financing approved... financing provided shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) The dollar amounts stated in paragraphs (b) through...

  17. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 149.100 Section 149.100... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement... reimbursement in the amount of 80 percent of the costs for health benefits (net of negotiated price concessions...

  18. €œLegal Boundaries of Online Advertising"

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkaynak, Gönenç; Yılmaz, İlay; Yeşilaltay, Burak

    2014-01-01

    This contribution discusses the legal framework of online advertising and common legal issues pertaining thereto. This paper also addresses the implementation of general legal provisions to online advertising issues in different jurisdictions and the diversity of approaches. It provides the legal boundaries that are specifically applicable to online advertising. The paper then provides a legal analysis on online advertising with a focus on Turkish laws and practice. In the conclusion, there a...

  19. Success with voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  20. The changing purpose of mental health law: From medicalism to legalism to new legalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The role of law in regulating mental health detention has come to engender great contention in the legal and sociological disciplines alike. This conflict is multifaceted but is centred upon the extent to which law should control the psychiatric power of detention. In this manner the evolution of law regulating mental health detention has been seen in terms of a pendulous movement between two extremes of medicalism and legalism. Drawing on socio-legal literature, legislation, international treaties and case law this article examines the changing purpose of mental health law from an English and Council of Europe perspective by utilizing the concepts of medicalism, legalism and new legalism as descriptive devices before arguing that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities goes further than all of these concepts and has the potential to influence mental health laws internationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Belief and legal philosophy: a conceptual framework for Christian scholarship in undergraduate legal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal education in South Africa has arrived at a discursive juncture that demands clarity on what the “purpose” of legal education should be. Debate on the purpose of legal education, more specifically for the Christian law student, becomes especially important in a society dominated by positivism, mate-rialism and pragmatism. With specific reference to the under-graduate Christian law student, this article firstly explains that the purpose of legal education should include the nurturing of the student’s belief – a belief encompassing his/her foun-dational perspective(s on reality. Secondly, in order to achieve the proper nurturing and development of the Christian law student’s belief, the importance of the teaching of legal philo-sophy is explained. In this regard, proposals are postulated pertaining to specific means by which such nurturing and development of the undergraduate Christian law student’s foundational belief can be attained.

  2. Legal weight truck cask model impact limiter response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, N.M.; Shappert, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic and quasi-static quarter-scale model testing was performed to supplement the analytical case presented in the Nuclear Assurance Corporation Legal Weight Truck (NAC LWT) cask transport licensing application. Four successive drop tests from 9.0 meters (30 feet) onto an unyielding surface and one 1.0-meter (40-inch) drop onto a scale mild steel pin 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) in diameter, corroborated the impact limiter design and structural analyses presented in the licensing application. Quantitative measurements, made during drop testing, support the impact limiter analyses. High-speed photography of the tests confirm that only a small amount of energy is elastically stored in the aluminum honeycomb and that oblique drop slapdown is not significant. The qualitative conclusion is that the limiter protected LWT cask will not sustain permanent structural damage and containment will be maintained, subsequent to a hypothetical accident, as shown by structural analyses

  3. Legal aspects associated with dismissal from clinical laboratory education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrys, V A; Beck, S J; Laudicina, R J

    1995-01-01

    To review academic dismissals, students' rights in dismissal cases, and several key cases involving academic and disciplinary dismissals. Recent academic literature and legal precedents. Not applicable. Not applicable. Students involved in dismissals are protected under the principles of constitutional law and/or contract law, depending on whether the institution is public or private. The basis for dismissal from educational programs is either academic or disciplinary in nature. In academic dismissals, a student has failed to meet either the cognitive or the noncognitive academic standards of the program. In disciplinary dismissals, a student has violated the institutional rules governing conduct. Policies that affect progress in the program and the dismissal process should be published and distributed to students, as well as reviewed for consistency with institutional policies. The amount of documentation needed in the defense of a dismissal decision has not been specified, but, in general, more is better. Procedures are suggested as a guide to dismissals in clinical laboratory programs.

  4. The international legal position on transboundary shipments of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent decision not to grant planning permission for construction of a Rock Characterisation Facility near Sellafield has reopened the question of long-term radioactive waste disposal policy in the UK. One possible solution would be the construction and operation of a small number of international radioactive waste disposal facilities, taking waste from several countries. Such an approach would allow pooling of international expertise; would allow the choice of excellent sites from geological and demographical standpoints; and may be economically attractive depending on economies of scale. However, the approach would also increase the amount of waste transport, and may reduce the pressure on producers to reduce the volumes of waste arising. This paper traces the development of international legal attitudes to transboundary transport of radioactive and other hazardous waste. It concludes that as international law now stands it would be very difficult to establish a network of international waste disposal facilities, and therefore strategies which are developed will be nationally based. (Author)

  5. Legal Understanding of Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.

  6. Indoor navigation by image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Io Teng; Leong, Chi Chong; Hong, Ka Wo; Pun, Chi-Man

    2017-07-01

    With the progress of smartphones hardware, it is simple on smartphone using image recognition technique such as face detection. In addition, indoor navigation system development is much slower than outdoor navigation system. Hence, this research proves a usage of image recognition technique for navigation in indoor environment. In this paper, we introduced an indoor navigation application that uses the indoor environment features to locate user's location and a route calculating algorithm to generate an appropriate path for user. The application is implemented on Android smartphone rather than iPhone. Yet, the application design can also be applied on iOS because the design is implemented without using special features only for Android. We found that digital navigation system provides better and clearer location information than paper map. Also, the indoor environment is ideal for Image recognition processing. Hence, the results motivate us to design an indoor navigation system using image recognition.

  7. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  8. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  9. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  10. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  11. Multi-font printed Mongolian document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hua; Jin, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mongolian is one of the major ethnic languages in China. Large amount of Mongolian printed documents need to be digitized in digital library and various applications. Traditional Mongolian script has unique writing style and multi-font-type variations, which bring challenges to Mongolian OCR research. As traditional Mongolian script has some characteristics, for example, one character may be part of another character, we define the character set for recognition according to the segmented components, and the components are combined into characters by rule-based post-processing module. For character recognition, a method based on visual directional feature and multi-level classifiers is presented. For character segmentation, a scheme is used to find the segmentation point by analyzing the properties of projection and connected components. As Mongolian has different font-types which are categorized into two major groups, the parameter of segmentation is adjusted for each group. A font-type classification method for the two font-type group is introduced. For recognition of Mongolian text mixed with Chinese and English, language identification and relevant character recognition kernels are integrated. Experiments show that the presented methods are effective. The text recognition rate is 96.9% on the test samples from practical documents with multi-font-types and mixed scripts.

  12. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  13. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  14. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development.

  15. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Peter

    1995-01-01

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs

  16. Legal problems brought about by technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In almost all sectors of public or private life, advances in the natural sciences and the progress of technology provoke changes that have to be managed by society. Our legal system is far from being left untouched by such changes, and frequently has to cope with new and complex legal problems in all fields of law. The book in hand collects eleven lectures presented within the framework of the Studium Generale at Heidelberg University, dealing with significant developments and their effects on the law, as e.g.: Risk acceptance in the wake of new technologies, in vitro fertilisation, early diagnosis of embryonic malformation, protection of animals in the context of medical research, information technologies and data protection, accidents in space and liability problems, transfrontier air pollution, protection of the environment. The legal aspects and the social aspects are discussed in detail by the lectures. Three of the contributions have been separately analysed for the database. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 1: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume gives a general description of the ATR system.

  18. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  19. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  20. EMERGING LEGAL ISSUES REGARDING CIVILIAN DRONE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned vehicles are becoming a common sighting in our day-to-day life and are soon going to become an important economic drive in creating workspaces and help achieve new milestones in human activities. As such, the technology revolving around the unmanned vehicles will push itself as much as it’s needed but with each achievement in the field of robotics a legal issue arises around how to use the newly acquired piece of technology in a public or private space and whether or not should such a technology be placed under a strict governmental control. As the saying by Prof. Henry W. Haynes (1879 goes “The possession of great powers and capacity for good implies equally great responsibilities in their employment. Where so much has been given much is required.” so does an unmanned vehicle and its operator must follow a degree of legal guidelines on how to properly use the gadget and to also to understand the legal limitations when interacting with other entities. This paper will focus on identifying and answering some legal issues regarding what is required for a drone to fly over an identifiable space, but also if the operator must have a document that was conferred by a state to acknowledge the skills of the pilot or should a software limitation be in place for national security safeguards. The paper will also tackle the issue of identifying legal documents from different states that can be applied to drone flight operations and also if different states have adopted sanctions to persons who did not abide to said legal norms.

  1. MEDICAL ERROR: CIVIL AND LEGAL ASPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletsa, S; Drozd, O; Yunin, O; Mohilevskyi, L

    2018-03-01

    The scientific article is focused on the research of the notion of medical error, medical and legal aspects of this notion have been considered. The necessity of the legislative consolidation of the notion of «medical error» and criteria of its legal estimation have been grounded. In the process of writing a scientific article, we used the empirical method, general scientific and comparative legal methods. A comparison of the concept of medical error in civil and legal aspects was made from the point of view of Ukrainian, European and American scientists. It has been marked that the problem of medical errors is known since ancient times and in the whole world, in fact without regard to the level of development of medicine, there is no country, where doctors never make errors. According to the statistics, medical errors in the world are included in the first five reasons of death rate. At the same time the grant of medical services practically concerns all people. As a man and his life, health in Ukraine are acknowledged by a higher social value, medical services must be of high-quality and effective. The grant of not quality medical services causes harm to the health, and sometimes the lives of people; it may result in injury or even death. The right to the health protection is one of the fundamental human rights assured by the Constitution of Ukraine; therefore the issue of medical errors and liability for them is extremely relevant. The authors make conclusions, that the definition of the notion of «medical error» must get the legal consolidation. Besides, the legal estimation of medical errors must be based on the single principles enshrined in the legislation and confirmed by judicial practice.

  2. ELSA for Children Legal Research Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    In order to support the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign to stop sexual violence against children, to contribute to the protection of children’s rights in Europe and to increase the awareness of law students on the subject, ELSA created a network-wide Legal Research Group (LRG) called ‘ELSA...... for Children’. Throughout 2012, 250 students from 23 countries carried out research on the implementation of European and international instruments protecting children against violence and sexual abuse. The project resulted in a final report compiling national data on the different definitions and legal...

  3. Chinese legal texts – Quantitative Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš GAJDOŠ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide a quantitative description of legal Chinese. This study adopts the approach of corpus-based analyses and it shows basic statistical parameters of legal texts in Chinese, namely the length of a sentence, the proportion of part of speech etc. The research is conducted on the Chinese monolingual corpus Hanku. The paper also discusses the issues of statistical data processing from various corpora, e.g. the tokenisation and part of speech tagging and their relevance to study of registers variation.

  4. Legal and regulatory framework of Uranium's enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antelo, Josefina; Figueredo, Micaela S.; Mangone, Gisela P.; Manin, Maria L.; Pota, Luciana F.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop the legal aspects referred to the activities of uranium's enrichment, in order to achieve the pacific use of nuclear energy and to obey treatments, agreements and international conventions in which Argentine is party and through them assumes the non proliferation's commitment. In this context, we will develop the rights and obligations established in those legal instruments, as well as the juridical concerns of the eventual subscription of Argentine to the Additional Protocol approved by the Board of Governors in 1997. (author)

  5. Case Briefs in Legal English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Stĕpánka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A case brief can be described as a succinct summary of a case which specifies the facts, procedural history, legal issue(s, court decision and legal reasoning supporting the judgment, even though exact formats may vary. Case briefing is a demanding activity which is required from students during their law studies. The goal is to teach students to focus on the essential parts of the case and to obtain a thorough understanding of the case and the reasoning, which means the students need to employ their analytical and critical thinking skills.

  6. Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  8. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current clients and competitors, also – singularity of the professional services.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Protective force legal issues: the security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much discussion and some controversy on the legal issues faced by the Department of Energy's (DOE) protective forces in the performance of their security duties. These include the observance of legal proprieties in the arrest of non-violent demonstrators, the use of lethal weapons, and the extent of protective forces' authority to carry weapons and protect DOE's security interests offsite. In brief, the need to protect DOE's security interests may be in nominal conflict with other requirements. When faced with a potential conflict in requirements, we in the DOE security community must place first attention to the security mission -- to deter and prevent hostile acts

  10. Issues in the Recognition versus Disclosure of Financial Information Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Aleš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence from the academic literature on capital market effects of financial information placement (i.e., recognition on the face of the primary financial statements versus disclosure in the notes to the financial statements is not straightforward. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the recognition versus required disclosure debate in a standard-setting context by exploring possible reasons for perceived differences between recognized and disclosed amounts. These differences, in our view, arise due to demonstrated auditors’ greater tolerance for misstatement in disclosed amounts, allowed noncompliance with disclosure requirements even in strong enforcement regimes, lesser care that preparers of financial statements devote to disclosures relative to recognized items as well as behavioural factors and differential processing costs related to the users of financial information. We believe that these arguments strengthen the case for the general preference for the recognition of financial information in the standard-setting context. The original scientific contribution of this paper is to systematically identify the reasons for the differences between recognized and disclosed amounts in financial statements. As such, this paper may provide a suitable basis for the justification of certain conceptual changes in the field of international accounting standards that are currently underway.

  11. Recognition memory: a review of the critical findings and an integrated theory for relating them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2008-12-01

    The development of formal models has aided theoretical progress in recognition memory research. Here, I review the findings that are critical for testing them, including behavioral and brain imaging results of single-item recognition, plurality discrimination, and associative recognition experiments under a variety of testing conditions. I also review the major approaches to measurement and process modeling of recognition. The review indicates that several extant dual-process measures of recollection are unreliable, and thus they are unsuitable as a basis for forming strong conclusions. At the process level, however, the retrieval dynamics of recognition memory and the effect of strengthening operations suggest that a recall-to-reject process plays an important role in plurality discrimination and associative recognition, but not necessarily in single-item recognition. A new theoretical framework proposes that the contribution of recollection to recognition depends on whether the retrieval of episodic details improves accuracy, and it organizes the models around the construct of efficiency. Accordingly, subjects adopt strategies that they believe will produce a desired level of accuracy in the shortest amount of time. Several models derived from this framework are shown to account the accuracy, latency, and confidence with which the various recognition tasks are performed.

  12. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  13. Homicidal violence during foreign military missions - prevention and legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Okulate

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The study involved Nigerian soldiers engaged in peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Yugoslavia. Using case illustrations, the study sought to describe patterns of homicidal violence among soldiers from the same country or soldiers from allied forces, and to suggest possible reasons for the attacks. Design and setting. Nigeria was actively involved in peacekeeping missions in Liberia between 1990 and 1996. During this period, intentional homicidal attacks occurred among the Nigerian military personnel. Post- homicidal interviews conducted among the perpetrators were combined with evidence obtained at military courts to produce the case studies. Subjects. Six Nigerian military personnel who attacked other Nigerians or soldiers from allied forces, with homicidal intent. Results. Possible predisposing and precipitating factors for these attacks were highlighted. The possibility of recognising these factors before embarking on overseas missions was discussed, so that preventive measures could be instituted as far as possible. Finally, medico-legal implications of homicide in the military were discussed. Conclusions. A certain degree of pre-combat selection is essential to exclude soldiers with definite severe psychopathology. A clearly defined length of duty in the mission areas and adequate communication with home could reduce maladjustment. Health personnel deployed to mission areas should be very conversant with mental health issues so that early recognition of psychological maladjustment is possible.

  14. Public relations violated by unlawful use of documents to form a legal entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petukhov E.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of determining the direct object of crime under article 173.2 of the RF Criminal Code are investigated. It’s noted that the article contains two independent corpus delicti. The characteristic that unites them is the direct object of crime, which is broken in two ways: by person providing the relevant documents and by person receiving these documents and information. Scientific points of view concerning the understanding of crime object are estimated. Understanding the object as a legal order of carrying out business activities doesn’t allow to outline the scope of the corresponding relations. Many crimes under chapter 22 of the RF Criminal Code impinge these relations. The author disagrees with the recognition of public relations, ensuring the use of necessary documents for registration of only those organizations that are engaged in lawful activities, as direct object of unlawful use of documents to form (establish, reorganize a legal entity. It’s emphasized that documents submission to the registering authority for registration of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs can be carried out by the applicant or his representative acting on the basis of a notarized power of attorney. The fact of forming legal entity should be connected with certain individuals. Then the organization will have certain responsible persons. The act provided by the analyzed corpus delicti, contributes to this rule violation. It’s summarized that the direct object of crime under considered article is public relations arising due to ensuring the statutory procedure for personalization and identification of responsible individual forming (establishing, reorganizing a legal entity.

  15. Retrospection. Uranium mining Wismut und the legal casualty insurance; Erinnerungen. Uranerzbergbau Wismut und die gesetzliche Unfallversicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Joachim [Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV), Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Although the Wismut uranium mining company in the former DDR had 600.000 employees, the company was not mentioned in the contract on the German reunification. The expenses for the health consequences imposed manifold challenges to the legal casualty insurance. The question of responsibility, the conservation, digitalization and evaluation of data concerning the personnel and health information, partially handwritten is a tremendous amount of work.

  16. Sensing the intruder: a quantitative threshold for recognition cues perception in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Federico; Bruschini, Claudia; Cipollini, Maria; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita

    2014-02-01

    The ability to discriminate among nestmates and non-nestmate is essential to defend social insect colonies from intruders. Over the years, nestmate recognition has been extensively studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera; nevertheless, the quantitative perceptual aspects at the basis of the recognition system represent an unexplored subject in this species. To test the existence of a cuticular hydrocarbons' quantitative perception threshold for nestmate recognition cues, we conducted behavioural assays by presenting different amounts of a foreign forager's chemical profile to honeybees at the entrance of their colonies. We found an increase in the explorative and aggressive responses as the amount of cues increased based on a threshold mechanism, highlighting the importance of the quantitative perceptual features for the recognition processes in A. mellifera.

  17. Legal clinic gender sensitive method for law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.

  18. 7 CFR 1400.201 - General provisions for determining whether a person or legal entity is actively engaged in farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operation; and (3) All funds and business accounts of the farming operation are separate from that of any... amount of labor and management necessary for such a farming operation in the area; and (4) Whether the... with respect to a particular farming operation, a person or legal entity must be actively engaged in...

  19. Pengaruh Iklan terhadap Minat Beli Pengguna Youtube dengan Brand Recognition sebagai Variabel Intervening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdian Rizky Yuniyanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of Advertising on The Buying Interest of Youtube Users with Brand Recognition as Intervening VariableInternet media can be used to do marketing, one of which is Youtube. This study aims to explain the effect of advertising on buying interest on Youtube users using brand recognition as an intervening variable. The sample in this study amounted 180 students of  Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana who saw Nike product advertising on Youtube. The analysis technique used is path analysis. The result of the research shows that advertising have a significant positive effect to brand recognition, brand recognition have significant positive effect to buying interest, and brand recognition can not function as intervening variable in relationship between advertising and buying interest.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.5885

  20. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…